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The name India is derived from the river Indus or Sindhu.

It is also known as Bharat on the name of the ruler Bharatha.
It was also known as Hindustan by the Muslim invaders.
It was called as Indoi by the Greeks.
Finally it was called as India by the Britishers.


India lies in the Northern Hemisphere.

India lies between 8o 4 37o 6 N Latitudes
and 68o 7 97o 25 E Longitudes.

Indias length from North to South is 3214 kms and from East to West is 2933 kms.
India commands a geographical area of 3.28 million or 32,87,263 km2
In terms of area India is the Seventh largest country with 2.4% of the area of the
world. The six largest countries before India are Russia, Canada, China, U.S.A, Brazil
and Australia.
In terms of area Rajasthan is the largest state and Goa the smallest state.
India has a land frontier of 15200 kms and has a Coastline of 6100 kms. Indias
coastline including islands is 7516.6 kms.

There are nine coastal states; they are Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala,
Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Odissa and West Bengal.
India is the only country which has given its name to an Ocean, i.e. India Ocean,
encircled by 46 countries(27 littoral countries including Australia 7 island states and
12 land locked countries).
The five land locked states are Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Telangana
Tropic of Cancer passes through Eight states- Gujarat, Rajasthan, MP, Chhattisgarh,
Jharkhand, West Bengal, Tripura and Mizoram.
The Southernmost tip of India is known as Indira Point or the Pygmalion Point.
Gujarat and Arunachal Pradesh differs by 2 hours in terms of Sunrise.
India Standard Time is based on 82o30 E Longitude which passes through Allahabad.
Indian Standard Time is ahead of GMT by 5 hours.
In terms of population, India is the Second largest country with a population of 121
In respect to population- Uttar Pradesh is the largest populated state and the Sikkim
is the least populated.
Indias Density of Population is 382 persons per km2. Bihar is the most Densely
populated state(1103) and Arunachal Pradesh is the least densely populated(17) state.


North Kilik Dawan pass or Indira Col.

South Kanyakumari or Cape Comorin

East Virgin forests and Untrampelled hills or Dong range.

West Rann of Kutch(Salty Marshes)



S.No Country Length of the boundary Name of the boundary

1 Bangladesh 4096

2 China 3917 Mac Mahon line

3 Pakistan 3310 Radcliffe line

4 Nepal 1752

5 Myanmar 1454

6 Bhutan 587

7 Afghanistan 80 Durand line


India is a Union of 29 states and 7 Union Territories:

S.No States Capital Language

1 Andhra Pradesh Amravati (Guntur) Telugu


2 Arunachal Pradesh Itanagar Tribal

3 Assam Dispur Assamese

4 Bihar Patna Hindi

5 Chhattisgarh Raipur Hindi

6 Goa Panaji Konkani and


7 Gujarat Gandhinagar Gujarati

8 Harayana Chandigarh Hindi

9 Himachal Pradesh Simla Hindi

10 Jammu and Kashmir Srinagar[S] and Jammu[W] Kashmiri

11 Jharkhand Ranchi Hindi

12 Karnataka Bengaluru Kannada

13 Kerala Thiruvananthapuram Malayalam

14 Madhya Pradesh Bhopal Hindi

15 Maharashtra Mumbai Marathi

16 Manipur Imphal Manipuri

17 Meghalaya Shillong Khasi, Garo and


18 Mizoram Aizwal Mizo and English

19 Nagaland Kohima Angami Ao

20 Odisa Bhubaneswar Odiya

21 Punjab Chandigarh Punjabi

22 Rajasthan Jaipur Rajasthani and


23 Sikkim Gangtok Lapcha and Bhutia

24 Tamil Nadu Chennai Tamil


25 Telangana Hyderabad Telugu

26 Tripura Agartala Bengali and Tripuri

27 Uttar Pradesh Lucknow Hindi

28 Uttarakhand Dehradun Hindi

29 West Bengal Kolkatta Bengali


1 Andaman and Nicobar Port Blair Andamanese and


2 Chandigarh Chandigarh Punjabi and Hindi

3 Dadra and Nagar Silvassa Gujarati and

Haveli Marathi

4 Daman and Diu Daman Gujarati

5 Delhi Delhi( it has a special status Hindi

of National Capital Territory)

6 Lakshadweep Kavaratti Malayalam

7 Puducherry Puducherry Tamil and French

Countries Indian states as their borders

- Pakistan : Gujarat, Rajasthan, Punjab, JK. (RadCliffe line.)

- Afghanistan : JK (Durand line)
- China : JK, HP, Uttaranchal, Sikkim, Ar.pradesh. (MacMahon line)
- Nepal : UP, Uttaranchal, Bihar, WB, Sikkim
- Bhutan : Sikkim, WB, Assam, Ar.pradesh,
- Bangladesh : WB, Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura
- Myanmar : Mizoram, Manipur, Nagaland, Ar.pradesh

Andaman islands
Location 10o 14o N Latitudes
Origin Volcanic
Area 6204 km2

Nicobar islands

Location 6.30o 9.30o N Latitudes

Origin Volcanic
Area 1841km2

Lakshadweep islands

Location 8o 11o N Latitudes

Origin Corals
Area 32 km2


India can be divided into three major physical divisions. They are

1. The Himalayan mountains

2. The Great plains of Indus and Ganga.
3. The Peninsular plateau
4. The Coastal plains.

The Himalayan Mountains


The origin of the Himalayas is related to continent-continent collision. The continent-

continent collision occurs when two continental plates collide. As the continents carried by
plates move towards each other, the ocean basin is reduced in size and eventually closed.
The Himalayas were formed when Gondawana land moved towards Eurasia or the Indian
plate moved towards Eurasian plates eventually enclosing the Tethys Sea.

The major events in the generation of the Himalayan Mountain were:

1. Geoclinal sediments occur along the margins of Indian plate and Eurasian plate.
2. The wedges of the sediments along the margins of the continent are deformed
above the Subduction zone as the ocean basin decreases in size. Subduction begins
as the oceanic crust is consumed.
3. Collision forced some of oceanic crust to be caught between two plates and
squeezed upwards and plastered against the plates. This marked the site of welding
of two plates called as suture zone. The Indus -Tsangpo Suture zones is one such
As the continental crust collide one continent moves into the subduction zone, its
buoyancy prevents it from descending into the mantle more than perhaps 40 kms.
below its normal level. Here two things happened:-
a) Indian plate was thrust under the overriding plate, creating a double layer of
low density which rose buoyantly to produce a broad belt of deformed rocks
with adjacent high plateau, e.g., Tibet.
b) Even before continental were caught, masses became welded together and
fragments of oceanic crust between the sequeezed upwards and plastered
against the plates, thus marking the site of welding of two plates called suture

4. The oceanic slab descending into the mantle becomes detached and sinks
independently. When the slab has been consumed completely, the volcanic activity
and the earthquake it generated are ceased.
5. As resisting forces build up the convergence stopped, the mountain becomes eroded
and adjusts itself isostatically.

Himalayas: they are the youngest fold mountains in the world.

They extend between Jammu and Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh to a length of 2400
Average width 240 kms. The average width in Jammu and Kashmir is 500 kms. and
in Arunachal Pradesh is 200 kms.
Its total area is 5 lakh sq. kms.



THE GREATER HIMALAYAS- Their average height is 6100 mts. and their average width:
250 km. They stretch from Nanga Parbhat (JK) to Namcha Barwa in Arunachal Pradesh

- Important mountain peaks of the greater Himalayas:

Mt. Everest- 8850m/29,035 feet, K2- Godwin Austin, Indian local name- Krishnagiri and
in China- Chouburi

First lady to scale Mount Everest- Jungo Tapri

First from AP to scale Mount Everest - Shekhar babu.

First Indian to scale Mount Everest Tengiz Norgay.

First Indian women to scale Mount Everest Bachendri pal.

MIDDLE HIMALAYAS: average height from the sea level-3000m. Width: 60-80km.

- Important Mountain Ranges: Pirpanjal range, Mussori range, Nagtiba range, and the
Mahaparbhat range.
- Important Hill Statioins: Shimla, Kulu, Manali, Nainital, Mussorri, Dehradun, Ranikhet
and Darjeeling in WB.
Important valleys:

- Kangra valley: HP famous for apple plantations.

- Flower valley: Uttaranchal. Famous for varieties of flowers.
- Chumbi valley: sikkim- famous place for tourism.
- Surma valley: Assam famous for Sal trees.


- Total length- 2400 kms, average height- 600-1500 mts, width at HP-50 kms and width
at Arunachal pradesh- 15 km.
- Important hills: Abor hills, Dafla hills, Mishmi hills.


- The Trans Himalaya includes the Karakoram and the Laddakh ranges.
- The karakoram lies to the north of the Indus. The karakoram range extend from the
Pamir, east of the Gilgit river crossing the regions of Gilgit, Balistan and Laddakh.
- This range have some of the highest peaks including Mt. K2 or Godwin Austin or Qagir
as the Chinese have named it.
- The Laddakh plateau is situated towards the north of the Karakoram range.
- Total length 1000 kms, average width- 300 m., average height-40km
- Important ranges: Zaskar, Kailas, and Ladakh.
- In Tibet Himalayas highest mountain peak is K2, Godwin Austin-8611 m. It is situated
in POK Kashmir.
- Worlds highest battle field Siachen glacier located in the Karakoram range.JK72


- Located between Bharat and Myanmar. The highest peak Saramati in Nagland.
- Important hills- Garo hills, Kasi hills, Jaintai hills, Naga hills.
1. Punjab Himalaya Between Indus and Sutlej 560 km
2. Kumaon Himalaya Between Sutluj and Kali 320 km
3. Nepal Himalaya Between Kali and Tista 800 km
4. Assam Himalaya Between Tista and Dihang 720 km


- Banihal pass Doda & Anantnag districts, Jammu and Kashmir

- Shipkila la pass Sutlej enters India from Tibet , Himachal Pradesh
- Bara Lancha La pass Kyelang & leh, Himachal pradesh
- Rohtang Kullu & Kyelang, Himachal Pradesh
- Bomdi La pass Tezpur & Tawang, Arunachal pradesh
- Thanga La Uttaranchal
- Niti La pass Uttaranchal
- Lipu Leh, Indo-Nepal-China, Uttaranchal

- Jelepla India & China (gangtok-lhasa road), Sikkim

- Nathu La pass India & china, Sikkim
- Karakoram pass Jammu and Kashmir
- Palghat Palakkad & Coimbatore
- Shenkotta Kollam & Madurai
- Thalghat Mumbai & Pune
- Bhorghat Mumbai & Nasik.


Location and origin

The lowland or the plain is largely spread in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. The North
Indian plain lie between the Peninsular plateau and the Himalayan wall. The entire stretch
of the plains from Pakistan to Assam is known as Indus-Ganga-Brahmaputra plain.

It extends over a length of 2400 km and a width of 240 in Bihar to to 500 km in Punjab. It
forms a great curve from the Arabian Sea to the Bay of Bengal. Infact, the Ganga plain
the n is an alluvium filled depression. It might have been formed by bending down of the
peninsular India confronted by the Himalayas, or it was a simple rift valley at the northern
edge of the peninsular plateau. This plain formed by almost 400 m thick alluvium is sinking
since its time of formation, while the Himalayas has been rising to maintain an equilibrium.
The plain is divided into two parts by the Aravalli hills which form the water divide
between the east flowing and west flowing rivers. Indus is the west flowing river while
Ganga and Brahmaputra are the east flowing rivers.

Rajasthan plain:

The western extremity of the Great plain of India consists of the Thar or the Great
Indian desert which covers western Rajasthan and the adjoining parts of Pakistan. The
desert is 650km long and 250-300 km wide. Its total area is about 1.75 lakh km2 in India.

The vast desert territory consists of two parts:-

a. The desert proper or the Marusthali, fringed by

b. Semi desert known as the Rajasthan Bagar, which also contains some sand free
land with steppe type of vegetation.

The Marusthali is a wide expanse of sand containing sand dunes. In general the eastern
part of the Marusthali is rocky; the western Marusthali is sand covered almost all over by
shifting sand dunes locally known as the Dharian.

Sambhar Lake near Jaipur which is Indias largest salt water lake.

The Punjab Plains:

The Punjab-Haryana plains extend for about 640 kms. form northeast to southwest
and cover an area of 1.75 lakh kms. the aravalli ranges extending up to Delhi and the
ground swell running along the west bank of Yamuna form its eastern boundary. The
altitude varies from 300 m in the north to 200 m in the south. The Punjab-Haryana plain is
drained by five rivers and the intervening area between the rivers is known as Doab. The
famous doabs are

a) Sindh Sagar doab- between the Jhelum-Chenab and the Indus

b) Chajj doab between the Chenab and the Jhelum.
c) Rechana doab between the Ravi and the Chenab.
d) Bari doab between Beas and Ravi.
e) Bist-Jalandhar doab lying between the Beas and the Sutlej.

The northern part of this plain adjoining Siwaliks has witnessed intensisve erosion
leading to gully formation by a network of streams called Chhos.

Ganga plain:

The indo-Gangetic plain is divided into four shelf area separated from one another by
three transverse high( bubrried hills). From west to east they are known as the Delhi-
Haridwar ridge, Faizabad ridge and the Munger-Saharsa ridge. Thus, from east to west
the various units are

1. The Delhi-Haridwar Ridge.

2. The Sharada Depression
3. The West Uttar Pradesh Shelf
4. The Faizabad Ridge.
5. The Gandak Depression
6. The East Uttar Pradesh Shelf
7. The Munger- Saharsa Ridge

The ganga plain lies in Uttar Pradesh , Bihar and West Bengal. it includes the
Ganga-Yamuna Doab, Rohilkhand plains, Avadh plains, Bihar plains, the north Bengal plains
and the Rarh plains. The plain has been formed by the alluvium brought down by the
Yamuna, ganga, Ghaghar and their tributaries aligned parallel to them. It is bounded on the
north by the siwaliks which forms a knife edge boundary whereas the southern boundary is
formed by the Peninsula and is broken by its impenetration.

The Ganga-Yamuna is the largest doab. The general slope of the land is from north
to south but there are many micro slopes. The old banger alluvium of the doab has formed
an pland that is quite distinct from the low khadar.

The Rohilkhand plains merge imperceptibly into the Avadh plains. It lies towards the
north of the Ganga and is gently sloping eastwards. The Avadh plains is traversed by the

Ghaghara. The numerous bars and channels indicate that the river is an aggrading river and
constantly shifts its channels.

The Avadh plains end in Bihar plains. The Bihar plains have been narrowed down by
the Rajamahal hills. The two parts north and south and south of the ganga are known as
the North Bihar plain and the South Bihar plain, respectively.

The North Bihar plain is a land of rivers. The Ganga receives three major Himalayan
rivers, the Ghaghara, Gandak and the Kosi and a large number of mountain streams on its
left bank. The general slope of the plain is towards southeast in the western part and the
south in the eastern part.

The plains of North Bengal extending from the foot of ht eastern Himalaya to the
northern limit of the Bengal basin is formed by the detritus being brought from a number
of powerful streams like the Tista, Jaldhaka, and the Torsa and its western fringe, known
as Western Duars, is most typical. South of the Duars, the plains are more flattish and get
waterlogged during the rains.

Deccan plateau

The Deccan plateau is a vast territory occupying the major part of the peninsula
extending from the Satpura-Mailala ranges in the north through the Maharashtra plateau
to the Telangana and the Karnataka plateaus on the south. The Western Ghats occupy
most of the Maharashtra plateau while Archean crystallines are spread over the rest of
the Deccan.
The Satpura range lies between the valley of Narmada in the north and the Tapti in the
south. It commences in the west from the Rajpiplal hills through the Mahadeo hills to the
Maikala ranges. The two highest peaks of the satpura are the Astamba dongar and
Nearly the whole of the Maharashtra plateau is formed of plateau basalt which has
given rise to rolling plains with intervening shallow valleys. Flanking each of the three river
valleys of the Godavari, Bhima and the Krishna, there are flat topped but steep sided low
The plateaus of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka are carved out of Archean gneissic
rocks. The Godavari divides the Telangana plateau into two sections. The northern section
is bounded on the north by east flowing Wardha and on the east by south flowing Pranhita.
The surface of the plateau is dotted with low hills and shallow depressions. The twin city
of Hyderabad-Secunderabad is located in such a depression.

The Karnataka plateau is drained by the Krishna and its tributaries. The Mysore
plateau is the loftiest and most well defined plateau in south India. Physiographically, the
Mysore plateau can be divided into two sections Malnad and the Maidan.
The Malnad portion is a hilly area bordering the sahyadri having an average width of 35
kms. and an average elevation of 1000m.
The Maidan is an area of rolling plains with low granitic hills.

Western Ghats:

The Western Ghats also known as the Sahyadris form the western end of the
Peninsular plateau running from Khandesh, south of the Tapti to Kanya Kumari for 1600
kms. they have a general altitude of 900-1100 meters but ocassionlally rise to 1600m.
The northern section of the Ghats is made up of horizontal sheets of lava. The
Western Ghats reach elevations upto 1200m but some of the peaks attain greater height
such as Kalsubai near Igatpuri and Salhar. The Thalghat and the Bhorghat are two
important passes in this range.
In the south the Sahyadris are more rugged and run closer to the coast. The western
scarp is considerably dissected by headward erosion of the west flowing streams. The
Nilgiris is the meeting point of the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats.
The southern portion of the Ghats is separated from the main Sahyadri Range by
Palaghat gap which is believed to be an abandoned valley of an old river. Anaimudi is the
highest point in the southern India. The ranges are the Anaimalai to the north, the Pilani
to the northeast and the Cardamom to the south. The Ghats terminate near the southern
tip of India at Kanya Kumari. The Western Ghats form a perfect Watershed. The rivers
flowing eastward journey all through the Peninsula before they empty themselves
Total length 1600 kms between Tapti valley to kanyakumari. Average height-1200 Mts.
Highest mountain peak- Anaimudi with 2695 Mts. of height in Kerala.
- Kalasubai- height- 1640 Mts.- Maharashtra- western ghats-
- Western ghats and eastern ghats join in blue mountains in Kadaluru.
- Blue mountains are the highest mountain peak- Doda betta, -2637 Mts.
Important passes-
- Palaghat pass: between palakhad and Coimbatore.
- Shenkotta pass: between kovalam and Madurai.
- Thalghat pass: between Mumbai and Pune.
- Bhorgahat pass: between Mumbai and Nasik.

