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HigH-Conformal

gearing
K i n e m a t i c s
a n d
G e o m e t r y

HigH-Conformal
gearing
K i n e m a t i c s
a n d
G e o m e t r y

Stephen p. Radzevich

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Library of Congress Cataloging‑in‑Publication Data

Radzevich, S. P. (Stepan Pavlovich)
High‑conformal gearing : kinematics and geometry / author, Stephen P. Radzevich.
pages cm
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978‑1‑4987‑3918‑4 (alk. paper)
1. Gearing, Conical. 2. Convex geometry. I. Title.

TJ193.R33 2016
621.8’33‑‑dc23 2015016072

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This book is dedicated to my parents

...........................................................................................43 3..............1 Criteria for Geometrically Accurate (Ideal) Gearing....... 52 3..........................................................................................................................................1 Novikov Gearing: A Helical Involute Gearing with a Zero Transverse Contact Ratio........................... 35 2.....................................................2 Condition of Conjugacy........xv Notations........7 Features of Tooth Flank Generation in Novikov Gearing................................................4 Plane of Action in Parallel-Axis Gearing.1 Essence of Novikov Gearing.......6 Possible Tooth Geometries in Conformal Gearing....................................................................................................3 Equality of the Base Pitches.10 Conformal Gearing with Two Pseudo Paths of Contact............................ 71 3....4 1................................................................................... 29 2........9 Designing a Conformal Gear Pair... 62 3........................................43 3.......44 3..Contents Preface..................................................... 11 1.................. 78 3... A Brief Overview of Conformal Gearing: State of the Art.................3 Kinematics of Parallel-Axis Gearing........................................................................................................................ 59 3.1.................... 27 2........................................................1............................................................................................................... Conformal Gearing: Novikov Gearing..................................................... 18 1...............6 1.......................................................1 Condition of Contact............................2 Transition from Involute Gearing to Conformal (Novikov) Parallel-Axis Gearing... 39 3................xi Acknowledgments..........4 Toothed Gearing......................... xxiii 1..................3 Improvements in and Relating to Gear Teeth....................... 59 3.......... 67 3........................................................................... 27 2.................................8 1................................... Conditions for Transmitting a Rotation Smoothly............6 Novikov Gearing....................................5 Wildhaber’s Helical Gearing..........................................1 1...................................................7 Tooth Profile Sliding in Conformal Gearing (in Novikov Gearing)... xiii Author.........5 Boundary N-Circle in Conformal Gearing.... 57 3..............................................54 3..............................................8 Elements of the Kinematics and the Geometry in Conformal Gearing (Novikov Gearing)..............................................................................................2 Ancient Designs of Conformal Gearings................ xvii Introduction........5 1.....2 Fundamental Design Parameters of Conformal Gearing.............................4 Contact Ratio in a Gear Pair..11 Tooth Flank Geometry in a Conformal Gear Pair.................... 78 vii ................ 75 3...22 2..............................

...................1 ​Conclusion......4 Important Properties of Indicatrix of Conformity Cnf R(G/P) at a Point of Contact of the Gear and the Mating Pinion Tooth Flanks.... 114 5........1 Vector Representation of Gear Pair Kinematics.......3 Directions of Extremum Degree of Conformity at Point of Contact of a Gear and a Mating Pinion Tooth Flanks.............................................. 133 5... Kinematics of a Gear Pair.................... 91 4..............3..3. 108 5............................. 100 5..... 117 5...5 ​Converse Indicatrix of Conformity at a Point of Contact of the Gear and the Mating Pinion Tooth Flanks in the First Order of Tangency................................. 145 ................. 118 5. 122 5............................................................3......1 ​Preliminary Remarks: Dupin’s Indicatrix................................ 95 4...12 Configuration of Interacting Tooth Flanks at the Culminating Point..3 ​Degree of Conformity at a Point of Contact of Gear and Mating Pinion Tooth Flanks in the First Order of Tangency..............1..... 82 3..............2 High-Conformal Parallel-Axis Gearing.................................................................... 124 5........................ 130 5.....................................................................................................................2 Three Different Types of Vector Diagrams for Spatial Gear Pairs.viii Contents 3...... 134 6.......................................... High-Conformal Gearing...........................1 ​Preliminary Remarks......................................................................................................................2 Indicatrix of Conformity at a Point of Contact of a Gear and a Mating Pinion Tooth Flank...........3..........................................2 Matrix Representation of Equation of Dupin’s Indicatrix of the Gear Tooth Flank.2........................................................... 141 7.........13 Local and Global Contact Geometry of Interacting Tooth Flanks...... 141 7............. 114 5............... 107 5.............. 91 4.......... On the Impossibility to Cut Gears for Conformal and High- Conformal Gearing Using Generating (Continuously-Indexing) Machining Processes........1 Local Relative Orientation at a Point of Contact of Gear and Mating Pinion Tooth Flanks.....................1 Concept of Vector Representation of Gear Pair Kinematics..2.......... Contact Geometry of the Gear and the Mating Pinion Tooth Flanks......2...3................................ 118 5...........................................3 On the Accuracy Requirements for Conformal Parallel-Axis Gearing.......... 141 7.......................... 137 7...........................................84 4.......................2 ​The Second-Order Analysis: Planar Characteristic Images..................1 Contact Geometry in Conformal Parallel-Axis Gearing...................................................................1................3.......

..............2 Base Cones in Intersected-Axis Gearing....3 Boundary N-Cone in Crossed-Axis High-Conformal Gearing.3........................................ 162 7...5 Design Parameters of High-Conformal Crossed-Axis Gearing................................................................................................ 197 9............... 179 8.................................... 156 7... 208 9.....2........3................ 197 9... 159 7..................................................3...............1.....................................2 Vector Diagrams of Internal Spatial Gear Pairs..... 209 9.....................Contents ix 7....3......................................................... 168 8..........3 Boundary N-Cone in Intersected-Axis High-Conformal Gearing........................1 Kinematics of the Instantaneous Motion in High-Conformal Intersected-Axis Gearing..........................4 Analytical Criterion of a Type of Spatial Gear Pairs............ 212 9........................4....2....................... High-Conformal Intersected-Axis Gearing... 210 9................................................................................................2.3 Path of Contact in High-Conformal Intersected-Axis Gearing........... 177 8................2 Sliding of Teeth Flanks in a High-Conformal Gearing..2 Axial Vectors of a Gear Pair.....1 Vector Diagrams of External Spatial Gear Pairs.............................2..................1 Centerline Vectors of a Gear Pair.......3........... 171 8.1........ 166 7.....................................2 Base Cones in Crossed-Axis Gear Pairs....................... High-Conformal Crossed-Axis Gearing.............4 Path of Contact in High-Conformal Crossed-Axis Gearing......... 160 7................................ 157 7.... 187 8................. 171 8....3 Useful Kinematic and Geometric Formulas...... 214 ....................... 206 9........3 Complementary Vectors to Vector Diagrams of Gear Pairs...........................................2 Classification of Possible Types of Vector Diagrams of Gear Pairs................2 Sliding between Tooth Flanks of the Gear and the Pinion in Crossed-Axis High-Conformal Gearing.......................................................1 Kinematics of Crossed-Axis Gearing...............3 Kinematics of the Instantaneous Relative Motion........... 163 7.....3................... 176 8........1 Bearing Capacity of High-Conformal Gearing........... 173 8..4................................................. 201 9.......... 153 7........4........................................................................................................................................1 Bearing Capacity of Crossed-Axis High-Conformal Gearing..1............................................. 189 9...3 Vector Diagrams of Generalized Rack-Type Spatial Gear Pairs..............................................1....4 Design Parameters of High-Conformal Intersected-Axis Gearing.............................................................. 148 7.............4 Tooth Ratio of a Gear Pair................

........................................................................................................ 325 .......................................................................................x Contents Conclusion............................. 277 Appendix C: Elements of Differential Geometry of Surfaces...................................................................................223 References............ 283 Appendix D: Elements of Coordinate Systems Transformations............................................................. 239 Appendix B: Elements of Vector Calculus........................................................................................................................................................ 323 Index.................... 303 Appendix E: Change of Surface Parameters......................................... 221 Glossary.................................................... 233 Appendix A: On the Concept of “Novikov Gearing” and the Inadequacy of the Term “Wildhaber–Novikov Gearing” or “W–N Gearing”......................................

Eng. the threshold. Much of the discussion is based on the mod- ern theory of gearing. Bostock. With the Novikov tooth. Sc. contact always occurs at a certain distance from the pitch point and therefore the sliding velocity is constant and unidirectional (for one particu- lar direction of wheel rotation). who was head of a department at the Zhuokovskii Military Aero Academy in Moscow. Conventional external involute gearing features convex-to-convex contact of the tooth flanks of the gear and the mating pinion. Gears of this type are commonly referred to as conformal gearings. In high-conformal gearing. are meaningless. Therefore. Dr. the degree of conformity at point of contact of the tooth flanks of the gear and the mating pinion is greater than a pre- specified critical value. This is the main difference between conformal and high-conformal gearings..B. A number of investigators have examined and manufactured gears of this type and load capacities of 3–6 times the corresponding involute tooth load have been reported. The principal differences between conformal gearing (as well as high- conformal gearing) and Wildhaber helical gearing are outlined..Preface The book deals with gears that feature convex-to-concave contact of the tooth flanks of the gear and the mating pinion.” etc.” “W–N gearing. A set of conditions to meet when designing both conformal and high-conformal gears is specified. Novikov gearing* and Wildhaber gearing are the most widely known examples of conformal gearing.L. Due to this. The Bramley–Moore (otherwise known as the Vivkers. xi . stresses are observed when involute gears operate.B. The profiles of the mating teeth at any section perpendicular to the wheel axis make con- tact with each other only for an instant and then separate. It is shown that Wildhaber gearing on the one hand and Novikov gearing on the other hand are two completely different gear systems that cannot be combined into a common gear system. Conditions to transmit a rotation smoothly from the driving to the driven shaft are outlined in this book. The Novikov gear form is of the helical type but it only has face contact: There is no progressive profile contact as in the involute case. Novikov. and they need to be eliminated from use in the engineering and scientific community. Because of this high contact. and Bramley gearing. the convex- to-convex contact of the tooth flanks is substituted with convex-to-concave ­contact. He developed this par- ticular gear form but it was his colleagues who published his work under his name after his death in 1958 [19]. In conformal gearing. the widely used terminologies like “Wildhaber–Novikov gearing.- gearing) is another well-known example of conformal gearing. * The Novikov gear form is named after Colonel M. the gear teeth feature higher contact strength. as well as in high-conformal gearing. or just V.

gear wear. gear lubricating. shaved. and with Novikov gearing in particular. vibration generation.xii Preface Those who want to demonstrate their unfamiliarity with gearing in a gen- eral sense. and noise excitation. .. gear loading. that is. they cannot be hobbed. etc. ground by worm grinding wheels. Only form cutting tools can be used for machining conformal and high- conformal gears: form milling cutters. are not addressed in this book. It should be noted in conclusion that the discussion in this book is limited only to the kinematics and the geometry of conformal and high-conformal gearing. Other important topics such as gear accuracy. form grinding wheels. etc. loosely use the terms “Wildhaber–Novikov gearing” and/or “W–N gearing. etc.” It is also shown that neither conformal gears (Novikov gears) nor high-con- formal gears can be cut in the continuously-indexing (generating) process.

My thanks also go to those at CRC Press who took over the final stages of preparing this book and coped with the marketing and sales of the fruit of my efforts. and as much as my benefactors have contributed.Acknowledgments I would like to share the credit for any research success with my numerous doctoral students with whom I have tested and applied the proposed ideas in industry. colleagues. and students are overwhelming in number and cannot be acknowledged individually. their kindness and help must go unrecorded. The contributions of many friends. xiii .

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Dr. 2013). He also authored and coauthored about 300 scientific papers. Radzevich has extensive industrial experience in gear design and manufacture. and holds about 250 patents on inventions in the field (the United States. Kinematic Geometry of Surface Machining (CRC Press. 2010). 2nd Edition 2014). light trucks. hardware. 2008). Radzevich has spent over 40 years developing software.(Eng)Sc in 1991. 2010). Mexico. 2014) are among his recently published vol- umes. South Korea. and textbooks.Author Stephen P. with a particular focus on precision gear design. He has developed numerous software packages dealing with computer- aided design (CAD) and computer-aided machining (CAM) of precise gear finishing for a variety of industrial sponsors. Ukraine. Dudley’s Handbook of Practical Gear Design and Manufacture (CRC Press. CAD/ CAM of  Sculptured Surfaces on Multi-Axis NC Machine: The DG/K-Based Approach (M&C Publishers. and Dr. torque share in multiflow gear trains. Soviet Union. Europe. and others). Radzevich is a professor of mechanical engineering and a professor of manufacturing engineering at National Technical University of Ukraine “Kyiv Polytechnic Institute. He earned his MSc in 1976. 2007. he trains engineering students at universities and gear engineers in companies. Canada. Gear Cutting Tools: Fundamentals of Design and Computation (CRC Press. Precision Gear Shaving (Nova Science Publishers. high-power-density gear trains. He has authored and coauthored over 30 monographs. and design and machine (finish) of precision gears for low-noise and noiseless transmissions of cars.” Kyiv. etc. design of special purpose gear cutting/finishing tools. all in mechanical engi- neering. handbooks. Japan. Geometry of Surfaces: A Practical Guide for Mechanical Engineers (Wiley. 2012). In addition to his work in industry. Dr. 2001). Russia. xv . The monographs Generation of Surfaces (RASTAN. and Generation of Surfaces: Kinematic Geometry of Surface Machining (CRC  Press. and other processes for gear design and optimization. His main research interest is the kinematic geometry of part surface generation. PhD in 1982.

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Fg. G. P. P Cnf R(G/P) indicatrix of conformity of the gear tooth flank. G Ep. C2 ⋅ p first and second principal plane sections of the pinion tooth flank. G. and the mating pinion tooth flank. at a current contact point. Mp.Notations Ag apex of the gear in intersected-axis gearing and crossed-axis gearing Ap apex of the pinion in intersected-axis gearing and crossed-axis gearing Apa apex of the plane of action in intersected-axis gearing and crossed-axis gearing C center-distance ℄ center-line C1 ⋅ g. P xvii . Fp. and the mat- ing pinion tooth flank. P F face width Feff effective face width. P. or the face width of the active portion of the plane of action G tooth flank of the gear K point of contact of the tooth flanks. Mg. Ng fundamental magnitudes of the second order of the gear tooth flank. Gp fundamental magnitudes of the first order of the pinion tooth surface. G Lp. Np fundamental magnitudes of the second order of the pinion tooth flank. C2 ⋅ g first and second principal plane sections of the gear tooth flank. at a current contact point. G and P) LA line of action LAinst instant line of action LC line of contact LAdes desirable line of contact Lg. G and P (or a point within a line of contact of the surfaces. Gg fundamental magnitudes of the first order of the gear tooth surface. K Cnf k(G/P) converse indicatrix of conformity of the gear tooth flank. K Crv(G) curvature indicatrix at a point of the gear tooth flank G Crv(P) curvature indicatrix at a point of the pinion tooth flank P Dup(G) Dupin’s indicatrix at a point of the gear tooth flank G Dup(P) Dupin’s indicatrix at a point of the pinion tooth flank P E characteristic line Eg. G C1 ⋅ p.

Y-axis is the axis of translation) Rlz(φx. Z) operator of rolling of two coordinate systems Rs(A ↦ B) operator of the resultant coordinate system transformation. px) operator of screw motion about the X-axis Scy(φy. Z) operator of rolling over a plane (Z-axis is the axis of rotation. P Scx(φx. X) operator of rolling over a plane (X-axis is the axis of rotation. to the pinion. Y-axis is the axis of translation) Rru(φ. Y) operator of rotation through an angle φy about the Y-axis Rt(φz. Y) operator of rolling over a plane (Y-axis is the axis of rotation. Z-axis is the axis of translation) Rlx(φz. X-axis is the axis of translation) Rl z(φy. PA. X-axis is the axis of translation) Rly(φz. Z) operator of rolling over a plane (Z-axis is the axis of rotation. R 2 ⋅ p first and second principal radii of curvature of the gear tooth flank. pz) operator of screw motion about the Z-axis Tr(ax. py) operator of screw motion about the Y-axis Scz(φz. G. P. say from a coordinate system A to a coordinate system B Rt(φx.xviii Notations Lpc length of a path of contact N tooth number Nin tooth count of the input member Nout tooth count of the output member Og axis of rotation of the gear Op axis of rotation of the pinion P tooth flank of the pinion PA plane of action Pc path of contact Pi current pitch point Ppc pseudo path of contact Pln axis of instant rotation of the pinion in relation to the gear (pitch line) Pn normal pitch Pt transverse pitch Rc(PA ↦ G) operator of rolling/sliding (the operator of transition from the plane of action. Y) operator of rolling over a plane (Y-axis is the axis of rotation. Z) operator of rotation through an angle φz about the Z-axis R1 ⋅ g. X) operator of rotation through an angle φx about the X-axis Rt(φy. X) operator of translation at a distance ax along the X-axis . in crossed-axis gearing) Rc(PA ↦ P) operator of rolling/sliding (the operator of transition from the plane of action. Z-axis is the axis of translation) Rly(φx. G R1 ⋅ p. in crossed-axis gearing) Rlx(φy. R 2 ⋅ g first and second principal radii of curvature of the gear tooth flank. X) operator of rolling over a plane (X-axis is the axis of rotation. PA. to the gear.

P VΣ vector of the resultant motion of the pinion tooth flank. Z) operator of translation at a distance az along the Z-axis Ug. G Up. in relation to the gear tooth flank. of the gear tooth flank. Vp tangent vectors to curvilinear coordinate lines on the pinion tooth flank. P m module mp transverse (profile) contact ratio mF face contact ratio mt total contact ratio n unit normal vector of the common perpendicular at point of contact. k2 ⋅ g first. P pb base pitch pb ⋅ g linear base pitch of the gear pb ⋅ p linear base pitch of the pinion pb ⋅ op operating linear base pitch of the gear pair psc screw parameter (reduced pitch) of instant screw motion of the pinion in relation to the gear px axial pitch of the gear teeth rb ⋅ g radius of base circle/cylinder of a gear .Notations xix Tr(ay. P ng unit normal vector to the gear tooth flank. Vp curvilinear (Gaussian) coordinates of a point on the pinion tooth flank. and the pinion tooth flank. P Ug. k2 ⋅ p first. K. G Up.and second-principal curvatures of the pinion tooth flank.and second-principal curvatures of the gear tooth flank. G k1 ⋅ p. Y) operator of translation at a distance ay along the Y-axis Tr(az. Vg curvilinear (Gaussian) coordinates of a point on the gear tooth flank. P. G np unit normal vector to the pinion tooth flank. Vg tangent vectors to curvilinear coordinate lines on the gear tooth flank. G Zpa active length of the plane of action a tooth addendum b tooth dedendum d pitch diameter db ⋅ g base diameter of a gear db ⋅ p base diameter of a pinion do ⋅ g outer diameter of a gear do ⋅ p outer diameter of a pinion df root diameter dl start of active profile diameter do outside diameter ht total tooth height i current point of the path of contact k1 ⋅ g. G.

G γp slide/roll ratio for the pinion tooth flank. P rN  radius of the boundary N-circle in Novikov gearing and in ­parallel-axis high-conforming gearing rg pitch radius of a gear rp pitch radius of a pinion rcnf  position vector of a point of the indicatrix of conformity. P . t 2 ⋅ g unit tangent vectors of principal directions on the gear tooth flank.xx Notations rg pitch radius of a gear rp pitch radius of a pinion rg position vector of a point of a gear tooth flank. G u gear ratio uω angular velocity ratio vΣ unit vector of the resultant motion of the pinion tooth flank. vg unit tangent vectors to curvilinear coordinate lines on the gear tooth flank. t 2 ⋅ p unit tangent vectors of principal directions on the gear tooth flank. G t1 ⋅ p. Cnf R(G/P) s space width sn normal space width st transverse space width t tooth thickness tn normal tooth thickness tt transverse tooth thickness t1 ⋅ g.and second-fundamental forms of the pinion tooth flank. P.and second-fundamental forms of the gear tooth flank. vp unit tangent vectors to curvilinear coordinate lines on the gear tooth flank. Φ2 ⋅ p first. G Φ1 ⋅ p. P γ specific sliding γg slide/roll ratio for the gear tooth flank. G xg yg zg local Cartesian coordinate system having origin at a current point of contact of the teeth flanks. in relation to the gear tooth flank. G up. G rp position vector of a point of a pinion tooth flank. Φ2 ⋅ g  first. G and P Greek Symbols Γl  boundary N-cone angle (in intersected-axis as well as crossed-axis high-conforming gearing) Σ crossed-axis angle (shaft angle) Φ1 ⋅ g. P ug.

and in crossed- axis gearing φb⋅g angular base pitch of the gear φb ⋅ p angular base pitch of the pinion φb ⋅ op operating angular base pitch of the gear pair ψ pitch helix angle ψb base helix angle ωg rotation vector of the gear ω rlg rotation vector of pure rolling of the gear ω slg rotation vector of pure sliding of the gear ωin rotation of the input member ωout rotation of the output member ωg angle that form the tangent vectors Ug and Vg on the gear tooth flank G ωp angle that form the tangent vectors Up and Vp on the pinion tooth flank P ωp rotation vector of the pinion ω rlp rotation vector of pure rolling of the pinion ω slp rotation vector of pure sliding of the pinion ωpl vector of instant rotation of the pinion in relation to the gear Subscripts a axial b base cnf conformity g gear max maximum min minimum n normal opt optimal p pinion gear t transverse .Notations xxi μ angle of local relative orientation at a point of contact of the tooth flanks G and P ϕ profile (pressure) angle ϕn normal profile (pressure) angle in parallel-axis gearing ϕt transverse profile (pressure) angle in parallel-axis gearing ϕt⋅ω transverse profile (pressure) angle in intersected-axis. and in crossed-axis gearing φb⋅op operating base angular pitch in intersected-axis.

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Eng. Novikov. Gearings of these types feature convex-to-concave contact of the tooth flanks of the gear and the mating pinion. It is critical to stress from the very beginning that only Novikov gearing is capable of transmitting a rotation smoothly. Gearings of all other types are not capable of transmitting a rotation smoothly as they are approximate gearings. in other words. or.L. Conformal gearings * The Novikov gear form is named after Colonel M. Several examples of gearings with convex-to-concave contact of the tooth flanks are discussed in this book. Sc.B. industry is faced with the necessity of transmitting a rotation from a driving shaft to the driven shaft with the highest possible power density. how to transmit the largest pos- sible amount of power through the smallest volume. Dr. Historical Background Conformal and high-conformal gearings are discussed in the book.. Importance of the Subject Today. and Bramley gearing. The problem can be formulated in the following manner: How to transmit a rotation smoothly with the highest possible power density. xxiii .B.Introduction An important problem in transmitting a rotation from a driving shaft to a driven shaft is discussed in the book. or just V.-gearing) is another well- known example of conformal gearing. Novikov gearing.* and Wildhaber gearing are the most widely known exam- ples of conformal gearing. The concept of convex-to-concave contact of the tooth flanks of the gear and the mating pinion can be traced back to the fifteenth century (1493) when the famous book by Leonardo da Vinci was published [7]. Bostock. This requires the necessity of gear boxes of the smallest possible size that are capable of transmitting the highest possible power. who was head of a department at the Zhuokovskii Military Aero Academy in Moscow. He developed this par- ticular gear form but it was his colleagues who published his work under his name after his death in 1958 [19]. The Bramley–Moore (otherwise known as the Vivkers.

namely. This book is intended to be used as a reference book as well as a textbook.xxiv Introduction and especially high-conformal gearings perfectly fit this requirement. M. and implementation of gears for high-power density gear transmissions in the aerospace industry. In this book. Uniqueness of This Publication A first ever workable type of conformal gearing. Since the time of Dr. The state-of-the-art achievements in the field are discussed here. the automotive industry.L. was proposed by Dr. research workers who are active or intending to become active in the field. and senior undergraduate and graduate university students in mechanical engineering and manufacturing will benefit from reading this book.L. Novikov in 1954 and was published in 1956 [23]. production. For the first time ever. The discus- sion begins with a brief consideration of the necessary and sufficient crite- ria that geometrically accurate (ideal) gearing needs to meet. Almost all of the efforts failed mostly because of poor understanding of the kinematics and the geometry of conformal gearing. much effort was made with the aim of investigating and implementing this particular type of gearing in industry. conformal and high-conformal gearings are discussed. Ancient designs of . Novikov gearing. This makes the book a unique source of information for those involved in design. M. electric wind power stations. This analysis is important as high-conformal gearings allow for transmitting a rota- tion smoothly from a driving shaft to the driven shaft. a brief overview of conformal gearing is presented. Organization of This Book This book is written in strict accordance to the recently developed scientific theory of gearing by this author (2012) [38]. Novikov. In the first chapter. the kinematics and the geometry of conformal and high-conformal gearing is discussed in this book. Intended Audience Mechanical and manufacturing engineers involved in continuous process improvement.