Eastern ghats:
The Eastern Ghats are highly broken and discontinuous running in fragmentary spurs and
ranges down the east side of the Peninsula from the Mahanadi in Orissa to the Vaigai in
Tamil Nadu. The range is cut into various discontinuous blocks of hills by several large
antecedent rivers flowing down towards the Bay of Bengal.

The highest peak of the Eastern Ghats is the Mahendragiri. This moountainous tract,
principally composed of Khondalites and Charnockites, it localley known as Maliyas. Besides
Maliyas the Eastern Ghats also comprise the Madugula Kons Enfw.

- Total length- 1000kms, average height- 1100 Mts., highest mountain peak-Mahendragiri
1501 Mts. in Srikakulam.

- Important hills: Nallamalla, Erramalla hills between Mahboobnagar and Kurnool,

Papikondalu between east and west Godavari, Palakondalu- Cuddapah, Velikonda-


Vembnad Lake: Large sized lagoons of Kerala, have fertile alluvial islands, 63 km in length.

Kayals : Popularly called back water in Kerala. A chain of lakes which are connected with
each other y canal. Peaty soils of backwaters are called Kari in Kerala.

Chilka Lake: Situated to the south west of the Mahanadi Delta. Enclosed by the sand pit.
It has an opening which permits sea connection. Largest brackish water lake in Asia.


Wular Lake: It is the largest fresh water lake of India

Kolleru Lake: A part of the sea enclosed between the deltas of Godavari and the
Mahanadi and has a number of islands in it.

Pulicat Lake: It is situated on the southern border of Andhra Pradesh. Lagoon

formed due to enclosure by sand bar.

Jaisamand Lake: It is the Largest fresh water lake of Rajasthan

Nakki Lake: It is a small natural lake near Mt. Abu surrounded by hills. It is an
important tourist place.


Sambhar Lake: It is the largest Lake in Rajasthan, lies on the border of Jaipur and
Nagaur District. Common salt and sodium sulphate are produced mainly by the
Hindustan Salt Ltd.

Deedwana Lake: it is situated near Deedwana Town of Nagaur District of



The plains of West Coast, are confined to a narrow zone the width ranging from 10 to
25 kms. it extends for about 1500 kms. in length from Surat in the north to Kanyakumari
in the South. The western coast is divided into three sections- the Kathaiwar coast, the
Konkan coast and the Malabar coast. The west coastal plain is a fault coast.

The Gujarat plains are built up mainly of alluvium of the Sabarmati, Mahi, Narmada
and the Tapti, all of which have formed large estuaries. The northern part of the plains is
drained by the Banas, the Saraswati into the Gulf of Cambay. Elsewhere the plain is

drained by the Sabarmati, Mahi, Narmada and the Tapti. Near the western limit of the
Gujarat plains, a series of saline marshes occur which are subjected to overflow at high

The Konkan coast stretches from Daman to Goa for a distance of 500 kms. it is
narrow and has typical coastal features. The coastline is generally cliffy. The submerged
coasts are indicative of rise in the Sea level. The northern portion of the Konkan coast is
drained by the Vaitarna river which provided means of earliest trade between the Sea and
north Deccan. The coastal plain is dotted with flat topped hills.

The Malabar coast runs for about 725 kms. north to south. In the northern part in
Karnataka, transverse flat topped spurs come down almost to the shoreline from the edge
of the plateau. The plains in Kerala are much wider and less hilly with an average width of
35 kms. and ranging from 10 to 30 kms. in elevation.

Only on the malabar coast there are a number of lakes, lagoons and backwaters
locally called the Kayals. The largest of such backwater is the Vembnad lake. Some unique
mud banks have been located between Cochin and Alleppy in the continental shelf off
Vembnad lake. They are the modern analogues of an ancient hydrocarbon generating


The east coast of India starts from the edge of the Ganga delta and runs to the
southernmost tip of India. The coast is mostly of emergent type,i.e., it is regular inn
outline and is characterised by offshore bars, fine Sea beaches, sand ridges and lagoons.
It extends from Cape Comorin northwards to the united deltas of Krishna and Godavari
for 1100 kms. with an average width of 100 to 130 kms. from North to South the coastal
plains are known as the Utkal, Andhra and the Tamil Nadu plains.

The Utkal plains extend for about 400 kms. it include the Mahanadi delta with
Cuttack at its head. South of Mahanadi delta is the Chilka lake.

The Andhra plains stretch from the southern limits of the Utkal plains to the
Pulicat lake. The Godavari and the Krishna flowing through this regiion have formed deltas.
Between the two deltas lier the Kolleru lake. The Pulicat lake has been barred by a long
sand spit now called the Sriharikota islands. The lagoon is about 60 kms. long and about 60
kms. wide. It is dotted with several large islands.

The Tamil Nadu plains is about 675 kms. in length with an average width of 100 kms. The
Kaveri delta is the most important physiographic unit in this region. The Kaveri river
divides the delta into two channels. The islands Srisailam, Srirangapattanm and
Sivasamudram are found in the Kaveri delta.



The Himalayan drainage system has evolved through a long geological history. It mainly
includes the Ganga, the Indus and the Brahmaputra river basins. These rivers are fed both
by melting of snow and precipitation, therefore these systems are perennial.

These rivers creates gorges, V shaped valleys, rapids and waterfalls in their mountainous
course. In the plains they create features like flat valleys, ox-bow lakes, flood plains,
braided channels and deltas near the mouth of the rivers. In the Himalayan reaches, the
course of these rivers is highly tortuous, but over the plains they display a strong
meandering tendency and shift their courses frequently.

Evolution of the Himalayan drainage:

Geologists believe that a mighty river called Siwaliks or Indo-Brahma traversed the
entire longitudinal extent of the Himalayas from Asom to Punjab.

It is opined that in due course of time Indo-Bahma river was dismembered into
three main drainage systems the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra. The
dismemberment was probably due to the Pleistocene upheaval in the western Himalayas
including uplift of the Potwar plateau, which acted as the water divide between the Indus
and Ganga drainage systems.

Himalayan drainage system:

The Indus system:

It is one of the largest river basins of the world. It is the westernmost of the
Himalayan rivers in India. It originates from a glacier near Bokhar Chu in the Tibetian
region. In Tibet it is known as Singi Khamban or Lions mouth. It cuts across the Ladakh
range, forming a spectacular gorge near gilgit in Jammu and Kashmir. It receives a
number of Himalayan tributaries such as Shyok, the Gilgit, the Zaskar, the Hunza, the
Nubra, the Shigar, the Gastings and the Dras.

The Panjanad is the name given to the five rivers of Punjab, namely the Satluj, Ravi,
Beas, Jhelum and Chenab. It finally discharges into the Arabian Sea, east of Karachi. The
Indus flows in India only through the Leh district in Jammu and Kashmir.

Jhelum: it is an important tributary of the Indus, rising from a spring at Verinag situated
at the foot of the Pir Panjal in the south eastern part of the valley of Kashmir. . It flows
through Srinagar and the Wular lake before entering Pakistan through a deep narrow
gorge. It joins the Chenab near Jhang in Pakistan.

Chenab: is the largest tributary of the Indus. It is formed by two streams, the Chandra
and the Bhaga, which join at Tandi near Keylong in Himachal Pradesh, it is also known as

Ravi: it is another important tributary of the Indus. It rises west of the Rohtang pass in
the Kullu hills of Himachal Pradesh and flows throug the Changa valley of the state. It
drains the area lying between the south eastern part of the Pir Panjal and the Dhauladhar

Beas: is another important tributary of the Indus, originating from the Beas Kund near
the Rohtang pass at an elevation of 4000m above the mean Sea level. The river flows
through the Kukllu valley and form gorges at Kati and Largi in the Dhaladhar range. It
enters the Punjab plains and meets the Satluj near Harike.

Satluj: it originates in the Rakas lake near Mansarovar. In Tibet it is known as Langchen
Khambab. It flows almost parallel to the Indus for about 400 km before entering India
and comes out of a gorge at Rupar. It passes through the shipki La on the Himalayan
ranges and enters the Punjab plains. it is an antecedent river, it is a very important
tributary as it feeds the canal system of the bhakra nangal project.


Ganga is the most important river of India both from the point of view of its basin and
cultural significance. It rises in the Gangotri glacier near Gaumukh in the Uttarkashi
district of Uttaranchal. Here it is known as Bhagirathi. At Devgrayag, the Bhagirathi
meets the Alaknanda; hereafter it is known as the Ganga. The Alaknanda has its source in
the satopanth glacier above Badrinath.

The Ganga enters the plains at Haridwar. Frp, here it flows first to the south, then
to the south-east and east before splitting into two distributaries, namely the Bhagirathi
and Hoogly. The Son is the major right bank tributary while the Ramganga, the Gomati, the
Ghaghara, the Kosi, the Gandak and the Mahanada. The river finally discharges itself into
the Bay of Bengal.

Yamuna: the western most and the longest tributary of the Ganga, has its source in the
Yamunotri glacier. It joins the Ganga at Prayag. It is joined by the Chambal, the Sind, the
Betwa and the Ken on its right bank.

Chambal: it rises near Mhow in the Malwa plateau of Madhya Pradesh and flows through a
gorge up wards of Kota in Rajasthan, where the Gandhisagar dam has been constucted. The
Chambal is famous for its badland topography called the Chambal ravines.

Gandak: it comprise fo two streams namely Kaligandak and Trishulganga. It rises near
Nepal Himalayas between the Dhaulagiri and Mount Everest. It enters the Ganga plain in
Champaran district of Bihar and joins the Ganga at Sonpur near Patna.

kosi : it is an antecedent river with its source to the north of Mount Everest in Tibet,
where its main stream Arun rises. After crossing the Central Himalayas in Nepal, it is
joined by the Son kosi and the Tamur kosi. It form sapt kosi after uniting with the river

Ramganga: it is comparatively a small river rising in the Garhwal hills. It changes its course
to the southwest direction after crossing the Shiwaliks and enters into the plains of Uttar
Pradesh near Najibabad. Finally it joins Ganga near Kannauj

Damodar: it occupies the eastern margins of the Chotanagpur plateau where it flows
through a rift and finally joins the Hugli. It was once known as the sorrow of Bengal.

Sarda or Saryu: thi river rises from a glacier in the Nepal Himalayas where it is known as
the Gori Ganga. Along the Indo-Nepal border it is called Kali or Chauk, where it joins the

Son: it is the largest south bank tributary of the Ganga, originating in the Amarkantak
plateau. After forming a series of waterfalls at the edge of the plateau, it reaches Arrah,
west of Patna, to join the Ganga.

Brahmaputra: it is one of the largest rivers of the world, has its origin in the
Chemayungdung glacier of the Kailash range near the Mansarovar lake. In tibet it is known
as Tsangpo, which means the Purifier. It enters India west of Sadiya town in Arunachal
Pradesh flowing sourhwest, it receives its main left bank tributaries-Ddibang and Lohit,
thereafter it is known as the Brahmaputra.

Its left bank tributaries are Burhi, Cihing, dhansari and Kalang where as its right bank
tributaries are the Subansiri, Kameng, Manas and Sankosh. The Brahmaputra is well known
for floods, channel shifting and bank erosion. This is due to the fact that most of its
tributaries are large and bring large quantity of sediments owing to heavy rainfall in its
catchment area.

The Indus and Ganga River system

River Source Length (kms.) Drainage Area Tributaries

Indus Snow ranges of the 2880 of which 3,21,290 km2 Zaskar, Astar, Dras,
Himalaya at an 1570 kms in Shyok, Swat, Kurram,
altitude of 5080m in India. shigar, Gilgit, Kabul,
Tibet, near Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi,
Manasarovar lake. Beas and Sutlej
Chenab At an elevation of 1800m in India 26755 km2
4900m at Lahul.
Ravi Kulu hill of Himachal 725 14,442 km2
Beas Kulu hill at an 460 20,303 km2
elevation of 3960m
near Rohtang pass
Sutlej At an elevation of 1050 24,087 km2 Beas joins at Harike
4570m near Dharma
Ganga Alaknanda at an 2525 861404 km2 Yamuna, Ram Ganga,
elevation of 7800m Gandak, Ghaghara, Kosi,
Bhagirathi at an Burhi Gandak, Bagmati,
elevation of 6600m. Gomti, Son, Mahananda,
both join at Kamla, Damodar,
Devprayag. Jalangi, bhairavi, Gorai,
Matabhanga, Hoogly
Confluence of Yamuna
at Allahabad
Yamuna West of the Ganga 1300 359000 km2 Chambal, Betwa, Hindu,
source at an Ken, Sarda.
elevation of 6330m
from a hot spring at
Ram Ganga Near Nainital, in the 696 32412 km2 Joins the Ganga below
lower Himalaya at an Farukkhabad.
elevation of 3110m
Ghaghara Rises east of the 1080 127950 km2 Rapti, Sarda
Gandak At an elevation of 425 9540 km2 In Nepal, it is known as
7620m, in the Narayani. It joins Ganga
central Himalaya at Patna.
near Tibet.

Kosi From Tibet/Nepal 730(in India) 11600 km2 Kosi, Arun, Tamur.
Notorioius for floods
and hence known as
Sorrow of Bihar
Gomati About 3 kms east of 940 30,437 km2 Sai, Barma, Saryu,
Pilbhit at 200m Chuha, Gachai, Jomki.
Damodar Rises in Chotanagpur 541 22,000 km2 Gartus, Konar, Jamunia
plateau(near and Barakar.
Balumath) at an Once known as Sorrow
elevation of 1366m of Bengal
Son Amarkantak km2 Joins ganga at Maner
near Patna. Tributaries
North Koel and Punpun

The Brahmaputra river system

River Source Length (kms.) Drainage Area Tributaries

Subansiri In Tibet 442 32,640 km2 Kamla

Jia Bhorelli In Tibet 264 11,843 km2 Bichom, Khari, Dikari,

Sonai, Tongsa, Kur.
Manas In Bhutan 376 37,500 km2 Tonsa and Kur.
Buri Dihang 362 8,473 km2 Namphunk, Namchik,
Manaton, Tirap
Dhansiri In Nagaland 354 12,250 km2 Dihing, Diphu,
Nambar, Kalyan.
Koppili Mikir North, 256 15,800 km2 Jamuna, borpani,
Cachar hills. Umum
Teesta In Sikkim 309 12,540 km2 Rajani, Ranjit, Lish,
Gish, Ghel.
Jaldhaka In Sikkim 186 3,958 km2 Murk and Dihana
Torsa In Chumbi valley of 358 4,883 km2 Holong and Kalgani
Barak Manipur hills 902 25,900 km2 Jiri, Chiri, Horong,
Katakhel, Longai


The evolution of peninsular drainage system: Three major geological events

International he distant past have shaped the present drainage systems of Peninsular

Subsidence of the western flank of the peninsula leading to its submergence below
the Sea during the early tertiary period.
Upheaval of the Himalayas when the northern flank of the peninsular block was
subjected to subsidence and the consequent tough faulting. There is a lack of
alluvial and deltaic deposits in these rivers.
Slight tilting of the Peninsular block from northwest to the southeastern direction
gave orientation to the entire drainage system towards the Bay of Bengal during the
same period.

Mahanadi: it rises near Sihawa in Raipur district of Chhattisgarh and runs through Odisa
to discharge its water into the Bay of Bengal. navigation is carried on in its lower course.

Godavari: it is the largest Peninsular river and is also called the Dakshin Ganga. It rises in
the Nasik district of Maharashtra and discharges its water into the Bay of Bengal. Its
tributaries run through the states of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisa
and Andhra Pradesh. The Penganga, Indravati, Pranhita and Manjira are its principal
tributaries. This river is subjected to heavy floods in its lower reaches to the south of
Polavaram, where it forms a picturesque gorge. It is navigable only in the deltaic stretch.

Krishna: it is the second largest east flowing river which rises near Mahabaleshwar in
Sahyadris. Its tributaries are Tungadhadra, Panchaganga, Musi, Koyana, Varna etc.

Kaveri: it rises in Brahmagiri hills in Karnataka. Its upper catchment area receives rainfall
during the southwest monsoon season and the lower part during the northeast monsoon
season, the river carries water throughout the year with comparatively less fluctuation
than the other Peninsular Rivers. Its tributaries are Kabini, Bhavani and the Amravati.

Narmada: it originates on the western flank of the Amarkantak plateau. Flowing in a rift
valley between the Satpura in the south and the Vindhya range in the north, itforms a
picturesque gorge in marble rocks and Chuandhar waterfall near Jabalpur. The Sardar
Sarovar Project has been constructed on this river.

Tapi: it is the other west flowing river. It originates from Multai in Betul district of
Madhya Pradesh.

Luni: is it the largest river system of Rajasthan, west of Aravalli. It originates near
Pushkar in two branches, i.e. the Saraswati and the Sabarmati, which join with each other
at Govindgarh. From here the river comes out of the Aravali and is known as Luni. It flows
towards the west and joins the Rann of Kutch. The entire river is Ephemeral.