Conditions to transmit a rotation smoothly are discussed in Chapter 2 of the book. Ultimately. The condition of conjugacy of the interacting tooth flanks 3. Novikov. The condition of equality of the base pitch of the gear. The set of three necessary and sufficient conditions to transmit a rotation smoothly is established. for simplicity) in conformal (Novikov) gearing. It is shown that a zero transverse contact ratio is the principal essence of Novikov gearing. This consideration is followed by a detailed analy- sis of the fundamental design parameters of conformal gearing. This set includes: 1. definitely not. and a configuration of the plane of action. The theory of gearing was not available in the time of Dr. in 1954 Novikov gearing was invented. he was led only by intuition. in particular. This discussion is followed by the analysis of sev- eral designs of conformal gearing proposed mostly at the beginning of the twentieth century.Introduction xxv conformal gearings. that is. and the pinion to the operating base pitch of the gear pair This set is complemented by the requirement according to which the total contact ratio of a gear pair must be greater than 1. The absence of knowledge in the theory of gearing is the root cause of why all the proposed designs of conformal gearings. pre-Leonardo da Vinci (1493) designs of gearing. including those proposed by Wildhaber’s helical gearing. This time the intuition resulted in success. are briefly discussed there. It is proved that conformal (Novikov) parallel-axis gearing is a degener- ate type of involute gearing when the gear and the pinion tooth flanks are truncated such that only one point on each tooth flank remains. This leads to an introduction to the consideration of the boundary Novikov circle (or just N-circle. . This point is referred to as the involute tooth point. in his research. The first chapter ends with the consideration of the features of tooth flank generation in Novikov gearing. This discussion is followed by a consideration of the kinematics of par- allel-axis gearing (in a general sense). are discussed in Chapter 3. Novikov gearing is a perfect example of conformal gearing. Weakness of these designs is mostly because they were developed based only on common sense and not on the scientific theory of gearing as the theory was not known at the time. The condition of contact of the tooth flanks of the gear and the mat- ing pinion 2. Conformal gearing and Novikov gearing. Gearing in the twentieth century and in later times is sophisticated and was not developed based only on common sense: Special knowledge in the theory of gearing is a must.L. Fortunately. The author of this book does not believe that Novikov gearing was invented based on the scientific theory of gearing. No doubt. failed. a novel type of con- formal gearing was invented. M.

yet they can be treated as vectors if cer- tain care is undertaken. It is shown that the indicatrix of conformity Cnf R(G/P) is a powerful analytical tool in designing gearings with favorable design parameters. This gener- alization is based on the fundamental analysis in the kinematics of gearing. The analysis begins with the discussion of vector representation of gear pair kinematics. This topic is discussed in detail in Chapter 5. shaping.) is proved. For this purpose. The indicatrix of conformity Cnf R(G/P) at a point of contact of the gear and the mating pinion tooth flanks is used to quantify the degree of conformity of the interacting tooth surfaces in the first order of tangency. Dupin’s indicatrix at a point of the gear tooth flank and especially its matrix representation is widely used for this purpose. This approach yields a generalization in all types . (b) the rotation of the mating pinion. The contact geometry in conformal parallel-axis gearing and the accuracy requirements for confor- mal parallel-axis gearing are covered in the discussion. and with the analysis of the local and global contact geometry of interacting tooth flanks. The discussion begins with the analyti- cal description of local relative orientation of the gear and the pinion at a point of contact of a gear and a mating pinion tooth flanks on which the performed second-order analysis is based. This discussion is helpful in understanding the root cause of why almost all the efforts undertaken to design. In Chapter 6. Parallel-axis conformal and high-conformal gearing enables a generaliza- tion to conformal and high-conformal gearings of other types. the infeasibility to cut gears for conformal and high-­ conformal gearing in generating (continuously-indexing) gear machining processes (by hobbing. the discussion of kinematics of parallel-axis gearing enables the performance of an investigation into the tooth profile sliding in conformal gearing (Novikov gearing). as well as (c) their instant relative rotation are represented in the form of vectors. Designing of conformal gearing including conformal gearing with two paths of contact is mostly based on the discussed kinematics of the relative motion of the gear and the pinion when the gear pair operates.xxvi Introduction The introduced boundary N-circle imposes limitations on the possible tooth geometries in conformal gearing. worm grinding. This also yields derivation of the analytical expressions for the tooth flanks of the gear and the mating pinion. which is discussed in Chapter 7. to manufacture. (a) the rotation of the gear. rotations in nature are not vectors. Regardless. In this section. etc. High-conformal gearing is discussed in Chapter 4. Chapter 3 ends with a discussion of the configuration of interacting tooth flanks at the culminating point. and to implement confor- mal gearings have failed. shaving. as well as proceeding with an in-depth investigation of the features of the kinematics and the geometry in confor- mal gearing (Novikov gearing). Contact geometry of the gear and the mating pinion tooth flanks is a cor- ner stone in designing gearings with desirable performance.

Again. Useful kinematic and geometric formulas along with the consideration of the tooth ratio of a gear pair are provided. A configuration of the path of contact is a trade-off between the bearing capacity of the tooth flanks and the sliding between teeth flanks in a high-conformal Ia-gearing. Examples of the implementation of the classification of the vector diagrams of gear pairs can be found in Chapters 8 and 9. All possible vector diagrams are constructed and are then classified. At the end of the chapter. In Chapter 8. for simplic- ity). . high-conformal intersected-axis gearing (Ia -gearing) is dis- cussed. and is discussed in Chapter 9. This section of the book ends with the consideration of the design parameters of high-conformal crossed-axis gearing. A configuration of the path of contact is a trade-off between the bearing capacity of the tooth flanks and the sliding between teeth flanks in a high-conformal Ca-gearing. The determined configuration of the path of contact permits a construction of the boundary Novikov cone (the boundary N-cone) in crossed-axis high-conformal gearing. The main obtained scientific results are briefly outlined in the book’s Conclusion. (It should be noted here that Ca-gearings feature a boundary screw N-surface. and not an N-cone. The discussion begins with the analysis of the kinematics of the instantaneous motion in high-conformal intersected-axis gearing. The boundary N-cone is a generalization of the boundary N-circle in parallel-axis conformal and high-conformal gearing. A similar generalization is possible in the cases of all types of crossed-axis conformal and high-conformal gearings (Ca -gearing. a plane of action together with the base cones. two entities are introduced. namely. N-cones could be a reasonable approximation to the boundary screw N-surface in cases when the tooth flank sliding is low). the discussion begins with the analysis of the kinematics of the instantaneous motion in high-conformal crossed-axis gearing. This makes the construction of the path of contact possible in a high- conformal intersected-axis gearing. a plane of action together with the base cones. and of the boundary N-cone in crossed-axis gearing. The determined config- uration of the path of contact permits a construction of the boundary Novikov cone (the boundary N-cone) in intersected-axis high-conformal gearing. Then. This enables the construction of the path of contact in a high-conformal crossed-axis gearing. two entities are introduced. This section of the book ends with the consideration of the design parameters of high-conformal intersected- axis gearing.Introduction xxvii of intersected-axis conformal and high-conformal gearings (Ia -gearing. Use of the classification significantly simplifies designing conformal and high- conformal gearings of any possible type. Another example of implementation of the classification of the vec- tor diagrams of gear pairs relates to crossed-axis high-conformal gearing (Ca-gearing). for simplicity). comple- mentary vectors to the vector diagrams of gear pairs are briefly discussed. Then. The boundary N-cone is a generalization of the boundary N-circle in par- allel-axis conformal and high-conformal gearing. namely.

etc. Radzevich (radzevich@usa. Taken as a whole. If you have any constructive suggestions. a few appendices appear at the end of the book. the topics covered will enable a reader to design optimal (most favorable) designs of conformal and/or high-conformal gear pairs for high power density gear transmissions for the needs of the aerospace indus- try. the automotive industry.com). please communicate them to Dr.xxviii Introduction For the reader’s convenience. The appendices aim to refresh the reader’s memory in the math that is used in the book. S. electric wind power stations. . A book of this size is likely to contain omissions and errors.

and other vehicles. that is. the use of lighter gearboxes in the automotive industry is also desirable. that is. * Here. strongly depends on the weight of the vehicle. df. The higher the power density of a gear pair. LTC-gears are viewed in more narrow sense. High-power density† gearing (HPD-gearing. the lighter the vehicle. it became clear that the use of conformal gear pairs helps to increase the so-called power density being transmitted by the gear pair. all joints in a human skeleton (Figure 1. which is substituted with a convex-to-concave contact in confor- mal gearing.1) feature a convex-to-concave contact of the bones and not a convex-to-convex contact. tractors. However. Conventional (involute) gearing features a convex-to-convex contact of the tooth flanks. Helicopter transmissions are a good example of gearing where the highest possible power density is vital. It is natural to assume that a decision for the replacement of a convex-to-convex contact with convex-to-concave contact of the gear teeth is based on observation. Due to such substitution. of gears whose base diameter. and for which the inequality db ≥ df is observed. the power density is understood as the ratio of the power being transmitted through a gear pair to the volume occupied by this gear pair. Power density* is an important consideration in the gearing of many designs and applications. Later on. is equal to or greater than the root diameter. db. 1 . that is. Commonly. † It is instructive to note here that the broader application of high-power density gearing in the future will result in the broader use of gears with low tooth count (LTC-gearing. in other words). the lighter the gear transmission and vice versa. For instance. LTC-gears are the gears whose tooth count is equal to Ng = 12 or fewer. Gearboxes for electric wind power stations also represent good examples of this spe- cific type of gearing. Therefore. conformal gearing is capable of transmitting a higher power through a smaller volume occupied by the gear pair.1 A Brief Overview of Conformal Gearing: State of the Art It was the increased contact strength of gear teeth that initially was the main reason that initiated developments in the field of conformal gearing. cars. for sim- plicity) is the global target for the future developments in the field of gearing. and in the following. the aerospace industry is not the only industry that needs the application of small size and high capacity gear transmissions. More examples of the desirable application of lighter gearboxes with higher performance can be found in many industries. the contact strength of the gear teeth can be increased proportionally to the increase of the degree of conformity of the interacting gear teeth flanks. the less gas consumption and vice versa. Gas consumption of trucks. that is.

. or . In such a scenario. the rotation of the driving member remains the same. Generally speaking. Og and Op. Conformal gearing features the convex-to-concave contact of the tooth flanks of the gear and the mating pinion. the torque applied to the driving member remains the same. the power density through a gear pair can be increased by means of an increased rotation of the driving member (the pinion). parallel-axis gearing. This particular type of contact of the tooth flanks enables an increase in the contact strength of the gear and the pinion teeth. Because of this. Second. of the gear and the pinion (i.e. the power density through a gear pair can be increased by means of an increased torque applied to the driving member (the pinion). Under such a scenario. numer- ous attempts were made in the past to design gears with convex-to-concave contact of the tooth flanks of the gear and the mating pinion. The main goal for the development of conformal gearing and later on of high-conformal gearing (Hc -gearing. First. It is known that the concave-to-convex contact of part elements is always stronger compared to their convex-to-convex contact. A combina- tion of the first and the second approaches is possible as well.1 Convex-to-concave contact of the bones in a human skeleton. Two different ways to increase the power density through a gear pair are recognized. conformal gearing can feature either parallel axes of rotation. for simplicity) is to increase the power den- sity transmitted through a gear pair.2 High-Conformal Gearing Acetabulum (socket) Spherical femoral head (ball) FIGURE 1.

Og and Op. This means that conformal gearing meets the following three requirements: 1. in: Theory and Calculation of Gears. crossed-axis gearing. Nout. conformal gearing is capable of transmitting a rotation smoothly. for simplicity).. 2. The angular velocity ratio is of a constant value for geometrically accurate gear pairs. especially when the input. of the gear pair). Generation of Surfaces in Continuously- indexing Methods of Surface Machining. Principles of Mechanisms. & J..e. The gear ratio is specified in terms of the tooth count of the input. 6. Rest of the gearings. (i. Geometrically accurate (ideal) gearings of all types are capable of transmitting a rotation smoothly. West Stand. Nin. V. P. consideration is mostly focused on Pa -gearing with concave- to-convex contact of the tooth flanks.. Elements of kinematics of generating and conjugating in gearing.† n ⋅ VΣ = 0. or crossed-axes of rotation. London. whose angular velocity ratio is not constant (i. are not capable of transmitting a rotation smoothly. and is variable for approxi- mate gear pairs. Cambridge: J. It is a common practice to specify the condition of contact of two smooth regular surfaces by means of Shishkov’s equation of contact. LA. V. Gearings with a constant angular veloc- ity ratio are commonly referred to as geometrically accurate gearings or ideal gearings. LA.e. Moscow. the instant axis of rotation means the pitch line. and between the gear ratio. 1951. The angular velocity ratio is specified as uω = ωin/ωout.. K. 1841.e. 446 pages. this equa- tion is also discussed in the monograph: Shishkov. † This equation was proposed by Professor Shishkov as early as in 1948 (or even earlier) in his paper: Shishkov.A. In detail. In most applications. Og and Op. is preferred. for ideal as well as for approximate gearings (except of noncircular gearings). The condition of contact of the tooth flanks of the gear. and the mating pinion. Vol. However. use of gearings with a constant angular velocity ratio. of the tooth flanks G and P (this vector is along the line of action. Mashgiz. conformal gearing is a type of geometrically accurate gearing. and VΣ designates the vector of the resultant relative motion of the tooth flanks G and P at K [38].A Brief Overview of Conformal Gearing 3 just Pa -gearing. Deighton. where n designates the unit normal vector of a common perpendicular through the point of contact. ωin. the discussed ideas can be enhanced to the cases of Ia -gearing as well as Ca -gearing. ωout. and the output. John W. Designed for the Use of Students in the Universities and for Engineering Students Generally.J. and u = Const). members of the gear pair u = Nin/Nout.. intersected-axis gearing. 152 pages. or of the gear relative to the pinion. (i. 1948. or just Ca -gearing. for simplicity). . u. R. passes through a point within the instant axis of rotation of the pinion relative to the gear. is satisfied. Parker. the line of action. rotations are high. In cases of parallel-axis gearing. or just Ia -gearing. In this chapter. Gearings of these types are referred to as approximate gearings. or intersected axes of rotation. Leningrad: LONITOMASH.* uω = ωin/ωout = Const. Considered below. ‡ Willis. The gear ratio is always of a constant value. Therefore. In the theory of gearing. for simplicity). G.. this requirement is specified by Willis’ theorem. uω. uω = var.A. At every instant of time. and the output.‡ For  the * It should be stressed here on the difference between the angular velocity ratio.

(In the case of Pa -gearings. the output shaft always rotates with oscillations. when the input shaft is rotated steadily. the efforts undertaken in the past to develop con- formal gearing need to be discussed in detail in order to properly evaluate the results obtained in the field so far. In the author’s opinion. Gearings of this type are not capable of transmitting a rotation smoothly from the input shaft to the output shaft. that is. At every instant of time. this con- dition is generalized by Dr. this condition is specified by . • The condition of conjugacy of tooth flanks of the gear G and the mating pinion P. that is. and the base pitch of the mat- ing pinion is also equal to the operating base pitch of the gear pair. • Approximate gearings comprise the second group of gearings. 3. The following analysis is based on the fundamen- tal results outlined in the scientific theory of gearing [38]. Gearings of this type are capable of transmitting a rotation smoothly from the input shaft to the output shaft. The consideration in this monograph is mostly focused on geometrically accurate (ideal) gearings. Many ambiguities are observed in interpreting conformal gearing just because of the misunderstanding of the kinematics and geometry of this particular type of gearing.1  Criteria for Geometrically Accurate (Ideal) Gearing All known designs of gearings as well as all designs to be developed in the future fall into one of two groups: • Geometrically accurate (ideal) gearings comprise the first group of gear- ings.42. in order to be referred to a gearing as the geometrically accurate (ideal) gearing.4 High-Conformal Gearing cases of intersected-axis gearing and crossed-axis gearing. both the base pitches are equal to the operating base pitch of the gear pair [38].43]. Radzevich in Reference 38. the following three conditions need to be satisfied [38]: • The condition of contact of tooth flanks of the gear G and the mating pinion P that is specified by Shishkov’s equation of contact n ⋅ v = 0 [38. the base pitch of the gear is equal to the operating base pitch of the gear pair. that is. In order to be capable of transmitting an input rotation smoothly. 1. and to separate potentially useful achievements of the research from those that are either useless or incor- rect.

φb.g ≡ φb. S.op and φb. In the pinion. However.e. the earlier listed three conditions are of criti- cal importance: any and all geometrically accurate (ideal) gearings need to fulfill all three conditions.. • Base pitches of the driving and the driven gears must be equal to the operating base pitch of the gear pair* (i. * It is known that in cases of Pa -gearings. a few known designs of conformal gearings are discussed mostly following a chronological order. In the cases of Ia-gearings and Ca-gearings.3) is supposed to be a spur gearing as the invention of helical gearing is credited to Robert Hooke. neither the concept of base pitch of the gear and the pinion in the cases of Ia-gearings. this concept is discussed in detail in Reference 38.† Because of very limited information on the design of the gearing (Figure 1. .S.2  Ancient Designs of Conformal Gearings The earliest (1493) design of a gearing with convex-to-concave tooth contact known to the author is discussed in the famous book by da Vinci (Figure 1. as well as in the cases of Ca-gearings is discussed so far in the public domain. Radzevich in Reference 38). It is assumed that convex-to-concave contact of the tooth flanks is observed in the gearing of this particular type. conformal and nonconformal gears need to fulfill all three conditions listed.p ≡ φb.2) [42].P. and polymath. this concept is discussed in Reference 38. nothing is said so far about the operating base pitch in ideal Pa -gearings (the concept of the operating base pitch in an ideal Pa -gear pair is introduced by Dr.A Brief Overview of Conformal Gearing 5 Willis’ theorem [45].3) is spur or helical.op.3).g ≡ φb. Below. Precision gears (geometrically accurate or ideal gears) of all types. 1. To the best possible extent. However. 18 July] 1635–3 March 1703)—was an English natural philosopher. architect. it is almost impossible to exactly evaluate the advantages and disadvan- tages of this particular ancient design of conformal gearing. base pitch of the gear and of the mating pinion must be equal to one another. the addendum features a convex tooth profile.p ≡ φb.op). The addendum of the gear teeth features convex geometry. while the dedendum is concave (Figure 1. There are a few more illustrations of gearings with convex- to-concave contact of the tooth flanks. and the dedendum is also concave. or simply φb. In order to properly evaluate all known designs of conformal gearing (as well as gearings of other types). It is not discussed in Reference 7 whether the gearing (Figure 1.3). Moreover. † Robert Hooke (28 July [O. that is. the gearing (Figure 1.

The objective of the invention is to provide gear teeth which possess the following characteristics: a. Vol. Leonardo.2 Title page of the book: da Vinci. 1493. Easy to manufacture b.3  Improvements in and Relating to Gear Teeth The invention [20] relates to gear teeth. Low obliquity on line of action . Small sliding action between gear teeth c. 1.6 High-Conformal Gearing FIGURE 1. 1974. 1. Tooth profiles envelope each other d. McGraw-Hill Book Company. The Madrid Codices. original Spanish title: Tratado de Estatica y Mechanica en Italiano. Facsimile Edition of Codex Madrid 1. Section of gear tooth unusually strong e.

AM is revolved. illustrated by Figure 1. The enveloping curves B1 and B2 correspond to intermediate positions of the pivot points A1 and A2. McGraw-Hill Book Company. so the pivot point A is simultane- ously moved. 1493. In the cycloidal system.3 An example of gearing discussed in the book: da Vinci.4d shows a few teeth. whilst the pivot point is moved tangentially to the gear blank. The Madrid Codices. Figure 1. Facsimile Edition of Codex Madrid 1.4a shows the pivot point A moving toward the gear blank. so that the position A1 corresponds to the enveloping tooth curve BN. then the end of the pivot arm traces out—relative to the blank—the envelop- ing tooth curve such as BN.4.A Brief Overview of Conformal Gearing 7 FIGURE 1. providing the “enveloping” system of gear teeth. . a peculiar pitting of the teeth takes place near the pitch line. But two convex surfaces. in contact with each other.4. Figure 1. in mesh with each other. This trouble is caused by the rub- bing action of two convex surfaces. the pivot arm revolves. 1974. the line of action is traced out by the combined movements of the pivot arm and pivot point. are not well adapted to carry heavy loads. and if the gear blank be revolved at a suitable relative speed. whilst the pivot point remains stationary. The tooth profiles of external involute gear teeth are always convex (except in the case of a rack which is straight sided). the line of action is represented by MN.4c shows the pivot point A moving in a curved path to the point A2 so that the end of the pivot arm traces out—relative to the blank—the enveloping tooth curves B1 and B2 corresponding to the pivot point positions A1 and A2. made according to the invention. as shown in Figure 1. In the invention. As the pivot arm. with NMN being the line of action as before and M the pitch point of the gears. Leonardo. Vol. Figure 1. the pivot arm remains stationary. whereas in the involute system. It is often found that when involute gears are run under heavy load. original Spanish title: Tratado de Estatica y Mechanica en Italiano. In the invention. 1.

the point where the two pitch circles touch each other. The latter is. 1.8 High-Conformal Gearing (a) (b) (c) A A3 A2 N A2 A1 A1 N A1 N A A M M B M B1 B1 B2 B2 B3 (d) N N M FIGURE 1. bevel gears. and the path of contact. Filed: July 2. which in nature are the instant pitch points. 186.J. that is. As illustrated in Figure 1. 1922. S. spiral gears. Pat. involute parallel-axis gearing). . Improvements in and Relating to Gear Teeth. No. The line of action. this requirement is not fulfilled.4). This means that the gearing under consideration is not capable of transmit- ting a rotation smoothly. intersect the cen- terline. in the gearing (Figure 1. (After Bostock F. of course. No. the LA and Pc are the two different entities. 18. In the rest of the cases. Pc. Pi.) It is well known that in correctly designed gear teeth which provide uni- form velocity transmission. LA. are congruent to each other only in cases of Eu-gearing (Euler gearing.014/21. ℄.5.4  Toothed Gearing This invention [21] relates to the shape and arrangement of the working faces of intermeshing teeth for spur gears. and other forms of gearings for connecting rotating or oscillating bodies. and Bramley-Moore.4 Improvements in and relating to gear teeth.. The instant lines of action. 1921. LAi.436. October 2.4) is a type of approxi- mate gearing and not a geometrically accurate (ideal) gearing. that is. lines drawn at right angles to the tooth contours from any points of contact between any two teeth always pass through the pitch point. the gearing (Figure 1. at different points. Great Britain.

Figure 1. reciprocates along the ­centerline.6b is a diagram illustrating the intermeshing of the teeth at various angular posi- tions. and Figure 1. showing the outline of the teeth on both sides and their relative positions. Gear B has a slightly smaller outside diameter than gear A and its teeth 11 have straight sides 12.6a. the instantaneous pitch point. Pi L C FIGURE 1.6a and b. In the drawings. The invention substitutes simple forms of cutters having straight sides for the series of cutters of curved outline usually required for making gears earlier. as indicated by circle 14 in Figure 1. LAi LA2 P1 Instant pitch points. These gears are difficult to make and require special tools and cutters for shaping them.4. The width of the bottom spaces 16 is about one-quarter . The centers of the arcs are on or just inside of circle 15 through the base of teeth 13. Further objects and advantages of the invention appear below in con- nection with the following description of the embodiment of the invention shown in the drawings.6c is an edge view of a portion of one of the gears shown in Figure 1. It is usual to make gears with teeth conformal in outline to an epicycloidal or involute curve. and to increase the strength thereof and the amount of power that can be transmitted thereby. ℄. Pc LA1 Instant lines of action. gears A and B shown therein have 20 teeth each spaced uniformly around their circumferences. Figure 1. Bottom spaces 16 between the adjacent teeth 11 and 13 are the same as the width of the extremities of teeth 11. which illustrate a preferred but not the only form of the invention. Referring to Figure 1. and the width of the extremities of teeth 13 is slightly less.5 In the gearing shown in Figure 1. supplementing the diagram.6a of the drawings. The sides of teeth 13 of gear A are curved to arcs of circles hav- ing their centers half-way between the center lines of the successive pairs of teeth.A Brief Overview of Conformal Gearing 9 N N t1 t3 t2 M LA3 P3 P2 Path of contact. The objects of the invention are to improve the working qualities and sim- plify the construction of gear teeth and gears. when the gears rotate.6a is a side elevation of two mating gears.

10
(a) (b)

20 teeth

B
B 11 16 16 11
17

16
16 13
13
12 12
16
11 13 11 13 11 16
13 13 A
14
14
16
(c) B
15

1
2
A

High-Conformal Gearing
3
4
5
20 teeth 6
7
11 11

FIGURE 1.6
Toothed gearing. (After Schmick, H.J., Toothed Gearing, US Patent 1,425,144, Patented: August 8, 1922, Filed: June 30, 1921, Serial No. 481.561.)

A Brief Overview of Conformal Gearing 11

(or slightly less) of the circular pitch of the teeth, measured on the circle 17
through the bottom of teeth 11, as shown in Figure 1.6a.
The teeth may be skewed or twisted as shown in Figure 1.6c, in which case
the two opposite ends of each tooth are preferably spaced angularly one-half
the center distance between adjacent teeth so that the end of every tooth on
either side of the gear falls exactly opposite the space between it and the next
tooth on the opposite side of the gear.
In Figure 1.6b, the dotted lines indicate the intersections with the faces of
the straight and curved teeth, respectively, of straight planes perpendicu-
lar to the axes of the gears on the dot and dash lines 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 in
Figure 1.6c.
It is evident that the teeth may be cut by straight or circular sided cutters
caused to cut in straight lines across the width of the gear.
The number of teeth and dimensions of the gears may be varied consider-
ably so long as the slope of the sides of the straight teeth and the radius of
the circles forming the curved teeth are so chosen as to avoid interference
between successive teeth. The invention is not restricted to the numbers of
teeth and sizes and proportions shown in the drawings.
The gearing shown in Figure 1.6 meets the condition of contact. However,
the condition of conjugacy of the tooth surfaces and the condition of equality
of the base pitches of the gear and the pinion to the operating base pitch are
not fulfilled in this design of gearing.

1.5  Wildhaber’s Helical Gearing
Helical gearing with a circular arc tooth profile [22] targets an improved
power capacity of the gear pair. The invention relates to the tooth shape of
gears, which run on parallel axes, and may be applied to helical gears, such
as single helical gears and double helical gears or herringbone gears.
The purpose of the invention is threefold:

1. To provide helical gearing with an improved tooth contact, so as to
lessen surface stresses and wear
2. To provide helical gearing, which is capable of rapid and accurate
production, and which may be ground without difficulty, if so
desired
3. To provide accurate gearing of circular tooth profile

The invention is illustratively exemplified in the accompanying draw-
ings, in which Figure 1.7a is a side elevational view of the proposed gear
showing parts thereof in section; Figure 1.7d is a normal sectional view
of Figure 1.7a, taken on the lines 2–2 of the latter figure; Figure 1.7g is a

12 High-Conformal Gearing

(a) (b) (c)
2 3
17 16 1

11
12
4

17 16 2 2

(d) 4

8′ (e)
4 10
7 12 8
15 3′ 15′
11 14
11′ 6 (f )
2′ 9
3
2
14′
13
1

(g) (h)

35
37 39
23
31
21 31 32
24 23
26 26′ 26′′ 36
20 22 40 33
22

25 27 27′ 27′′ 30 30

34
38

FIGURE 1.7
Helical gearing. (After Wildhaber E., Helical Gearing, US Patent 1,601,750, Patented: October 5,
1926, Filed: November 2, 1923.) (Continued)

A Brief Overview of Conformal Gearing 13

(j)

(k) N (l) 45 46

43
43
42
N′

(m) 41 (n)
50 50′

42
44′
52 52′
44

41′

(o)

(p) (q) (r) 65 65′ 65′′ 64
60

66
62
61

63

FIGURE 1.7 (Continued)
Helical gearing. (After Wildhaber E., Helical Gearing, US Patent 1,601,750, Patented: October 5,
1926, Filed: November 2, 1923.)