River Source Length (kms.) Drainage Area Tributaries


Narmada Amarkantak plateau 1,312 98,796 km2 Burner, Baiyar,

in Madhya Pradesh Sher, Dudhi, Tawa,
Shakkar, Hiran,
Tendoni, Barna, Goi,
Kundi, Karyan

Tapi/Tapti Near Multan in Betul 724 64,145 km2 Purna, Betul, Bori
district Levda, Vaghur,
Patkai, Ganjal,
Dhatranj, Bohad,
Anbhora, Khursi,
Kapra, Sipra, Mor,
Panjhara, Garja,
Khokri, Utaoli,
Bokar, Subi, Gomal,
Harki, Valer,

Luni Annasagar in Ajmer 482 37,250 km2


Sabarmati Aravalli hills 300 21,674 km2 Wakal, Jawai, Sei,

Mitri, Harnav,
Hathmathi, Watrak,

River Source Length Drainage Tributaries

(kms.) Area
Mahanadi Near Pharsia village 860 1,41,600 km2 Sheonath, Hadse,
in Rajpur district Mand, Ib, Jonk,
Ong, Tel.

Brahmani Near Nagri village of 800 39,033 km2 Kura, Sankhed,

Ranchi district Tikra.

Baitami 333 19,500 km2

Subarnarekha Bihar 395 19,300 km2 Kanchi, Karfari.

Godavari Trimbak in Nasik 1465 3,12,812 km2 Pravara, Purna,

Manjra, Painganga,
Wainganga, Maner,
Wardha, Pranhita,
Indravati, Sabari

Parvara Western Ghats 200 6,537 km2 Mula

Purna Ajanta hills 373 15,579 km2

Manjra Balaghat 724 30,844 km2 Tima, Lanaya

Painganga Buldhana range 676 23,895 km2 Pus, Arna, Aran

Wainganga Seoni 609 61,093 km2 Pench, Bagh,


Wardha Betul district 483 24,087 km2 Wunna, Bembla,


Pranhita 133 1,09,077 km2 Wainganga, Wardha

Indravati Kalahandi 531 41,665 km2 Marangi, Kotri,

Bandia, Nandira

Maner 113,106 km2 Haldi


River Source Length (kms.) Drainage Area Tributaries

Sabari Sindaram hills 2,40,427 km2 Sileru

Krishna At an elevation of 1400 2,58,948 km2 Ghatprabha, Musi,

1,360m north of Malprabha, Bhima,
Mahabaleshwar Muneru, Kaveri,
Harnagi, Hemvati,
Kabini, Bhavani

Ghatprabha Western Ghats 283 8,829 km2 Hiranyakshi,


Malprabha Western Ghats 306 11,549 km2

Bhima Western Ghats 861 76,614 km2 Mula, Mutha, Ghod,


Tungbhadra 531 71,417 km2 Varada, Hagari

Musi Medak district 240 11,212 km2 Aleru

Muneru 235 10,409 km2

Kaveri Brahmaputra hills 800 87,900 km2 Harangi, Hemvati,

Kabini, bhavani

Harangi Pushpagiri hills, 35 540 km2 Yagachi Algur

coorg district
Hemvati Western Ghats in 165 5200 km2
Mudgil Taluk
Kabini Wynad Taluk 210 6693 km2

Suyarnayathi Nasurum ghat 64 1689 km2

Bhavani Silent Valley Forest 216 7144 km2 Siruvani, Kundah,

Coonoor, Moyar.

The climate of a country is mainly based on the study of its temperature, rainfall,
atmospheric pressure and direction of winds.
The climate of India is greatly influenced by two factors:

Tropic of Cancer: dividing the country into two halves- North Temperate Zone and
South Tropical zone.

Great Himalayan range separating the Indian subcontinent forms the rest of Asia,
thus preventing the bitter cold winds from the central Asia from entering the

Climate of the Indian subcontinent:

In spite of the great diversity and variation in Indian climate and topography due to
various reasons stated earlier, the most important factor that lends unity to the Indian
subcontinent is the fact of the monsoons.

The word monsoons owe its origin to an Arabic word Mausam meaning season. It
was used by Sea men several centuries ago, to describe a system of alternating
winds over the Arabian Sea. Thes e winds appear to blow from the south-west for
six months and form North-east for another six months. Hence, as they reverse
their directions seasonally, they are called monsoon winds and the climate the
tropical monsoon type.
Monsoon winds can be called land and Sea breeze on a large scale as both are
caused due to differential heating of land and Sea.

Factors affecting the climate of India:

The climate of India is a complex phenomenon and is influenced by large number of

geographical factors. Some of the important factors are as follows-

1. Location and Latitudinal Extent 7. Distance from the Sea

2. Northern Mountain ranges 8. Physiography
3. Monsoon winds 9. Upper Air circulation
4. Tropical cyclones and Western Disturbances
5. El-Nino effect 10. La Nina
6. Southern Oscillation.


The origin of monsoons is still shrouded in mystery. Still attempts have been made to
explain the mechanism of the monsoons but no satisfactory explanation is available till
date. The theories regarding the monsoons are generally divided into broad categories.

The word Monsoon owes it origin to an Arabic word meaning season. It was used by Sea
men several centuries ago, to describe a system of alternating winds over the Arabian Sea.
These winds appear to blow from South West for six months and from North-East for
another six months. Hence, as they reverse their directions seasonally, they are called
monsoon winds and the climate as Tropical Monsoon Type.



The hot season commences in March and continues till the end of May. During summer
solstice, the sun shines directly overhead Tropic of Cancer which divides India into two

Mainland of India experiences intense heat during the months of March to May. Low
pressure conditions develop on the mainland of India while high pressure conditions prevail
over the surrounding seas. There is a steady increase in temperature from south to north
with the highest in the interior.

As the warmest area shifts from Deccan towards north west India in the month of May, it
builds up a low pressure trough between Thar desert to Chota Nagpur Plateau. Winds from
the surrounding regions descend in this region. These winds give rise to thunderstorms
with stong dusty winds, often bringing a shower of rain mostly in Punjab, Haryana and
Uttar Pradesh.

The local winds during the hot season are:

Kal Baisakhi: they are the local winds in West Bengal, meaning the calamity of the month
of Baisakhi. They are also called Norwesters because they usually blow in the north west
direction. These winds are accompanied by thunder storms and bring heavy rainfall.

Loo: are hot dusty dry winds, some of them called Sandstorms, which blow particularly in
the month of May and June in the northern plain. The fierce heat with temperature rising
upto 450- 500 C may cause sunstroke which may be fatal.

Mango showers: these occur in south India during April/May. They bring a little rain which
is important for mango, tea and coffee plants. Hence the name Mango showers.

Characteristics of hot season:

This season is marked by dry weather and excessive heat.

In this season, the sun shines vertically overhead the Tropic of Cancer.
The whole of tropical India, south of Himalayas experiences very high
The range of temperature is very high in the interior.
Thunderstorms accompanied by dusty winds are common.
The brief spell of showers experienced at this time is very useful for tea crop in
Asom, rice in Bengal and mango and coffee in south.


The climate of India is strongly influenced by monsoon winds. The monsoons are
experienced in the tropical area roughly between 200N and 200S. the following facts
explains the mechanism of monsoons:

The differential heating and cooling of land and water: creates low pressure on
the landmass of India while the seas around experience comparatively high
The shift of the position of ITCZ : in summer, over the Ganga plain ( this is the
equatorial trough normally positioned about 50N of the equator. It is also known
as the monsoon trough during the monsoon season).
The presence of high pressure area, east of Madagascar, approximately at 200S
over the Indian Ocean. The intensity and position of this high pressure area
affects the Indian monsoons.
The Tibetan plateau gets intensely heated during summer, which results in strong
vertical air currents and the formation of low pressure over the plateau at about
9km above Sea level.

The movement of the westerly jet stream to the north of the Himalayas and the
presence of the tropical easterly jet stream over the Indian peninsula during


The Monsoon, unlike the trades, are not steady winds but are pulsating in nature, affected
by different atmospheric conditions encountered by it, on its way over the warm tropical
seas. The duration of the monsoon is between 100-120 days from early June to Mid
September. The monsoon arrives at the southern tip of the Indian peninsula generally by
the first week of June. It divides into two branches- the Arabian Sea branch and the bay
of Bengal branch.

Arabian Sea branch hits the west coast the first week of June. By mid-June the Arabian
Sea branch of the monsoon arrives over Saurashtra- Kutch and the Central part of the

country. The Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal branches merge over the northwestern of
the Ganga plains.

Withdrawal or the retreat of the monsoon is a more gradual process. The withdrawal of
the monsoon begins northwestern states of India by early September. By mid-October, it
withdraws completely from the northwestern half of the Peninsula is fairly rapid. By early
December, the monsoon has withdrawn from the rest of the country.

The islands receive the very first monsoon showers, progressively from south to north,
from the last week of April to the first week of May. The withdrawal takes place
progressively from north to south from the first week of December to the first week of

Summer monsoon: in summer the sun shines vertically over the Tropic of Cancer resulting
in high temperature and low pressure in Central Asia while the pressure is still sufficiently
high over Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal. This induces air flow from sea to land and brings
heavy rainfall to Indian coast.

Winter monsoons: in winter the sun shines vertically over the Tropic of Capricorn. The
north western part of India grows colder than Arabian Sea and bay of Bengal and the flow
of the monsoon is reversed.


Air mass theory: the south east trade winds in the southern hemisphere and the north
east trade winds in the northern hemisphere meet each other near the equator. The
meeting place of these winds is known as ITCZ( Inter Tropical Convergence Zone).

The location of ITCZ shifts north and south of equator with the change of season.

In summer season, the sun shines vertically over the Tropic of Cancer and the ITCZ
shifts northwards.

The south east trade winds of the southern hemisphere cross the equator and
start flowing from south west to north east direction under the influence of Coriolis
force. These displace trade winds are called south west monsoons when they blow over
the Indian sub continent. The front where the south west monsoons meet the north east
trade winds is known as the Monsoon Front.

In the month of July the ITCZ shifts to 200-250 N latitude and is located in the
Indo-Gangetic Plain and the south west monsoons blow from the Arabian Sea and the Bay
of Bengal. This ITCZ shift is known as Monsoon Trough.


Although monsoons are mentioned in our old scriptures and in the writings of several Greek
and Buddhist scholars, the credit for the first scientific studies of the monsoon winds
goes to the Arabs.

Al Masudi, gave an account of the reversal of ocean currents and the monsoon winds over
the north Indian ocean.

In 1686, the famous Englishman Sir Edmund Halley explained the monsoon as resulting
from thermal contrasts between continents and oceans due to the differential heating.
Accordingly, Halley conceived summer and winter monsoons depending upon the season.


Jet stream is a band of fast moving air from west to east usually found in the middle
latitudes in the upper troposphere at a height of about 12 km. the wind speed in the
westerly jet stream are commonly 150 to 300 km/hour. It is the latest theory regarding
the origin of the monsoons and has earned worldwide acclaim from the meteorologist.

The southern jet becomes active and heavy rainfall is caused by south west monsoons.

The westerly jet stream is located along the southern slopes of the Himalayas in winter
but it suddenly shifts to the north with the onset of the monsoons. An easterly jet stream
called the Sub tropical easterly jet stream blows over peninsular India, approximately over
140 N during the summer months.


Temperature: usually the cold weather season sets in by mid-November in northern India.
December and January are the coldest months in the northern India. The mean daily
temperature remains below 210C over most parts of northern India. The night temperature
may be quite low, sometimes going below freezing point in Punjab and Rajasthan.
There are three main reasons for the excessive cold in north India during this season-

1. The moderating influence of Sea experience continental climate.

2. The snowfall in the nearby Himalayan ranges create cold wave situation.
3. Cold winds coming from the Caspian Sea and Turkmenistan bring cold wave along
with frost and fog over the northwestern parts of India.

Peninsular region of India does not have any well defined season, there is hardly any
seasonal change in the distribution pattern of the temperature in coastal areas because of
moderating influence of the Sea and the proximity to equator. Temperature at the hills of
Western Ghats remain comparatively low.

Pressure and winds: by the end of December, the sun shines vertically over the Tropic of
Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. The weather in this season is characterized by
feeble high pressure conditions over the northern plain.
In south India the air pressure is slightly lower. As a result the winds start blowing from
northwestern high pressure zone to the low air pressure zone over the Indian ocean in the

During October-November, with the apparent movement of the sun towards the south, the
monsoon trough or the low-pressure trough over the northern plains becomes weaker. This

is gradually replaced by a high-pressure system. The south-west monsoon winds weaken

and start withdrawing gradually. By the beginning of October, the monsoon withdraws
from the Northern Plains.
The months of October-November form a period of transition from hot rainy
season to dry winter conditions. The retreat of the monsoon is marked by clear skies and
rise in temperature. While day temperatures are high, nights are cool and pleasant. The
land is still moist. Owing to the conditions of high temperature and humidity, the weather
becomes rather oppressive during the day, it is commonly known as October heat.
The low pressure conditions over north western India, get transferred to the Bay
of Bengal by early November. This shift is associated with the occurrence of cyclonic
depressions, which originate over the Andaman Sea. These cyclones generally cross the
eastern coasts of India cause heavy and widespread rain. The tropical cyclones are often
very destructive, which cause great damage to life and property. Sometimes, these
cyclones arrive at the coasts of Orissa, West Bengal and Bangladesh. The bulk of the
rainfall of the Coromandel Coast is derived from depressions and cyclones.

Characteristics of Monsoons:
Monsoons are erratic in nature.
Monsoons are unevenly spread and sporadic
Monsoon rains are orographic in nature.
Monsoons bring rain in summer
Monsoon rains determine the economic state of the country by controlling the
agricultural prosperity.


India can be divided into a number of climatic regions.

Tropical Rain Forests in India: Found in the west coastal plains, the Western Ghats and
parts of Assam. Characterized by high temperatures throughout the year. Rainfall,
though seasonal, is heavy- about 200 cm annually during May-November.

Tropical Savanna Climate: In most of the peninsula region except the semi-arid zone in
the leeward side of the Western Ghats. It is characterized by long dry weather
throughout winter and early summer and high temperature (above 18 32C); annual rainfall
varies from 76 cm in the west to 150 cm in the east.
Tropical Semi-Arid Steppe Climate: It prevails in the rain-shadow belt running
southward from Central Maharashtra to Tamil Nadu in the leeward side of the Western
Ghats and the Cardamom Hills. It is characterized by low rainfall which varies from 38 cm
to 80 cm, high temperature between 20 and 30.

Tropical and Subtropical Steppes : Large areas in Punjab, Haryana and Kutch region.
Temperature varies from 12-35c. The maximum temperature reaches up to 49c. The annual
rainfall, varying from 30.5-63.5 cm, is also highly erratic.

Tropical desert: This climate extends over the western parts of Banner, Jaisalmer and
Bikaner districts of Rajasthan and parts of Kutch. It is characterized by scanty rainfall
(30.5 cm), which is highly erratic. Rains are mostly in the form of cloud-burst. Mean
monthly temperature is uniformly high (about 35c).

Humid Subtropical Climate with Dry Winters: This area includes south of the Himalayas,
east of the tropical and subtropical steppes and north of tropical savannah. Winters are
mild to severe while summers are extremely hot. The annual rainfall varies from 63.5 cm to
more than 254 cm, most of it received during the south west monsoon season.

Mountain Climate: Such type of climate is seen in mountainous regions which rise above
6,000 m or more such as the Himalayas and the Karakoram Range.

Climatic regions of India:

The essential characteristics of the climate of India is always tropical in nature. The
elements of climate reveal many regional pattern. These regional patterns thus formed are
more or less homogenous in character broadly with respect to temperature, moisture and
rainfall. Many climatic factors for this purpose are taken into account such as
temperature-its diurnal and annual range, precipitation- its quantity, seasonability and
frequency, evaporation and transpiration and the vegetation types which are reflective of
a particular climate. Based on these postulates there have been attempts to divide India
into climatic zones. Most notable of these attempts are from Koppen, Thornthwaite and

Koeppens Scheme:
His classification is based on the nature and type of vegetation which is determined by
climatic factors like temperature and rainfall. Based on his scheme India can be divided
into the following climatic types:

Monsoon type(AmW): this region comprises the western coastal strip where the rainfall
exceeds 120 inches. The dry weather is very short and the vegetation is chiefly of
evergreen type.


Among the most valuable resources of India, their magnificent forest plays a very
important role in its climate as well as economic development.

Forests are our renewable resources and help in maintaining ecological balance, reduce
pollution, maintain humidity, purify air and are a source of timber, fruits, flowers and fuel.
The forests prevent soil erosion and provide habitat to a variety of wild animals, birds and

According to state of forest report 2009, the total forest cover of the country is
69.06million hectares (21.02% of the total geographic area of the country).

The National forest policy has laid down a target of raising the area covered by forests in
India to be 33.3%. There is a net increase of 728km2 of forest cover as compared to the
previous assessment.

Forest types in India

Forest Climate Distribution Forest and trees Species / Special

Tropical Rainfall- 200 to Windward side of Forests: dense thick Rosewood, Shisham and
evergreen 300 cms the Western undergrowth. Tall Ebony are used for
forests High humidity Ghats, Garo hills, trees in layer making high quality
and temperature Jaintia, khasi hills arrangement. furniture.
25o to 27o C and lower slopes Climbers, creepers, Gurjan- railway
of Eastern ferns, bamboo, sleepers
Himalayas. epiphytes and Toon, ironwood and
luxuriant growth. Bamboo are other
important species.
Tropical Rainfall- 150 to Extent from Dense undergrowth, Sal- resistant to
deciduous 200 cms Shivaliks in the shed leaves for 6-8 termites.
forests temperature 20o north to Eastern weeks in summer Teak- resistant to
C edge of the during conditions termites and nails does
Western Ghats of drought. not rust. Sandalwood-
and north-east handicrafts.
Deccan plateau. Myrobalan- tanning of

hides, dyeing of cotton,

wool and silk.

Thorn Rainfall- 25 to Drier parts of Trees are widely Khajuri- fruit is edible
forests 100 cms North Western scattered within the Khair- yield timber and
temperature 25o India, rain shadow forest. They are dye
+ region of stunted with long Khair and babool- yield
Western Ghats. roots, glossy leaves gum for tanning
and spines. leather.

Tidal forests Rainfall- over Found in the Dense forests. Trees Sundari- boats, boxes
Also known 200 cms areas flooded by have stilt roots and and telephone posts.
as Mangrove Temperature Sea water- deltas phenmatophores. Casuaina-checks
and Littoral over 25o C of Ganga- transgression of the
forests. Brahmaputra, Sea and erosion along
Mahanadi, Krishna the coast.
and Godavari

Mountain Rainfall- 150 to Eastern Softwood conifers Suitable for wildlife

forests 250 cms Himalayas and used for making sanctuaries. Due to less
temperature western paper, matches, rain, low temperature
less than 20o C Himalayas packing cases and and snowfall. The
planks. trees are mainly
Deodar- railway evergreen with needle
sleepers. shaped leaves, more
wood and less leaves.
Desert Rainfall- less Drier parts of Xerophytes, thorny Wild berries, cactii,
vegetation than 25 cms southern Punjab, bushes, scattered kikar, Babool- yields
temperature 25o Rajasthan and the trees, deep roots, gum used for tanning
to 27o C Deccan Plateau thick fleshy stems. hides and skins.
Problems of Indian forestry:

1. Low forest cover: the forest cover in India is only 21.02% as against the world
average of 35%.
2. Open grazing: overgrazing by cattle, sheep and goats in hilly and mountainous areas
damages the forest cover.
3. Shifting cultivation: jhooming or shifting cultivation by tribals in hilly areas cause
extensive damage.
4. Growing demand for agricultural land: with growing population, demand for food
products and agricultural raw materials has increased significantly. This has caused
considerable shrinkage in forest area.

5. Urbanisation and Industrialization- increasing urbanization and industrialization is

also an important cause of degradation in forest cover.
6. Construction of hydroelectric projects like Narmada has caused displacement and
submergence of forest area.
7. Human activities like mining, quarrying and building has resulted in deforestation at
a large scale.


India is one of the few countries where forest policy is in operation since 1894.
Amendments have been made International he policy by the Government
periodically to protect, conserve and develop the forest resources.
Under the scheme of forest conservation programme following steps have been
1. Afforestation- the scheme of plantation of new forest.
2. Van Mahotsava thousand of trees have been planted along the roads, railway
lines and hill slopes.
3. Re-afforestation- the restoration of forest wherever they have been
indiscriminately cut is called re-afforestation. In this scheme, two saplings
are planted to replace one.

Important national parks:

Dachigam National park- Jammu and Kashmir Deer

Shikari National park Himachal pradesh Deer

Valley of flowers Uttaranchal

Jim Corbett National park Uttaranchal Tiger

Dudwa National park UP Tiger


Chandra Prabha National park UP Tiger

Nanda devi National park Uttaranchal Tiger

Kanchenganga National park Sikkim Musk deer

Valmiki National park Bihar Musk deer

Bharatpur NP rajasthan Siberiam crane

Sariska National Park rajasthan Tiger

Ranthambor National Park rajasthan Birds & animals

Sultanpur National Park Harayana Birds

Kaziranga National Park Assam Rhino

Manas tiger project Assam Tiger

Kanha National Park Madhya Pradesh Tiger

Shivpuri National Park Madhya Pradesh Tiger

Gir National Park Gujarat Lions

Bandhipur National Park Karnataka Tiger

Silent valley project kerala Monkeys

Madhumati National Park TN Elephants

Nandan kanan National Park Orissa White tiger

Simpala National Park Orissa White tiger

Sundarbans National Park WB Tiger

Rajiv Gandhi National Park AP Tiger

Kolleru bird sanctuary AP Siberian cranes



A Biosphere reserve is a unique and representative ecosystem of terrestrial and coastal

areas which are internationally recognised within the framework of UNESCOs Man and
Biosphere programme. The Biosphere Reserve aims at achieving the three objectives of

Conservation- conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem.

Development- association of environment with development.
Logistics- international network for research and monitoring.
There are 18 Biosphere Reserves in India.
Four reserves namely Nilgiris, Nanda Devi, Sunderbans and Gulf of Mannar have
been recognised by the UNESCO on World Network of Biosphere Reserves.
Nine of the eighteen biosphere reserves are a part of the World Network of Biosphere
Reserves, based on the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme list.[2][3][4]

Name States Year

Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh 2012[3]

Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve Tamil Nadu 2001

Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve Uttarakhand 2004

Nicobar Islands Andaman and Nicobar Islands 2013[5]

Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka 2000

Nokrek Biosphere Reserve Meghalaya 2009

Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve Madhya Pradesh 2009

Simlipal Biosphere Reserve Odisha 2008

Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve West Bengal 2001


It means the management and protection of forests and afforestation on barren lands
with the purpose of helping in the environmental, social and rural development.

The National Commission on Argiculture(1976) has classified social forestry into three
categories. These are Urban Forestry, Rural forestry and farm forestry.

Urban forestry pertains to the raising and management of trees on public and private
owned lands such as parks, roadside avenues, industrial and commercial green belts etc.

Rural forestry lays emphasis on promotion of agro-forestry and community forestry.

Agro-forestry is the raising of trees and agricultural crops on the same land imcllusive of
the waste patches. It combines forestry with agriuclutre, thus altering the simultaneous
production of food, fodder, fuel, timber and fruit.

Community forestry involves the raising of trees on public or community land such as the
village pasture and temple land, roadside, canal bank, etc, it aims at providing benefits to
the community as whole.


Diversity of Indian physiography, climate, structure and vegetation justifies the

diverse soil types.

Importance of soil:

Soils support plants, animals as well as human life. Life depends on the food we eat and soil
is the source of that food for man and animals. Thus, agricultural production depends on
the fertility of soil.

Formation of soil:

It is the mixture of rock debris and organic materials which develop on the earths
surface. The major factors affecting the formation of the soil are relief, parent material,
climate, vegetation and other life forms and time. Soil essentially is the loose material
which forms the thin surface layer of the earth.

Soil is formed under specific natural conditions. It is a mixture of mineral or inorganic

matter which results from denudation and disintegration of rocks. Thus, soil is a renewable
natural resource though it takes a long time to regenerate it.

The process of soil formation is called Pedogenesis.

Composition of soil

Soil is a mixture of inorganic material, minerals and organic materials like humus.

The inorganic components mainly consists of silica, clay and chalk. Organic components
determines the fertility of the soil. They are derived from the decay vegetable matter.
The ultimate form of organic matter is humus. It imparts a dark colour to the soil. It also
helps the plant to draw the nutrients from the soil essential for its growth.

Soil profile:

As per the soil profile, the soil mainly consists of two layers- top soil and sub soil.

Top soil: forms the layer where the plant growth takes place; hence fertile top soil yields
good crop. It also contains bacteria, worms and insects which are so important for the
fertility of the soil.

Sub soil: is formed by the weathering of the parent rock. It also contains a part of the
organic matter and moisture but it is not very productive. For good crops, it would have to
be converted to soil which is a very slow process. Below sub soil is the solid, unweathered

Characteristics of different soils:

Sandy soils:

It contains 60% of sand and 10% of clay

They allow the water to pass through

They are good for cultivation only if some fertilizers are added. It is good mainly

for fruits and vegetables.

Clayey soils:

It has more than 60% of clay

It retains moisture and is sticky in nature.

Its fertility improves if sand and chalk are added to it.

Loamy soils:

It contains mixture of sand and clay

It can be very fertile with the right mixture of sand and clay.

If higher percentage of sand is present, it is called sandy loam and if there is

higher percentage of clay it is called clayey loam.


SOILS IN INDIA: Classification of soils:

The Indian Council of Agricultural Research(ICAR) set up an All India Soil Survey
Committee in 1953 which divided Indian soils into eight major groups.

S.No Soil Composition Origin and Occurrence Characteristic Crops

. formation grown
1. Alluvial Rich in Silt brought Rivers Varies in Rice,
45.6% Potash, by rivers, valleys, texture- Wheat,
Lime and hence is Coastal strip Coarse to fine. sugarcane
poor in called of Peninsular , cotton,
Phosphorou transported India. oilseeds
s and soil. Punjab, and jute.
Humus. Harayana,
UP , Bihar,
West Bengal
2. Black Rich in Weathering Deccan Retain Cotton,
16.6% Lime, of volcanic plateau, moisture, sugarcane
aluminium, rocks forms valley of sticky when , oilseeds
calcium, by lava. It is Godavari wet and cracks and
potash, found where and Krishna. when dry. tobacco.
iron, it is formed Maharashtr
magnesium. hence a, Gujarat,
Poor in formed in AP,TN.
Nitrogen situ.
and humus

3. Red Rich in iron. Decompositi Eastern Not retentive Wheat,

10.3% Poor in on of parts of to moisture, rice,
Nitrogen, metamorphi Deccan when cotton,
Phosphorus, c rocks. plateau, fertilizers are sugarcane
lime and southern added, soil , pulses.
humus. India. TN, becomes
Colour Kerala and productive.
brown to Karnataka. Coarse, porous
yellow. and crumbly.

4. Laterite Rich in iron. Due to Eastern and High content Cashew,

4.3% Poor in weathering Western of acidity and tapioca,
Potassium, of laterite ghats, Asom unable to coffee,
lime, rocks or hills. Andhra retain rubber.
nitrogen leaching. Pradesh, moisture,

and silica. TN, WB & coarse in

Odisa. texture.
Porous and

5. Arid They are Due to dry These soils These soils are
generally climate, high are poor and
sandy in temperature characterist contain little
structure and ically humus and
and saline accelerated developed in organic matter,
in nature. evaporation, western
they lack Rajasthan.
and humus.
6. Saline They are They These soils They lack in
also known contain are found in nitrogen and
as Usara larger western calcium
soils. proportion Gujarat, content.
of potassium deltas of
and the eastern
magnesium. coast and in
7. Peaty They are Large These soils These soils are
found in quantity of are found in generally heavy
areas of dead organic northern and black in
heavy matter part of colour. They
rainfall and accumlates Bihar and are alkaline
high and gives southern also.
humidity, rich humus part of
where and organic Uttaranchal
there is a content to and the
good the soil. coastal
growth of areas or
vegetation. West Bengal
8. Forest Are formed They are These soils Their texture,
in forests loamy and are found in quality and
where silty in forest nature are
sufficient valley sides areas. vital for the
rainfall is and coarse germination
available. grained in and growth of
the upper plant and
valley sides vegetation.

Alluvial soils:

This gradational soil type which is rich in humus, nitrogen, potash and is specified with
favourable amount of phosphorous forms the fertile soil. It corresponds ot he
physiographic regions of the country. Geologically this soil is categorised into three
prominent types:

Bhabar: it forms the coarsest texture, alluvial soil confined at the foot of Shiwalik range.
In accordance to the texture of the material deposited it marks the genesis of marshy
lowlands called Tarai.

Bhangar: it represents the old alluvium that owe its origin from the active channel or its
elevation fails to experience annual renewal. It includes a sub type called Betland, which is
rich in calcium nodules called Kankar- that is largely confined in Sutlej-Yamuna plains.

Khadar soil represent the new alluvium that experience the annual flooding in accordance
to its height or nearness to the active channel. It is also identified with a sub type called
Dhaya or Satluj-Yamuna plains.

Geographically alluvial soil is categorised into two prominent categories: Extra

Peninsular and Peninsular

Extra Peninsular: this represents dominating characteristics of flood plain soil. It is in

accordance that the complete trans-gangetic and Brahmaputra plains qualifies to be
fertile alluvial low lands.

Here the distinction is outlined in accordance to the prevailing climatic conditions which
makes Bist and Bari doab soils more fertile compared to Bhur soil of Rohilkhand and
Awadh. The Brahmaputra plain soil forms the least fertile horizon with true pedalfer
characteristics. The exceptional locatioin of the northern plains in regards to the soil
type includes the alluvium of Hugli plains, black alluvium of Rahr plaims and coarse
textured semir arid Bagar soil as Bhiwani Bagar and Rajasthan Bagar.

In the Peninsular locations alluvial soil commonly represent deltaic texture with the
fundamental distinction outlined between coarse textured west coast delta and fine
textured east coast delta. Specifically the soil or malabar plains reprsent finestt texture
among the west coast alluvial soil and Narmada. Tapi plains are known for near complete
absence of deltaic soil. Among the east coast rivers prominent contrast is identified in
the mid course of the channel which is determined by variations in the composition or the
flood plain soil. The Godavari and Krishna basin prominently forms black alluvial soil thus

fertile flood plain soil when compared to Mahanadi, Kaveri and Penerru Basins, where the
soil is less fertile

In the climatologically terms alluvial soil fertility in the rain shadow interiors of Sahyadri
remains significantly less when compared to humid locations inspite of same texture.
Collectively the alluvial soil type of the country represents diverse commercial significance
as per its potentialities of facilitating the cultivation of all the major types of crops.

Black soil

The structural soil of the country that has developed over basaltic table land of Deccan
trap called Vertisol. This soil type is characterised with significant amount of lime, iron,
magneisum and some potash however it totally lacks in humus and nitrogen. It is called
Black soil as per its dark colour due to the dominating concentration of heavy minerals.

Geologically this soil is categorised into three sub types:

Dark black soil: forms the most developed vertisol over the most developed basaltic table
land. It is therefore identified to be most fertile category. Geographically this type is
confined in Maharashtra plateau and Kathiawar uplands.

Medium black soil: represents comparatively coarser i.e. less developed profile. It is
therefore moderate in its fertility. Geographically it is confined in Malnads of Karnataka
and Malwa, Bundelkhand of MP.

Light black soil represents the least developed black soil, which also includes the black
alluvium characteristics. Geographically it is confined in the Piedmont upland of Tamil
Nadu, Chota Nagpur plateau and Shillong plateau.

This structural soil is identified with clayey texture and water retention and water
retention capacity as its positive characteristics with more than 2/3rd of its area
International he country devoted to the cultivation of cotton. It is also called Black cotton
soil. Commercially it is known for the cultivation of another non traditional plantation crop
i.e. sugarcane. It is also famous for the cultivation of Jowar, pulses, oil seeds and
horticultural crops.

Red soils:

It is the structural soil of the country that is developed over the Archean base. It is
significantly rich in iron but completely lacks in all the three principle nutrients N,P,K. this

soil type is geologically classified into three prominent categories- red yellow soil with the
savannah or xerophyte locations. Red brown soil with woodland vegetation.

Geographically this soil region demarcates black soil belt in all the cardinals wherein
southern and eastern cardinals represents broader red soil belt in the reference of
Banalore-Mysore table land with charnokite series along with drought prone tablelands of
Telangana, Dandakarnaya, Chota Nagpur with eastern Ghats. Along the western locations
narrow Sahyadri belt and Aravallis to NW forms the other geographical locations. In the
far eastern tableland the red soil belt exclusively denotes red brown category as per the
wooded location.

On the commercial parameter this soil is referred to be one crop wonder soil as the
natural carrying capacity of it is highly restricted. Traditionally this soil have been utilised
for the cultivation of wide range of coarsed grains like Jowar, Ragi and Bajra. However in
the present orientation with the support of infrastructural inputs it is been put to the
cultivation of varities of oil seeds, pulses and even fodder crops.

Laterite soils:

This soil type is referred to be the variant of red soil as it is also developed over Archean
base. It is distinguished on the grounds of par moist climatic conditions. This soil type in
accordance represents effects of leaching and laterisation, thus rich in aluminum and iron

Geologically this soil type incorporates a variant that relates only to par moist
climatic conditions with complete absence of Archean structural base. This subcategory is
geographically specified along the par moist slopes of Purvachal. The typical Laterite soil
belt denoting the combination of both geological structure and climate is majorly specified
along windward slopes of southern hills, Sahyadris and Meghalayan tableland. The minor
locations includes Eastern Ghats. The Laterite soil represent infertile soil type because of
its acidic characteristics however it is prominently utilised for the cultivation of
traditional plantation crops as Rubber, spices and coffee in the country.

Mountain soil

It represents a varied category of Alpine soil that relates to physiographic unit of the
country. This soil represents mineral rich, nitrogen; humus rich well drained fertile soil.
The only limiting factor is its limited depth as per the steep gradient of the mountains.

This soil type is also referred to be forested soil as with the change in altitude and
prevailing climate. There is change in the natural vegetation stand justifying the change in
the soil type from podzolic to podzol in NW Himalayas and form brown forest soil to
podzolic in Purvachal. The physiographic diversity that relates to these mighty mountains
adds diversity to montane soil. The prominent types include:

Glacial soil- Karewas of Kashmir valley

Alpine soils- chestnut relating to high altitudinal grassland lke Margs or Bugiyals. The
montane soil represents the specified utility of cultivation of Saffron in Karewas and wide
variety of horticultural products in the true montane or skeletal soil. The ntrue of
horticultural crop clearly differs form NW Himalayan soil and Purvachal soil.

Desert soil:It is the soil type that is confined to Rajasthan as typical aridisol. This soil
type is characterised with coarse textured mineral rich and humus less fertile
characteristics with the mobilisation of Indira Gandhi canal. This restricted soil type of
the country have been put to elaborate commercial uses. It is used for cultivation of
wheat, groundnuts and varieties of fruits as Ber. With the efforts of National Dairy
Development Board it is also put to the cultivation of fodder crops. It is unsustainable
cultural practices with more areas devoted to water intensive crop wheat. Stalinization is
dominantly increasing along the feeder canals of the main Indira Gandhi Canal.

Naturally the saline alkaline soil represents the infertile soil type confined in Kutch
peninsula, Gujarat called Rann of Kutch. These salt marshes represents Solanchaks that is
alkaline layers which completely restrict it potentiality of supporting crop stand with the
efforts of NDDB. Salt resistant varieties of fodder crop cultivation have been initiated in
the peripheral margins of little Rann of Kutch.

Peat Bog soil: The mineralized soil relating to the process of gleying forms the infertile
soil of the country. Locational it is classified as piedmont and coastal.