14 High-Conformal Gearing

side elevational view of a pair of gears constructed in accordance with the
invention; Figure 1.7h is a sectional view taken through a pair of gears;
Figure 1.7b and c are sectional views of milling cutters used in the manu-
facture of gears of the proposed design; Figure 1.7e and f are elevational
views of corresponding tools of rack shape, to be used in reciprocating
machines for cutting helical gears in accordance with the invention; Figure
1.7k and l are side elevational views of the improved gear showing a pair
of grinding wheels in different operating positions, the wheels being set to
grind opposite tooth surfaces; Figure 1.7m is a view of a gear taken in nor-
mal section and showing the grinding wheels in operation position; Figure
1.7n is a view of a mate pinion sowing the grinding wheels in operating
position; Figure 1.7o is a view of a modified form of gear made in accor-
dance with the invention; Figure 1.7j is a sectional view taken through an
internal gear and its pinion; Figure 1.7q is a normal section through helical
teeth of composite outline, constructed from the invention; Figure 1.7p is a
view of reciprocating tool of rack shape in operating position; and Figure
1.7r is a view of a modified type of reciprocating tools, in position to start a
cut on a herringbone gear.
Referring to the drawings, and particularly to Figure 1.7a and d, 1 denotes
a helical gear having teeth 2 in contact with teeth 3 of a mating pinion 4. In
order to clearly illustrate the degree of contact between the teeth of the gear
and pinion, tooth 4 is shown in section in Figure 1.7a.
It is customary to analyze helical gearing with reference to a normal sec-
tion, that is, line 2–2 of Figure 1.7a, with line 2–2 being normal to the helix
of the pitch circle. Figure 1.7d illustrates the said normal section 2–2 for both
pinion 4 and gear 1.
It has been assumed as an example that the tooth profiles 6 of gear 1 are
circular arcs of radii 7 and centers 8, in the shown normal section. Centers 8
are situated close to the pitch circle 9 of the gear.* The corresponding teeth of
pinion 4 are so shaped as to allow the rolling of the pitch circles 9 and 10 on
each other, as well known to those skilled in the art.
When the gear tooth 2 is in the position as shown in Figure 1.7a and d,
and its center at 8, then it contacts with tooth 3 at point 11, which may be
determined by a perpendicular to tooth 2 through point 12, with point 12
being the contact point between the two pitch circles 9 and 10. The said per-
pendicular in the present case is the connecting line between point 12 and
center 8 of the tooth profile.
Another position 2′ of the gear tooth and 3′ of the corresponding pinion
tooth are shown with dotted lines in Figure 1.7d. The tooth profiles contact
here at point 11′, which can be determined like point 11. It will be noted that
the contact point has traveled from 11 to 11′ during a small angular motion

* Centers 8 need to be situated along the line of action, LA, that is a must. Otherwise, the condi-
tion of contact (n ⋅ VΣ = 0) is violated.

A Brief Overview of Conformal Gearing 15

of the gears.* The contact point has passed practically over the whole active
profile* during a turning angle 13 of the gear, which corresponds to a fraction
only of the normal pitch14, 14′. The said normal pitch equals the circle pitch
of the shown normal section.
In gearing now in use, however, the tooth outline and the tooth propor-
tions are so selected that the contact of corresponding normal profiles lasts
for an angle, which, as a rule, corresponds to more than one full pitch.
In gearing according to the invention, the contact point between two nor-
mal profiles passes over the whole active profile during* a turning angle,
which corresponds to less than one-half the normal pitch and usually to
much less than that.
Gearing designed according to the invention allows the teeth to come into
a better contact with each other inasmuch as the tooth surfaces remain much
closer to each in a direction perpendicular to the contact line between two
mating gears. This is illustrated by a section taken in the direction of lines 15,
15′ of Figure 1.7d. In Figure 1.7a, the lateral profile 16 of tooth 3 and profile 17
of tooth 2 of said section are shown to contact at point 11, and to remain close
to each other on their whole length. The same holds true for other sections,
taken parallel to section 15, 15′.
Close contact between teeth is well known to reduce wear and to improve
the efficiency of the gears.
Although a circular arc is shown as the normal tooth profile of gear 1, in
Figure 1.7d, it will be understood that this is not the only shape to affect the
stated purpose of increasing the speed, at which the contact point travels
over the tooth profile of a normal section. As a rule, however, the shape can
be approximated by a circle whose center is close to the pitch center.*
The gearing according to the present invention is strictly a gearing for
helical teeth. It would not be advisable on straight teeth on account of the
explained short duration of contact between tooth profiles. This would cause
intermittent action, whereas on helical gears similar parts of the teeth are
always in contact, on account of the twisted nature of the tooth surfaces.
Figure 1.7g may be considered as a view taken in the direction of the axes
of a pair of gears. The tooth profiles are the circles in a section, which is per-
pendicular to the axes. The gear is provided with helical teeth with working
faces below the pitch circle 20, while the pinion teeth have working faces
above the pitch circle 21 only. The working profiles 22 of the gear are concave
and circular, and their centers are substantially situated on the pitch circle
20. The convex working profiles 23 of the pinion are also of circular shape.
Their radii 24 are substantially the same as the radii 25 of the mate profiles.
The centers 26, 26′, 26″ are similarly situated on the pitch circle 21. Profile cen-
ters 27, 27′, 27″ of the pitch circle 20 and profile centers 26 26′, 26″ of the pitch

* Once the contact point has traveled from 11 to 11′ during a small angular motion of the gears,
this immediately reveals that the transverse contact ratio, mp, in Wildhaber’s helical gearing is
greater than 0, that is, mp > 0, which is not permissible.

* These cutters are for use in a reciprocating machine. . with the exception that the grinding wheels 45 and 46 are not coaxially arranged.7k imposes certain restrictions on the tooth design.7l corresponds to that shown in Figure 1. which equals the helix angle of the teeth in the pitch circle. The wheels grind along their profiles indicated with the dotted lines 44 and 44′. The slight difference of the radii of profiles 30 and 31 facilitates the tooth contact and allows for small errors in making and assembling. Figure 1. 41′ of Figure 1. Corresponding profiles 30 and 31 are circular. Figure 1. The radii 34 and 35 of the circles 36 and 37. It will be found that the cutters to be inclined for an angle. but can also be considered as a section perpendicular to the axes.7g may also be considered as a section perpendicular to the helical teeth and shows the normal tooth profiles. In Figure 1. in a view along the gear radii 41. and.16 High-Conformal Gearing circle 21 correspond to each other.7k. The sum of the radii 34 and 35 is a trifle larger than the sum of the pitch radii. The radii 34 and 35 are so selected that the main tooth pressure runs about in a direction 33. 40. in the usual manner. that is. they cannot be machined in any gear-generating process. The device shown in Figure 1.7k. Consequently. but in this case the radius of the concave circular profile 30 is made a trifle larger than the radius of the convex circu- lar profile 31.7l is advantageous when the grinding wheels are not free to run * As is shown later on in this book (see Chapter 6). which is a trifle smaller than the helix angle in the pitch circle. more generally. The arrangement of Figure 1. are not accurately identical with the pitch radii 38 and 39 of the two gears. Although the arrangement shown in Figure 1. that is. a pair of rack-shaped cutters is shown.7b and c shows a pair of milling cutters for milling gear teeth.7e and f. They coincide during the mesh. The grinding wheels are inclined for an angle 43. in a view which is taken perpendicular to the axis of the gear blank as well as to the axis of the grinding wheels. it is frequently preferred. The cutters may be applied in the usual manner. The teeth of these tools are relieved inwardly. The convex grinding wheels shown in Figure 1. as evident by the dotted lines.7k are illustrated in their operating positions. conformal gears cannot be cut by rack cut- ters. with the helix angle of teeth. their axis being inclined in correspondence with the tooth inclination.7g. the two grinding wheels are coaxially arranged with respect to each other. Figure 1. The wheels which are to produce concave circular teeth profiles in a normal section are of a convex circular profile. with its radius 42 being the same as the radius of the concave circu- lar profile. which are located in a nor- mal section. It is not only a normal section through the helical teeth. constituted by the profile centers 32 and 33.7m. respectively. the profile centers 32 and 33 do not exactly coin- cide during the mesh. As shown in Figure 1.7h shows a refinement of the preferred embodiments of the inven- tion. for producing the most accurate results. which takes place on the whole tooth profile at once. as in Figure 1.

7m. a turning motion about its axis. similar preference is given to providing the larger gear with concave tooth profiles. coincide. 65″ which allow it to clear * See footnote * on page 16. The tooth arcs of every fifth tooth side have a common center in the normal section. Another reciprocatory tool 64 is shown in Figure 1. 65′. in timed relation thereto. a normal section is illustrated and taken along lines N.7e and f. at an inclination.7n discloses a normal section through the teeth of the mating gear or pinion. 52 and 52′. The reciprocatory tool 60 moves in the direction 61. In external gears. Tools of this kind have been shown in another view in Figure 1. . and.7k through n.7q. In other words. if so desired. The wheels grind along the profiles 44 and 44′ of the shown normal section. m and n are preferably so designed that the centers of opposite tooth arcs 44 and 44′.7o.7b and c might be used. Grinding wheels 50 and 50′ are provided with the concave circular profiles 52 and 52′ with which they grind the convex gear teeth. is shown with the dotted and dash lines. N′ of Figure 1.7m. which equals the helix angle of the teeth.A Brief Overview of Conformal Gearing 17 out for instance when they must clear against a shoulder or in the case of herringbone teeth. with the addendum being convex and the dedendum concave. of which opposite tooth sides of adja- cent teeth have common centers in the middle of the intermediate tooth space.7n. In this view. discloses opposite tooth profiles. as shown in Figure 1. the tool in this case being provided with stepped teeth 65. Referring particularly to Figure 1. The normal section shown in Figure 1. Gear 62. It will be understood that milling cutters might be used instead of the grinding wheels. and also that grinding wheels of a shape shown in Figure 1. as shown in Figure 1. The corresponding pinion shows convex circular profiles.7s. respec- tively. while the blank performs a translator motion in the direction of its axis. the blank is screwed past the grinding wheels. as shown in Figure 1. In Figure 1. the tooth arcs of every third tooth side have a common center. In order to cut the proper tooth shape. A rack-shaped planing tool* is illustrated in operating position in Figure 1. the common center of opposite tooth arcs of alternate teeth is situated on the centerline of the intermediate tooth.7k. Figure 1. as shown in Figure 1. In Figure 1.7j shows an internal gear and its mate pinion.7m and n. constructed in accordance with the concave tooth profiles. the axis of the coaxially arranged grinding wheels is situated in the said normal section.7p. gear blank 62 after every cut is slightly fed in a rolling generating motion with respect to a rack which is embodied by tool 60. The normal section through a pair of helical gears. with its axis 63.7k. The teeth ground according to Figure 1.

109113 of 1956) was not available to most of the gear experts. thus. intersecting. The tool moves in the direction 66 of the helical teeth. but it is not deemed necessary at this time to give a detailed explanation of the mechanism used in this connection. This has been found to result in close contact between helical mate teeth. and. which cuts. 1. the mate teeth recede from each other only slightly. The condition of conjugacy of the tooth surfaces and the condition of equal- ity of the base pitches of the gear and the pinion to the operating base pitch are not fulfilled in this design of gearing. mt. planing with a pinion cutter. or crossing axes of rotations of the gears. Patent No. Wildhaber’s gearing (see Figure 1. . For a long while.7) does not meet the condition of contact. greater circular forces are permissible by the proposed gearing. The tooth ratio of * See footnote * on page 16. Briefly stated. Other ways of producing gearing according to the invention. those featuring point system of meshing. that the tooth contact passes rapidly over the normal profile of the teeth. Novikov’s patent (S. The contact strength of known designs of gearing with a line system of meshing. which is not very far from surface contact. External gearing as well as internal gearing of the proposed system of meshing is possible. Lower sensi- tivity to manufacturing errors and to deflections under the load is the other advantage of the proposed gearing.6  Novikov Gearing Novikov gearing [23] is an example of conformal helical gearing. the invention consists in providing helical gearing of such a profile.* that is. Wildhaber’s gearing features a nonzero transverse contact ratio (mp > 0) and a nonzero face contact ratio mF > 0. hob- bing.18 High-Conformal Gearing shoulders and herringbone teeth. may be contemplated. The invention by Wildhaber is explained to the best possible extent in Appendix A. The total contact ratio. is limited.U. Under equivalent contact stress. provide a tooth contact. including the widely used involute gearing. similar dimensions. Known designs of gearing. In a direction at right angles to the contact line. and comparable remaining design parameters. rolling and casting. fea- ture low contact strength and are not widely used in practice. The proposed gearing [23] features higher contact strength due to favor- able curvatures of the interacting tooth flanks. The proposed gearing can be designed either with parallel. that is (mt ≡ mp + mF > 1). is greater than 1.

and time dependent. possible tooth profiles in the cross-section of tooth flanks by a plane that is perpendicular to the instant axis of relative rotation through the current point of contact are illustrated. Here. The proposed concept of gearing can be utilized in the design of cam mechanisms. published in Bulletin of Inventions No. USSR.A Brief Overview of Conformal Gearing 19 O1 P O2 B C B A C FIGURE 1. National Classification 47h. the arcs are located within the bodily side of the limit tooth flank of one of the gears). Filed: April 19. O1 and O2 are the points of intersection of the planar cross-section by the axes of the gear and the pinion.10. Gear Pairs and Cam Mechanisms Having Point System of Meshing. which are located inside of the circular arc ДAД (i.8. BAB. 1956.. 1957. 6. The curves BAB are arbitrary smooth curves. ДAД is the circle centered at the point P that corresponds to the limit case of the tooth profiles (in the case the profiles are aligned to each other). the point of intersection of the planar cross-section by the axis of instant relative rotation is denoted by P. Patent 109.113. PA denotes the line of action. .e.8 Helical gearing.L.) the proposed gearing can be either of constant value or it can be variable. represent examples of the tooth profiles of one of the mating gears. A is the point of meshing (in its current location). In Figure 1. Several curves. The curves BAB are located close to the circular arc ДAД and they feature high degree of confor- mity to the circular arc. (After Novikov. M.

The constructed circular arcs can be considered an example of the tooth profiles of the gear and the pinion. The location and orientation either of a straight path of contact or a smooth curved path of contact are specified in space in which the location and orien- tation of the axes of rotations of the gear and the pinion are given. The following require- ments should be fulfilled in order to use the surfaces as the tooth flanks: • At every location of the contact point. M. the arcs are located within the bodily side of the limit tooth flank of another of two gears). A coordinate system is associated with the gear. Novikov. • The curvatures of the tooth profiles should correspond to each other. The curves CAC are also located close to the circular arc ДAД and they feature a high degree of conformity to the circular arc. the entity of the invention is disclosed in detail. the moving contact point traces the so-called contact lines. which are located outside the circular arc ДAД (i. The path of contact is located reasonably close to the axis of instant relative rotation of the gears. which is perpendicu- lar to the instant axis of relative rotation. and.e. Either constant or time-dependent (smoothly varying in time) speed of motion of the contact point along the path of contact is assigned.L.* One of the paths of contact is associated with the gear and the other one is associated with the pinion. In the coordinate systems. In the following. The circular arcs are centered at points within the straight line through the pitch point and the contact point. Then.. the requirements of the main theorem of meshing should be satisfied. The arc centers are located close to the pitch point. two circular arcs are con- structed. The tooth flanks are generated as loci of the tooth profiles constructed for all possible loca- tions of the contact point.20 High-Conformal Gearing Several curves. • No tooth flanks interference occurs within the working portions of the surfaces. the contact line is the path of contact. The proposed tooth flanks fulfill the earlier listed requirements and allow for high contact strength of the gear teeth. the radii of tooth profiles could be of the same magnitude and equal to the * The contact line is a term used by Dr. thus. Actually. The working portion of one of two tooth flanks is convex. . represent examples of the tooth profiles of the second of the mating gears. The curves CAC are arbitrary smooth curves. the tooth flanks should have a common perpendicular. CAC. Certain smooth regular surfaces through the paths of contact can be used as the tooth flanks of the gear and the pinion. and a corresponding coor- dinate system is associated with the pinion. In a particular case. Consider a plane through the current contact point. while the working portion of the other tooth flank is concave (in the direction toward the axis of instant relative rotation).

A Brief Overview of Conformal Gearing 21

distance from the contact point to the axis of instant relative rotation. The
centers of both profiles in this particular case are located at the axis of instant
relative rotation. Under such a scenario, point meshing reduces to a special
line meshing. This would require an extremely high accuracy of the center
distance and independence of it from operation conditions, which is imprac-
tical. Point meshing is preferred when designing tooth profiles. A small dif-
ference between the radii of curvature of the tooth profiles is desirable. It
should be kept in mind that during the run-in period of time, point meshing
of the gear teeth will transform to the earlier mentioned locally line mesh-
ing of the tooth profiles. However, the theoretical point contact of the tooth
flanks will be retained.
Tooth profiles can differ from the circular arcs. However, the tooth profiles
of other geometries (those always passing through the contact point) should
be located (for one gear) within the interior of the abovementioned circular
arc profile that centers at the point within the axis of instant relative rotation
as shown in Figure 1.8. For another gear, the tooth profile should be located
outside the circular arc.
The law of motion of the contact point (i.e., speed of the point and its tra-
jectory) should be chosen so as to minimize the friction and wear loses. The
friction and wear loses are proportional to the relative sliding velocity in the
gear mesh. Therefore, it is desirable to reduce the sliding velocity as much as
possible. For this purpose, the path of contact should be located not far from
the axis of instant relative rotation. On the other hand, a too-close location of
the path of contact to the axis of instant relative rotation is also not desirable
as that reduces the contact strength of the gear tooth flanks. In addition, it is
recommended to ensure favorable angles between the common perpendicu-
lar (along which the tooth flanks of one of the gears acts against the tooth
flank of another gear) and the axes of rotations of the gears.
Opposite sides of tooth profiles are designed in a similar manner to that
just discussed. Tooth thicknesses and angular pitch are assigned to ensure
the required bending tooth strength.
The face width of the gear or the length of the gear teeth should correlate
with their pitch to ensure the required value of the face contact ratio. Gear pairs
can feature either one point of contact (when working portions of the tooth
flank contact each other just in one point, excluding the phases of the teeth re-
engagement), or they can feature multiple contact points when the tooth flanks
contact each other at several points simultaneously.
For parallel axis gear pairs, it is preferred to use a straight line as the path
of contact, which is parallel to the axes of rotations of the gear and the pin-
ion. The speed of the contact point along the straight path of contact can be
of constant value. In this particular case, the radii of curvature of the tooth
profiles in all cross-sections by planes are equal to each other. Tooth flanks in
this case are regular screw surfaces. Gears that feature tooth flanks of such
a geometry are easy to manufacture, and they can be cut on machine tools
available on the market.

22 High-Conformal Gearing

An example of parallel axis gearing with the limit geometry of the tooth
profiles is illustrated in Figure 1.8. The point contact of the tooth flanks in
this particular case is transformed to almost the line contact of the tooth
flanks. The curved contact line is located across the tooth profile. When axial
thrust in the gear pair is strongly undesirable, herringbone gears can be used
instead.
Novikov gearing features a zero transverse contact ratio (mp = 0), while
the face contact ratio mF is always equal to the total contact ratio, mt, and is
greater than 1, that is (mt ≡ mF > 1). As was shown earlier in this chapter, for
Wildhaber’s gearing, the following relations mp > 1, mF > 1, and mt = mp + mF > 1
are valid.
Novikov gearing (see Figure 1.8) meets the condition of contact, as well as it
meets the condition of conjugacy of the tooth surfaces, and the condition of
equality of the base pitches of the gear and the pinion to the operating base
pitch. Novikov gearing is a type of geometrically accurate gearing.* Novikov
gearing is the only feasible type of gearing with the point contact of the tooth
flanks that is capable of transmitting a rotation smoothly. As shown in the
following, this is because Novikov gearing is a degenerate type of involute
gearing [33].
The invention by Novikov is explained to the best possible extent in
Appendix A.
In Appendix A, the author’s comments on the concept of “Novikov gearing”
and on the inadequacy of the terms “Wildhaber–Novikov gearing” and “W–N
gearing” are presented.

1.7  Features of Tooth Flank Generation in Novikov Gearing
In Novikov gearing, the transverse contact ratio is zero (mp = 0). Because of this,
the contact point is stationary in the transverse cross-section when the gears
rotate. The condition of conjugacy of the tooth profiles in Novikov gearing and
the condition of equality of the base pitches of the gear and the pinion to the
operating base pitch of the gear pair are fulfilled due to the contact point is
motionless in all transverse cross-sections.
The equality of the transverse contact ratio to zero (mp = 0) allows us to
interpret Novikov gearing as a degenerated type of involute gearing, that is,

* It needs to be noticed here that Dr. E. Wildhaber did not recognize the difference between
Novikov gearing and the helical gearing proposed by him [22]. This conclusion immediately
follows from Wildhaber’s statement: “I may say also that it gives me satisfaction to see the
original concept vindicated through the Russian reinvention and effort and through subse-
quent efforts and articles.” This statement of Wildhaber’s can be found on page 949 in the
paper by T. Allan [22] (see the Communications section). Other evidence in this regard is also
known [29,38].

A Brief Overview of Conformal Gearing 23

Novikov gearing is a type of involute gearing for which the involute tooth
profile is truncated to a point [33]. The remaining portions of the gear teeth
profiles are not active and do not come into contact with each other when
the gears rotate. Therefore, the gear designer is free to modify the inac-
tive portions of the gear teeth making them stronger in terms of contact
strength.
Once the entire profile of the gear teeth in Novikov gearing (including the
inactive portions of the gear teeth) is noninvolute, this means that the pro-
files of this type cannot be machined in generating (continuously indexing)
methods.* Therefore, neither gear hobs, nor shaper cutters, nor worm grind-
ing wheels can be used for machining gears for Novikov gearing. Tooth pro-
files of the gear and the pinion in Novikov gearing cannot be generated by the
so-called basic rack (Figure 1.9). The so-called basic rack does not exist in the
case of Novikov gearing. Associating the so-called basic rack with gears for
Novikov gearing is a huge mistake committed by many gear experts.
Violation of both the condition of conjugacy of the tooth profiles and that
of the equality of the base pitches in this case is the main reason for such
infeasibility.
The following conclusions can be drawn from the earlier statement:

1. Numerous inventions of different modifications of Novikov gearing
based on the generation of tooth flanks by means of the so-called
basic rack (German Patent No. 102,004,034,456, USSR Patents No.
95978, No. 800,472, No. 1,184,994, Russian Patents No. 2,426,023, No.
2,057,267, USA Patents No. 2,994,230, No. 3,180,172, No. 3,371,552,
No. 3,533,300, No. 3,709,055, No. 3,855,874, No. 3,937,098, No.
3,982,445, No. 4,031,770, 4,051,745, 4,140,026, 5,022,280, No. 6,178,840,
6,205,879, No. 6,837,123, Japanese Patent No. 4,449,045, and numer-
ous others) are wrong.
2. Numerous NASA contractor reports in which different modifi-
cations of Novikov gearing based on the generation of tooth flanks
by means of the so-called basic rack are proposed (4771, AVSCOM
Technical Report 87-C-18, 1987; 4089, Army Research Laboratory
Contractor Report ARL-CR-339, 1997; 1406, Army Research
Laboratory Contractor Report ARL-TR-1500, 1997; NASA/CR-2000-
209415, ARL-CR-428, 1997; NASA/CR-2000-209415, ARL-CR-428,
1997; and numerous others). All of them are wrong.
3. Dozens of scientific publications in the ASME Journal of Mechanical
Design, ASME Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering,
Mechanism and Machine Theory, along with publications in the

* It should be mentioned here that the first pair of Novikov gears made out of aluminum alloy
(a preprototype) had been cut on April 25, 1954 by means of a disk-type milling cutter [29,38].
Fifteen gear pairs for testing purposes had been machined in the summer of 1954 by means
of a disk-type milling cutter [29,38].

24 High-Conformal Gearing

(a)
p = πm

c

ρa
ha
αn
2ha αn

ρf

c

(b)
eu

ha ρa hja
hk
αn
rj
h
αn hk
ρf
hjf

rg

ef

FIGURE 1.9
The so-called basic racks in Novikov gearing according to (a) USSR standard and (b) Chinese
standard. (Both the standards are wrong.)

proceedings of numerous International Gear Conferences, and so
forth in which different modifications of Novikov gearing based on the
generation of tooth flanks by means of the so-called basic rack are
wrong.

Efforts of hundreds of gear experts undertaken so far to improve Novikov
gearing and tons of funds spent on these researches were just wasted because
the fundamental principles of gearing were ignored when investigating
Novikov gearing.

A Brief Overview of Conformal Gearing 25

Again, gears for Novikov gearing cannot be cut in a continuously indexing
(generating) process. For cutting the gears, disk-type milling cutters can be
used. It is likely that the committed mistakes can be traced back to the pub-
lication by Prof. V. N. Kudriavtsev [15]. Prof. V. N. Kudriavtsev was the first
(1959) who proposed cutting gears for Novikov gearing by means of specially
designed gear hobs, the so-called Novikov hobs.
The infeasibility of the correct generation of tooth profiles of gears for
Novikov gearing in a continuously indexing (generating) process could be the
root cause of the insufficient performance of Novikov gearing, especially in
cases of case-hardened tooth flanks of the gears. The continuously indexing
(generating) process is not capable of machining gears with a correct corre-
spondence between the radii of curvature of the convex and concave tooth
profiles of the gear and the pinion in a Novikov gear pair.
Gears for Novikov gearing need to be cut by disk-type milling cutters, disk-
type grinding wheels, and so forth, that is, using form cutters and indexing
processes for this purpose.

2
Conditions for Transmitting
a Rotation Smoothly

As discussed in this chapter, high-conforming gearing is a type of geometri-
cally accurate gearing, that is, ideal gearing that is capable of transmitting a
rotation smoothly from a driving shaft to a driven shaft.
To transmit a rotation smoothly from a driving shaft to a driven shaft, a
set of certain conditions need to be satisfied. In this section of the book, the
set of necessary conditions to transmit a rotation smoothly is discussed with
regard to parallel-axis gearing (Pa -gearing). In the subsequent chapters, the
equivalent sets of conditions will be formulated for intersected-axis gearing
(Ia-gearing) and for crossed-axis gearings (Ca-gearing).
The first three conditions the geometrically accurate (ideal) gearing must
obey are referred to as the fundamental conditions. These three conditions
are discussed below.

2.1  Condition of Contact
The first fundamental condition to be discussed in this section is the condi-
tion of contact of the tooth flanks of a gear and the mating pinion. The condi-
tion of contact of the tooth flanks is the first fundamental condition which all
Pa -gearings (as well as Ia - and Ca-gearing) must obey.
The condition of contact of the tooth flanks of the gear G and the mating
pinion P is commonly expressed by Shishkov’s equation of contact* [38,42,43]:

n ⋅ vΣ = 0 (2.1)

where n is the unit vector of common perpendicular through the contact
point of the tooth flanks G and P and vΣ is the unit vector of the speed of the
resultant relative motion of the tooth flanks G and P at contact point K.

* This equation was proposed by Professor Shishkov as early as in 1948 (or even earlier) in his
paper: Shishkov, V.A., Elements of kinematics of generating and conjugating in gearing, in:
Theory and Calculation of Gears, Vol. 6, Leningrad: LONITOMASH, 1948. In detail, this equa-
tion is also discussed in the monograph: Shishkov, V.A., Generation of Surfaces in Continuously-
indexing Methods of Surface Machining, Moscow, Mashgiz, 1951, 152 pages.

27

28 High-Conformal Gearing

Equation 2.1 reveals that a component of the velocity vector vΣ along the
common perpendicular n is equal to zero. Otherwise, either separation or
interference of the tooth flanks G and P is observed. Neither separation nor
interference of the tooth flanks G and P of the gear and the pinion is permis-
sible. Therefore, the vector vΣ is either located in a common tangent plane or
it is zero.
Permissible instant relative motions of the tooth flanks G and P in a gear
pair are illustrated in Figure 2.1. The relative motion of the tooth flanks G
and P is not permissible along the common perpendicular, n, and the rela-
tive motion is allowed in any direction within the common tangent plane
through the contact point K. It should be pointed out here that a swivel rela-
tive motion of the tooth flanks G and P around the axis along the common
perpendicular, n, also meet the requirement specified by Equation 2.1. The
swivel motion of the tooth flanks is not necessary to transmit a rotation from
a driving shaft to a driven shaft. However, a motion of this nature can be
observed in spatial gearing, that is, in Ca-gearing.
It is necessary to stress here that regardless of the equation of contact (see
Equation 2.1) that was proposed by Professor V.A. Shishkov in the mid of
the twentieth century, the physics of the condition of contact was properly
understood by the gear community in the time of da Vinci [7] and even in
the earlier times. Other forms of analytical representation of the condition of
contact of the tooth flanks G and P of the gear and the pinion are known as
well.
The fulfillment of the condition of contact is necessary but not sufficient to
smoothly transmit a rotation from a driving shaft to a driven shaft.

n

K

FIGURE 2.1
Permissible instant relative motions in geometrically accurate (ideal) gearing.

Conditions for Transmitting a Rotation Smoothly 29

2.2  Condition of Conjugacy
The second fundamental condition to be discussed in this section is the con-
dition of conjugacy of tooth flanks of the gear G and the mating pinion P. The
condition of conjugacy of the tooth flanks G and P is the second fundamental
condition which all Pa -gearings (as well as Ia - and Ca-gearing) must obey. For
the first time ever, this condition was formulated by Dr. R. Willis as early as
in 1841 (Figure 2.2). This condition is commonly referred to as the main theo-
rem of gearing, or just as Willis’ theorem [45].
Nowadays, in the case of Pa -gearing,* Willis’ theorem is commonly formu-
lated as follows:

Willis’ Theorem 2.1

The common perpendicular to the conjugate tooth flanks of the gear and the
pinion always passes through the pitch point of the parallel-axis gearing; the
pitch point subdivides the center distance reciprocal to the angular velocities
of the gear and the pinion.

Willis’ theorem is commonly construed as the main theorem of parallel-
axis gearing.†

FIGURE 2.2
The main theorem of gearing (Willis’ theorem) as was originally formulated by R. Willis
on page 38 in his book: Willis, R., Principles of Mechanisms, Designed for the Use of Students in
the Universities and for Engineering Students Generally, London, John W. Parker, West Stand,
Cambridge: J. & J.J. Deighton, 1841, 446 pages.

* In the cases of Ia - and Ca-gearings, this concept is discussed in detail in [38].
† It should be noted here that some authors claim that the main theorem of gearing was known to

L. Euler (1707–1783) and to F. Savary (1779–1841).

30 High-Conformal Gearing

In order to understand Willis’ theorem, the difference between the line of
action, LA, and the path of contact, Pc, in Pa -gearing needs to be firmly made.
A parallel-axis gearing is schematically shown in Figure 2.3. The gear and
the pinion rotate about their axes of rotation, Og and Op, with angular veloci-
ties ωg and ωp, respectively. The axes Og and Op are at a center distance C
form one another. The base diameter of the gear is designated as db.g, and
the base diameter of the pinion is designated as db.p. Outside diameters of
the gear and the pinion are designated as do.g and do.p, respectively. In accor-
dance to the belt-and-pulley model of involute gearing, the line of action, LA,
between the tooth flanks G and P of a gear and a mating pinion is tangential
to both the base circle of the gear and the base circle of the pinion. Points of
tangency are labeled as Ng and Np, respectively.
The line of action, LA, intersects the centerline, ℄, at the pitch point, P. (The
center distance, C, is a straight line segment of the centerline, ℄).
Points of intersection Pg and Pp of the line of action, LA, by the circles of the
diameters do.g and do.p are the extreme points of the active portion, Zpa, of the
line of action, LA (that is, PgPp = Zpa).

Op

do.p
db.p

Path of contact, Pc
ωp ϕt
VK Line of action, LA
Np Ng
Pg P Pp
C . sin ϕt

L
C

do.g
db.g ωg

C
Og

FIGURE 2.3
In involute gearing, the line of action, LA, and the path of contact, Pc, align to each other.

Conditions for Transmitting a Rotation Smoothly 31

A perpendicular through the pitch point, P, to the centerline, ℄, forms the
transverse pressure angle, ϕt, with the line of action, LA.
When the gears rotate, the transverse pressure angle, ϕt, is of a constant
value at every instant of time, that is, for all configurations of the gear and
the pinion in their relation to each other. Therefore, when the gears rotate,
the contact point K between the tooth flanks G and P travels along the
straight path of contact, Pc, and the path of contact is aligned with the line
of action, LA. For Pa -gearing, the involute tooth profile is unique from this
standpoint. Tooth profiles of other geometries are not capable of transmit-
ting a rotation smoothly. Only involute gearing feature a straight path of
contact that is aligned with the line of action. In gearings of other systems,
a difference needs to be made between the line of action, LA, and the path
of contact, Pc.
To illustrate a difference between the line of action, LA, and the path of
contact, Pc, cycloidal gearing is discussed in the following.
The cycloid of a circle is used as a tooth profile in cycloidal gearing. A
cycloidal curve is generated as the trajectory of a point of a circle rolling
with no slippage over another circle (or over a straight line in a degenerate
case). Henceforth, the difference between ordinary, extended, and shortened
cycloids will be made.
An example of cycloidal gearing is schematically shown in Figure 2.4a.
In Figure 2.4a, the center of rotation of the gear, Og, and that of the pinion,
Op, are at a certain center distance, C. The rotations of the gear and the pinion
are denoted by ωg and ωp, respectively. The pitch radius of the gear is desig-
nated as rg and that of the pinion is designated as rp. The pitch point in the
gear pair is denoted by P.

(a) dp (b)
Rp ωp rp
Op
rp rpi
ωp
p
ag op
p Pc i
Pc Pc LAinst
P
g P Pc ap
C Pi
g
rg og ωg
ωg
Rg ϕt.i
L
C
rg L
C
rgi

Og dg

FIGURE 2.4
Schematic of cycloid gearing: (a) path of contact and (b) instant line of action.

32 High-Conformal Gearing

Two auxiliary centrodes of radii rg and rp that have centers at og and op,
respectively, are used to generate the addendum and dedendum of the tooth
profile of the gear and the pinion.
The generation of the gear tooth profile can be executed in two steps: first,
to generate the gear tooth addendum, consider rolling with no slippage of an
auxiliary axode (of a radius rp) over the gear pitch circle (of a radius Rg). The
circles of radii rp and Rg are in external tangency in relation to one another.
The pitch circle of the gear is considered as stationary. In such a relative
motion, a point of the circle of radius rp traces the epicycloid, Pag , within the
plane rigidly connected to the gear. A portion of the arc, Pag , is used as the
profile of the addendum of the gear tooth.
Second, to generate the gear tooth dedendum, consider rolling with no
slippage of an auxiliary axode (of a radius rg) over the gear pitch circle (of a
radius Rg). The circles of radii rg and Rg are in internal tangency in relation to
one another. The pitch circle of the gear is considered as stationary. In such
a relative motion, a point of the circle (of a radius rg) traces the hypocycloid,
Pdg, within the plane rigidly connected to the gear. A portion of the arc, Pdg,
is used as the profile of the dedendum of the gear tooth.
Similar to the generation of the gear tooth profile, the generation of the
pinion tooth profile can be executed in two steps as follows. First, to generate
the pinion tooth addendum, consider rolling without slippage of the auxil-
iary axode of radius rg over the pinion pitch circle of radius Rp. The circles of
radii rg and Rp are in external tangency in relation to one another. The pitch
circle of the pinion is considered as stationary. In such a relative motion, a
point of the circle of radius rg traces the epicycloid, Pap , within the plane rig-
idly connected to the pinion. A portion of the arc, Pap , is used as the profile
of the addendum of the pinion tooth.
Second, to generate the pinion tooth dedendum, consider rolling with no
slippage of the auxiliary axode of radius rp over the gear pitch circle of radius
Rp. The circles of radii rp and Rp are in internal tangency in relation to one
another. The pitch circle of the pinion is considered as stationary. In such a
relative motion, a point of the circle of radius rp traces the hypocycloid, Pdp ,
within the plane rigidly connected to the gear. A portion of the arc, Pdp , is
used as the profile of the dedendum of the gear tooth.
The path of contact, Pc, for a cycloidal gearing is a smooth, piecewise curve
composed of two circular arcs of radii rg and rp. These two arcs, gP and pP,
comprise the path of contact, gPp (Figure 2.4a).
An enlarged view of two teeth in contact for cycloidal gearing is shown
in Figure 2.4b. For the driving pinion and driven gear, the tooth flanks are
engaged in contact at the starting point, p, of the path of contact, Pc. As the
pinion rotates, ωp, the point of contact of the tooth flanks travels along the Pc
from point p to point g. Point g is the end point of contact of the tooth flanks.
While traveling along the path of contact, Pc, at a certain configuration of
the gears, the contact point passes the pitch point, P. At every instant of
time, the pinion tooth flank acts over the gear tooth flank along the common

ϕt. Pc. ℄. ωg. is deter- mined by the nominal value of the pitch radius of the gear. i. The gear and the pinion rotate about their axes of rotation. The path of contact in the gear pair is also a planar smooth. is denoted by ϕt. i. with the perpendicular to the centerline. Let us assume that a rotation from the driving shaft to the driven shaft can be transmitted by means of the gear pair. Slices are numbered from 1 to n. of this gear pair is illustrated in Figure 2. ωg. regular curve. by the line of action. Pi. Consider a helical gear pair composed of two gears that have teeth shaped in the form of smooth regular curves. the change to the pitch radii Rgi and Rpi of the gear and the pinion causes variation in the rotation. rg. are at a certain center distance. The axes. through the point of tangency. Og and Op. As shown in Figure 2. within the path of contact. The transverse pressure angle at the pitch point. the current values of the pitch radii of the gear. Pc. Pc. Therefore. the location of the current pitch point. is reasonably large. φp. ℄. An example of the path of contact. P. n. ℄. Og and Op. Therefore. C. respectively. rp. The instant line action is desig- nated as LAinst.5.Conditions for Transmitting a Rotation Smoothly 33 perpendicular to the tooth flanks G and P. It can be assumed then that both the gear and pinion are sliced by transverse planes perpendicular to the axes of rotation. The conclusion just made states that spur gears which have noninvolute tooth profiles are not capable of transmitting a rotation smoothly. Both members feature noninvolute tooth profiles. t. Og and Op. within the centerline. ℄. Ultimately. As the path of contact. LA. and the pinion. Rgi . and by the nominal value of the pitch radius of the pinion. For the ith slice. back and forth along the center line. Commonly. cycloid gears feature spur teeth. through which the pinion turns about its axis at a time. i (where i is an integer number within the interval 1 < i < n). a straight line through point i tangential to Pc forms a different angle. Let us pick an arbitrary slice number. with angular velocities. that is. of the driven gear. the rotation. Pc.i. The point of . Moreover. cycloi- dal gearing is not capable of transmitting a rotation smoothly. the gear pair is composed of a helical gear and a helical pinion. The location of the pitch point. The number of the slices. at a current its point. C. differ from their nominal values (the inequalities Rgi ≠ Rg and Rpi ≠ Rp are observed). P. Here. that is. Under the uniform rotation of the driving pinion (when ωp = const) and constant center distance. Pi. i. Because of the migration of the instant pitch point. Rpi . ωg and ωp. a corre- sponding point. of the gear depends on the angle. A straight line that is tangent at i to the path of contact. can be determined as the point of intersection of the centerline. is constructed. is referred to as the instant line of action. in cycloidal gearing is composed of two circular arcs. φp = ωp t. the capability of noninvolute gearing to transmit rotations smoothly also needs to be verified.5. in the direction tangential to the path of contact. a certain functionality ωg = ωg(φp) is observed for cycloidal gearing. from each another. Pc. The geometry of helical gears with non- involute tooth profiles is more complex than that of spur gears.

LAinst i .5 Schematic diagram of meshing of a helical noninvolute gear pair. instant pitch points. and ϕ t. Instant transverse pressure angles ϕt. then each slice rotates . LAinst and LAinst . intersection of the centerline. which is physically impossible. are shown in Figure 2.i. through point i is the instant pitch point. the instant pitch point subdivides the center distance reciprocal to the instant angular velocities of the gear and the pinion. Two circles of the radii rg and rpi through i i point Pi are the pitch circles for the ith slice.5: Conclusion 2. Pi−1 and Pi+1. r pi−1.1 Geometrically accurate helical gear pairs that have noninvolute tooth profiles and nonzero transverse contact ratios (mp > 0) are not feasible physically.5 due to lack of space. then the slices should rotate with different instant rotational speeds. Similarly.(i+1) are not shown in Figure 2. and r gi+1. ϕt.5.(i−1) . If the tooth profiles are not involute. ℄. by the instant line of action. The corresponding instant i −1 i +1 lines of action.34 High-Conformal Gearing Driving pinion Driven gear rpi–1 rg Pc rgi+1 ωp (i–1) ωg i rgi (i+1) P i–1 L C P Op rp Og P i–1 Pi i–1 LAinst i LAinst rpi+1 i+1 rgi–1 LAinst rpi ϕt C FIGURE 2. A conclusion can be drawn from the analysis given in Figure 2. r pi+1. are constructed for the point (i − 1) preceding point i and point (i + 1) following point i. One can imagine a pinion of a noninvolute parallel-axis gearing being sliced into numerous slices by planes perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the pinion. as well as the radii of instant pitch circles r gi−1 . P . If the pitch points for different slices of a gear pair are not coincident with one another.

of the gear pair* (that is. S. the base pitch of the gear and the pinion must be equal to one another. and the driven. the concept of the operating base pitch of Ia- and Ca-gearings is introduced for the first time by Dr. nothing is said so far about the operating base pitch in ideal Pa -gearings (the concept of the operating base pitch of an ideal Pa -gear pair is introduced by Dr. Willis [44. This means that the condition of conjugacy is more robust than the condition of contact of tooth flanks G and P.45]). φb.and Ca-gearings is not discussed so far in the public domain.P. As the inequality of base pitches of the gear and the pinion to operat- ing the base pitch of the gear pair is observed.P. the base pitches of the driving. However. Therefore. Radzevich in [38]. the transmission of a uniform rotation from the driving shaft to the driven shaft by means of noninvolute parallel-axis gearing is impossible at all.3  Equality of the Base Pitches The third fundamental condition to be discussed in this section is the con- dition that requires the equality of the base pitches. the identities φb. When the condition of conjugacy is met.op. S. tooth flanks in noninvolute parallel-axis gearing do not contact each other along a line. neither the concept of the base pitch of the gear and the pinion in the cases of Ia-gearings. The condition that requires * It is known that in cases of Pa -gearings. the concept of the operating base pitch in the cases of Ia . the condition of contact of tooth flanks G and P of the gear and the pinion is always satisfied.2 To transmit a uniform rotary motion from a driving shaft to a driven shaft by means of gear teeth. φb. perpendiculars to the tooth flanks of the interact- ing teeth at all points of their contact must pass through a stationary point within the centerline of the two shafts. op or simply φb. Radzevich in [38]).p ≡ φb. 2. . Further. as well as in the cases of Ca-gearings is discussed so far in the public domain. which can be expressed as follows (an alternative formulation of Willis’ theorem).op and φb. However. and it cannot rotate with different angular velocities simul- taneously. they contact each other at a distinct point instead.g. that is.p. This conclusion is in agreement with the main theorem of conjugate gear tooth surfaces (the theorem was formulated by R. φb.Conditions for Transmitting a Rotation Smoothly 35 separately and independently from one another.g ≡ φb. Willis’ Theorem 2. gears must be equal to the operating base pitch. the pinion rotates as a rigid body. Again.p ≡ φb.g ≡ φb.op need to be satisfied). Fulfillment of the condition of conjugacy is necessary but not sufficient to transmit smoothly a rotation from the driving shaft to the driven shaft. Moreover.

It is convenient to begin the consideration of the base pitches with the belt- and-pulley model of parallel-axis gearing.op. Og. db. ωg and ωp. is associated with the pinion.op C db.g. the base cylinder of a diameter. The base cylinder of a diameter.g ωg Og FIGURE 2.2) ωp Ng is valid in ideal (geometrically accurate) Pa -gearing. The plane of action. is associated with the gear. of the gear and the pinion. db. in a parallel-axis gear pair is tangent to the base cylinders from the opposite sides. . The magnitudes ωg and ωp of the rotations ωg and ωp are synchronized with one another reciprocal to the tooth count. from one another. Similarly. are parallel to each other and are at a center distance. this concept is discussed in [38].p i LCdes i+1 Op Vlc LCdes Plane of action pb. To the best possible extent. the ratio ωg Np = (2. The gear and the pinion rotate. and Ca-gearing) must obey. ωp db. PA. about their axes of rotation. The axis of rotation of the gear. and that of the pinion. Op. pb.6 Definition of the operating base pitch. in ideal (geometrically accurate) parallel-axis gearing. Ng and Np. Shown in Figure 2.36 High-Conformal Gearing the equality of the base pitches of the gear and the pinion to the operat- ing base pitch of the gear pair is the third fundamental condition which all Pa -gearings (as well as Ia -. that is.6 is a schematic of the belt-and-pulley model.p. C.

Use of such an approach gives an opportunity to design a gear with the correct geometry of the tooth flanks. if the axis misalign- ment is taken into account.op. LCdes. i A desirable line of contact. * It is also important to stress here that the operating base pitch of a gear pair.p ≡ pb.op. LCdes . between the tooth flanks G and P is congruent to the desirable line of contact. and is also located within the plane of action. LCdes . over the base cylinders of the gear and the pinion. When the gears rotate. between the tooth flanks G and P is used to generate the gear and the pinion tooth flanks G and P.6). is timed with the rotations ωgand ωp so as to ensure rolling with no slippage of the plane of action. LCdes. LCdes. In the case under consideration. is measured in angular units. of the gear pair is constructed before the interacting tooth flanks G and P of the gear and the mating pinion are generated. In cases of intersected-axis and crossed-axis ideal (geometrically accurate) gearings. when the plane of action rolls over the base pitch of the pinion. the dis- i i+1 tance. of the ith pair of teeth of the gear and the pinion is drawn within the plane of action. (i. the actual line of contact.op and pb. pb. PA. It is important to notice * here that the operating base pitch. LCdes . Ia -. LCdes and LCdes . the plane of action may be considered as a zero thickness film that is unwrapping from the base cylinder of the gear and wrapping on the base cylinder of the pinion. Vlc. is referred to as the operating base pitch of the gear pair. as well as Ca-gearings. in its motion in relation to a reference sys- tem associated with the gear (Figure 2. the plane of action travels with a linear velocity. . Similarly. This enables the equality of the base pitches of the gear and the pinion to the operating base pitch of the gear pair (that is. pb.op. When the plane of action rolls over the base pitch of the gear. The magnitude of the linear veloc- ity.g ≡ pb. PA. LCdes.g ≡ pb. with the axes Og and Op (the base helix angle.7). travels together with the plane of action.op. this straight line segment forms the base helix angle. the gear tooth flank G is generated as a family of consecutive positions of the desirable line of contact. LC. the desirable line i of contact. LCdes  LCdes ).. the straight line segment LCdes is rigidly connected with the PA. LCdes.e. in its motion in relation to a reference system associated with the gear as shown in Figure 2. i+1 The desirable line of contact. that is. is shown for a case of helical involute gearing. Under such a scenario. pb. of the adjacent (i + 1)th pair of teeth of i i +1 i the gear and the pinion is parallel to the straight line. Measured in a common transverse cross-section of the gear pair. Vlc. the desirable line of contact.op) as shown in Figure 2. the operating base pitch of a gear pair. As an example. of these surfaces (LC ≡ LCdes).Conditions for Transmitting a Rotation Smoothly 37 When the gears rotate. φb. Moreover.7.op.p ≡ pb. LCdes . pb. that is. then the operating base pitch of a gear pair. In such a motion. PA. is not shown in Figure 2. ψb. in cases of Pa -. ψb. is measured in angular units in all cases.8. the pinion tooth flank P is generated as a family of consecutive positions of the desirable line of contact. or simply pb. between two adjacent desirable lines of contact. the desirable line of contact. φb. is measured in linear units only in cases of ideal (geometrically accurate) parallel-axis gear pairs. For this purpose.op.

moreover.g pb.8 Base pitch of a gear. In cases of Pa-gearing.op and pb.op) are met only for geometrically accurate (ideal) involute gearing.g FIGURE 2. the base pitch of the gear and the pinion cannot be constructed.p ωp Op Vlc ψb a b ψb Plane of action P LCdes ωg Og db. pb.g i–1 i+1 i db. pb.p) in an ideal (geometrically accurate) involute gear pair.g.p ≡ pb. pb. (of a pinion.op (or simply pb.g ≡ pb. while the operating base pitch of the gear pair can be easily determined.g Og FIGURE 2. . the identity cannot be satisfied. and.7 Generation of screw involute surfaces G and P of the tooth flanks of a pair of helical gears.38 High-Conformal Gearing db.g ≡ pb. the identities pb. For any and all types of noninvolute gearings.p ≡ pb.

is tan- gent to the base cylinders of diameters db. Three different types of contact ratio are distin- guished.2 The condition of conjugacy is the most robust condition compared to the condition of contact of tooth flanks G and P. the following inequality needs to be observed: mt ≥ 1 (2. mp. the condition of conjugacy as well as that of the contact of the tooth flanks G and P of the gear and the pinion is always satisfied. The axes are at a center distance C from one another.op). 2. When this condition is met.p of the gear and the pinion.p ≡ pb. face contact ratio. refer to Figure 2. and total contact ratio.g ≡ pb. The gear and the pinion rotate about their axes Og and Op. that is. Generally speaking. The following expression is valid for the contact ratios: mt = mp + mF (2. respectively. at least one pair of teeth must be engaged in mesh at every instant of time. transverse (or profile) contact ratio. The transverse pressure angle in the gear pair is φt. no other conditions of gearing need to be verified. that are synchronized with each other. ωg and ωp.3) To transmit a continuous rotation from a driving shaft to a driven shaft. mp. the condition that requires the equality of the base pitches.g ≡ pb. The plane of action. . mt. The number of pairs of teeth simultaneously engaged in mesh is specified by the contact ratio of the gear pair. is the most general one. PA.9 where an ideal (geometrically accurate) parallel-axis gear pair is schematically shown. that is. This means that Conclusion 2.p ≡ pb.g and db. mF. pb.4) in addition to the three fundamental conditions just considered.4  Contact Ratio in a Gear Pair To transmit a continuous rotation from a driving shaft to a driven shaft. The transmission of the rotation is interrupted when this condition is violated.op (or simply pb. In order to specify the transverse contact ratio.Conditions for Transmitting a Rotation Smoothly 39 When base pitches of the gear and the mating pinion are equal to the oper- ating base pitch of the gear pair. and the condition of conjugacy of the tooth flanks G and P of the gear and the mating pinion.op and pb. The gears rotate with the angular velocities.

in a parallel-axis gear pair is equal Zpa mp = (2.g Og ϕt Vlc ωp PA LCi+1 Feff LCi pb. These two lines form an effec- tive portion of the plane of action in the form of a rectangle. mp. The length of the effective portion of the plane of action is the so-called the length of action Zpa. mp.g and do. The effective width of the plane of action is Feff.9 Definition of the transverse contact ratio. can be expressed in terms of the design parameters of the gear pair.op FIGURE 2.p of the gear and the pinion intersect the plane of action. along two straight lines. in the ideal (geometrically accurate) Pa -gearing.40 High-Conformal Gearing The plane of action intersects the plane through the axes Og and Op along the pitch line P. The outer diameters do.9 reveals how the length of action. the face contact ratio. the equality mt = mp is always observed. Zpa. PA.p do. Elementary analysis of the schematic depicted in Figure 2.g Op L C PA ωp P do. C db.5) pb.p db. . By definition.op In spur involute gearing.