The piedmont peat bog corresponds to Tarai and chose with moist hardwood deciduous
stand where as the coastal peat bog soil relates to the littoral vegetation zones as
Sundarbans, Chilka, Vembanad and Gulf of Khambat shoreline.

Soil erosion: It is the removal of top soil by different agents of weathering such as

Running water Men, plants and animals

Wind Faulty methods of agriculture
Running water: it is the prime factor of soil erosion indirectly. Soil erosion helps in soil
forming because from wherever the soil is removed it is deposited else where.

The different types of soil erosion taking place due to running water are-

Splash erosion: where the soil is pulverized by the impact of heavy drops and hailstones
as incase of convectional rainfall.

Sheet erosion: whereby due to heavy rains, a surface film of water carries away the even
surface layer of the top soils as it moves.

Rill erosion: it is found on steep slopes, in absence of any vegetation, the flow of storm
water flows with force downhill developing finger shaped grooves.

Gully erosion: when the rills enlarge and deepen they form gullies. Gullies cut up the
agricultural land into bad land where no cultivation is possible. Example Chambal ravines.

Soil conservation:

It is an effort made by man to prevent soil erosion to retain the fertility of soil. Soil is
our most precious resource. It is important to our national economy as productive soil
ensures prosperity in agriculture, industrial development and general economic

The various measures adopted by the government of prevent soil erosion are:

1. Afforestation
2. To check over grazing
3. Constructing dams and barrages.
4. Contour method of ploughing.
5. Terraced farming to control the direct flow of water down the slope.
6. Crop rotation
7. Planting of cover crops.
8. Shifting or Jhumming or slash and burn type of practice to be banned.
9. Belts of trees and shrubs should be planted.


Need for irrigation development:

1. Rainfall is inadequate for all the crop seasons.

2. Monsoon rainfall is uncertain and uneven.
3. Irrigation is essential to supply supplement source of water even in good rainfall areas.
4. Rainfall in India is Seasonal.
5. Irrigation safeguards against droughts.
6. To increase agricultural production through multiple cropping system.
7. It is also needed for the practice of superior cropping and for the Hybrid farming.
8. To bring the fallow lands under effective utilization.

Sources of irrigation: The main sources of irrigation in the country are Canals, Wells,
Tube wells, Tanks and other sources.

Tank irrigation: a tank consists of water storage which has developed by constructing a
small bund across a stream. The water is impounded by the bund is used for irrigation and
for other purposes. Tank irrigation is popular in the Peninsular India especially in Andhra
Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Tanks comprise an important source in Karnataka, Madhya
Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisa and Kerala.

Tank irrigation is practiced in Peninsular India due to:

The undulating relief and hard rocks make it difficult to dig canals and wells.
Little percolation of rain water due to hard rock.
Most of the rivers are seasonal and rain fed.
The scattered nature of population and agricultural fields also favorable for tank

Wells and tube wells: a well is a hole dug in the ground to obtain the subsoil water. This
method of irrigation has been used in India from time immemorial. Various methods are
used like Persian wheel, reht, charas or mot and dhinglhy(lever).

Well irrigation is possible in the Great Northern Plains, the deltaic regions of the
Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna, the Cauvery, the Narmada, the Tapi etc.

A tube well is a deeper well from which water is lifted with the help of a pumping set
operated by an electric motor or a diesel engine.
Conditions favourable for well irrigation:

There should be sufficient quantity of ground water.

The water level should be nearly 15 meters.
There should be regular supply of cheap electricity or diesel so that water can be
taken out.
The soil in the immediate neighborhood of the tube well should be fertile.

Canals: canals are effective source of irrigation in areas of low level, deep fertile soils,
perrennial source of water and extensive command area.

It is mainly confined to Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Punjab.

COMMAND AREA DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM: It is the Central sponsored program

intended to bridge the gap between the potential created and potential utilized.

1. Its main objective is to reduce the gap between potential created and potential
2. It envisages the construction of field channel, field drains, land leveling and shaping.
3. This program conducts demonstration and training classes for the farmers on latest
technological developments in irrigation.
4. This program is intended to introduce suitable cropping patterns


Bhakra Nangal project:It is the largest multipurpose project named after two dams build
at Bakra and Nangal on Sutlej river. It is a joint venture of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan.
The Bhakra dam id one of the highest straight dams in the world. It has been constructed
on the Satluj at the site of Bhakra gorge near Rupnagar. The Nangal dam has been
constructed at Nangal about 13 km downstream of the bhakra dam.

Damodar valley project: Damodar river is a tributary of the Hugli river. It flows or less
in the west to east direction through Jharkhand and West Bengal. its total length is about
541 kms. the Damodar Valley corporation was established on 18th February, 1948 to
execute the Damodar Valley Project. Four dams are constructed on this project, they are
Tilaiya, Maithon, Konar and Panchet hill.

Hirakud project: on river Mahanadi in sambalpur district, located in Orissa, it is the

India's longest project. Length 4801 Mts. this is one of the longest dams in the world with
a gross storage capacity of 8100 million km3. Two dams have been consturcted on the
Mahanadi- one at Tikrapara and the other at Naraj

Chambal valley project: on river Chambal. It is the joint venture of MP and Rajasthan.
Important reservoirs- Gandhi sagar project- at bhanupura in Madhya Pradesh
Jawahar sagar project in kota in rajasthan. Ranapratap sagar in rawatbatta in Rajasthan.

Damodar valley project- on river damodar. It is a joint venture of west bengal, Bihar and
Jharkhand. It is the first constructed project after independence in the year 1948. The
main purpose is to control floods. Important dams: Tilaiya, Maithol, Panchat, Konar. All
these are located in Jharkhand. Damodar valley project is based on Tennis Valley project
in United States of America.
Silent valley project: on the river Kuntipooja located in kerala. The construction is
stopped due to environmental problem.
Sardar sarovar project on river Narmada, located in Gujarat. It is a joint venture of MP,
Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Gujarat. Its height is 121.92Mts. its length is 1250Mts.
Ramganga project- UP on the river Ramganga
Gandak project- UP
Kosi project- kosi river, Bihar
Rihand project- MP Sardar sarovar project- Narmada river Gujarat
Mahi project- Mahi in Gujarat Sabarmati Gujarat
Koyana- Maharashtra Bheema- Maharashtra
Krishna- Maharashtra Almati- upper Krishna


India is an agriculturally important country. Two-thirds of its population is engaged in

agricultural activities. It it a primary activity which produces most of the food that we
consume. Besides food grains, it also produces


- Kharif season: June to October. Imp crops- Rice, Maize, Jowar, groundnut etc

- Rabi season: October to March. Important crops- Wheat, Barley etc.

- Jayath/ Zayad season: March to June. All types of crops are grown if proper

irrigational sources are available.


Indian Agriculture Research Institute New Delhi

Indian dairy corporation Anand, Gujarat .

Milk Research Institute- Karnal, Harayana

Goat Research Institute- Mathura, UP

Poultry training Institute- Banglore, Karnataka

Wheat research institute- Karnal

Soyabean Research institute- Indore, MP

Silk research institute- Mysore, Karnataka

Coffee Research institute- Chikmanglore

Coffee Board- Banglore

Tobacco Research center- Rajahmundary

Tobacco board- Guntur

Potato Research Center- Shimla, HP

Jute research Institute- Bharatpur, WB

Coconut Research Institute- Kasarghat, Kerala

Spice Research institute- Calicut, Kerala

Rubber Research institute- Kottayam kerala

Ground nut Research Institute- Junagarh, Gujarat

Salt Research institute- Bhavnagar, Gujarat

Cotton Research institute- Mumbai and Nagpur, Maharashtra

Sugarcane Research institute- Lucknow,UP

Rice Research institute- Cuttack Orissa

Indian Institute of Pulse research- Kanpur.

Banana Research institute- Thiruchivapalli

Bee Research institute- Pune

Forest Research institute- Dehradun, Uttaranchal

Maize Research institute- New Delhi

Leather Research institute Chennai, TN

International Rice Research institute Manila, Philippines

ICRISAT- Patancheru, Hyderabad

Geographical names

Rice Bowl of India- Krishna- Godavari delta

Granary of south India- Andhra Pradesh

Granary of India- Punjab

Spice Garden of India- Kerala

Sugar bowl of India- UP

Sugar bowl of the world- Cuba

Indian Hawana- Andhra Pradesh

Tea Garden of India Assam

Granary of kerala- Palkhad

Granary of TN- Tanjore

Granary of world- United States of America, Canada and Ukraine

Granary of Europe- Ukraine.

Prairie grasslands of USA- breadbasket of the world

Spice bottle of India- Kerala

Queen of spices- cardamom

King of spices- pepper- black gold

Tea garden of India Assam

Sugar bowl ophidian - Uttar Pradesh

Indian Hawana- Andhra Pradesh

Golden fibre- jute

White gold- cotton

Green gold- bamboo

Coffee sea of the world Brazil


Blue revolution: fisheries, sea foods, started in 1970.

Yellow revolution: Oil seeds Production.

Pink revolution: Pharmaceuticals.

Brown revolution: Leather and leather products.

Golden revolution: Fruits, mainly apples

Silver revolution: Poultry industry.

Violet revolution: Wollen products

Round revolution: Potato production

Red revolution: Meat and tomatoes

Black revolution: Crude oil

Rainbow revolution- agricultural industries

Grey production of fertilizers

Golden- vegetables and fruits

Green Revolution:

- Food crops production eg- Wheat, Rice, Jowar, Maize. In the year 1967-68. First it
was started in India in Punjab, Harayana, UP. Later (II stage) 1983-84, it evolved in
WB, Bihar, Orissa. Father of green Revolution in India is M.S. Swaminathan and for the
world is Norman Borlong.

Green revolution:

The contemporary development of Indian agriculture both in terms of quantity of produce

and diversification relates to 1960s Green revolution. The term is applied to denote
emergence and diffusion of high yielding verities of seeds in the agricultural fields of the
country. It is this diffusion that facilitated broad transition in Indian agriculture.

The main characteristic of HYV seeds is the less maturity period ranging between 110-120
days. It is also neutral in its productivity level whether applied to big farms or marginal

The first generation Green revolution actually attained limited spatial expanse in the
country. Inspite of this, transition in Indian agriuclutre, induced range of favourable
impacts on agriculture. These are largely referred as

Surplus production
Starting up of FCI and its growth and expansion
Regulating control at the disposal of state administration.
The Green revolution facilitated the transformation of Indian agriculture from primitive
subsistence type to non-primitive subsistence type with growing edge of commerciality.

Plantation crops:


- It is a bush type of a plant. In the year 1840, tea seeds were imported from china and
commercial tea plantation were set up in the Brahmaputra Valley in Assam.
Conditions for growth

- Temperature- 20 300 C Rainfall- 150-300 cm Most of the tea

plantations in India are found at elevation from 600-800 Mts. high above sea- level.
Distribution : North-east Indian states in order are Assam, W.Bengal, Darjeeling, are
famous for green tea plantation. South- India in order are TN, Karnataka, Kerala In the
whole world, India is the largest tea producing country.


- Coffee is the second most important beverage crop of IndiaIt is indigenous to

Abyssinia plateau in Ethiopia from where it was taken to Arabia in the 11th century.
From Arabia, its seeds were brought to India by Baba-ud-din in the 17th century.
- Coffee estates were setup in 1826 at Chikmanglore.
- Conditions for growth: Temperature- 15-280C Rainfall- 150-200cm
- Height above sea level- 600-1600 Mts.
- Distribution: Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamilnadu Brazil, Colombia, Indonesia, and

Rubber: First rubber plantation in India was setup in 1895. On the hill slopes of Kerala
Conditions for growth: Temperature- 25-350C Rainfall- 250-300cm Height above the
sea level- 300-450cms

Distribution: Kerala, TN, Karnataka, Tripura, Andaman and Nicobar islands

- Rubber production that is 9% .

- First in rubber production is Malaysia, Indonesia. Etc. both the countries contribute to
about 9% of the worlds rubber.


- It is a most important spice crop

- Growth conditions:
- Temperature- 10-300C Rainfall- 200-300cm Height above sea level-1200Mts.
- Distribution: Kerala, Karnataka, TN Indonesia is the leading country in
the world followed by India.


- It is known as the Queen of spices.

- Growth conditions: Temperature- 15-320C Rainfall 150-300 cm
- Height above sea-level 800-1600Mts.
- Distribution : Kerala, Karnataka and TN are the leading producers in India
- India is the leading producer of cardamom in the world


- It is a spice and medicine crop. It is used as a spice and in preparation of medicines.

- Growth conditions: temperature- 10-250C, rainfall 125-250 cm
- Kerala, Sikkim, Orissa, Mizoram, W.Bengal are the leading producers in the country.


- India occupies first position in the world in its porduction. 90% approximately.
- In India the leading producers are AP(41.6 %), TN( 10.9%) and Orissa ( 9.7%)



- It is also called as White gold. It is a most important fiber crop not only of India but
of the entire world.
- Conditions of growth: Temperature-21-300C Rainfall- 75-100cm Total period- 210
- India Punjab, Maharashatra, Gujarat, Harayana, AP, Rajasthan.
- First cultivated in India in Indus Valley civilization.

- It is the second important fiber crop. It is also known as golden fiber.
- Growth conditions: temperature- 24-350C, rainfall- 120-150cm
- Distribution in India: West Bengal-70%, Bihar- 13%, Assam- 10% are the leading
producers in our country.
- India is the leading producer of jute in the world and the second largest producer is


- It belongs to bamboo family

- Growth conditions: Temperature- 21-240C Rainfall- 75-150cm
- Period of cultivation 18 months
- India occupies first position in the world cultivated area. It occupies fourth place in
- The leading producers of the world are- Cuba, Brazil, Russia, India etc
- In India the leading producers are UP, Maharashtra, TN, Karnataka, AP, Gujarat etc


- It is another important cash crop of India.

- This was brought to India by the Portuguese in the year 1508.
- Growth for conditions: temperature- 16-350C, rainfall 100-150cm
- Types of tobacco: Nicotine tobacco and Nicotine Rustica.
- Production :
- India is the third largest producer of tobacco in the world after China and United
States of America. It produces 81% of the world tobacco.
- The leading producers are Gujarat, AP, UP, Karnataka, West Bengal etc
- In the production of /Virginia type of tobacco, AP occupies first position in India.

- Groundnut is a most important oilseed of India.
- Growth for conditions: temperature- 20-300C, rainfall- 75-100cm
- Distribution: areas in India are AP, TN, Gujarat, Orissa and MP.
- World wise the leading producer is India.

Food crops:

- Rice is the most important food crop. There are about 10000 varieties of rice in the
world. Total number of varieties in India are 4000.
- Growth conditions: temperature- 240C and rainfall- 150cm Period 90days or 120days
- The leading producers of rice in India are- WB, UP, Punjab, TN, MP etc
- World wise the leading producer is China followed by India.
- Golden rice is a newly developed Hybrid seed. The main purpose is to eradicate night
- UNO has announced the year 2004 as International Rice Year.


- Wheat is the most important food crop.

- India is the fourth largest producer of wherat in the world after russia, United States
of America, and China
- Conditions for growth: winter temperature- 10-150C, summer temperature- 4-260C,
rainfall 75-100cm.
- Distribution: the leading producers in India are UP, Punjab, MP etc


- Conditions for growth: temperature- 21-270C, rainfall 50-100cm, period 90 days

- The leading producers of mica in our country are Karnataka and AP.


- It is the most important food crop after rice and wheat.

- Growing conditions: temperature- 26-330C, rainfall 10cm
- The leading producers in our country are Maharashtra and TN

Cities famous for:

- Orange city of India -Nagpur

- Pineapple largest producing state - Karnataka
- Grapes largest producing state - Punjab
- Banana largest producing state - Tamilnadu
- Mango largest producing state - UP
- Apple largest producing state - Himachal pradesh
- Cashew nut largest producing state - Kerala
- Coconut largest producing state - Kerala
- Saffron largest producing state - Jammu Kashmir


Crop Temperature Rainfall Soil Methods of Area and states.

Rice Growing 150 to Alluvial Broadcasting, Northern Plains,
period- 16o to 200 soils Dibbling, Drilling, Eastern Coastal
20o C and cms. Transplantation plains, WB, TN,
ripening- 18o and Japanese Bihar, Jharkhand,
to 32oC method of UP and Punjab.

Wheat Growing 10o 50 to Alluvial It is sown by UP, Punjab, Haryana,

to 16o C 100 cms and black broadcasting, MP, Bihar,
soils dibbling and Chhattisgarh,
drilling method Rajasthan,
Maharashtra and
Millets 26o to 33o C 50 to Can be Mostly by Jowar and Bajra:
120 cms. grown in broadcasting Maharashtra,
These less method Karnataka, Andhra
are fertile Pradesh, UP,
known soils. Jharkhand ,
as dry Rajasthan, and
crops Gujarat
they do Ragi: Karnataka,
not Tamil Nadu and
require Andhra Pradesh.
Pulses 20o to 30o C 50 to 75 Dry light Dibbling method Punjab, Haryana, UP
cms. soils and Bihar

Tea 12o to 35o C Light By sowing seeds Asom, WB, HP,

loams rich in germinating Uttaranchal and
in iron beds and another Kerala.
content method is to use Five stages of
cuttings from processing:
high yielding Withering
plants. Rolling
Firing or Drying
Cutting and packing

Coffee 18o to 28o C 125 to Loamy Seeds are sown Karnataka, TN,
250 cms soils with in nurseries and Kerala, Nilgiri hills.
humus then Coffee berries are
content transplanted in processed in two
coffee estates. ways:
Wet method:
berries are
fermented, washed,
dried and roasted.
Dry method: dried
in sun and pounded

Rubber 21o to 35o C 200 to Porous Rubber plants Kerala, TN,

400 cms and well are obtained by Karnataka, Andaman
drained seeds or by bud and Nicobar
laterite grafting. Latex collected
soils. from trees is
coagulated by
adding acetic acid.
After pressing
between rollers,
the wet sheets are
Sugarcane 21o to 35o C 75 to Rich Can be grown UP, Maharashtra,
100 cms alluvial from seeds but Karnataka, Punjab,
and black commercial Andhra Pradesh,
soils plantings are Tamil Nadu and
made from stalk Haryana.
cuttings of two
or three joints.
Cotton 21o to 35o C 80 to Water Broadcasting and Gujarat, Tamil Nadu,
120 cms retentive drilling methods. Maharashtra, UP,
black or Punjab, MP,
lava soils Jharkhand, Andhra
Pradesh and,
Jute 21o to 35o C 170 to Alluvial Sown by WB, Asom, Odisa,
200 cms soils broadcasting, Bihar and
dibbling and Chhattisgarh.
drilling methods.