Conditions for Transmitting a Rotation Smoothly 41 px LCi+1 pb.10 Definition of the face contact ratio. In the case of helical gearing.. mp. the face contact ratio can be calculated from the following formula (Figure 2. is equal to the summa mt = mp + mF. mt. needs to be taken into account when deter- mining the total contact ratio of the gear pair.op LCi Zpa ψb PA Feff FIGURE 2. mF. In any and all gearings. mF. The total contact ratio of a gear pair. in addition to the transverse contact ratio. . the so-called face contact ratio.e. By definition.6) px where Feff is the effective face width of the gear pair and px is the axial pitch of the gear teeth. the total contact ratio is always greater than 1 (i. the inequality mt ≥ 1 is always observed). in the ideal (geometrically accurate) Pa -gearing.10): Feff mF = (2.

the gear teeth do not need to have special shapes. mt ≥ 1) that allows us to pro- ceed with the analysis of the concept of conformal gearing (of Novikov gear- ing. He meant that.1  with a Zero Transverse Contact Ratio Novikov gearing and. or N-gearing for simplicity). the following have been discussed: three fundamental conditions that all geometrically accurate (ideal) gearings need to satisfy.7 later in the chapter). M. and only one point of the involute tooth profile is left. if a gear is made helical then the helix itself can ensure uniform angular motion and tooth profiles can then be chosen with a view to minimizing contact stresses. Novikov carried out his research in the field of conformal gearing.3 Conformal Gearing: Novikov Gearing In the previous section of the book. more generally.L. Because of this.. both conformal (Novikov) gearing and Hc -gearing meet the conditions one through three discussed in Chapter 2. It should be noted from the very beginning that conformal gearing as well as Hc -gearing are the degenerate cases of involute gearing. they can feature the involute tooth point geometry. as well as feature the total contact ratio mt ≥ 1. the mating tooth profiles must be either involute or. conformal gearing can be construed as a degenerate case of involute gearing when the involute tooth profile is trun- cated. 43 . to the operating base pitch of the gear pair is the principal feature of Novikov gear- ing that distinguishes it from helical noninvolute gearing of other types. rotational motion. This point is referred to as the involute tooth point (see Figure 3. and to then evolve the concept of conformal gearing to the concept of high-conformal gearing (further. Novikov Gearing: A Helical Involute Gearing 3. the consideration of the contact ratio in a gear pair (i. in a degener- ate case. he loosely assumed that to transmit a uniform. such as the involute of a circle. This is incorrect: to transmit a rotation smoothly. Hc -gearing for simplicity).e. Novikov gearing is a type of helical gearing that has a zero transverse con- tact ratio. The equality of the base pitch of the gear and the pinion. the total contact ratio mt must always be greater than 1. When Prof.

As early as 1955. as well as can be time dependent. The author’s familiarity with the practice of defending the doctoral thesis adopted in the former Soviet Union allows an assumption that the concept of Novikov gearing had been proposed in the late 1940s. if mating teeth are conformal. one is convex and the other concave. Unfortunately. The concept of Novikov gearing is discussed in detail in the two aforementioned valuable sources [18. Novikov was granted with the patent [23]. Novikov. However. After M. none of them is quoted by gear experts in western countries or in the USA. Novikov [23].44 High-Conformal Gearing It is customary to associate Novikov gearing* with the patent Gear Pairs and Cam Mechanisms Having Point System of Meshing [23].19]. V. and all gear tooth profiles in the past have been convex.L. Hobs for cutting Novikov gears were proposed later on by Prof. . which provides a vigor- ous hydrodynamic action.N. Evidence can be found out in the scientific literature revealing the unfamiliarity of the gear commu- nity around the world with this original publication [23] on Novikov gearing (see Appendix A for details).) Another factor that contributes to the high load capacity of conformal gears is that they sustain a thicker film of lubricant. by a disk-type milling cutter. and greater circular forces are permitted by the proposed gearing.L. stress for a given load can be reduced.1) [19]. comparable values of the remaining design parameters. This makes it possible to conclude that gear experts around the world are not familiar with these two valuable sources of information on Novikov gearing. similar dimensions. a monograph by him was published (Figure 3. but not limited to. Gearing of this type features higher contact strength due to the favorable curvatures of the interacting tooth flanks. M. 15 gear pairs were machined in the summer of 1954 by the disk-type milling cutter. 3. External and internal gearing of the pro- posed system of meshing is possible.L.1. owing to the rapid rolling of the areas of contact along the helix. Under equiva- lent contact stress. This point is made clear by the photographs of photoelastic models shown in Figure 3.1  Essence of Novikov Gearing Novikov gearing was developed with the intent to increase the contact strength of the gear teeth. For testing. a heavier load can be carried for the same amount of stress. The shape of the gear teeth designed to transmit power is traditionally based on the involute curve. (The discussion in this section of the book mostly follows Dr.L. before the invention applica- tion was filed. that is. Novikov gearing [23] is developed for. The tooth ratio of the proposed gearing can be of either constant or a variable value. a doctoral thesis [18] on the subject had been defended by M.2. Novikov. parallel-axis gear trains. alternatively. Kudryavtsev (as early as 1956). 1954. gear pairs featuring intersected-axis and gear pairs that have crossed axes of the rotations of gears can be designed on the basis of the concept proposed by M. However. * The first pair of Novikov gearing made of aluminum alloy (a preprototype) was cut on April 25.

In this figure. Gearing with a Novel Type of Meshing..) Possible geometries of tooth profiles of the Novikov gearing are schemati- cally shown in Figure 3. The axis passes through the current point of contact of the tooth flanks. M.Conformal Gearing 45 FIGURE 3. 1958. a section of the tooth flank intersected by a plane perpendicular to the instant axis of relative rotation is shown. The points of intersection of the . 186pp. (Adapted from Novikov.3. Zhukovskii Aviation Engineering Academy.L.3.1 Title page of the Novikov’s (1958) monograph. In Figure 3. the point of intersection of the planar section by the axis of instant relative rotation is denoted by P. Gearing with a Novel Type of Teeth Meshing. Moscow.

Novikov. ДAД (i.L. ДAД (The notations in Figure 3.46 High-Conformal Gearing FIGURE 3. ДAД. Ultimately. Multiple curves denoted by BAB illustrate examples of possible tooth pro- files of one of the mating gears. All the tooth profiles. The circle corresponds with the limiting case of the tooth profiles (in the case that the profiles are aligned to each other). A point. * The circle of a radius rN centered at the pitch point.P. Radzevich.e. which are located inside the limiting circular arc. The line of action is denoted by PA. A.. P. All the curves denoted by BAB are arbitrary smooth regular curves.2 Comparison of distribution of contact stress: (a) an equivalent involute gearing and (b) Novikov gearing. . He proposed to refer to this circle as to the boundary Novikov circle or just as N-circle in honor of Prof.L.L. was introduced in recent years by Prof. is the point of meshing (in its current location). the inventor of Novikov gearing. all the arcs BAB are situated within the bodily side of the limiting tooth flank of one of the gears). BAB.3 are mostly due to Dr. The concept of the boundary N-circle was not known to M. planar section by the axes of the gear and the pinion are designated as O1 and O2. M. S. P. feature a high degree of conformity to the limiting circular arc. M. Novikov) is the circle* centering at the pitch point. Novikov.

Patent 109.. and a correspond- ing coordinate system is associated with the pinion. The following requirements should be fulfilled so that surfaces can be used as the tooth flanks of Novikov gearing: • At every location of the point of contact. .113. Filed: April 19. The location and orientation of either the straight path of contact or a smooth curved path of contact is specified in a space in which the location and orientation of the axes of rotations of the gear and the pinion are given. which are located outside the limiting circular arc. The path of contact is located reasonably close to the axis of instant relative rotation of the gears. Either constant or time-dependent (smoothly varying in time) speed of motion of the point of contact along the path of contact is assigned. USSR.e. All the curves CAC fea- ture a high degree of conformity to the circular arc. is intro- duced later on by Dr. the tooth flanks should have a common perpendicular and.. the requirements of conjugacy of meshing should be satisfied. Certain smooth regular surfaces through these lines can be used as tooth flanks of the gear and the pinion.L. M. the boundary Novikov circle of a radius.) Multiple curves denoted by CAC illustrate examples of possible tooth pro- files of the second mating gears. S.3 Concept of Novikov gearing. 10. All the curves denoted by CAC are arbitrary smooth regular curves.Conformal Gearing 47 ϕt The boundary Novikov circle O1 P L C O2 B C rN B A C LAinst C FIGURE 3. all the arcs denoted by CAC are located within the bodily side of the limiting tooth flank of the second of two gears). 1957. Radzevich. thus. pub- lished in Bulletin of Inventions No. One of the lines is associated with the gear and another is associated with the pinion.P. 6. (After Novikov. Gear Pairs and Cam Mechanisms Having Point System of Meshing. the moving contact point traces contact lines. In each of the coordinate systems. 1956. A coordinate system is associated with the gear. ДAД. ДAД (i. National Classification 47h. rN.

In addition. For another (mating) gear. It should be borne in mind that during the run-in period of time. the tooth profile should be located outside the circular arc. Friction and wear losses are proportional to the relative sliding velocity in the gear mesh.e. LAinst. which is perpen- dicular to the instant axis of relative rotation. Point contact of the tooth flanks is preferred when designing tooth profiles. it is not mandatory that tooth profiles have circular-arc shapes. The centers of both profiles in this particular case are situated at the axis of instant rela- tive rotation. whereas that of the other tooth flank is concave (in the direction toward the axis of instant relative rotation). In such a scenario. If two surfaces are generated by the moving curves BAB and CAC. it is desirable to reduce the sliding velocity as much as possible. A small difference between the radii of curvature of the tooth profiles is desirable. • No tooth flank interference is allowed within the working portions of the surfaces. speed of the point and its trajec- tory) should be chosen so as to minimize losses caused by friction and wear. which centers at a point within the axis of instant relative rotation as shown in Figure 3. the point contact is substituted by a special type of “line” contact. On the other hand. The arc centers are located within the line of action and close to the pitch point.. For this purpose. In a particular case. the radii of the tooth profiles can be of the same magnitude and equal to the distance from the contact point to the axis of instant relative rotation. Tooth profiles of another geometries (those always passing through the contact point) should be situated (for one gear) within the interior of the aforementioned circular-arc profile. Under all circumstances. the theoretical point contact of tooth flanks is retained. the path of contact should not be too far from the axis of instant relative rotation. The tooth flanks are generated as the loci of tooth profiles constructed for all possible loca- tions of the contact point. Therefore. it is . Consider a plane through the current contact point. the centers of curvature of both convex and concave tooth profile are located within the instant line of action. point contact of gear teeth transforms to the aforementioned line contact of tooth profiles. Construct two circular arcs centered at points within the straight line through the pitch point and the contact point. The working portion of one of two tooth flanks is convex. ДAД.3. However. The law of motion of the contact point (i. This requires the center distance to be extremely accurate and independent of the operation conditions. it is also not desirable that the path of contact be too close to the axis of instant relative rotation as this reduces the contact strength of the gear tooth flanks.48 High-Conformal Gearing • The curvatures of the tooth profiles should correspond to each other. which is impractical. then the aforementioned requirements are fulfilled and the surfaces can be employed as tooth flanks for Novikov gearing. The constructed circular arcs can be considered as examples of the tooth profiles of the gear and the pinion. ДAД. Generally speaking.

and they can be cut on machine tools available in the market. Tooth thicknesses and tooth pitch are assigned so as to ensure the required bending strength of the teeth.” whereas those of the sec- ond type are referred to as “N bf-gears. is often referred to as the point of culmination. An example of parallel-axis gearing with a limiting geometry of tooth profiles is illustrated in Figure 3. the radii of curvature of the tooth profiles in all sections of the tooth flank by planes are equal.3. do not interact with one another* (Figure 3. French proposed [11] to refer to this point as culmination. The tooth flanks in this case are regular screw surfaces. The curved contact line is situated across the tooth profile. The speed of the contact point as it moves along the straight path of contact can be constant. G and P. The path of contact can be located either before or beyond the pitch point. G and P. the teeth of the gear and the pinion are of helical shape.4). in a common transverse section. intersect the line of action. mF. The point contact of the tooth flanks in this particular case is transformed to the line contact. it is preferable to use a straight line as the path of contact. When axial thrust in the gear pair is strongly undesirable. the tooth profiles. LAinst. . * Owing to this. K. Novikov used to refer to these trajectories as to the contact lines. The opposite sides of the tooth profiles are designed in a manner similar to that just discussed.” The proposed method for generation of the tooth surfaces by Novikov is based on the trajectories of the points of contact between the tooth flanks. G. Gear pairs can feature either one point of contact (when working portions of the tooth flank contact each other at just one point. The face width of the gear or length of the gear teeth should correlate with their pitch so as to ensure the required value of the face contact ratio. To ensure continuous contact between the tooth flanks. The method of generation of tooth flanks proposed by Novikov can be referred to as the contact lines method. The straight line is parallel to the axes of rotations of the gear and the pinion.J. [14]. herringbone gears can be used instead. G and P. P. P. A more detailed explanation of the early concept of Novikov gearing can be found in the book by Krasnoschokov et al. excluding the phases of the teeth re-engagement) or multiple contact points (when tooth flanks contact each other at several points simultaneously). Gears featuring tooth flanks of such geometry are easier to manufacture.Conformal Gearing 49 recommended to ensure favorable angles between the common perpendicu- lar (along which the tooth flanks of one of the gears act against the tooth flanks of the other gear) and the axes of rotations of the gears. Tooth profiles contact each other only at an instant of time when the tooth profiles of both the gear. For parallel-axis gear pairs. The point of contact. of the tooth flanks. and the pinion. In this particular case. M. Novikov gears of the first type are commonly referred to as “N by-gears. At all instants of time before and after this instant.

Ppc. G and P. the point of contact travels axially along the gears while remaining at the same radial position on both gear and pinion teeth. K. P. Because of the gears are helical and of opposite hands. Both the pinion and gear are helical.50 High-Conformal Gearing ωp OP RP L C Dr rg LAinst rp = l Or P K ϕt Rg ωg P K FIGURE 3. When rotation is transmitted from a driving shaft to a driven shaft. G. of the gear pair is equal to the total contact ratio (mF = mt). mF. is a straight line through the contact point.e. Ppc. of a Novikov gear pair is zero. mp.. For parallel axes con- figuration. all paths of contact. Pc. comprise a pseudo path of contact. one of them is right-handed. The helices are of opposite hands. It is therefore fundamental to the operation of the gears that contact occurs nominally at a point and the point of contact travels axially across the full face width of the gears during a rotation. and the other is left handed. in a Novikov gear pair. Ppc (and it does not . (mp ≡ 0). is parallel to the axes Og and Op as illus- trated in Figure 3. Pc. is motionless. Ppc. The pseudo path of contact. The pseudo path of contact.4 Interaction between the tooth flanks of the gear. and is always greater than 1 (mF > 1). In every transverse section of the gear pair.5. namely. This is because the length Lpc of the path of contact. and the pinion. Lpc ≡ 0). The transverses contact ratio. K. the contact point. in every transverse section of the gear pair is zero (i. K. the contact point. No spur Novikov gearing is feasible in nature. It should be stated as a condition of operation of Novikov gearing that for a given profile tooth surfaces should not interfere before or after culmination when rotated at angular speeds that are in the gear ratio. The face contact ratio. travels along the pseudo path of contact.

Ppc. let us assume that Wildhaber had correctly understood the benefits of his inven- tion. Wildhaber [22] should be referred to as Wildhaber gearing. Chironis. Figure 1. as well as to most of his con- tributions. “Novikov-type gears are similar to those developed by E. being a smart gear expert. travel within the transverse cross-section of the gear pair). “Gearing with Point System of Meshing” by M. further. Og and Op. “Helical Gearing” in the patent by E. the gear pair that was manufactured .23] must be referred to as Novikov gear- ing. This is because the transverse contact ratio is zero (mp ≡ 0) and the face contact ration is greater than 1 (mF > 1). as mentioned earlier in this section.” Reference 6 is incorrect. that Wildhaber’s statement “all the characteristics of the Novikov gearing are anticipated by my pat- ent. which is incorrect. is also incorrect. Then.” as quoted in the work by Chironis [6].   With the great respect to personality of Ernest Wildhaber. parallel to the axes of rotation. for a Novikov gear pair. why did he not promote the invention in a practical application? Did he have no opportunities to do so? Definitely. From Chapter 1.5 Configuration of the pseudo path of contact. “Helical Gearing” [22].L. The comparison of Wildhaber gearing and Novikov gearing (see Appendix A for details) makes it possible to realize that the conclusion made by N. Wildhaber in the early 1920s (see p.7. Finally. Novikov [18. 135. although a pair of gears was made in the 1920s. My gearing never had a real test here. he had!! According to the author’s personal opinion. the terms “Wildhaber–Novikov gearing” or “W–N gearing” must be recognized as meaningless terms. that is.19. and both terms need to be eliminated from the engineering literature.Conformal Gearing 51 Og ωg ωg Pln LAinst Ppc K ϕt C P ωp ωpl ωp L C Op FIGURE 3.* * Many gear engineers around the world loosely refer to Novikov gearing as Wildhaber–Novikov gearing or simply W–N gearing. of the gear and the pinion accordingly.

for example. (as Wildhaber mentioned) never worked. and operating base pitch. No.g and db. Pat.p.n ωg K1 Ppc Op c VK Feff c Og K2 Pln pb. and the operating base pitch of the gear pair are referred to as the fundamental design parameters of conformal gearing.p Pg P Pp Ng Np L C db. normal base pitch. No.g ϕt Zpa ≡ 0 Og rN pb. and not for Novikov gearing. it is possible to interpret the kinematics of this gearing in the same way as those for parallel-axis involute gearing that have zero width of the field of action (Zpa = 0).op. in parallel- axis Novikov gearing. schematically shown in Figure 3.U. from 1926 till 1956? Why did he wait for the Novikov invention?   It is likely that the unfamiliarity with the original publications by Novikov [18. Interested readers may wish to investigate this matter on their own.19. Much evidence to this end can be found in the literature on Novikov gearing. Pb. db. [8] referred to S.n.op ψK FIGURE 3.1. Because conformal gearing features a zero transverse contact ratio (mp ≡ 0).2  Fundamental Design Parameters of Conformal Gearing The base diameters of the gear and the pinion. their base pitches. S. Pat. 3. 109.p do.750 was issued for a water sprayer. pb.52 High-Conformal Gearing ωp do. In reality. 109. Where had Wildhaber been for about 30 years. The reason for this is clear to us now.6. .750 as the patent on Novikov gearing.23] of gear engineers in western Europe and the USA is the main reason for the incorrect reference to Novikov gearing.6 Base cylinders. Dyson et al.U.g Op Vpa db.

ψb. equations db.3 and 3. in the case under consideration is given by pb = px sin ψ b (3. are expressed in terms of the transverse pressure angle. the pres- sure angle. the pitch diameter of the gear.p.4. Finally. respectively.p of the gear and the pinion. dp. db. pb. base diameters.1) u+1 C dp = 2 (3. in a conformal gearing can be calcu- lated from the following formula: pb. φt. and the pinion. the pitch helix angle is denoted by ψ. ψb. In parallel-axis gearing.5) In Equation 3. u.4) are used for the calculation of base diameters db. the line of contact forms a base helix angle. pb. φt. is identical to the pressure angle in the involute parallel-axis gearing.g and db. the operating base pitch.5. C. Base pitch.op = px tan ψ b (3.3) db. The base pitch helix angle.g and db. dg. In Equations 3. of the gear and the pinion. and tooth ratio. Within the plane of action.2) u+1 Then. are calculated by the following conventional for- mulas [38]: C dg = 2u (3. g = dg cos φt (3. the length of the line of contact of their tooth flanks shrinks to zero. Because conformal gears feature zero width of the field of action (Zpa = 0).6) where px is the axial pitch of the teeth in a conformal gearing. with the axis of instant rotation.Conformal Gearing 53 For a given center distance. Although the length of the line of contact is zero. Pln.op.7) . the direction of the line of contact remains the same. can be calculated from the following formula: ψ b = tan −1(tan ψ cos φt ) (3. p = dp cos φt (3.

px. G.p. then there must be at least two portions of the desirable line of contact.1 through 3. NgNp is the total length of the plane of action. or a straight line at the base helix angle ψb to the axes Og and Op as in helical involute gearing. For the illustrative purposes. .2 Transition from Involute Gearing to Conformal (Novikov) Parallel-Axis Gearing In parallel-axis geometrically accurate (ideal or perfect) involute gearing. Points Pg and Pp are the points of intersection of the straight line NgNp by the outer circle of the pinion of a radius ro.7 and the corresponding set of equations for parallel-axis involute gearing reveal that both gear sys- tems originate from a common concept. In involute helical Pa -gearing. ψb. Ultimately. PA.1 The axial pitch. are not constructed yet) is a straight-line segment that forms a base helix angle. LC.7. The line of contact is a planar curve of a reason- able geometry that is entirely located within the plane of action. Pln (the desirable lines of con- tact of other geometries are not discussed here).54 High-Conformal Gearing The similarities between Equations 3. between the tooth flank of the gear G and the pinion P (remember that the tooth flanks. LC. the desirable line of contact. Referred to Figure 3. 3.7b). of the gear and the pinion interact with each other only within the active portion of the plane of action. the active portion of the plane of action. P. is of a smaller length Zpa (Figure 3. This makes it possible a definition for the axial pitch. This is the length of the straight-line segment PgPp.7a. in a parallel-axis gear pair is equal to the distance between points of intersection of two adjacent desirable lines of contact. PA. make contact along the line of contact. px. with the axis of instant rotation. In reality. the tooth flank of the gear. It can also be a circular arc or an arc of a spiral curve. of a tooth flank in a helical Pa -gearing: Definition 3. This could be either a straight line parallel to the axes of rotation of the gear and the pinion as in spur involute gearing.g accordingly. The teeth flanks. an example of the active portion of the plane of action is depicted in Figure 3. LC. As the contact ratio in a gear pair must be greater than 1. and the tooth flank of the pinion. and by the outer circle of the gear of a radius ro. or a curve of other reasonable geom- etry. the active portion of the plane of action is a rectangle of the size Zpa × Fpa. LC. G and P. G and P. within the active portion of the plane of action. by a straight line parallel to the axis of instant rotation Pln.

LC.g rb.Conformal Gearing 55 (a) ωp rf.8) tan ψ b Equation 3.g and db. One of the reference systems is associated with the . travels (together with the plane of action. px: pt px = (3.p Op rp C ro.8 is valid for all types of Pa -gearing capable of transmitting a rotation smoothly.p Pg P Pp Ng Np K PA rf. When the base cylinders of diameters db.p ϕt rb. The following expression can be used for the calculation of the axial pitch. the desirable line of contact. PA) in relation to two reference systems.7 Elements of a parallel-axis gear pair featuring zero transverse contact ratio (mp = 0).p rotate.g rg ωg ro.g C sinϕt Og pt (b) b PA LC Zpa Feff px a ψb ψ b Zpa d (c) Feff PA LC c a ψb Zpa b K d (d) VK K Feff Ppc c a ψb l FIGURE 3.

9) The point system of Pa -gearing that is illustrated in Figure 3. and the active portion of the involute tooth profile shrinks to the point K (proper selection of the distance PK = l is considered below). In such a scenario (i. In the example illustrated in Figure 3. the transverse contact ratio mp becomes zero. thus this gives a certain freedom when selecting the geometry of nonactive portions aK and bK of the tooth profile. This particular case of Pa -gearing is illustrated in Figure 3. In such a motion. G. the radii rEAP for the gear and the pinion are not labeled there). For both members of a gear pair.7b. Because of this.56 High-Conformal Gearing gear. In conformal . In the extreme case. To meet the inequality mt ≥ 1. The SAP-point c.. As these portions of the tooth profile do not interact with one another. and of the pinion. the active portion of the plane of action becomes narrower. P. G (as well as the tooth flank of the pinion. the EAP-circles of the gear and the pinion can pass through a certain point K within the straight-line segment PgPp. ab. These portions are not subjected to conditions of meshing of tooth profiles. All three con- ditions for geometrically accurate (ideal) gearing along with the requirement mt ≥ 1 can be ignored for the nonactive portions of the tooth profile of the gear. and the involute tooth profile is shrunk to a point. the radius rEAP of the EAP-circle can be smaller than the outer radius of the gear ro.g (or than the outer radius of the pinion ro. the following inequality must be satisfied: mt = mp + mF = 0 + mF = mF > 0 (3. in the case illustrated in Figure 3. ro. the length ZPA of the active portion of the plane of action becomes zero (ZPA = 0).e. and the EAP-point d become closer to one another: the active portion cd of the involute tooth profile is shorter than that.7c. The non- active portions aK and bK of the tooth profile meet each other at the point K.p). respectively. and another one is associated with the pinion. Point a corresponds to the start-of- active-profile point (SAP-point). for example. while point b corresponds to the end-of-active- profile point (EAP-point). This gives a certain freedom when selecting the geometry of nonactive portions ac and bd of the tooth profile. As the width of the active portion of the plane of action is zero (ZPA = 0). illustrated in Figure 3. for the gear and the pinion. P) can be construed as a family of consecutive positions of the desirable line of contact in the ­corresponding reference system.g and ro. the tooth flank of the gear.7d gives much freedom when designing nonactive portions of tooth profiles of the gear and the pinion as the geometry of these portions is free of constraints imposed by conditions of meshing of two conjugate tooth profiles. of the gear.7b. the geom- etry of the segments ac and bd is not restricted by the conditions of meshing of the tooth profiles (which is the must for the active portion cd). that is. because of chamfer- ing. the active portion ab of the invo- lute tooth profile is specified by the radii of the outer cylinders of the gear and of the pinion.7d.p.

this feature is used to increase the contact strength of the gear and the pinion. The involute gear/pinion tooth profile truncated to point K is a degener- ate case of the involute tooth profile that conformal gearings feature. The above discussion reveals that no tooth flank modification is permis- sible in Novikov gearing. then the rotations can be treated as vectors. if special care is undertaken. The rest of the tooth profile is inactive and can be designed independently of conditions of interaction of tooth profiles. The magnitude ωg of the rotation vector ωg equals (a) Op ωg Ap ωp –ωg rp Pln P C ωpl rg CL ωg Ag ωp Og (b) db.8 Vector diagram of a parallel-axis gear pair (a). In the vec- tor diagram (Figure 3.8).3  Kinematics of Parallel-Axis Gearing For a parallel-axis gearing. This degenerate tooth profile is referred to as the involute tooth point.g Og ωg FIGURE 3. a vector diagram can be constructed. . Neither profile modification nor crowning is allowed in Novikov gearing.Conformal Gearing 57 gearing. However. p ωp ϕt Op PA P db. the rotation vector* of the gear ωg is along the axis of rotation Og of the gear. 3. * It should be stressed here that a rotation in nature is not a vector at all. and a transverse cross-section (b).