These regions are outlined on the empirial basis for the country. Formally recognises first
priority crop with dominating district level existence. In accordance these its priority
crops reveals the perfect agricultural capability in the specified regions.

The major crop combination regions are :

Food crops combination region Non food crop combination region

Rice crop combination region Cotton crop combination region

Wheat crop combination region Pulses crop combination region

Jowar crop combination region Oil seeds crop combination region

Bajra crop combination region Plantation crop combination region

Barley crop combination region

Rice crop combination region: is demarcated of its boundary by 100 cm isohyte making
lower gangetic plains, Brahmaputra valley and Delta plains of east coast. Rice otherwise is
cultivated in almost entire geographical expanse.

Wheat crop combination region: in comparison is confined to Satluj-Yamuna plains, where

it is cultivated as first priority crop, as the combination crop however wheat is cultivated
in larger part of Western and North Central India.

Maize crop combination region: marks its specified location in chamb


Indian industrialisation from its modern genesis that was registered during the colonial
regime has been fundamentally agro-based. Even in the present profile dominating status
of agro based industries is maintained. In this category textile industry accounting for
sixty percent of the total output from the agrobased industrial sector forms most
prominent constitutent followed on by sugar, paper, and leather works. In the textile
sector cotton textile and jute represents the correct decreasing order of the commercial

The genesis of cotton textile in the country on the modern lines is traced back to 1850s,
when the modern cotton mills were established in Mumbai on the basis of series of
locational factors like cotton producing hinterland, port oriented location, proximity to
Suez canal route.

The second phase of the growth marked in the early 20th century registered the growth of
industry in Gujarat. Post 1920 cotton textile registered its growth in southern India with
major establishments in Tamil Nadu. In post 1950s development countrywide diffusion of
this industry is seen making it one of the most decentralized industry in the country.

Cotton textile mills have both the orientations; it is a raw material producing hinterland
that however avails additional benefit of cotton yarn and cotton threads making
hierarchies concentration. It is at viewing level that decentralization is noticed.
The largest producer is Maharashtra. The industry is concentrated around Mumbai. The
other major cotton producing areas are Kalyan, Jalgaon, Akola, Amravati, Nagpur, Pune,
Sangli, Satara, Kolhapur, Solapur etc.

The second leading producer is Gujarat. Ahmedabad is the leading centre and the other
centres are are Vadodara, Surat, Bharuch, Valsad, Rajkot and Surendra nagar.

Tamil Nadu is the third largest producer. The important centres are Salem, Madurai,
Tirunelveli, Chennai and Kancheepuram.

Madhya Pradesh: Bhopal, Indore, Dewas, Ujjain, Ratlam, Gwalior, Jabalpur, etc
West Bengal: Kolkata, Howrah, Serampur, Murshidabad,etc.
Uttar Pradesh: Kanpur, Varanasi, Mirzapur, Lucknow, Agra, Modinagar, Saharanput, etc.:
Rajasthan: Jaipur, Pali, Bhilwar, Kota, Udaipur, Ganganagar.
Karnataka: Bangalore, Mysore, Mangalore, Chitradurga, Belgaum.
Orissa: Cuttack
Punjab: Amritsar, Dhariwal, Phagwara, Ludhiana.
Kerala: Thiruvananthapuram, Alleppey
Bihar: Patna, Gaya, Bhagalpur.
Andhra Pradesh: Hyderabad, Secunderabad, Rajahmundry, East Godavari and Udayagiri.


One of the oldest textile Industries of India. Wollen textile mills marked its
modern genesis from late 19th century with the establishment of Wollen textile plant in
Kanpur. The development of this sector has remained significantly partial because of lack
of both regular markets and quality raw material supplies.
Locational aspects of this industry reveals it to be market oriented with its confinement in
the northern plains of India into the segment of Hosiery products upto 90% of the
production is confined to Punjab and Haryana with the prominent centres as Amritsar,
Ludhiana, Firojpur, Faridkot, Panipat and Faridabad. It is Kanpur in Uttar Pradesh that
stands distinguished as the oldest and largest wollen textile centre with other centres in
Uttar Pradesh as Motinagar, Agra and Varanasi.
As wollen textile of our country is largely based on imported grade wool. Mumbai
with benefit of port orientation also forms a significant producer of this textile.
The true characteristics of wollen textile with broad geographical avenues relates
to carpet weaving industry as the non apparel grade of wool largely produced in arid, semi-
arid locations has been utilised for carpet weaving. This sector of wollen textile is not
just significantly decentralised it also denotes small and cottage industries status with
broad employment generation.
Prominent carpet weaving centres in Peninsular India includes Manglore, Chennai
and Warangal. Whereas in extra peninsular it is Srinagar, Amritsar, Panipat, Bikaner,
Jodhpur and Jaipur. It is carpet sector of wollen textile that has actually developed
external economies for Indian wollen garments in broader profile. It is therefore this
sector is largely planned from the carpet sector perspective.
Inspite of well established status of India at par with Turkey and Iran as the
carpet exporter country elementary challenges as quality of dye, child labour have been
resurfacing for the sector

PUNJAB (257 mills) Dhariwal, Amristsar, Ludhianan and Patiala
MAHARASHTRA (31 mills) Mumbai, Jalgaon, Ambernath.
UTTAR Pradesh: Kanpur(Largest Woollen Textile centre in the state) Other centres:
Modinagar, Allahabad, Varanai and Mirzapur.
Gujarat: Jamnagar, Kalol, Vadodara.
Other important states: Karnataka: Bangalore, Bellary, Tamil Nadu: Chennai, Salem,
Jammu and Kashmir: Srinagar, Himachal Pradesh: Kullu, West Bengal: Kokata.


The genesis of sugar mills to the country on the modern lines can be traced from the
beginning of 20th century with its concentrated growth in upper Gangetic plains. it was
1920 onwards that growth of sugar mill was registered towards peninsula with major
established in Maharashtra.
1960 onwards countrywide diffused profile of sugar mills were registered. The locational
aspects of sugar mills reveals raw material orientation as it forms the example of weight
loosing industry and is also perishable in nature. Commercialization of the by products are
bagasse and molasses have increased.
The major producer of sugar in the country are Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh, they
accounts for nearly 60% of the total output.


Maharashtra: Ahmedmagar, kolhapur, Pune, Sangali, Nasik, Aurangabad.
Uttar Pradesh: Sahranpur, Muzaffarnagar, Moradabad, Gaziabad, Meerut, Gorakhpur,
Azamgarh, Basti.
Tamil Nadu: Coimbatore, Tiruchirapalli, Dindigul
Karnataka: Belgaum, Mandya, Chitradurg, Bellary.
Gujarat: Surat, Valsad, Amreli, Junagarh, Vijayawada.
Andhra Pradesh: Nizamabad, Hyderabad, Vijayawada.
Bihar: Muzaffarpur and Chappra

Sugar production in the country reveals significant status with India being the leading
producer of sugar with Gur, Khandsari and Crystal sugar. Major production of sugar is in
the cooperative sector followed on by private sector. Growth of this agro based industry
have been extreme regulated and controlled


The genesis of paper mills in the country is traced form late 19th century with the
establishment of paper plant in Titagarh(W.B.) following establishment in Pune and
Lucknow. Traditionally locational aspects of the industry reveals pulp making levels to be
raw material oriented and paper production to be market oriented

In India however upto 40% of the produced paper being based on recycled fivre and paper
denotes footloose industry. Other raw material sources of the paper in the country
includes agricltural residue, wood and chemical inputs.
Most prominent produced catergory is paper and paperboard, which relates to the variety
of paper production utilised for writing, printing and wrapping. The prominent producers

Andhra Pradesh: Rajahmundry, Kurnool, Tirupati as the prominent centres.

Maharashtra: Kalyan, Pune, Jalgoan, and Sangli.
West Bengal: Titagarh, Ranigunj, Kolkotta and Howrah.
Uttar Pradesh: Meerut, Modinagar etc.

The Strawboard sector largely referred to be the input for making up of display boards
and packaging material have made commercial growth not just in the display board segment
but also the making up of falls ceiling.
The production of this type of paper is largely bamboo based with Gauwahati as the
significant centre.
Newsprint marked up its formal beginning in the country in 1956 with the establishment of
Nepanagar plant in Madhya Pradesh, presently the prominent production centres are at
Kottayam and Mokokchung(Nagaland)

Security paper forms highest grade paper produced in the country that is prominently
wood based. It is largely centred at Mysore, Chennai, Tirupati, Nainital and Hoshangabad.


Commercially least significant textile constituent of the country jute is identified to be

the golden fibre as per the broad avenue of its commercial potentialities in the likely
future. The beginning of jute textile on the modern lines can be traced back to mid 19th
century in West Bengal. 90% of the jute production is confined along Hugli river basin. In
accordance the industry forms raw material oriented. The important production centres
includes Kolkata, Hoara, Haldia, Titagarh, Barakpur, Chunchura, Bahrampur etc. among the
other production centres Srikakulam, Guntur, Kakinada in Andhra Pradesh, Gorakpur and
Azamgarh in Uttar Pradesh , Purnia, Katihar in Bihar, cuttack in Odisa and Guwahati in
Asom are included.
The growth of jute textile have registered cascading pace in the recent past as the fibre
has been recognised to be the fibre of millinium. It is its versatile bio-degradable and
annually renewable capactiy that makes it the significant in construction industries.
Production of wearing apparel and significant constituent for canal maintenance. It is on
these prospects that jute technological mission have been oriented towards providing all
the range of support to the jute growers and weavers. Technology transfer, monetary
support, design and engineering enhancement forms the important targeted avenues.
The challenges faced by this sector if extreme restricted possibilities of raw
material supply as the required agro climatic conditions for the production of jute is
absolutely similar to that of rice.
At the market front non-traditional producers of jute like Thailand has become the
leading producer of it. Moreover Brazil is making elaborate expansion of infrastructure to
cultivate jute. In the contemporary perspective dominating market is available for the
country for all the avenues of jute textile though the challenges are fast growing.

It is the most unorganised and fragmented agrobased industry of the country which is
characterised with large scale employment generation, diversity of produce, large quantity
of raw material and wide spectrum of skills. Its importance further lies to the fact that
80% of the work force are females, largely belonging to poor economic class.
This industry is mainly confined in Tamil Nadu with Chennai and Dindigual as the prominent
Among the other locations Kanpur, Agra, Bhavnagar, Hyderabad and Jalandhar are
included. The sector accounts for 10% of the global leather output but in terms of trade
the share is relatively less as the marketing infrastructure and technology transfer
required for diversified growth. It is thus more of a prospect sector in the agro based


This industry predominantly includes fertilizers, pharmaceutical and cement industry as

the prominent industries wherein the localization factor and producers represent
distinctive profile. Moreover the nature of the problems in the prospects identified of
these industries significantly varies.
This industry started post independence with the establishment of Sindri fertilizer plant
in 1951. The formal mobilization of consolidated Public Sector Undertakings however is
traced from 1961 with Fertilizer Corporation of India Ltd. coming into being. The
locational aspects of this industry largely reveals raw material orientations wherein both
the raw materials Naptha and Natural gas are been mobilised by the means of pipelines to
avail the decentralised look of the sector.
The prominent pipelines that regulate the location of the fertilizer industries in the
country includes
Digboi- Bongaigaon- Siliguri- Baruni pipeline extended to Kanpur and Haldia.
Salaya- Mathura pipeline extended to Panipat, Bathinda and Jalandhar.
HBJ- Hajira- Biajapur-Jagdishpur extended upto Shahjahanpur.


The genesis of this sector of the industry is traced back to 1928 when the beginning of
assembly work of the imported parts was initiated in Mumbai.

The real development of this industry however is registered with the establishment
of Premier Automobile production plan in Mumbai(1947) and Hind motors production plant
in Kolkata(1948). Since then the sector have registered slow steady growth with variable
phases of segment specific revolutions.
This industry forms market oriented industry wherein well specified cluster have
marked its development in country as Gurgaon and Manesar in North. Pune and Ahmadabad
in west, Chennai and Bengaluru in South, Jamshedpur and Kolkata in East and Indore in
Central India.
The first phase of development on elaborate commercial lines is traced in early 60s
when Auto products of India (API) initiated the large scale production of Scooters and
Enfields. With the arrival of Bajaj Auto Ltd. there was a tremendoous growth in the two
wheeler segment of this industry.
The second phase of Automobile revolution is traced back to 1985, with the establishment
of Maruti Udyog Ltd. in Gurgaon.
Post liberalisation incorporation of big brand names as Hyundai, Honda, Ford,
Daewoo have registered diversified and comprehensive growth of the sector. One of the
major change over in the passenger car segments is the SUVs supplementing jeep largely
produced by Mahindra and Mahindra.
The third segment of this industry commercial vehicle segment have been well paced in its
development since independence with domination role of Tata Motors, M and M and Ashok

This segment of chemical industry marked its genesis during the colonial time with the
imported bulk drugs being formulated and processed in the centres like Mumbai and
Kolkata. This sector marked its commercial growth onlyafter independence with country
developing self reliance.
The locational aspects of the industry reveals it to be market oriented with maximum
capacity concentrated in the centres like Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, Kanpur,
Vadodara and Hyderabad. It has been PSE that played the major role in the modern
growth of this industry among the major PSE Hindustan Antibiotic Ltd. Indian Drugs and
Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (IDPL) are included. Hindustan Antibiotics Ltd(HAL) came in 1954 as
the Ist public sector enterprise centred at Pimpri(Pune). It is having three joint sector
companies with variable stakes of concerned state government. Karnataka antibiotics and
pharmaceutical Ltd(KAPL) centred at Bengaluru. Maharashtra antibiotics and
pharmaceutical Ltd(MAPL) centred at Nagpur and Manipur State Drugs and Pharm

IDPL is the largest PSE, came into being in 1961 with its functioning plants at Rishikesh,
Hyderabad and Gurgaon. it has two fully owned subsidiaries i.e. IDPL Tamil Nadu and Bihar
Drugs and Chemical Ltd. the company has two joint sector functioning plants at Jaipur and

The third prominent chemical industry, cement marked its genesis on the modern lines in
India from the early 20th century. It forms raw material oriented industry owing to its
weight loosing characteristics. Limestone continues to be the prominent raw material for
the sector making localization characteristics specified with both Vidhhyan and
Cuddappah regions. Up to 75% of countrys cement is produced from Madhya Pradesh,
Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan and Gujarat.
The most important challenge for this sector includes high cement handling charges and
general absence of coal linkages. India is one of the leading producer of cement in the


The core sector heavy industries of the country includes two prominent categories that
are iron and steel Aluminum industries.
The beginning of Iron and Steel industry on the formal lines can be traced back to 1907,
when Tata Iron Steel Company Ltd. was established as the Ist
S Name Collabora State Location Raw materials
no. tion
1 Tata steel No Jharkhan At the Iron ore Singhbhum, Bonai,
co. d confluence of Coal Mayurbhanj
Karkai and Limestone Jharia, Singhbhum &
Subernarekha Manganese Gangpur
rivers. Water, Noamudi & river
labour Subernarekha
Odisa and MP
Bihar, UP and WB.

2 Bhilai Russia Chhattisg Durg district Iron ore Durg, Bastar &
Steel arh Coal Chandrapur
plant Limestone Jharia, Ranigunj
Manganese Nandini quarries,
Water, Balaghat
labour Bhandara
Power Tendula canal
Korba Thermal
power station
3 Durgapur Britain West 160 km from Iron ore, Singhbhum(B),
steel plant Bengal Kolkata in the Coal, lime- Keonjhar(O)
burdan district Stone, Ranigunj, Jharia
of West Bengal Manganese, Birmitrapur(MP),
Water, Barbil(O)
labour Sundergarh
Damodar, WB, UP
4 Rourkela Germany Odisa Sundargarh Iron ore Bonaigarh,
steel plant district Coal Mayurbhanj
Limestone Ranigunj, Jharia,
Manganese Talcher, Korba
Water, Birmitrapur and
labour Hirri
Power Keonjhar and
Brahmani, Odisa,
Hirakhud power
5 Bokaro Russia Jharkhan At the Iron ore Kiriburu mines(O)
steel plant d confluence of Coal Jharia
Bokaro and Limestone Bhavanathpur(J)
Damodar rivers Manganese Keonjhar
in Hazaribagh Water, Damodar
district labour Damodar Valley
Power Corporation

6 Visveswar U.S.A karnataka Located at Iron ore Kemmangundi in

aya steel Bhadravati in Coal Chikmanglur.
plant Shimoga district Limestone Locally
Manganese Bhundiguda
Water, Shimoga and
labour Chitradurga
Power Bhadravati
Sharavati and M
Gandhi projects
7. IISCO Central West At Hirapur, Kulti Iron ore Singhbhum,
govt. Bengal and Burnpur. Coal Mayurbhanj
Limestone Jharia
Manganese Sundargarh
Water, Sundargarh
labour Damodar river, UP,

8 Visakhapa Andhra Visakhapatnam Iron ore Bailadila

tnam steel Pradesh Coal (Chhattisgarh)
plant Limestone Pookkii and
Manganese Bhalore(J)
Water, Jaggayyapeta
labour Birmitrapur (O)

The second major metallugrical industry that is identified with important and diverse role
in the overall growth of economic capacity of the country is also raw material oriented.
The weak beginning of this sector can be seen from 1938, however the formal genesis and
development has been post independence.
With bauxite, coal forming the heavy raw material the industry denotes raw
material orientation wherein the dominating determiners of the location of the plant is the
cheap electricity supply that accounts for more than 50% of the input cost.
The chronological development of aluminum production capacities in the country is
traced from 2nd plan period with two PSEs
-Indian Aluminum company- INDALCO, centered at Hirakhud in Odisa.
- Hindustan aluminum company- HINDALCO, centered at Renukut in Uttar Pradesh .
Both these plants have cheap hydroelectricity orineted locations that is the Hydel
power plant of Mahanadi and Govind Vallabah pant sagar reservoir and Rihand project. The
majority stake of HINDALCO is acquired by Aditya Birla group making it a private sector
company in the present profile.
In the second phase of development two more PSEs BALCO- Bharat aluminum
company centered at Korba and Ratnagiri along with MALCO- Madras aluminum company
centered atMettur wer initiated. It is both Korba and Mettur plant that have been quired
by sterilite companies making them the private sector players though the Ratnagiri plant
maintains the publick sector characteristics.
In the last major phase largest integrated aluminum PSE i.e. National Aluminum
company NALCO was established with the functioning plants at Koraput in Odisa..