The axis Pln intersects the center-line ℄ at the pitch point P.8b. rg and rp. The magnitudes. the ratio of the pitch radii is reciprocal to the ratio of the angular velocities in the gear pair. is always equals Σ = 0° in all cases of internal Pa -gearing). that is. Because the identity ωg + (−ωg) ≡ 0 is valid. that is rg ωp = (3.13) The radii rg and rp are signed values. and the pitch point P is at a distance rp from the axis of rotation Op of the pinion. Pln.14) rp ωg The said allows proceeding to construction of the plane of action. is referred to as crossed-axis angle. The radii. In a case of external Pa -gearing. respectively. of the gear pair as illustrated in Figure 3.11) The angle.12) The vector of instant rotation. Og and Op. are apart from one another at a center distance C. are rotated together with the rotation vector −ωg. The rotation vectors. and ωpl. is always equals Σ = 180° (and the angle. Σ. The rotation vector of the mating pinion ωp is along the axis of rotation Op of the pinion. the gear becomes stationary under the additional rotation.8a is the vector diagram of the parallel-axis gear pair that is composed on the premises of the rotation vectors ωg. ωpl. relate to one another as ωp u= (3. Shown in Figure 3. The principle of inversion of rotations can be implemented to a Pa -gearing. −ωg. PA. ωg and ωp. along the pitch line. Σ. Og and Op. ωp. Summa of the radii rg and rp equals to the center distance. C rg + rp = C (3.58 High-Conformal Gearing to ωg = |ωg|. form an angle Σ. The magnitude ωp of the rotation vector ωp is ωp = |ωp|. Let us assume that both the axes of the rotations. The pinion is rotated with the rotation ω pl = (ω p − ω g ) (3. ω p ) (3. They are positive in all cases of exter- nal gearing. .10) ωg The axes. ωg and ωp. are the pitch radii of the gear and the pinion. and the radius rg is negative in a case of internal gearing. Σ. that is Σ = ∠(ω g . the angle. of the pinion in relation to the gear is along the axis of instant rotation. The pitch point P is at a distance rg from the axis of rotation Og of the gear. As the ratio u = ωp/ωg is valid in Pa -gearing.

with the perpendicular to the plane through the axes of rotation.15 and 3.15) db. in a parallel-axis gearing is a plane through the axis of instant rotation.8 clearly shows that a motion of the pinion in relation of the motionless gear is an instant rotation of the pinion about the pitch line Pln.17) Ng Np Here. as illustrated in Figure 3. overlap each other. ϕt. db.g and db. Fg. db. respectively.5  Boundary N-Circle in Conformal Gearing A performed analysis of the vector diagram for a Pa-gearing shown in Figure 3.g.16 can be used for the derivation of an expression for the calcula- tion of the base pitch. Once the base cylinders are determined.p. Fp. of the gear and the pinion.8b. 3.4  Plane of Action in Parallel-Axis Gearing The plane of action. in a transverse cross-section of the gear pair: πdb.16) In Pa-gearing. the tooth count of the gear and the pinion are designated as Ng and Np. a motion of the gear in relation of the motionless pinion is an instant rotation of the gear about the pitch line Pln. . p = 2rp cos φt (3. Either of the Equations 3. The base diam- eter of the gear. and the face width of the pinion. pb. Width Feff of the rectangle equals to the length within which the face width of the gear. the rectangle is bounded by two straight lines of tan- gency of the plane of action with each of two base cylinders of diameters db. the transmission of a rotation from the driving member to the driven member of the gear pair can be interpreted with the help of the so-called belt-and-pulley analogy. and the transverse pressure angle. PA. Similarly. and that of the pinion. This plane forms a trans- verse pressure angle. rg and rp. p pb = = (3. between the tooth flanks of the gear and the pinion. ϕt: db. Equation 3. In lengthwise direction. g πdb. of the pitch cylinders. g = 2rg cos φt (3. Og and Op.17 is valid for all types of Pa -gearing capable of transmitting a rotation smoothly. the plane of action is shaped in the form of a rectangle. It can therefore be drawn up that every point of contact.Conformal Gearing 59 3.p. K. can be expressed in terms of the radii. Pln. respectively. G and P.

the concept of the so-called boundary Novikov circle was introduced by Dr. are the pitch radii (OgP = rg and OpP = rp) of the con- formal gear pair. Op. into two segments. respectively. OgP and OpP. . from the pitch point. are at a certain center distance. The procedure of constructing a boundary N-circle for a conformal gear pair is briefly outlined next. If the straight line segments. The projection of the instant line of action onto the transverse plane remains stationary as the transverse contact ratio in conformal gearing and Hc -gearing is zero. because it travels in the axial direction together with the contact point. Novikov gearing) and high-­conformal gearing (Hc -gearing) is referred to as the instant line of action. The * The line of action. is subdivided by point. as schematically depicted in Figure 3.60 High-Conformal Gearing ϕt LAinst K rg ωg ωp –l L C Op P Og rN +l rp Boundary N-circle K C FIGURE 3. One of the circular arcs is associated with the gear. The straight instant line of action. P. OgP and OpP. K. are within the straight line. S.P. then the equality rg/rp = u is observed. from each other. ±l. The boundary Novikov circle is commonly referred to as the boundary N-circle.* LAinst. in cases of conformal gearing (i. Consider two axes of rotations of the gear.9. P. Based on this consideration. The point. and the pinion. The center distance. and another one is associated with the pinion. ϕt. The gear ratio in the conformal gear pair is equal to u = ωp/ωg. in the design of a parallel-axis conformal gear pair. both denoted by K. P.. C. Two points. and are displaced at a certain distance. The axes of rotations. traces a circular arc that is centered at the pitch point.e. is at the transverse pressure angle. P.9 A boundary N-circle in a conformal parallel-axis gear pair. when the gears rotate. Radzevich [38]. LAinst. Og and Op. with respect to the perpendicular to the centerline. The ratio of the lengths of the straight line segments OgP and OpP is reciprocal to the gear ratio. Og. through the pitch point. is the pitch point of the conformal gear pair. The gear and the pinion are rotated about the axes Og and Op. LAinst. OgOp. LA. C. u. P. and the rotations are labeled as ωg and ωp. of the conformal gear pair.

A transverse section of a conformal gear pair is subdivided by a Novikov circle of radius rN = |l| into two areas. l. K. of the rotations of the gear and the pinion. that is. K. traces a circle within the corresponding transverse section of the gear pair. Og and Op. . for simplicity) is a circle centered at the pitch point of a parallel-axis conformal gearing. Pln. is one of the important geometrical parameters of conformal gearing. * Radius of the Novikov circle is designated as rN. It is clear from this consideration how the boundary N-circle of radius l can be constructed. This distance. The boundary circle of a radius rN is referred to as a boundary Novikov-circle of a conformal gear pair or simply as N-circle. the gear can be assumed stationary. the paths of contact are displaced at a reasonably short distance from the axis of instant rota- tion. The obsolete designation l was used by Dr. The path of contact that is located before the pitch point (in the direction of rotation of the gears) features a negative displacement.2 A boundary Novikov circle (or. the displacement. then. P. A conformal gear mesh of this type is referred to as the Nbf-mesh of conformal gear pair. and the area within the exterior of the boundary circle of the radius rN (includ- ing points within the circle itself) represents the area of feasible shapes of tooth profiles of the second mating gear. Similarly. K. from the pitch line. Novikov for the displacement of the contact point. the contact point. A conformal gear mesh of this type is referred to as the Nby-mesh of conformal gear pair. the equality rN = |l| is always observed. The path of contact that is located beyond the pitch point. a boundary N-circle. of the paths of contact from the pitch point P. +l. Definition 3. Let us imagine that the pinion is motionless. The strength of the gear teeth and the performance of the conformal gear pair strongly depend on the actual value of the displacement. P (in the direc- tion of rotation of the gears) features a positive displacement. In real- ity. that is. Pln. then. This circle is also centered at the pitch point. that is. In order to avoid violation of the conditions of meshing. −l. P. traces a circle within that same trans- verse section of the gear pair. the contact point.L. the radius of which is equal to the distance of the point of contact of the tooth flanks of the gear and the pinion from the pitch point of the gear pair.* The area within the interior of the boundary circle of a radius rN (including points within the boundary circle itself) repre- sents the area of feasible shapes of the tooth profiles of one of the mating gears. as well as to target wear reduction and reduction of friction losses. M. The circle is centered at the pitch point. l.Conformal Gearing 61 paths of contact are the two straight lines through the points K parallel to the axes.

as well as the tooth flank of the mating pinion. In other words. Because of this. of the boundary N-circle (RP  ≤ rN). The tooth profile* of the pinion addendum is a convex segment of a smooth regular curve. of the gear and the pinion. not any arc of a smooth regular curve can be used as tooth profile of the pin- ion addendum. G. Geometrically. P ia. an arc of an ellipse (at one of its apexes). P. the profile of the pin- ion addendum can be shaped in the form of a circular arc of radius rN. through the contact point. that is.10b) of a conformal gear pair. The radius of curvature. RP . The displacement. an arc of the boundary N-circle can be used as the tooth profile of the gear. This case of the pinion addendum profile is the limiting one. Archimedean * Recall that the active portion of the tooth profile in conformal gearing is limited to the ­so-called involute point. there is a certain freedom for the gear designer in selecting the geometry of the inactive portions of the tooth flanks of the gear and the pinion. In practice. a corresponding N-cylinder can be assigned to any and all parallel-axis conformal gear pair.6  Possible Tooth Geometries in Conformal Gearing Designing of the mating tooth profiles for a conformal (Novikov) gear pair begins with the construction of the boundary N-circle. G and P. P ia (i = 1. Pln. and cycloidal profile containing its apex are examples of applicable curves for addendum tooth profiles. The rest of the gear and the pinion tooth profiles are not active.10. The pinion addendum profile is entirely located within the interior of the boundary N-circle. Spiral curves (involute of a circle. of the pin- ion addendum intersects the boundary N-circle. 3. can both be generated by that same arc of the boundary N-circle. is positive (l > 0) for the pinion addendum. It should be stressed here that none of the feasible profiles. the tooth flank of the gear. the boundary N-circle of a radius rN is constructed for the pinion tooth profile (Figure 3. of the addendum profile is equal to or less than the radius. In Figure 3. when all the deviations are zero. The circular arc. they do not interact with each other. l. which is mostly of theoretical interest. rN.10a) and the mating gear tooth profile (Figure 3. The axis of rotation of the N-cylinder is aligned with the axis of instant rotation. 2. which is of theoreti- cal interest. The case of equality RP  = rN is the limiting case.…). as well as the tooth profile of the pinion. Therefore. .62 High-Conformal Gearing It is the right point to stress here that the concept of the boundary N-circle is helpful for understanding the feasibility of conformal gearing that features locally line contact between the teeth flanks of the gear and the pinion. Ka. In an ideal case.

Conformal Gearing 63 (a) ϕt b 1 ωp LAinst rg b Kb ωg 2 b cr –l a L C 1 Op rN P Og +l rp a 2 a Ka cr C ϕt a cr (b) a LAinst 1 Ka ωg ωp a rg 2 –l L C Op rN P Og +l b rp b cr 1 Kb b 2 C FIGURE 3. can be selected as the tooth addendum profile of a conformal gear pair. The ellipse-arc.10 Examples of feasible tooth flank geometries of a conformal gear pair: feasible shapes of the tooth flank of (a) a pinion P and (b) the mating gear G. In Figure 3. ab. . is entirely located in the exterior of the boundary N-circle. and so forth) are examples of smooth regular curves of which no arc can be used in designing a pinion tooth addendum.11a). an ellipse-arc. cd. the ellipse-arc is entirely located within the interior of the boundary N-circle.11a. can be selected as the tooth dedendum profile of a conformal gear pair.11. cd (Figure 3. Finally. logarithmic spiral. spiral. This is schematically illustrated in Figure 3. is shown. ab. This is because the radius of curvature of a spiral curve (as well as of many others curves) changes uniformly when a point travels along the curve. an ellipse-arc. An ellipse-arc. The ellipse-arc.

Not all types of smooth regular curves can be implemented in the design of the pinion tooth dedendum. The dedendum profile is entirely located in the exterior of the boundary N-circle. G i . at the point of tangency.11b). and the profile a of the gear tooth dedendum. G ib. The analysis is illustrated in Figure 3. of the dedendum profile is equal to or greater than the radius. This case of the profile of the pinion addendum is the limiting one and is of theoretical importance. The inactive tooth profile of the pinion dedendum is a concave segment of a smooth regular curve. of the boundary N-circle (RP  ≥ rN). whereas the gear tooth dedendum. rN. is a signed value. 2. The displacement. which is mostly of theoretical interest. Geometrically. The gear tooth addendum. It is negative (l < 0) for the pinion dedendum (Figure 3. P ib (i = 1. share a common point with the boundary b . The variety of curves is not limited only to circular arcs. is entirely located in the exterior of the boundary N-circle. ef. l. The radius of curvature. spiral curves intersect the corre- sponding boundary N-circle. G i . cannot be used as the tooth profile in a conformal gear pair. the profile of the pinion addendum can be shaped in the form of a circular arc of the radius. Both the profile of the gear tooth addendum. G i . shares a point with the N-circle (the contact point. RP . which is prohibited. Therefore. Constraints imposed on the geometry of the inactive tooth profile of the pinion dedendum are similar to those imposed on the geometry of the tooth profile of the pinion addendum. The ellipse-arc. a is entirely located within the interior of the boundary N-circle.11 Examples of ellipse-arc tooth profiles for conformal gears: (a) feasible and (b) not feasible. Ultimately it should be clear that a variety of smooth regular curves can be used in the design of the tooth profile of a conformal gearing. An analysis that is similar to the one mentioned above regarding the pinion tooth profile can be performed for the gear tooth profile as well.10b. and does not intersect the boundary N-circle. The case of equality RP  = rN is the limiting case. The same is valid for all spiral curves. ef (Figure 3. K. rN. Kb). through the contact point Kb.…).10a).64 High-Conformal Gearing (a) (b) c e rN rN 1 a K K P b d P f 2 Boundary N-circle Boundary N-circle 3 FIGURE 3. intersects the boundary N-circle.

This makes Wildhaber’s helical gearing not workable in nature. with the tooth flank of the mating pinion. are centered at the points og and op. LAinst. the gearing of this particular type is not feasible. No intersection of tooth profiles G i and G ib is permissible within tooth height of the gear a and the pinion. intersect the boundary N-circle.12 illustrates a transverse cross-section of a conformal gear pair.Conformal Gearing 65 N-circle (point Ka in the first case and point Kb in the second). The gear engineer is free to select an arc of any smooth regular curve to shape the tooth addendum profile if the arc is entirely located within the boundary N-circle. respectively. G and P . G. Another illustration of the infeasibility of helical gearing by Wildhaber (Figure 3. as the circular arcs. as well as the instant line of action. K.L. G and P. However. In the well-known helical gearing by Wildhaber [22] an unfavorable configuration of circular-arc teeth profiles is observed. G and P . Novikov himself did not use the concept of the boundary circle. . The centers. og and op. M. at the point of tangency. The inactive circular-arc teeth profiles. In the case under con- sideration. P. Dr. the tooth flank of a gear. makes contact at a point. Radzevich. The importance of the concept of the boundary N-circle for gear engineers is as follows: a boundary N-circle in conformal gear pairs is a constraint imposed on the geometry of the inactive tooth profiles of the gear and the pinion.P. As an example. The gear engineer is also free to select an arc of any smooth regular curve to shape the tooth dedendum profile if the arc is entirely located out- side the boundary N-circle.12 Use of the concept of the boundary N-circle has proved to be helpful to distinguish whether a circular-arc profile is feasible for a conformal gearing or not. S.* The concept of the boundary N-circle has proved to be helpful in the theory of conformal gearing (Novikov gearing). are chosen so as to fulfill the necessary condition for the magnitudes ρg and ρp for the radii of curvature of the teeth profiles. An K rN op P ρp og ρg Boundary N-circle FIGURE 3. * The concept of the boundary N-circle was introduced around 2008 by Dr. K (ρg > ρp).12) [22] is focused on an incorrect tooth profile orientation in rela- tion to the boundary N-circle. Figure 3.

Referring to Figure 3. about its corresponding starting point of the involute curve. pb. As a result. make an angle. In this particular case. that does not coin- cide with the gear axis. tinv. All the shifted involutes are constructed from different base circles of a radius. Og. and the unit tangent vector.13. the base pitch. t inv. is of a constant value for any two adjacent tooth profiles and at any current point within an involute curve. pb. As a result. nbc. analogy of correct and incorrect tooth profile orientations in involute gearing can be used for the purpose of the illustration. each. consider a gear that has an involute tooth profile. rb.13 An example of correct configuration of involute tooth profiles in relation to the base circle.14. In other words.g. each base circle is centered at the point. cannot be specified in case of the involute gear . Another example is shown in Figure 3. to the shifted involute curve at the same point. Point a within the base circle is the starting point of the involute tooth profile.13) is preserved as all the invo- lutes are developed from a common base circle. n bc. ξ. Ogi . ξ.66 High-Conformal Gearing Involute of a circle nbc tinv pb a pb pb Og rb. However. Hence. to the base circle at point a. to the involute curve at that same point a align with one another.g FIGURE 3. the base pitch of the involute gear (Figure 3. However. the unit normal vector. All the involutes are developed from the base circle of a radius rb. each involute curve is turned through an angle. the base pitch. to the base circle of the true involute profile at point a and the unit tangent vector. a.g. Hence. the gear teeth are shaped by means of the same involute curve as in the case shown in Figure 3. the unit normal vector.13.

7 Tooth Profile Sliding in Conformal Gearing (in Novikov Gearing) The tooth profile sliding affects a permissible location of the culminating point in conformal gearing (Novikov gearing).14 is NOT an involute gear.17 later in the chapter) [23] and helical gearing proposed by Wildhaber. shown in Figure 3.14 An example of the incorrect configuration of involute tooth profiles in relation to the base circle. this immediately results in the fact that the fundamental equality of the base pitch of the gear to the operating base pitch of the gear pair cannot be satisfied. 3.Conformal Gearing 67 True involute of a circle at “a” nbc tinv ξ Shifted involute “a” a rb.g Ogi ξ Oga nbc rb.14. * It must be stressed here that involute gear is referred as such not only because its teeth are shaped in the form of an involute of a circle but also because the base circle of each involute is centered on the gear axis of rotation. . the gear with involute tooth profile as shown in Figure 3. The difference between the involute gear shown in Figure 3.13 and the gear* depicted in Figure 3.14 is of the same nature as the difference between Novikov gearing (see Figure 3. Once the base pitch of the gear cannot be specified. Therefore.g Og i tinv Shifted involute “i” FIGURE 3.

however. Theoretically. within which the culminating point. of the pinion. p Np K Pg Pp L C rg. g Op Vpa rp.g. PA. do. p ωp Vsl φp do. The smaller the radius of the boundary N-circle (i. of the boundary N-circle. of the gear and the outer diameter. The larger the radius of the boundary N-circle.. To make a correct decision regarding the appropriate value of radius.g ϕt φg l = rN Og ωg FIGURE 3. The gear and pinion teeth must be designed so as to ensure the location of the culminating point within this interval.e.15 Tooth profile sliding in parallel-axis conformal gearing (Novikov gearing). A portion of the plane of action. contact stress in such a scenario increases as the allowed values for the radii of tooth profile curvature of the gear and the pinion decrease (ρg → 0. There is a trade-off between contact stress and the sliding of tooth flanks when determining the location of the culminating point. when rN → 0). the smaller the sliding of tooth flank.g and db. PA. however. PA.15. Y Vg. db. the sliding of tooth flank is larger in this case. rN = 0 is the smallest possible radius of the boundary N-circle. the culminating point. . as illustrated in Figure 3. of the plane of action. with two base cylinders of diameters. and rN = NgP is the largest possible radius of the boundary N-circle.K do. K. Ng and Np. both contact stress and the sliding of tooth flanks should be evaluated. the smaller the contact stress. Geometrically.68 High-Conformal Gearing The culminating point in conformal parallel-axis gearing is located within the plane of action. do. is located is limited by the line of intersection of the plane of action by the outer diameter.p.K P Ng X db. rN. ρp → 0). can be located between the points of tangency.p.K Vp.K db . K.

of the bound- ary circle.Conformal Gearing 69 For the calculation of contact stress. Consider a triangle ΔKPOp in Figure 3.K = ω p rp.20 can be derived for the calculation of the angle φg in the gear. the vector Vp.20)  2rp.19) is valid for the calculation of the diameter.21) Similarly.5dp2 + 2rN2 + 2dp rN cos φt (3.15. The sliding of tooth profile depends on the distance of the culminating point.K [i ⋅ sin(φt + ϕ p /u) + j ⋅ cos(φt + ϕ p /u)] (3.K = 0.K [i ⋅ sin(φt − ϕ p ) + j ⋅ cos(φt − ϕ p )] (3.20. it is convenient to express the sliding velocity in a conformal gearing in terms of the radius rN of the boundary Novikov circle. With that said. at which the culminating point is located when the gear pair is rotating about the gear axis of rota- tion.K = 0. that is. rg. where u is the gear ratio of the gear pair.22) . rp.K. An expression similar to Equation 3.K. can be calculated from the following expression: rp. K. from the axis of rotation of the gear and the pinion.18) A similar formula rg .K + rp2 − rN2  ϕ p = cos −1   (3. Op. at which the culminating point is located when rotating about the pinion axis of rotation.5dg2 + 2rN2 + 2dg rN cos φt (3. pitch radius of the pinion is designated as rp. For the further analysis.K = u−1ω p r g .K rp  In Equation 3. φg = φp/u.K of the linear velocity of the point K in its rota- tion with the pinion is equal to Vp. The radius.K of the linear velocity of the point K in its rotation with the gear can be represented in the form Vg . the vector Vg. the radii of curvature of the gear and the pinion tooth profiles strongly correlate to the radius. The angle φp in the triangle ΔKPOp can be determined using the cosine law  rp2. Og. A simpler approach for calculation of the angle φg is based on the ratio φp/φg = u. Some freedom is available for the gear designer in choosing the radius rN. rN.

the slide/roll ratio for the tooth flank. are distinguished.K cos(φt − ϕ p ) (3. γ. Two different parameters. In the case of Pa-axis conformal (Novikov) gearing. respectively Vslm. The sliding is of a constant value in conformal as well as in high-conformal gearing. in conformal gearing can be calculated from the expression Vsl = Vg . p The specific sliding. Vsl. and it is approaching minus infinity at the base circle. g Second. The parameter. The specific sliding on the dedendum portion of the tooth flanks is of nega- tive value. P. in involute gearing. of the gear and the pinion.K (3. the specific sliding. a unitless parameter is used. is plotted along the line of action as depicted in Figure 3. At the pitch point.16. it is equal to zero. are also of constant values [38]. γ. the specific sliding for the gear. p γg = (3.27) Commonly. Only the region. g γp = (3. the length of action is zero.25 are already available from Equations 3.K cos(φt + ϕ p /u) (3. p to be entered into Equations 3. The parameters Vslm. p = ω p rp.21 and 3.22. within the path of contact comes into effect when investigating the engagement of the gear teeth. of the gear Vslm. that is. γg. P. g = u−1ω p rg . the equality Zpa = 0 is valid. is always perpen- dicular to the plane of action.70 High-Conformal Gearing The sliding velocity vector. Vsl. PA. G and P. of the pinion Vslm. g − Vslm. For the specification of profile sliding of tooth flanks.26) Vslm. p − Vslm.23) In parallel-axis gearing. γ. the sliding is different .K − Vp. It is equal to zero at the pitch point. and the pinion. γ.24 and 3. g and Vslm. does not exceed 1. P. Commonly.25) Vslm. G. the slide/roll ratio for the tooth flank. This parameter is commonly referred to as specific sliding and is denoted by γ. First. the sliding velocity vector.24) Vslm. Zpa. is of positive value on the addendum portions of the tooth flanks. and it is equal to 1 at the base circle of the mating gear. γp.

γg and γp. of the gear pair. are synchronized with each other in a timely manner. Og and Op.8 Elements of the Kinematics and the Geometry in Conformal Gearing (Novikov Gearing) The kinematics and the geometry in conformal gearing (Novikov gearing) dif- fer from that in involute gearing or gearing of other designs. γg and γp.g Vm sl.Conformal Gearing 71 Vm sl . Op. Rg and Rp. that is. are tangen- tial to one another. at different points of the tooth profile. LAinst. Og. consider a conformal gear pair that is composed of a driving pinion and a driven gear. ωp. ωg.16 Specific sliding. both the sliding and the specific sliding. and the pinion is rotated about the axis. From Figure 3. The pitch circle of the gear is of a radius Rg and the pitch circle of the pinion is of a radius Rp. The pitch circles of radii. in an Pa -axis conformal gear pair. An instant line of action. In involute gearing with a low tooth count. The axes of rotations. respectively. The rotation of the gear. in LTC-gearing. P. The point of tangency of the pitch circles is the pitch point. 3. γ. from one another. C. and the rotation of the pinion. are at a certain center distance. are different at different points of the tooth profile. are of a constant value. and the specific sliding.17. The gear is rotated about the axis.p a P b rN +γ γp +γ 0 0 P Zpa = 0 –2 –2 –4 γg –4 –6 –6 –γ –γ FIGURE 3. is a straight line through .

K. let us assume that the pinion is stationary and the gear performs the instant rotation in relation to the pinion. P. and the pinion. ωpl. the higher the losses due to friction between the tooth flanks. Pln. K. g ωp ωg Rp Rg cg ρf. At that same time. K. The axis of the instant rotation. the further the contact point. is a point within the straight line. the more freedom there is in selecting the radii of curvature of the tooth profiles. P. P. is parallel to the axes Og and Op of the rotations ωg and ωp.g L C P Op cp rg Og rlim = rp a R*f .17 Kinematics and tooth flank geometry in a parallel-axis conformal gearing (Novikov gearing). K. . Further. rN. The axis. G and P. the pitch point. When the pinion is motionless. centered at P. in relation to the perpendicular to the center line. the contact point. Finally. Pln. at a certain transverse pressure angle.p d Rf .g K b c LAinst ρp ag Ro. P. and the higher the wear of the tooth flanks. K. of the tooth flanks of the gear. is a trade-off between these two factors. is situated from the pitch point.72 High-Conformal Gearing ϕt Ro. the actual location of the contact point. The further the contact point. traces a boundary circle of radius. of the instant rota- tion.g Rf. P. is situated from the pitch point. The point of contact. G. is the straight line through the pitch point. ϕt. ℄. p ρg C FIGURE 3. LAinst.

cg. the contact point. In the transverse section of the gear pair. cg. Linst. P. Ppc. cp. Og and O p. of the con- cave gear tooth profile. P.Conformal Gearing 73 The pinion tooth profile. the point of contact travels axi- ally along the gears while remaining at the same radial position on both gear and pinion teeth. within the instant line of action. P. within the straight line. The pitch point is included in the interval. Both the pinion and gear are helical. K. mp. Hence. that the length. can be included in that interval for K. . par- allel to the axes of rotation. It is therefore fundamental to the opera- tion of the gears that contact occurs nominally at a point and the point of contact travels axially across the full face width of the gears during a rotation. rp. is parallel to the axes Og and Op as illustrated in Figure 3. is zero). rN. The equality mF = mt is always observed in conformal gearing (here the total contact ratio is designated as mt). P. K. the contact point. The pseudo path of contact. is situated beyond the pitch point.e. that is. is limited to just the straight line segment PK. P pc (and it does not travel within the transverse cross-section of the gear pair). Theoretically. mF. Pc. and the other is left-handed. The transverses contact ratio. G. It should be stated as a condition of operation of conformal gear- ing (Novikov gearing) that for a given profile. as mentioned earlier in this section. This is because the transverse contact ratio is zero (mp ≡ 0) and the face contact ratio is greater than 1 (mF > 1). For parallel axes configuration. When rotation is transmitted from a driving shaft to a driven shaft. of path of contact. of a conformal gear pair is zero (mp ≡ 0). namely. LAinst. as shown in Figure 3. On the other hand. G (i. As a consequence. Lpc. K. of the gear pair is always greater than 1 (mF > 1). G and P. of the concave gear tooth profile. and the center of curvature. the inequality rp < rg is observed). K. this is completely impractical. is smaller than the radius of curvature. the location of the center of curvature. is limited to the open interval P → ∞.. the tooth surfaces should not interact before or after culmination when rotated at angular speeds that are in the gear ratio. is a straight line through the culminating point. of the gear and the pinion accord- ingly. rg.17. of the convex pinion tooth profile. the pseudo path of contact. travels along the pseudo path of contact. The helices are of opposite hands. Because the gears are helical and of opposite hands. the radius of curvature. the pitch point. of the convex pinion tooth profile. P.17. one of them is right-handed. (Recall. However. is motionless. whereas the contact point. No spur conformal gearing (Novikov gearing) is feasible at all. or it can be relieved inside the bodily side of the pinion tooth. The face contact ratio. the location of the center of curvature. Ppc. can either align with an arc of the boundary circle. It should be mentioned here that there are no physical constraints in designing a gear pair that has a convex gear tooth profile and concave pinion tooth profile. is not.

K. Ppc.18. Pln. .18 As the gears rotate. and (b) is stationary in a transverse section of the gear pair.74 High-Conformal Gearing FIGURE 3.19 [8]. The motion of the contact point. in a transverse section of the gear pair is illustrated in Figure 3. of the gear pair. Pln. This is a conformal (Novikov) gear pair manufactured by Westland Helicopter Ltd. A close-up of a conformal (Novikov) gear pair is illustrated in Figure 3. and the motionless of that same point. These are the screen shots taken of an animation of a parallel-axis conformal gearing. contact patch in Pa —axis Novikov gearing: (a) travels in the direction of the axis of instant rotation. of the gear pair. along the axis of instant rotation.

Rp. The radii of the pitch circles of the gear.9  Designing a Conformal Gear Pair As an example. the center distance. is the principal design parameter in Novikov gearing. Proc. u. For the calculation of the design parameters of a Novikov gear pair.Conformal Gearing 75 Pinion Gear FIGURE 3. consider the calculation of design parameters of a Novikov gear pair that has a circular-arc tooth profile following the one proposed by Dr. H. ϕt. The displacement. P.P. as well as the transverse pressure angle. London. A403.* l. Many of the design parameters of a Novikov gear pair can be expressed in terms of the displacement.19 Close-up of a conformal (Novikov) gear pair manufactured by Westland Helicopter Ltd. * Recall here that the equality l = rN is observed. Evans.) 3. Novikov [19]. R. at which the path of contact. u = ωp/ωg. and Snidle.W. and the tooth ratio. and the pinion. Soc.29) 1+ u A distance. 313–340. must be known.. 1986. The methodology disclosed in this section can be enhanced to Novikov gear pairs that have other geometries of the tooth profile in a transverse cross-section of the gear pair. as follows: u Rg = C ⋅ (3. and the gear ratio. of the gear pair need to be given. Rg. C. is away from the pitch point.28) 1+ u 1 Rp = C ⋅ (3. Pc. (After Dyson.. l = KP.. can be expressed in terms of the center distance. l. A. C. R.L. M. .

is calculated from the following formula: Ro. Rf. Ro. the following formulas are used: rg = l ⋅ (1 + k rg ) (3.3–l. accuracy of machining. Rf.…. is given as follows: R f .35) The radius of the outer circle of the gear. it is practical to set the factor krp equal to zero.33) The radius of the root circle of the pinion. However. …. then the equality rp = l is observed. is calculated from the expression Ro.p. Ro.g.g.32) The addendum factor. ϕt. of the pinion depends on the pressure angle. ρp.p.03. in the range ρp = 0.76 High-Conformal Gearing For calculation of the radii of curvature of the tooth profile of the gear. and the pinion. and conditions of lubrication.30) rp = l ⋅ (1 + k rp ) (3.2 (3. absolute dimensions of the gear pair. the following are designated: ag is the dedendum of the mating gear [ag = (0. kpo. It is common practice to set the pinion addendum factor. kpo.10. p = Rp + (1 − k po ) ⋅ l (3. 0. in the following range: k po = 0.2) ⋅ l] δ is the radial clearance in the gear pair (δ = l ⋅ kpo) It is practical to set the fillet radius. p = Rp − ag − δ (3. The radius of the root circle of the gear. rp. g = Rg + ag (3. The radius of the outside circle of the pinion. g = C − Ro. rg.31) The actual value of the factor krp should fulfill the inequality krp ≥ 0. The factor krg is within the range krg = 0.34) In Equation 3. p (3.0.34.1.36) . can be calculated from the following equation: R f .1 ÷ 0.

of the pinion (ρg < ρp).1 ÷ 1. mt/l = 0. ϕt • The lead angle.3 times. l: l = (0.0. the following empirical expression returns a practical value for the displacement. Novikov in Reference 19: rp = l.37) For a preliminary analysis of Novikov gearing.5 less and tooth wear is 3 ÷ 4 times less in Novikov gearing [14]. ϕt = 30°. 80° (ψ = 10°–30°). The effective face width of the gear pair is given by Feff = (1. ρp.1 times and the bending strength up to 1. tp/tg = 1. l • The transverse pressure angle. by .8. ρp = 0.20) ⋅ Rp (3.2. which is less than the fillet radius. Uniform rotation of shafts in Novikov gearing is attained only due to face overlap of the gear teeth. rg ≤ 1. λ = 60.Conformal Gearing 77 The corner of the gear tooth addendum should be rounded with radius ρg. the active portions of the tooth flanks of the gear and the pinion in Novikov gearing are represented by two conjugate helices. where backlash B = 0. The application of Novikov gearing makes the weight reduction of gear boxes possible (in average) 1. λ It should be noticed here one more time that smooth rotation of the driven shaft under a uniform rotation of the driving shaft is possible only if the transverse contact ratio of the Novikov gear pair is always equal to zero (mp ≡ 0) and the face contact ratio is greater than 1 (mt = mF > 1).10 ⋅ rp. and circu- lar pitch of the teeth p = tg + tp + B. Geometrically. …. The application of Novikov gearing (N by -mesh of Novikov gearing in par- ticular) featuring geometries of the tooth profiles known so far makes it possible to increase the contact strength of the gear teeth up to 2.3 ÷ 1. that is. meshing of gear teeth in a trans- verse cross-section is instant. The following relations among the design parameters of a Novikov gear pair are recommended by M.0 ÷ 2. Geometrically.05 ÷ 0.5 times compared to invo- lute helical gearing.38) The quality of parallel-axis Novikov gearing strongly depends on the fol- lowing three design parameters: • The displacement. Novikov gearing with harder tooth flanks was not investigated.L. Friction losses are up to 2.0 ÷ 2. ….4 mm. During the years when Novikov gearing was actively being investigated.2) ⋅ p ⋅ tan λ (3. All these application data are obtained for Novikov gearing that have hardness of tooth surfaces in the range up to HB 350.5.3 ⋅ l.

The invention by R. They are at distances +l and −l from the pitch point.78 High-Conformal Gearing two spatial curves. K′ and K″. 3. Fed’akin is schematically illustrated in Figure 3. The paths of contact.25].by. Fed’akin to propose a conformal gearing that features not one pseudo path of contact. As conformal gears are helical. An arc of the curve must be entirely located within the interior of the boundary N-circle for the tooth addendum. The possibility of a conformal gear pair that has two contact points. the gear designer is free to pick a favor- able smooth curve to shape the inactive portions of tooth profile of the gear and of the pinion. but two pseudo paths of contact instead [10.by. The inactive portions of the tooth flanks are not conjugate to each other.bf  and Ppc. Ppc.10  Conformal Gearing with Two Pseudo Paths of Contact Conformal gearing that features two pseudo paths of contact is feasible. Moreover. the contact points. they are not envelopes to one another. are displaced in axial direction in relation to one another at a distance. as in the original Novikov gear system.bf  and Ppc. When designing conformal gears. The average number of contact points between the gear and pinion tooth flanks is doubled in a conformal gear pair of this design. This distance can be calculated from the formula l ∆Z = 2 (3. P. respectively. Such a possibility immediately follows from the analysis of the schematic shown in Figure 3.20. Two pseudo paths of contact. Ppc. 3.11  Tooth Flank Geometry in a Conformal Gear Pair The radii of curvature of the interacting tooth flanks of the gear and the pin- ion in conformal gearing with two contact lines can be determined in the . and a correspond- ing arc of the dedendum must be entirely located within the exterior of the boundary N-circle of radius rN. simultaneously. inspired R. are straight lines parallel to the axis of instant rotation of the gears. Under the applied load these portions spread over helical strips along the helices. K′ and K″.39) tan ψ The axial displacement of the contact points results in a smoother rotation of the driven shaft of the conformal gear pair. Ppc.10. ΔZ. pass through the points K′ and K″.V.V.

47 h. and by Fed’akin and Chesnokov (Adapted from Pat. 7. R. No. the position vector. 182. P. No.V. PhD thesis. .bf Zp K″ Zg Z0 Z0 Ppc . 1966.A. 1955.bf Yg ωp φp P Y0 rp Op Ppc . Investigation of Strength of Circular-Arc Gear Teeth. 6. In a local reference system xNyN that has the pitch point. as the origin. Gearing with Point System of Meshing and Having Multiple Paths of Contact.by Og φg Y ′0 Yp φp φg Xp ϕt Xg X0 X ′0 FIGURE 3. Chesnokov. Moscow. as proposed by Fed’akin. Published in B.) following way: a boundary N-circle of a certain radius rN is centered at the pitch point.by φg Yg φp ωg P K′ φp Y0 Y ′0 Yp φg Xp X ′0 ωp Xg X0 ϕt Op Og rg ωg Ppc . National Cl. 1963.I.).Conformal Gearing 79 ∆Z Ppc.V..21. of a point of the bound- ary N-circle can be expressed in matrix form as follows:  rN cos ϕ N   r sin ϕ  rN (ϕ N ) =   N N (3. rN. P. as illustrated in Figure 3.40)  0     1  where φN is the angular parameter of the boundary N-circle of the radius rN. Zhukovskiy Aviation Engineering Academy.20 Concept of a conformal gear system that has two paths of contact. R. Fed’akin and V.462 (USSR). (Adapted from Fed’akin. Filed: November 20.

LA. cbg . of the boundary N-circle (i. is shaped in the form of a circular arc of radius ρp . LAinst. The instant line of action.41.. the position vec- tor. This circular arc is a a centered at a point. In the particular case under consideration. of a point of the pinion addendum profile can be expressed in matrix form as follows: ρap cos ϕ ap + (rN − ρap )cos φt   a  ρp sin ϕ ap − (rN − ρap )sin φt  rpa (ϕ ap ) =  (3. is larger compared to the radius. In a local reference system xN yN.e. forms a transverse pressure angle. is also shaped in the form of a circular arc. cp . the inequality ρap < rN1 is valid).41)  0     1  In Equation 3. is a straight line through the pitch point. The radius of curvature. the dedendum of the gear. The radius of curvature. The instant line of action. rN. is smaller than the radius. the inequality ρbg > rN is observed). P a. within the instant line of action. within the line of action.21 Tooth profiles G a -to-P b and G b -to-P a in a conformal gearing that has two pseudo paths of con- tact through K1 and K 2 correspondingly. ρap .. the addendum of the pinion. the angular parameter of the pinion addendum profile is denoted by ϕ ap .e. P. rN. the radius of which is ρbg . LAinst.80 High-Conformal Gearing b yN ρpb a ρga LAinst K1 cbp cap xN P cb g ρpa cag rN ϕt ρgb K2 a b FIGURE 3. In the particular case under consideration. r pa . This circular arc is centered at a point. P. with the pitch line through the pitch point. In a local reference system xNyN. ρbg . of the boundary N-circle (i. G b. the . φt. LAinst.

41 and 3. rgb . rpb . of a point of the gear dedendum profile can be expressed in matrix form as follows: ρbg cos ϕ bg + (rN − ρbg )cos φt   b  ρ g sin ϕ bg − (rN − ρbg )sin φt  rgb (ϕ bg ) =  (3. Equations 3.42. and P b can be derived. rga . the angular parameter of the pinion dedendum and the gear addendum are designated as ϕ bp and ϕ ag .Conformal Gearing 81 position vector. can be derived ρbp cos ϕ bp − (rN + ρbp )cos φt   b  ρp sin ϕ bp + (rN + ρbp )sin φt  rpb (ϕ bp ) =  (3. the angular parameter of the gear dedendum profile is denoted by ϕ bg . . but without loss of generality. P a . Once the tooth profiles of the gear and the pinion addendum and deden- dum are described analytically (see Equations 3. and the gear addendum. G .39 are generalized as follows in the form of a single equation: ρ cos ϕ + A   ρ sin ϕ + B  r(ϕ ) =   (3.36 through 3. Similar to the way in which Equations 3. a b For simplicity. xcrycr.44.44)  0     1  In Equations 3. equations for the corresponding tooth flanks G .45)  0     1  where φ is the angular parameter of the circular-arc profile and the constants A and B are the values in terms of which coordinates of center of the corre- sponding point are expressed in a local reference system.43 and 3. respectively.43)  0     1  ρag cos ϕ ag − (rN + ρag )cos φt   a  ρ g sin ϕ ag + (rN + ρag )sin φt  rga (ϕ ag ) =  (3. the corre- sponding expressions for the position vectors of a point of the pinion deden- dum.42 are derived.41 through 3.42)  0     1  In Equation 3.44).

the unit normal vector to the tooth flank. makes it possible to further calculate the unit tangent vectors at a surface point. P. Equations 3. The pinion.. which has a left-hand helix. rfl. of the tooth flank (either G . Rs(cr ↦ fl). or G .45 and 3.48) for the position vector. a b or P b ) and p is the reduced pitch of the corresponding helical tooth flank.45) about the Z-axis can be represented in the form [38] cos ϑ − sin ϑ 0 0   sin ϑ cos ϑ 0 0  Rs(cr  fl) =  (3. is rotating with an angular velocity. about its axis.46)  0 0 1 pϑ     0 0 0 1 where ϑ is the angular parameter of the helical tooth flank (either G . and the pinion. 3. or P b) in a b conformal gearing: r fl (ϕ .82 High-Conformal Gearing The operator. . the tooth flanks of the gear. ϑ ) =   (3. rfl. an expression for rfl becomes (ρ cos ϕ + A)cos ϑ − (ρ sin ϕ + B)sin ϑ  (ρ cos ϕ + A)sin ϑ + (ρ sin ϕ + B) cos ϑ  r fl (ϕ . It should be stressed one more time that in conformal gearing.46 together make possible an expression for the posi- tion vector of a point. The rest portions of the portions of the tooth profiles never interact with one another. or P a.47) In expanded form. of the screw motion of a circular-arc profile (see Equation 3. ωp. interact with one another in culmi- nating point(s) only. G. ϑ ) = Rs(cr  fl) ⋅ r(ϕ ) (3.12 Configuration of Interacting Tooth Flanks at the Culminating Point Figure 3. or P a . Op.22 shows a section in the transverse plane.48)  pϑ     1  The derived equation (see Equation 3. and the first and second fundamental forms of the tooth flank. or G .

is given. G. the condition occurs at only one instant in any one transverse plane as the pitch circles roll together. which results in a finite contact period. P. Og.22. where u is the gear ratio. With teeth of involute form.22. The pinion and the gear have working pitch radii of rp and rg = u ⋅ rp. then for the calculation of the screw parameter. is the transverse pressure angle. due to the elastic deformation of the gear mate- rials. When the gears are loaded. P. there is no contact in that particular plane between the teeth shown. P . moves in a direction at right angles to and into the plane of the paper in Figure 3. the contact point spreads over a certain area of contact.22 Design parameters of a high-conformal gear pair influence the geometry of contact of the teeth flanks G and P. about its axis. The basic condition that the angular velocity ratio is equal to the gear ratio requires that the common normal at the point of contact between the teeth passes through the pitch point.Conformal Gearing 83 K –l ϕt ρp rN ρg op P L C Op ωp ωg Og og C FIGURE 3. ωg. The angle. pp. ϕt. pg. in a clockwise direction and is driving the gear. respectively. this condition is maintained as the gears rotate with the teeth in contact. of the gear tooth flank G (reduced pitch of the gear) the expression pg = pp/u can be used. K. however. of the pinion tooth flank (reduced pitch of the pinion). This means that high-conformal helical . The contact lines on the gear tooth flank. and the pinion tooth flank. If the screw parameter. With circular-arc teeth. are helices of opposite hands. The gear is rotating with an angular velocity. The point of contact. Immediately before and immediately after the configuration shown in Figure 3. French [11] referring to the instantaneous contact of profiles in a transverse section. proposed this as the culminating condition.

the tooth surfaces should not interfere before or after culmination when rotated and angular speeds are in the gear ratio.49) pp φp In Equation 3.50) where λg is the lead angle and rg is the pitch radius of the gear. pp = rp tan λ p (3. It is therefore funda- mental to the operation of conformal gears that contact occurs nominally at a point and the point of contact moves axially across the full face width of the gears during a rotation. the point of contact of the tooth flanks travels axially along the gears while remaining at the same radial position on both gear and pinion teeth. It is clearly a condition of operation that in a given profile.51) where λp is the lead angle and rp is the pitch radius of the pinion. Because conformal gears are helical and of opposite hands. Representation of two contacting tooth flanks. can be perfectly described by the so-called . G and P. P. which are in point contact. G. which is in fact a point of culmination. Approximation of this kind works perfectly in the differential vicinity of the point of contact. Similarly. p g = rg tan λ g (3. It also covers a greater area around the point of contact of the surfaces in cases when the radii of relative curvature are large enough and significantly exceed the size of the patch of contact.49. will transform rotation with a constant gear ratio if their screw parameters pg and pp are related as follows: pg φg = (3. 3.84 High-Conformal Gearing gears. and the pinion. in the form of a surface of relative curvature is a practical and widely used kind of surfaces representation for the purpose of analytically describing the local geometry of contact of the tooth flanks. Under such conditions. The tooth flanks share a common point. the geometry of contact of the tooth flanks of the gear.13 Local and Global Contact Geometry of Interacting Tooth Flanks The tooth flanks of the gear and the pinion in a conformal gear pair are assumed to be smooth regular surfaces.

The contact area between the tooth flanks. the radii of relative curvature in the case under consideration are small enough. The qualitative results of the investigation of the contact area of confor- mal gears are illustrated in Figure 3. The contact line. shapes and configurations of the contact lines.Conformal Gearing 85 ellipse of contact. Kbf.* In a greater area around the point of contact of the tooth flanks of these high-conformal gears. G and P.23a. an example of an Nbf type of conformal gear pair is shown. the conventional Hertzian second-order equation may no longer be adequate. the shape of the tooth profiles. This statement is proved analytically. The pinion features a concave tooth profile. This is because a convex local patch of the tooth addendum is interacting with a saddle-like local patch of the tooth dedendum. is equal to zero. G and P. the patch of contact is bounded by an ellipse-like curve. Actually. G and P. G. This type of high-conformal gears features one contact line. Studies of the area of contact and the shape of contact area are commonly based on the assumption that the difference between the profile radii of the tooth flanks. The high degree of conformity of the con- tacting tooth flanks. of the gear and the pin- ion is bounded by a banana-like contour.bf. this curve can be expressed in terms of second order. However.bf. that is. the ellipse of contact is a three-dimensional (3D) curve whose projection onto the tangent plane through the point of contact of the surfaces resembles an ellipse. which is a straight line parallel to the axis of instant rotation of the gears. the terms of the third and higher orders rapidly become important compared with the second-order terms. should differ from what is observed in the differential vicinity of the point of contact when the radii of relative curvature are small. passes through the contact point. It is found that a third-order approximation is quite useful in that it gives an analytical expression for the gap. In this figure. which remains a good approximation of the sufficient distance away from the point of contact so as to provide a good description of these unusual features.23. Ppc. * It should be pointed out here that because the teeth of gears of the type conform to each other so closely. The wider side of the contact area faces toward the bottom of the gear tooth. of a conformal gear pair. Ppc. and directions of their motion are illustrated for conformal gear pairs of various kinds. For a more accurate approximation of the geometry of contact of the tooth flanks of the gear. G and P. and they give rise to “banana-shaped” gap contours and to the region of potential interference. which has a convex tooth profile. In the differential vicinity of the point of contact of the tooth flanks. the methods. P. . G and P. and of the pin- ion. results in small radii of relative curvature. A conclusion can be immediately entailed from the fact that the outside the dif- ferential vicinity of the point of contact boundary curve of the patch of con- tact between the tooth flanks. The pinion is driving the gear. discussed in Chapter 5 can be implemented. shapes of the contact areas. In Figure 3.

bf Kbf P Kby Kby Ppc. (b) meshing beyond the pitch point P. passes through the contact point.by ωg FIGURE 3. The con- tact line.by. which has a concave tooth profile.bf Kbf Kbf P ωg (b) ωp Feff P Kby Kby Ppc.by ωg (c) ωp Feff Kbf Ppc.86 High-Conformal Gearing (a) ωp Feff Ppc. G and P. Conformal gears of this type also feature one contact line. Ppc. and (c) simultaneous meshing before and beyond the pitch point P.by.23b. Ppc. Kby. which is a straight line parallel to the axis of instant rotation of the gears. An example of Nby -type of conformal gear pair is illustrated in Figure 3. The pinion is driving the gear. The pinion features a convex tooth profile.23 Contact patches between teeth flanks in conformal gear pairs: (a) meshing before the pitch point P. The contact area between tooth flanks. of the gear and .

Finally. the gears were placed back in the rig in the same position with respect to each other. a helical involute gear pair is schemati- cally depicted in Figure 3. The wider sides of the contact areas face toward each other. These contact lines are straight lines parallel to the axis of instant rotation of the gears. The angular magnitude of the vibrations was in the range Δφ ≤ 15′. The other gear remained stationary.16].46].bf and Ppc. Electrolytic technology was used for this purpose. and both face toward the axis of instant rotation of the gears. The results of research studies similar to the ones discussed above align with those obtained by other researchers [2. Figure 3. LA. in the transverse section of the gear pair is a straight line segment through the . various values of the profile angle. The most widely used type of conformal gears features two contact lines. Both of them are bounded by banana-like contours. ϕt. the tooth flanks were coated with a layer of silver just a few micrometers thick. The banana-shaped contact area is clearly seen from Figure 3.by passes through the contact point Kby. l. Angular vibrations were applied to one of the gears. For the experiments. The convex addendum of the gear tooth profile interacts with the concave dedendum of the pinion tooth pro- file. Conformal gears that have various values of the design parameters. and mismatch of the radii of profile curvature. G.24.25. Before beginning the experiments. Then the gears were cleaned of the remains of the lubricant and were treated by a solution of copper sul- fate.23c). As shown in Figure 3. are observed in this particular case. the results of the analysis correlate with results of the corresponding experiments. and the concave dedendum of the gear tooth profile interacts with the convex addendum of the pinion tooth profile. Ppc. P. which was applied to one gear of the gear pair. pitch helix angle. The gear is driven by the pinion. every conformal gear pair under- went rotation for a run-in period of time. that is.bf passes through the contact point Kbf. The wider side of the contact area faces toward the top-end of the gear tooth. In comparison to conformal gears. Two contact areas between the tooth flanks of the gear.Conformal Gearing 87 the pinion is bounded by a banana-like contour. After preparing them for testing. Reduction in the pitch helix angle results in a corresponding increase in the length of the contact area. Examples of various shapes of the contact area for high-conformal gear pairs that have different pitch helix angles are sche- matically depicted in Figure 3. The experiments were carried out under light torque.24 is a reproduction of the photograph of the gear of a high-­ conformal gear pair that has one line of contact and a pitch helix angle ψg = 30°. an experimental rig with a closed load loop was used. An increase in size of the contact area did not exceed 5%. were investigated [14.26. ψg.23. Δr. and the contact line Ppc. The contact line Ppc. and the pinion.by (Figure 3. The active portion of the line of action. The shape and size of the contact area between the tooth flanks of the gear and the pinion are of importance in the stress analysis of conformal gears. displacement.