1. Northern India Punjab and eastern Awadh

2. Mumbai-Pune central India
3. Ahmedabad- Vadodara coastal Kathiawar
4. Chota Nagpur Mahanadi delta
5. Hugli belt hugli river delta
6. Southern India Kollam- Kottaypuram
7. Visakhapatnam Guntur
8. Kollam-Thiruvanthamthpuram
India is richly endowed with a variety of minerals. Large size and diverse geological
formations have favoured Indian in providing wider variety of minerals. India is rich in iron
ore, manganese, mica and bauxite. It is sefl sufficient in materials for making cement such
as dolomite and limestone, chromite, marble and other building stones, sodium salts and
precious stones. India is deficient in copper, lead, zinc, tin, nickle and tungstun. India is
also poor in minerals required for chemical fertiliser industry including sulphur, potash and
rock phosphate. Large reserves of bituminous coal are found but there is scarcity of
cooking coal and petroleum in the country. However, it holds a strong position in the
atomic minerals like uranium and thorium.


MICA:(Abhrak) valuable mineral in electrical and electronic industry. India has near
monopoly in the production of mica, producing about 60% of the worlds total production.
Distribution: Bihar Gaya, Hazaribagh (Jharkhand, Largest mica producing state of India)
Andhra Pradesh Nellore.
Rajasthan Ajmer, Bewar, Tonk, Bhilwara, Udaipur, and Banswara.
LIME STONE: It is associated with rocks composed of either calcium carbonate, the
double carbonate of calcium and magnesium, or mixture of these two constituents. It is
used for a large variety of purposes, of the total consumption 75% is used in cement
industry, 16% in irons and steel industry. 4% in chemical industry. Rest of the limestone is
used in paper, sugar, fertilisers, glass, rubber and ferromanganese industries.
Madhya Pradesh- Satna, Jabalpur, Betul, Sagar and Rewa.
Chhattisgarh Bilaspur, Raigarh, Raipur and Durg.
Andhra Pradesh-Adilabad, Warangal, Nalgonda, Mohboobnagar, Guntur
Karnataka Bijapur, Gulbarga, Shimoga (cement grade limestone)
Rajasthan Jhunjhunu, Bikaner, Nagaur, Jodhpur, Pali, Sirohi, Udaipur
Chittorgarh, Ajmer, Sawai Madhopur, Bundi, Banswara.
Gujarat Banaskantha, Amreli Junagadh, Surat, Kachchh, Kheda and Panchmahals.

DOLOMITE: limestone with more than 10% of magnesium is called dolomite, when the
percentage rises to 45% it is called true dolomite. The economic uses of dolomite are
chiefly metallurgical as refrigerators, as blast furnace flux as a source of magnesiu salts
and in fertilizers and glass industries.
Bihar Rohtas
Jharkhand Chaibasa in Sighbhum district and Palamau district.
Orissa (largest produces)-Sundargarh, Sambalpur, and Koraput districts
Madhya Pradesh Chhindwara, Jhabua, Jabalpur, Balaghat,
Chhatisgarh Bilaspur, Durg and Bastar district.
Gujarat Bhavnagar and Vadodara district.

ASBESTOS:it has great commercial value due to its fibrous structures, its capability to
be readily separated into filaments of high tensile strength and its great resistance to
fire. It is used for making fire proof cloth, rope, paper, paint, etc. and also asbestos
cement products like sheets etc.
Rajasthan Alwar, Ajmer, Pali, Udaipur and Dungarpur districts,
Andhra Pradesh Cuddapah district.
Karnataka Shimoga, Chickmagalur, Hassan, Mandya and Mysore districts.

GYPSUM: Mainly used in making of ammonia sulphate fertilizer in cement industry and in
making plaster of Paris, moulds in ceramic industry, nitrogen chalk, partition blocks,
sheets, tiles, plastics etc.
Rajathan (largest producer of gypsum in India): Churu, Ganganagar, Bikaner,
Jaisalmer, Nagaur and Pali districts produce 95 percent of the total gypsum ofIndia.
Jammu and Kashmir Baramula and Doda districts.
Tamil Nadu Tiruchirapalli

DIAMOND: are found in ancient hard metamorphic rocks of Panna belt in Madhya
Pradesh. Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh are other producers. Cutting and polishing of
diamonds is done in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Kerala and Goa.
Madhya Pradesh Panna
Andhra Pradesh Anantpur, Kurnoot
Karnataka Bellary.


URANIUM: it is a nuclear energy mineral.

Bihar Gaya
Jharkhand Hazaribagh and Singhbhum.
Uttar Pradesh Saharanpur
Rajasthan Udaipur.
Kerala Uranium from monazile sand of coastal regions.

THORIUM: it is a nuclear energy mineral.

Distribution: Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Rajasthan.

IRON ORE: it is the backbone of modern civilization. It is the foundation of our basic
industry. Today, it is used all over the world. The standard of living of the people of a
country is judged by the consumption of iron. Iron is taken out from the mines in the form
of iron ore which contains varying percentage of iron. Two main types of ore found in our
country are haematite and magnetite.
Haematite ore mainly occurs in Jharkhand, Odisha, MP, Goa and Karnataka. Large reserves
of magnetite ore cover occur along west coast, primarily in Karnataka with minor
occurances in Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.
Jharkhand: Singhbhum (Noamundi, Sindurpur, Kiriburu)
Orissa Mayurbhanj( Gurumahisani., Badampahar, Sulaiput), Keonjhar
Madhya Pradesh Jabalpur, Balaghat
Chhatisgarh Durg (Dalli Rajara), Bastar (Bailadila)
Andhra Pradesh Guntur, Kurnool
Tamil Nadu Salem, Tiruchirapalli
Maharashtra Surajgarh, Lohra-Piplagaon Ratnagir.
Kerala Kozhikode


It is the raw material for making aluminium. It is not specific mineral but a rock consisting
manily of hydrated aluminium
oxides. About 88% of the
reserves are of metallugrical
grade. More than half of the
reserves are confined in Odisa
and nearly one-fifth in Andhra
Pradesh, Telangana, MP,
Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra,
Gujarat and Jharkhand also
have large deposits.
Palamanu, Ranchi
Madhya Pradesh Katni,
Amarkantak, Maikata Range.
Chhattisgarh Sarguja, Raigarh
and Bilaspur.
Odisa Kalahandi, Koraput
Tamil Nadu Salem, Nilgiri,
Coimbature and Madurai.
Gujarat Sabarkanha,
Jamnagar, Surat.
Maharashtra Kalaba, Ratnagiri, Kolhapur.
Karnataka Belgaum.

COPPER: is a malleable and ductile metal. This non-ferous metal is used for electrical
goods, utensils and coins.

Jharkhand Hazaribagh, Singhbhum.
Madhya Pradesh Balaghat (Malanjkhand belt)
Andhra Pradesh Khammam, Guntur and Kurnool
Rajasthan Jhunjhunu, Khetri, Alwar, Bhilenara and Udaipur.
Maharashtra Chandrapur
Karnataka Chitradurga, Hassan.

Sikkim, Meghalaya, Andhra
Pradesh (Cuddapah)
Rajasthan- Zawar(Udaipur)
Aguncha Rampura (Bhilwara)
Gujarat _ Banaskantha,
Panchmaha, Vadodra, Surat.


Tamil Nadu Neyveli
Jammua and Kashmir, Rajasthan
(Palana in Bikaner dist.)
Gujarat (Umrasar)


Assam Makum (Sibsagar),
Najtra, Janji
Meghalaya, Arunachal
Pradesh(Namchik, Namphuk)
Distribution: Assam Digboi, Naharkatia, Moran, and Sibsagar.
Gujarat Mehsana, Cholka, Kalol, Nawagam, Ankaleshwar and Kosamba


1. Mumbai High
2. Bassein
3. Ravva
4. Aliabet

Assam Digboi(IOC),
Guwahati (IOC),
Bihar Barauni (IOC)
Uttar Pradesh Mathura
Gujarat Koyali, Jamnagar
(largest oil
Maharashtra Mumbai (BPCL)
Karnataka Mangalore(MRPL)
Kerala Kochi(CRI)
West Bengal Haldia (IOC)
Andhra Pradesh
Vishakhapatnam (HPCL)
Tamil Nadu Chennai (MRI)


Road sector in the country has been

one of the most traditional
constituent of economic growth since
the traditional times. India is
identified with one of the largest
road network.

In decreasing order of hierarchy,

the roads are classified as Express
Highways, National Highways, State
roadways, District roads and rural

National Highways accounting for 2%

of the total network avails the macro
level of development whereas rural roads accounting for 80% of the network avails the micro
levels of development. In 1960, with the establishment of Border Road Organization, new class
category of roads came into existence. Though the country has made favourble development in
the road networking the actual road density remains significant marginal. It is identified at
approximately 75km/100km2 of moderate road density category of the country in world.

More challenging characteristics is the prevailing regional disparity wherein the unfavorable
climate, relief locations are having sparser road profile when compared to favourabe climatic low
lands of the country. Jammu and Kashmir has the lowest road density and Kerala has the highest
road density.

At the level of National Highways the 2%of total network is loaded with more than 40% of total
movement b the roadways, wherein it is only 12% of the total National Highways that reveals
four of more lanes. It is upto 35% of the total network that is still the single lane National
Highways revealing the backwardness.

Mobilisation of National Highways to keep pace with growing economic and demographic
requirements cause the paradigm changes in the execution of management of National Highways
in 1994-95. This led to the participation of the private players at BOT, participating in upgrading
the existing highways as expressways. Major amendments were made in National Highways Act
which prominently includes declaring roadways as industry to facilitate market borrowing on easy

Incorporating toll tax culture to ensure revenue earning for the private
players, completely nominalising the environmental clauses for the lane enhancement and
provisions of land being provided free of cost to the BOT bidder for the corridor development
are other developmental activities undertaken.

Clauses of financial sharing by NHAI, tax holiday and provisions of availing road side plot at
nominal cost to the corridor developer to generate any type of road side amenities as its owned
asset were introduced by the Government. It were these highlighting amendments that
made the mobilisation of NHDP in 1999 referred to as NHDP-1. It includes three components:

Golden quadrilateral: it connects Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata and Delhi. It consists of
NH8, NH4, NH 5, NH 2 measuring 5800 kms.

The North-South, East-West corridor representing efficient connectivitys between the

extreme cardinals of the country, collectively it is of 7400 kms, wherein NS corridor from
Srinagar to Kanyakumari and Kochi includes NH1A, NH-2, NH26, NH7 and NH47.

Whereas the EW corridor incorporates Silcher to Porbander link

incorporating NH31, NH31C, NH28, NH14, NH76, NH25, NH8A and NH8B .

This component of NHDP-1 is not completely developed with partial corridors marking the
continuation of the development works- .

It is port hinterland connectivities with the approximately length of 400 km. this segment is
identified with NH8A(Kandla), NH7A(Tuticorin), NH4A(Marmogaon), NH48(Mangalore),

The development of National Highways represents the continuity of other

ambitious programs wherein the fund mobilization channelized form JBIC Japanese Bank for
International Cooperation, ADB and WB is being utilised. The major nature of projects includes
the efficient connectivities of all the state capitals and other commercial towns it also includes
the clause of bypasses, flyovers, constructions in existing expressway in order to enhance
commercialities of the sector. Thought the NH development is identified with sound prospect of
the growth profile absence of similar momentums of mobilisation in other class categories of
roadways and mixed traffic are referred to be the prominent challenges of the sector
restricting its complete commercial mobilisation.


The modern growth of Indian Railways is traced from the humble beginning in mid 19th century
and with regular paced growth it has evolved as one of the largest network on the map of the
world. In order to cater the diversities relating to the Indian physiography multi guage
development denotes the practical approach followed by the sector. In terms of its spatial
growth barring the exception of remote western desert of the country, salt marshes of
Gujarat, northern Uttarakhand and northern Arunachal Pradesh. The rail links are very well
evolved in the entire country. Its density increases in the entire country. Its density increases
in the lowlands and it denotes significant sparse profile in the dryer plateau interiors.
Fairy queen the first train in
India between Mumbai to Thane,

For the basic

purposes of administration
territorial allocation have been the traditional approach followed on by Indian railways. In the
planning proposals the continuous subdivisions have been attempted to enhance management in the
time bound manner. In accordance at present 17 Rail Zones with the specified headquarters are
functioning. In 2004-05 mobilisation of rail divisions as the secondary headquarters deloading the
work of headquarters were incorporated. These rail divisions includes Agra, Ahmadabad, Nanded,
Guntur, Pune, Raipur, Ranchi and Rangiya(Guwahati).
The development of Indian Railways on commercial lines is identified with achievement of
self reliance by this large PSE in its rolling stock requirement. The dominating plants contributing
to rolling stock self sufficiency includes Diesel Locomotive Work at Varanasi, Chittaranjan
Locomotive Works at Chittaranjan (West Bengal), Rail Coach Factory at Kapurthala(Punjab),
Integral Coach Factory ( Chennai) and Rail Wheel Factory(Yelankha). The development of the
sector beyond rolling stock can be identified with the functioning of 10 different PSEs with
variable orders of commercial activities and achievements.
The Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation (IRCTC)
Indian Railway Construction(IRCON)
Rail Tel Corporation of India.

These are the PSEs that are diluting their stakes to incorporate private
participation in order to mobolise required commercialities in the globalised setup. The
Dedicated Fright Corridor Corporation Ltd. have developed 2700 km of dedicated fright
corridor with eastern and western components. Eastern relating to Kolkata port and Western to
Mumbai port is interlinking northern Indian market enhancing the efficiency of the fright

The Konkan Railway Corporation Ltd. marks exclusive recognition in

developing the engineering expertise of Indian railways as broad guage 760 km of rail link
between Roha to Manglore, crisscrossing the rugged terrain of Sahyadris.
The scale enlargements of the operation and the hunt for capital generation
for the railways also includes the simultaneous attempts of mobilising quality passenger services
wherein the milestone achievement are identified with computerisation of rail reservation links
development and maintenance of high speed luxury trains as Rajdhani and Shatabadi increases
growth and also by incorporating Janshatabadi expresses and continued increase in the numbers
of Adarsh stations, Uniguage project for efficient inter linkages of all the major Urban nodes
along with SIMRAN(Satellite Imaging for Rail Navigation) are included as milestone
achievement. Inspite of broad range of developments justifying inclusive charateristics, Indian
railways have lacked behind in the capital generation required for the maintenance of the
developed assets and for upgradation of decreasing capacity infrastructure. It is lack of
commercial motivation that is revealed in maintenance of high magnitude of subsidies in both
passenger and fright fairs. Exclusively leaving the sector on commercial market forces is the
remotest possibility however come favourable changes oriented towards increasing the
commercial gain has been seen in the efforts of Rail Land Development Authority.

The two prominent approach practically mobilised by the authority is easing

out vacant land on variable terms of lease order to generate rent as the revenue.

Secondly some of the expanse is been exclusively put to the cultivation of

wide range of plants that can be utilised as bio-fuel with the objective of both generating
employment, reducing the cost of transportation on economic front and mobilising clauses

- Railway transport:
- Worlds first train started on 27th September 1825. from starten to Darlington(UK)
- Second train in England Liverpool to Manchester-1830
- 1827- first train started in France, 1835- Germany, 1836- Russia, 1853- India
- Worlds largest train route is in
- USA- 2,22,000 kms. Russia 1,51,000 kms Germany- 85,287 kms India 71,898kms
Largest electrical railway network in Russia, India etc

- The first railway line in India was opened for public traffic on April 16th, 1853 from Bombay
to Thane. Length of the track was 34 km, 14 coaches, 400 guests, engine name- fairy queen,
it was worlds railway engine. Locomotives sindh, sultan and Saheb
- Father of Indian railways- Lord Dalhousie.
- 1853-2003, Indian railways completed 150 years. Indian railway mascot is Bol, the guard.
- Second railway started from Howra to Hugli, on 15th August 1854.
- AP first train in 1862 from Puttur to Renigunta.
- India is the second largest railways network in asia and fourth largest in the world after
USA, Russia, China
- India's total railway length is 63122 kms
- Railway board was established in the year 1905. There are totally 19 railway boards in India.
There are 16 railway zones in India.
- In 1929, first electrical train Deccan queen from Bombay to Pune.
- On 4th October 1984, India's first underground metro railway started in Calcutta- dum-dum
to Toligunj total length of 11kms.
- In 1921-22 they s separated railway budget from general budget.
- After independence the first railway minister was Lal Bahadur Sastri.
- First woman railway minister was Kumari Mamta Banarjee.
Railway guages: 4 tyes- Broad (1.676), Meter, Narrow (0.762) and Light narrow guage(0.610)
Railway zones:

- Northern railways: HQ New Delhi. Total length -10995kms. It is the India's longest railway
- North-east frontier - HQ Maligaon (Gawhati). It is India's smallest zone- length-3860kms
- South railway zone: HQ Chennai. India's first established railway zone
- Central railway zone: HQ Mumbai- Victoria Terminal (VT) or Chatrapathi Shivaji terminal
(CST). It is India busiest railway station or the biggest railway junction. Architecture of
Bombay VT was done by F.W.Stevens. In 2004, UNESCO identified CST as world Heritage
- Western railway zone- HQ Mumbai (Church Gate). Recently bomb attack took place in this
- South central railway: HQ Secunderabad- recently it completed 40 years in 2006.
- Eastern railway HQ-Calcutta. South eastern railway- HQ Calcutta
- Northern eastern railway- Gorakpur. North western railway: Jaipur
- South western railway- Bangalore.

- India's longest railway route is from JK to Kanyakumari, with a total length of 3726 kms. It
covers 10 states. Indians longest traveling train is Himsagar express.
- India's longest railwaly platform is Karagpur-833 mts in West Bengal. It is also the worlds
longest railway plateform
- India's longest railway bridge is Nehru bridge. Its length is 3 km. located in Sasaram on
the river Son in Bihar.
- India's highest bridge- JK, on the river Chenab.It is 360 m above sea level.
- Indias longest railway tunnel- Katobu tunnel- 6.5kms, konkan railway- goa.
- Worlds largest railway route- Trans- Siberian railways- 10,000kms starting from St.
Petersburg to Vladivostok. It corsses 11 time zones.
- Konkan railway corporation was established on 26th July 1990, is the first private and public
sectors construction after independence. Total length is 760 km. starting station Roha near
Mumbai to new Mangalore. It is a joint venture of Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka and central
government. It was opened to public on 26th January 1998.

Tourist trains and Special trains:

There are two UNESCO World Heritage Sites on IR the Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus and the
Mountain railways of India. The latter is not contiguous, but actually consists of three separate
railway lines located in different parts of India:

The Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, a narrow gauge railway in West Bengal.

The Nilgiri Mountain Railway, a metre gauge railway in the Nilgiri Hills in Tamil Nadu.
The Kalka-Shimla Railway, a narrow gauge railway in the Shivalik mountains in Himachal

The Palace on Wheels is a specially designed train, frequently hauled by a steam locomotive, for
promoting tourism in Rajasthan. On the same lines, the Maharashtra government introduced the
Deccan Odyssey covering various tourist destinations in Maharashtra and Goa, and was followed
by the Government of Karnataka which introduced the Golden Chariot train connecting popular
tourist destinations in Karnataka and Goa. However, neither of them has been able to enjoy the
popular success of the Palace on Wheels.

The Samjhauta Express is a train that runs between India and Pakistan. However, hostilities
between the two nations in 2001 saw the line being closed. It was reopened when the hostilities
subsided in 2004. Another train connecting Khokhrapar (Pakistan) and Munabao (India) is the
Thar Express that restarted operations on February 18, 2006; it was earlier closed down after
the 1965 Indo-Pak war. The Kalka Shimla Railway till recently featured in the Guinness Book of
World Records for offering the steepest rise in altitude in the space of 96 kilometre.

Lifeline Express is a special train popularly known as the "Hospital-on-Wheels" which provides
healthcare to the rural areas. This train has a carriage that serves as an operating room, a
second one which serves as a storeroom and an additional two that serve as a patient ward. The
train travels around the country, staying at a location for about two months before moving

Among the famous locomotives, the Fairy Queen is the oldest operating locomotive in the world
today, though it is operated only for specials between Delhi and Alwar. John Bull, a locomotive
older than Fairy Queen, operated in 1981 commemorating its 150th anniversary. Kharagpur railway
station also has the distinction of being the world's longest railway platform at 1,072 m
(3,517 ft). The Ghum station along the Darjeeling Toy Train route is the second highest railway
station in the world to be reached by a steam locomotive. The MumbaiPune Deccan Queen has
the oldest running dining car in IR.

Vivek Express: It was started to commemorate the 150th birth anniversary of Swami
Vivekananda, to be held in 2013, from Dibrugarh to Kanyakumari; is the longest route on the
Indian Railways network, in terms of distance and time, and is the 9th longest in the world.

The Bhopal Shatabdi Express is the fastest train in India today having a maximum speed of
150 km/h (93 mph) on the FaridabadAgra section. The fastest speed attained by any train is
184 km/h (114 mph) in 2000 during test runs.

The Rajdhani Express and Shatabdi Express are the superfast, fully air-conditioned trains that
give the unique opportunity of experiencing Indian Railways at its best. In July 2009, a new non-
stop train service called Duronto Express was announced by the railway minister Mamata


The growth of Indian infrastructure complementing the economic growth of

the countr/y includes the significant contribution of maritime revolution. The term is applied to
denote commercial development of four different segments that relates to water means of
transportation. These are:

The fleet capacity development in the country is identified of its

significance largely because of the fact that 95% of the countrys trade by volume is via the Sea
route. The capacity reveals that India has largest fleet among the developing countries. Shipping
corporation of India functioning since 1961, forms the nodal PSU relating to the shipping
capacity development of the country. It was given the PSE status in 1992 and became a
Navaratna in 2008.

The fleet capacity of the country also relates to effective participation of the PSEs like
Kochi Shipyard- functioning since 1972 and is distinguished from other functioning PSEx in the
sector as it has maximum capacity of ship building and ship repairing.

The oldest PSE- Garden Reach Ship Builders and Engineers ltd (Kolkata) functioning since
1934 though acquired by Union Government in 1960 is been revamped and modernised to keep
pace with changing requirements of fleet capacity built up.

Hindustan shipyard of Vishakhapatnam and Hugli dock and ports engineers ltd of Kolkata
are other major PSEs in this segment.

Though the major Port Trust Act do avails the possibility of private participation in the
Ship repair capacities, dominance of PSEs is largely sustained. Geographical location of ht
country with projecting peninsula in almost entire northern basin of India ocean justifies the
significance of maritime shoreline extending for 6100 km is well dotted with 12 major ports
mobilizing the maritime capacities of the country in terms of their location as well as
distinguishing natural and built up characteristics, these are classified into western and eastern

The Western shoreline related ports are largely identified with natural harbour. Herein
Mumbai with upto 12m of depth in on land creek projection not just forms the example of natural
harbour but is also the biggest port with largest hinterland from among the western port cities.
In 1989 the Ist BOT participation related development of Nhava-Sheva port with peninsular and
orinetal company of Australia participating as BOT player is also included in overlapping
hinterland of Mumbai. This young port of western shore popularly referred as Jawahar Lal
Nehru port, is also a natural harbour.

Kandla though relates to the shoreline of emergence is also identified to be the naturally
protected harbour as its defining characteristics. This port of partition came into being in 1951
and is identified with moderate sized hinterland largely confined to Gujarat and Rajasthan.

Marmagaon apart from being a natural harbour incorporates the specified characteristics
of navigable benefits of river Zuari. Manglore with smallest hinterland among the western port
cities is specified with the capability of handling small cargoes. Kochi in comparison justifies its
natural harbour relating to the benefit of back water Kayal.

Among the Eastern port cities common characteristics barring the

exception of Kolkata is on land existence, thus artificial harbour. Kolkata is unique example
relating with estuarine mouth of Hugli and benefit of amphidromic system is also specified with
biggest hinterland among the eastern coast port cities that includes complete NE India and
major port of east India. all the other ports representing the artificial harbours do justifies
individual spedific distinguishing characteristics like Chennai- the oldest artificial harbour.
Visakhapatnam- deepest artificial harbour have moderate size hinterland whereas Paradeep
relates to the smallest size hinterland from among the east coast port cities.

In accordance to the major Port Trust Act 1963, all the major ports of the
country are under the administration of the Union Government with the requirements of trade
liberlisation compulsions. The Port Trust Act is been moulded to allow cent percent FDI in the
capacity built up as well as private participation in port infrastructure development, Container
Terminal Ltd, Kochi container Terminal Ltd., Chennai Container Terminal Ltd. forms the strong
commercial example. Most of the BOT players have registered their participation with the
broader objectives of consolidating or enlarging their existing shipping lines. It is justified with
the fact that lack of development of operational capacities of the port is still making.
Transshipment movements slipping to the hubs like Dubai, Singapore and Colombo.

Another avenue of challenge is the sustained characteristics of regularity

authority of Central Tariff Authority of the country. It is still the major regulator of the
tariff norms restricting market oriented tariff mobilisation and economic gains for the BOT
participants. It is these factors that combines to justify that though collectively the major
ports accounts for 75% of the total Sea route transportation. There is the general decline in
the volume of trade relating to this category of port.

Compared to it the minor ports have shown impressive growth in the volume
of movement largely due to availing the operational rights to the private players as BOT
participants with some 200 minor ports dotting 7500 km of shoreline of Indian Union maximum
is present in Maharashtra. These ports under the control of concerned State Government
however have registered maximum mobilisation in Gujarat, Okha, Salaya, Mandvi, Porbandar,
Veraval, Dahej, Bhavnagar are the prominent examples of commercially mobilised minor ports by
Gujarat state Maritime Board.

In the similar matching capacity it is Kakinada, Ratnagiri, Karwar are

included. The growth prospects of minor ports is specified to be stronger as its scale of
operation favours the mobilisation of regional hinterlands.
The waterways development in the country largely relates to maritime
channels of oceanic routes however with the establishment of inland waterways authority of
India and mobilisation of Sagarmala project that advocates integrated development of inland
waterways with oceanic shipping lines. Formal growth of this segment of infrastructure was
registered. Collectively the country is identified with 14500 km of

The National Waterways -1 called Bhagirathi-Hugli system extensive between Allahabad to

Haldia for approx. 1600 km reveals the natural navigability of the channel and is significant
complementary transportation route to the eastern dedicated fright corridor and the arm of
golden quadrilateral NH-2.

The National Waterways-2 called Brahmaputra river system extended between Dibrugarh and
Sadia for the approx length of 890 km is also the natural navigability of the channel. It is
justified of its commercial potentialities in injecting inclusive growth strategy for the NE region
of the country.

The National Waterway -3 is

the west coast canal, it forms
the artificial waterway with
the approx. length of 200 km
developing perpendicular link to
the small channels of Malabar
plains. kollam and Kottayapuram
forms the prominent terminals
of this waterway.

The National Waterway-4 is

Kakinada- Puducherry linked
waterway that is integrated
with Godavari and Krishna
system. This artificial
waterway with complementary
status to the arm of golden
quadrilateral National
Highways-5 denotes its
significance in diffusing the
growth momentum to the prevailing shadow zones by availing both navigability and water

The National Waterways-5 called east coast canal integrated with Brahmani river system and
delta of Mahanadi is of approx. length of 620 km. this artificial waterway also projects to
mobilise economic prospects of shadow zone around Mahandi delta region.


This unique and elite category of transportation system marked its modern
genesis in less consolidated profile during the colonial time period. Post independence the slow
paced development marked its continuity wherein
smaller players with unconsolidated fleet capacity as
Tata sons, Indian National Airways, Bharat Airways
were existing.
The 1953 Civil Aviation Act consolidated these minor players registering
the genesis of Indian airlines and Air India as the air service provider. As the country entered
the state socialism civil aviation was identified with the secondary status in the core sector
infrastructure development planning. It is with the impact of liberalization and related open
skies policies that the true growth of civil aviation on large and commercial basis can be traced
from the increasing load of air traffic led to the requirement of the growth of civil aviation
infrastructure. In the presence of large number of air services provider consumer benefits
were strongly mobilized but the brand Indian representing the public sector precisely failed to
keep pace with required competitive growth. This makes the air services private sector domain
barring the exceptions of Pavan Hans, the helicopter service provider which is not just
maintaining its commercial existence but is also mobilizing diversifying avenues of growth. The
recent examples of it are Sea plane operation where beach and coastal tourism enhancement
strategies have been mobilised with the connectivitys of Port Blair and Havelock with the
helicopter services.

The growth of civil aviation in totality since 1995 is geographically

interpreting as civil aviation infrastructure development.

The geopolitical aspects of South Asia and specifically India restricts the
possibilities of aerospace infrastructure to be eased out for private players. It is therefore
that AAF is managing big aerospace that measures 2.8 million square nautical miles that includes
land territory of the country, both the marginal water bodies and upto 40S latitude in the Indian
ocean region to manage this big airspace cardinal based Flight Information Regions(FIR) have
been demarcated in the country with the headquarters at Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata.

Recently Guwahati have been included as a sub FIR station for eastern
regions working as ancillary station for Kolkata. In order to maintain favorable communication
links the challenge of radio frequency crunch was timely tamed by Airport Authority by
enhancing the quality of radio receivers developed by Radio Construction and Development
Unit(RCDU) that functions under AAI, with the indigenously build up satellite GAGAN and
mobilisation of satellite based navigation, taming up of aerospace in all the three components
Communication, Navigation and Surveillance(CNS) is been prominently controlled by the

The infrastructure development of airport in both the segments of Brown Field and Green
Field have been eased out to the private players as built, own, operate and transfer(BOOT)
adjustment with the commercial beginning of the world class class commercial metro airports as
Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, hyderabad, Bangalore and Kochi ready participation for the 35
non metro airports by the private bidders have been noticed. The global economic slowdown 2008
however delayed the completion of 35 non metro airport developments by the end of 2010 it is
however that the development of green field airports of Gangtok, Itanagar and Kohima along
with Brown field Port Blair and Karavati, among the non metro airports is the full swing. The
growth of civil aviation with growing commercial capacity of the country is projected at faster
pace in the near future which will require much cascading development of civil aviation
infrastructure wherein the transitional challenges and integrated growth of city side with
airport poses to be the major challenges.

Air transport: Air transport in India was started in 1911 between Allahabad to Naini in UP.

- India's first pilot J.R.D.Tata, in 1931 flight from Mumbai to Karachi

- In 1935 Mumbai to Trivandrum, Tata airlines was started.
- In 1953- all private sector companies were nationalized. Air India was introduced. It is a
world wide network.
- Indian Airlines- transportation only to south Asian countries.
- 1981- Vaydooth services was established for north eastern sector.
- Pawanhans limited company- established in 1985, for ----- and helicopter service for ONGC
and hill stations and remote areas
- Now presently in India, there are 18 internatinal airports

International Airports in India :

1. Indira Gandhi Int. airport- Delhi

2. Sahara Int. airport - Mumbai
3. Netaji Subash Chandra Bose- Calcutta
4. Annadurai Int. airport- Chennai
5. Sardar vallabai patel Int. airport- Ahmedabad
6. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Int. airport- Nagpur
7. Rajiv Gandhi Int. airport- Hyderabad
8. HAL Int. airport- Bangalore
9. Vasco da gama Int. airport- Goa
10. Sanghner Int. airport- Jaipur
11. Rajasansi Int. airport- Amritsar
12. Devi Ahalyabai Valkar Int. airport-Indore
13. Gopinath Bordolio Int. airport- Gauhati
14. India's highest airport- Ladakh


- In 1837, postal services started in India.

- In 1852, first postal stamp released in Karachi.
- In 1854, 701 post offices were established by
postal department.
- India occupies first position in postal network.
- Total post offices in India are 155618
- No. of workers in postal dept. are 566000
- In 1972, postal Index number was introduced.
- There are total 8 pin code zones, with 6 digits in the Pin number
- 1-zone, 2-subzone,3-district,4,5,6-post office
- Post boxes: Green- Local, Blue-Metropolitan, Red- all letters and Yellow- New Delhi
- In 1975, quick mail service (QMS) was introduced.
- In 1994, Metro channel was opened.
- In India, for every 21sq kms there is one post office.
- For every 6602 members there is one post office.
- Postal Zones:
- 1- Delhi, Harayana, Punjab, HP, JK and Chandigarh
- 2- UP and Uttaranchal
- 3- Rajasthan, Gujarat, Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli
- 4.- Chattisgarh, Maharashtra, MP and Goa
- 5- AP and Karnataka
- 6- Kerala, Tamilnadu, Pondicherry and Lakshadweep
- 7- WB, Orissa, Andaman and nicobar, north eastern states.
- 8- Bihar and Jharkhand
Telegraph system

- India's first telegraph line in 1851, from Calcutta to Diamond harbour

- 1913- India's first radio station in Bombay. Radio transmission started
- 1927 all private radios were nationalized into India Broadcasting service.
- 1938- India broad casting service changed to All India Radio
- 1957- All India Radio changed to Akashvani
Television/ Doordarshan

- On September 15th 1959, first television centre was established in Delhi. Weekly twice
for only 2 hrs programmes were telecasted.
- From 1965 onwards, regular programmes were telecasted.
- 1976- television was separated from Radio
- 1982- colour television was started in India
In the infrastructural development oriented towards mobilising commercial
potentialities of the country with inclusive elements growth of communication technology
is justified to be most swift and efficient. It is this sector that provides ready diffusion
of information generating awareness and enlarging adaptability. The prominent
constituents with spatial prospects of analysis includes postal communication and

The postal communication forms that segment of communication technology

that largely avails its services by the services outlets called post offices. The networking
of post offices in the country is highly efficient and well spread. Herein more than 80% of
the developed post offices are confined in the rural setup of the country. The category of
services provided by post offices includes

a. Mail services c. Value added services

b. Financial services d. Logistics or export oriented services

In its most elementary form post offices reveals the domain of public sector in the
postal communication barring the exception of courier services. Herein apart from
development of mail class categories to avail efficient diffusions, automatic mail
processing centers have been made operational in the mega nodes like Mumbai and Chennai.
As the member of Universal Postal Union and Asia Pacific Postal Union, Indian Postal
Services have elaborate overseas connectivity with e-mail services having broader expanse
with the commercial mobilization of the mail services value added components.