Theory of Novikov Gearing. (After Krasnoschokov.88 High-Conformal Gearing Kby FIGURE 3. and the pinion. 1976.A. P. and (c) ψ = 10°.25 Shape of the contact area between the teeth flanks in a conformal gear pair that has pitch helix angles: (a) ψ = 30°. in a conformal gearing. N. G..N. (b) ψ = 20°...) (a) Feff (b) (c) FIGURE 3.24 An example of an experimentally obtained contact pattern between the teeth flanks of the gear. and Chesnoschokov. Nauka. Moscow.V. Fed’akin. . R. V. 173pp.

pitch point. conformal gears enable bet- ter conditions for lubrication. and the contact area is nar- row and smaller compared to that for conformal gears.Conformal Gearing 89 Feff ωp L P L ωg FIGURE 3. Under the applied load. Hence. The line of contact. . It should be stressed here that the conditions of contact of the involute tooth flanks are not favorable because both the contacting surfaces are convex. P. When the gears rotate. spreads over a narrow strip. which is the contact area between the interacting tooth flanks of the gear and the pinion. The active portion of the line of action is terminated by points L and L.26 Contact area between the teeth flanks in a helical involute gear pair. The speed of the rolling contact point in the rolling motion signifi- cantly exceeds the linear speed of rotation of the gears. LC. LC. is a straight line segment entirely located within tooth flank of the gear. the straight line seg- ment. the oil film is thicker and the conditions of lubrication are significantly better. the tooth flanks of the gear and the pinion roll over each other without sliding (or almost without sliding). In addition to favorable conditions of contact.

The undesirable displace- ments are mostly because of the manufacturing errors and mechanical deflec- tions of the gear teeth. Favorable conditions of contact of the tooth flanks of the gear and the mating pinion are the main anticipated advantage of a conformal gear pair. some degree of mismatch in the curvature of gear and pinion teeth is necessary. the tooth flanks of the gear and the pinion in a conformal gear pair are displaced from their desirable positions. An increase by all possible means of power density being transmitted through a gear pair is an important consid- eration in the future developments of the theory of gearing as well as in the manufacture and application of gears. The performance of conformal gear pairs is strongly correlated to the degree of conformity to each other of the gear tooth flank G and the pinion tooth flank P at every point of their contact. In reality. Therefore. This immediately entails a corresponding increase in power density through the gear pair. the better the performance of the conformal gear pair and vice versa. It can be assumed that the higher the degree of conformity the higher the load-carrying capacity of the contacting tooth flanks. and housing that occur under the applied load because of the thermal extensions of the components and so on. 4. which is of critical importance for the user of the gears. Conformal gearing is sensitive toward tooth flanks displacements. minimum possible mismatch in the curvature of the teeth of the gear and the pinion is desirable.4 High-Conformal Gearing The power density being transmitted by a gear pair is one of the most impor- tant criteria for the evaluation of how well or badly a particular gear pair has been designed and manufactured. Small mismatches are not 91 . To accommodate such displacements.1  Contact Geometry in Conformal Parallel-Axis Gearing General considerations of conformal gearing allow the conclusion that the substitution of convex-to-convex contact of the tooth flanks of the gear and the mating pinion (as it is observed in external involute gearing) by their convex- to-concave contact (as it is observed in conformal gearing) allows an increase in contact strength in conformal gearing. shafts. The more conformal the tooth flanks G and P at points of their contact.

share the common tangential straight line. After the load is applied and the tooth flanks interfere with each other. In both cases. or scuffing damage. The section of the gear tooth flank is labeled G. is labeled P. at every contact point. After the load is applied and the pinion tooth flank slightly penetrates the gear tooth flank. K. but is not capable of accommodating the tooth flanks displacements. tCL. the contact point is labeled Kp. The section of the pinion tooth flank before the load is applied is labeled P *. as the pinion tooth profile is convex. Otherwise. K. Rp. G and P. the gear pair is capable of absorbing the inevitable displace- ments of the tooth flanks. P * and P. are of the same value. the gear pair features sufficient degree of conformity of the tooth flanks. The radius. G and P. When the gears rotate. the contact point is labeled Kg. l. CLp. • Second. G and P. The constructed section of the tooth flanks is schematically shown in Figure 4. as the mismatch increases.92 High-Conformal Gearing capable of accommodating the displacements. the same section. The radius of curvature is of positive value (Rp > 0). The plane is constructed so as to be perpendicular to the common tangential straight line. as the tooth profile is concave. In the initial position of the tooth profiles. these lines are helices of opposite hands and equal axial pitch. one of the following two scenarios may be observed: • First. tCL. Rg. The distance. A high contact stress may lead to various forms of surface failures such as heavy wear. In reality. the tooth flanks of a conformal gear pair con- tact each other at least at one point.1. The tooth profiles. that are intersected by a plane through the contact point. Let us consider a section of the tooth flanks. but the degree of conformity of the contact- ing tooth flanks is not sufficient for the high load-carrying capacity of the gear pair. the gear pair has no chance of being successfully used in practice. the radius of curvature of the curve G is labeled Rg. For better understanding of the trade-off between the load-carrying capac- ity of conformal gearing and its capabilities being reasonably insensitive with respect to tooth flanks displacement. Within the differential vicinity of the point of contact. It is assumed here that within the differential vicinity of the point of contact. a minimum degree of mismatch in the curvature of the teeth of gear and pinion must be determined to make a workable conformal gear pair. the contact stresses also increase. and the contact line of the pinion. Therefore. a and b. is negative (Rg < 0). the contact line of the gear. However. pitting. P *. As a result. intersect each other at two points. indicates the degree of conformity of the tooth profiles of radii Rg . the point of con- tact traces a line over each of the two tooth flanks. the radii of curvature of the curves. it is instructive to discuss the fol- lowing simplified schematic. At every instance of time. CLg.

For convenience of further analysis of the plane section (Figure 4. Rg and Rp. Rg and Rp. G and P. The normalized design parameters are designated as follows: Rp =1 (4. as well as on the displacement k as follows from Equation 4. the higher the degree of conformity of the tooth flanks.2 are normalized by the pinion radius Rp. and the displacement.1 depends on radii of curvature. l. the following formula is derived:  Rp2 − Rg2 + (Rp + Rg − kRp )2  α = cos −1   (4. of a conformal gear pair by a plane through a current point of contact: The plane is perpendicular to the trace of the contact point across the tooth flanks. between points a and b can be expressed in terms of the radii of curvature.2.3) Rp . all the design parameters in Equation 4. l. and Rp. and vice versa. k l = 2 Rp sin α (4. k).2 is based on the law of cosines.1) For the calculation of the angle α(Rg. The angle α in Equation 4.1 Section of the tooth flanks.1). G and P. The distance. Rp.2)  2Rp (Rp + Rg − kRp )  Derivation of Equation 4.High-Conformal Gearing 93 cg ΔR cp Rg α Rp * ng a b Kg Kp kRp l FIGURE 4. The greater the distance.

K) is valid for both the convex-to-convex and convex-to- concave contacts of tooth flanks of the gear. K) intersected by planes ki = Const. l l = l(k. For a particular curve.008 0. 0. K) that is constructed for the cases of convex-to-concave contacts of tooth flanks of the gear.6)  2(1 + K − k ) The function l = l(k. G.2) are represented by curves that have asymptotes. 0. and the pinion.94 High-Conformal Gearing Rg =K (4.4 Ki = Const.004 –1 K 0.002 –3 –2 –5 –4 FIGURE 4. and the pinion. Figure 4. only the case of convex-to-concave contacts of tooth flanks is of interest. (Figure 4. K ) constructed for convex-to-concave type of contact of the tooth flanks of the gear.5) Rp Angle α can be expressed in terms of the normalized design parameters in the following form:  1 − K 2 + (1 + K − k )2  α = cos −1   (4.2 Three-dimensional plot of the function l = l(k .5 0. G.3 ki = Const. in a conformal gear pair.1 0.01 0.006 0. Analysis of the 3D plots allows the following conclusions. P. For confor- mal gearing. K) 0. . G.4) Rp k Rp =k (4.2 shows a three-dimensional (3D) plot of the function l = l(k.2 k 0. P. Sections of the surface l = l(k. P. and the pinion.

Within this interval of variation of the parameter K. Unfortunately. to formulate what the term “W–N gearing” stands for. G and P. shown in Figure 4.High-Conformal Gearing 95 ki = Const.2 in the bold line. This immediately entails a corre- sponding increase in the load-carrying capacity of the gear pair. within the interval −∞ < K < −2 of change of parameter K. This definition can be compared with that of the Novikov gear system [18. A comparison of the principal features of the Novikov gear system claimed in Novikov’s patent [23] and shortly after discussed in Novikov’s doctoral thesis [18] and [19]. the load-carrying capacity of a con- formal gear pair remains approximately at the same range. and the principal features of Wildhaber’s gear system claimed in the patent [22] makes it easy to distinguish between the two. the axis l and the straight line l = 1 are the asymptotes. is negligibly small. whereas the essence of Wildhaber gearing is disclosed in the US patent [22]. G and P. An interval of changes in the parameter K starting from −∞ and going up to approxi- mately K = −2 can conveniently accommodate any desirable displacement of the tooth flanks.” that is.23]. an additional requirement needs to be met to significantly improve the load-carrying capacity of a conformal gear pair. The lack of information on the new gear system was the root cause for this. For the convex-to-concave contact. use of just the convex-to-concave contact of tooth flanks of the gear and the pinion gives almost no improvement in the load-carrying capacity of a gear pair. However.. Many of them still loosely refer to Novikov gearing as to “W–N gearing. The essence of Novikov gearing is disclosed in the S. beginners and less experienced gear specialists often make no difference between the Novikov gear system [23] and the gear system proposed by Wildhaber [22]. The greatest possible degree of mismatch in the curvature of the teeth of gear and the pinion corresponds to the parameter K → −∞.” This term is totally incorrect. after the concept of Novikov gearing was properly disclosed and made available for the use of western engineers. Therefore.   It is instructive to point out here that to make the inconsistency of the term “W–N gearing” clear. On the other hand.2  High-Conformal Parallel-Axis Gearing High-conformal gears feature convex-to-concave contacts of the tooth flanks of the gear and the pinion similar to that of Novikov gearing* features. as well as of the Wildhaber gear system. the increase in the degree of conformity of the tooth profiles. Novikov disclosure. M. G and P.L. from their correct location. the prin- cipal differences between Novikov gearing [23] and Wildhaber gearing [22] became clear to most gear experts.U.19. the degree of conformity at the point of contact of the tooth flanks of the * The concept of Novikov gearing was not completely understood by the majority of gear experts in the years immediately following the Dr. 4. patent [23]. Later on. as well as in Novikov’s doctoral thesis [18] and monograph [19]. . one can provide a definition to the term “W–N gearing. even a small change in the value of parameter K within the interval − 2 < K < −1 results in a significant increase in the degree rate of conformity of the teeth profiles. In addi- tion.

dcnf ..96 High-Conformal Gearing gear and the pinion in high-conformal gearing exceeds a certain critical value. the value of parameter K (i. from their desirable locations and orientations. and so on. onto the bearing capacity of the teeth flanks.2). at a current point of contact of the gear tooth flank. The degree of mismatch in the curvature of the teeth in high- conformal gears is smaller compared to that in conformal gears. a and the pinion tooth flank. This allows one to distinguish between conformal gearing (for which −∞ < K < Kcr) and high-conformal gearing (for which Kcr ≤ K < −1). elastic deflection. but to any and all possible displacements caused by thermal exten- sion. it is important to point out here that the teeth profiles of high-conformal gears feature convex-to-concave type of Bearing capacity of the teeth flanks C Conformal gearing High-conformal gearing B A a b c dcnf dcnf dcnf dcnf [dcnf ] FIGURE 4. that is. An example of such sections is shown by the bold dashed line. dcnf. Without going into the details of this analysis. The performed analysis of the 3D plot shown in Figure 4. Otherwise.e. the value of K ≈ −2) can be referred to as a critical value. that is. high-conformal gears allow the transmission of higher power density. K) intersected by planes Ki = Const. although the extension is somewhat besides the main subject of this book.2 can be extended. (Figure 4. . it is clear that high-con- formal gears require tight tolerances for any possible displacements of the tooth flanks of the gear. Kcr. G.3 Impact of degree of conformity.2). In the aforementioned example (Figure 4. P. and the pinion. This relates not just to the tolerances on the manufacturing errors. parameter Ki for these lines is within the interval Kcr ≤ Ki < −1. there could be no future for high-conformal gear systems. The areas of existence of conformal and high-conformal gearing are sche- matically illustrated in Figure 4.3. Consider sections of the surface l = l(k. Because of the favorable conditions of contact of the tooth flanks. For high-conformal gears. [dcnf]. Without going into the details of this analysis. the threshold.

the principal directions of the gear tooth flank are denoted by t1. the requirement of alignment of the principal directions t1. the alignment of the principal directions of the contacting surface is a must. This is the second reason the Hertz formula in not valid for the calculation of con- tact stress between the tooth flanks of high-conformal gears. Indicatrices of conformity of the kinds Cnf R(G/P) and Cnf k(G/P) are devel- oped for the analytical description of the contact geometry of the interacting tooth flanks.p and t 2. First.p.g. The greater the misalignment of the principal directions. Generally speaking.p and t 2.g and t2. mt.g. all of which are sufficient to refer to this gearing as high-conformal gearing: • The transverse contact ratio is identical to zero (mp ≡ 0). high-conformal gearing can be characterized by the following features.High-Conformal Gearing 97 contact. the Hertz formula for the calculation of contact stress was derived [12] for cases of contact of two bodies of simple shape. the Hertz formula for the calculation of contact stress was derived [21] under the assumption that the dimensions of the contact patch between two contacting surfaces are significantly smaller in comparison to the corre- sponding radii of curvature of the surface of relative curvature. G and P. The active portions of the tooth flanks in high-conformal gears are sur- faces that have complex geometry. Sphere-to-plane.g. is equal to face contact ratio. At a point of contact.p. Characteristic curves of these kinds can be used to construct the contour of the contact patch between two high-conformal gears. The Hertz formula is valid in either of the following cases: • t1.g is aligned with t 2. This can be helpful when solving the contact stress problem for gearing of this system. mF. each of which is important and.p and t 2.g is aligned with t 2. and is greater than 1 (mt = mF > 1). For these surfaces. • t1.p. more- over.p.p is not fulfilled. The aforemen- tioned features allow the conclusion that the Hertz formula is not applicable for the calculation of contact stress in high-conformal gears. at the same point the princi- pal directions of the pinion tooth flank are denoted by t1. This require- ment is violated by the aforementioned features: a small degree of mismatch in the curvature of the teeth profiles of high-conformal gears results in the sizes of the contact patch becoming comparable with the corresponding radii of curvature of the surface of relative curvature. Based on the aforementioned investigation. the greater the deviation in the calculated values of contact stress from their actual values. • The total contact ratio. of a gear pair (see Chapter 5).g is aligned with t1. . and vice versa. and cylinder-to-plane are examples of shapes in relation to which the Hertz formula is valid.g is aligned with t1. t 2. to make the Hertz formula valid. and the degree of mismatch in the curvature is small. which is not allowed. sphere-to-sphere. and t1. Similarly. t 2. Second.

mt. equal to the face contact ratio (mt = mF > 1). Novikov gearing and high-conformal gearing share the first four features. mt. mp. mp. a zero face contact ratio (mF = 0). and deflections due to heat extension. whereas the con- cave tooth profile of the other member of the gear pair is entirely located within the exterior of the boundary N-circle. the concept of spur involute gearing was enhanced to include the concept of helical involute gearing that has a face contact ratio greater than zero (mF > 0) and a total contact ratio mt = mp + mF > 1. and a total contact ratio. N-gearing for simplicity) features a zero transverse contact ratio (mp ≡ 0). High-conformal gearing differs from Novikov gearing only in the last of the aforementioned features. [involute (Euler) gearing: mp > 1 and mF = 0. greater than 1 (mp > 1). the concept of Novikov gearing was enhanced to include the concept of high-conformal gearing that has a degree of conformity at a point of contact of the interacting tooth flanks of the gear and the pinion equal to or smaller than a predetermined threshold [Novikov gearing: mp ≡ 0 and mF > 1]. a face contact ratio greater than 1 (mF > 1). M. Comparing high-conformal gearing (as well as Novikov gearing) with invo- lute gearing. mF. equal to the transverse contact ratio (mt = mp > 1). As all feasible combinations of the values of transverse contact ratio. The difference between the radii of cur- vature is required to make the gear pair capable of absorbing the tooth flank displacements due to manufacturing errors. Later on. and a total contact ratio. Novikov. • The difference between the magnitudes of the radii of curvature of the concave tooth profile and the convex tooth profile in the gear pair is equal to or smaller than a given threshold beyond which the high conformity of the interacting tooth profiles contributes much to the bearing capacity of the gear pair. • The convex tooth profile of one member of the gear pair is entirely located within the interior of the boundary N-circle. Later on. and face contact ratio. whereas that of the mating gear is concave. deflections under the operating load. as well as all other displacements. • Proposed by Dr. the following should be noticed: • Proposed by L. are covered by either involute (Euler) gearing or .98 High-Conformal Gearing • The tooth profile of one member of the gear pair is convex. Euler. or just Eu-gearing for simplicity]. spur involute gearing features a transverse contact ratio. so-called Novikov gearing (or just.L.

high-conformal gearing features a certain degree of conformity at a point of contact. dcnf.4. * It is evident that the Helical Gearing patent proposed by E. G. and (b) the indicatrix of conformity. P. exceeds a threshold beyond which a significant increase in the bearing capacity of the interacting tooth flanks is observed. a For a certain degree of conformity. G and P. K.p Crv ( ) ϕ t1. can be used as a quan- titative measure of the degree of conformity of the interacting tooth flanks. of the tooth flanks G and P . Cnf(G/P). Novikov must be referred to as Novikov gearing. The degree of conformity of the tooth flanks of the gear. at a cur- rent point of contact. K. The invention by Dr. In addition. the bearing capacity of the tooth surfaces can be evaluated by (a) (b) yg CnfR ( / ) ng t2. . it can be concluded that no new gear system can be devel- oped based on the various combinations of contact ratios.* The term high-conformal gearing is broader than the term Novikov gearing. at a point of contact of tooth flanks G and P  of the gear and of the mating pinion: (a) local patches of the teeth flanks G and P in con- tact. this prop- erty of high-conformal gearing is illustrated in Figure 4. of the tooth flanks. G and P.High-Conformal Gearing 99 Novikov gearing. nor does it meet the requirements of Novikov gearing. Cnf R (G/P). M.g xg Crv ( ) μ Crv ( ) np FIGURE 4. and Wildhaber gearing must be referred to as Wildhaber gearing (or just the helical gearing patent as proposed by E. Wildhaber).p K K t1. of the local patches of the surfaces G and P.4 An example of the indicatrix of conformity. of the indicatrix of conformity.L. at the point of contact of the tooth flanks.g t2. The minimum diameter. Schematically. The incorrect terminology must be eliminated from use among proficient gear experts. K. Novikov gearing features a convex-to-concave contact of the tooth flanks of the gear and the pinion. The widely adopted terminology “Wildhaber–Novikov gearing” clearly indicates poor understand- ing of the kinematics and geometry of both Novikov gearing and of helical gearing (proposed by E. dcnf . and the pinion. Wildhaber does not meet the requirements of Euler gearing. at point of contact. and a particular configuration of the tooth flanks in relation to the line of action under which the transverse contact ration of a gear pair is identical to zero (mp ≡ 0) and the face contact ratio is always greater than 1 (mF > 1). Wildhaber). Cnf R (G/P).

the center distance is equal to a cer- tain value. C.5).3 On the Accuracy Requirements for Conformal Parallel-Axis Gearing As it was discussed in the previous sections of this book. Pln. 4. the bearing capacity of the tooth flanks of the gear. is increased from dcnf a to a value of dcnf b .pc. The increase in bearing capacity is insignificant in the case under consideration a b as both the degrees of conformity. C*. The alteration in the center distance inevitably entails corresponding changes to the diameters. that is. c Let us assume that the degree of conformity.100 High-Conformal Gearing a number. then the total linear displace- ment of the gear and the pinion in relation to one another is equal to the actual value of variation. For practical needs.pc and dp. If one of the axes is parallel to the pitch line. it is impor- tant to estimate the influence of the variation of the design parameters on the performance of a high-conformal gear pair. because of the manufacturing errors and for other reasons. and another one is along the center line. dcnf. C. it exceeds a threshold for the degree of conformity (dcnf ≥ [dcnf]). c For high-conformal gearing. G. the inequality dcnf ≥ [dcnf ] is always observed. ℄. of the center distance. dg. and the pinion. When the inequality dcnf > [dcnf ] is valid. the actual value of the center distance. at the point of contact of the tooth flanks that exceeds a certain critical value of the degree of conformity [dcnf]. and the pinion. In reality. G and P. an ideal high-conformal gear pair is schematically shown. In a high-conformal gear pair. G.5 (see the upper portion of the figure). In reality. ΔC. an insignificant increase in the bearing capacity of the tooth flanks from number A to number B occurs. dcnf and dcnf . grows fast. dcnf . is greater than the thresh- c old [dcnf]. In Figure 4. P. occurs. linear displacements of the gear and the pinion in relation to one another can be expressed in terms of the tree com- ponents along the axes of a Cartesian reference system. A. The reference system can be associated with the gear pair so as to minimize the total number of the components to be taken into account when calculating the design param- eters of the gear and the pinion. This condition can be attained if tolerances for the accuracy of the gear and the pinion are tightened. high-conformal gearing features a degree of conformity. differs from C (see the upper portion of Figure 4. If the degree of conformity of the tooth flanks of the gear. Here. of the gear and . none of the design parameters of a gear pair can be maintained with a zero deviation: all of the design parameters of a gear pair are within the corresponding tolerances for the accuracy. P. are smaller than the threshold [dcnf] beyond which a significant increase in the bearing capacity of the tooth flanks.

p C Op dpc. . and the operating pressure angle.g Np* Vpa P C* L ΔCp ϕt* Δϕt Og* ωg Og rN ΔCg FIGURE 4.p Ppc Ng Np P Vpa L C db.g db.op ψb ωp * dpc.p C* O*p * dpc.p Ppc Ng* db. ϕt. C.5 Variation of the center distance.High-Conformal Gearing 101 ωp dpc. in a real parallel-axis high-conformal gearing.g db.g ϕt Og rN ωg K1 VK Opc Ppc Feff O cg Pln K2 pb.

9) db. g POg* = C * (4. pc and dp* . g db. the actual value of the center distance. the following expressions can be derived for calcu- lating the parameters POg* and POp* : db. g POg* = (C + [∆C]) ⋅ (4.12) db. p POp* = C * (4. respectively. In the lower portion of Figure 4. φt* db.11) db. g + db. is not known. Therefore.5 POp* db. g + db. C*. is known.8) From these equations. dg. The operating pressure angle also changes from its nominal value. With that said. The actual values * of the diameters. It should be noticed here that the tolerance [ΔC] is a signed value. The changes to the center distance and to the pressure angle need to be taken into account when designing the high-conformal gear pair. pc.pc and dp. p φt* = sin −1 * = sin −1 (4. is substituted with the sum C* = C + [ΔC].13) POg POp* . Equations 4. However.9 and 4. p db.102 High-Conformal Gearing the pinion at which the pseudo path of contact is situated. to the actual value. φt* . p POp* = (C + [∆C]) ⋅ (4.10) db. [ΔC]. g and POg* + POp* = C * (4. C*. p * = (4. ϕt.7) POg db. the tolerance. p The calculated values of the parameters POg* and POp* yield the formula for calculating the operating pressure angle.pc. p Commonly.10 cast into db. p db. are labeled as dg . in the calculations. g + db. the actual center distance. g + db.

18) db. the original concave gear tooth profile. For the comparison. p PN *p = (C + ∆C ) ⋅ cos φt* (4.16) * dpc . in the gear pair onto the plane of the drawing in Figure 4. ΔC. The G* profile corresponds to a case when the actual center distance. results in the tooth flanks G and P of the gear and the pinion interacting with one another not by involute tooth points within each of them.13 yields the calculation of the design parameters PN *g and PN *p db. onto the required change in radii of curvature of the gear and the pinion tooth profiles. in a local vicinity of the involute tooth point.14) db. C*. g + 4 ⋅ (PN *g − rN )2 (4. then the diameters. PPc. g PN *g = (C + ∆C ) ⋅ cos φt* (4.6. The involute tooth point coincides in Figure 4. p Once the operating pressure angle. p .6 illustrates a portion of a concave gear tooth profile. g and dpc. and the design parameters. is also shown in Figure 4.17) A change to the center distance. consider the influence of variation of the center distance alteration.6. dpc * . C. p db.High-Conformal Gearing 103 Equation 4. can be calculated from the equations * dpc .g = db2. p + 4 ⋅ (PN *p + rN )2 (4. The conditions of meshing are violated because of this. are known. The tolerance [ΔC] is shared with the corresponding tolerances for the lin- ear displacements [ΔCg] and [ΔCp] of the gear and the pinion in the following manner: db. As an example. g + db. at a displacement. G*. C.15) db. is greater than the desirable center distance. g + db. G.6 with the projection of the pseudo path of contact. As the actual linear displacement is commonly unknown. p . they contact by points within the tooth profiles that were originally designed with the intent to not to be involved in the transmission of the rotation. g [∆C g ] = [∆C] ⋅ (4. instead. g + db.p = db2. Figure 4. for the displacement is considered instead. constructed for zero displacement of the gears. [ΔC]. ΔC. the tolerance. PN *g and * PN *p .

The concave gear tooth profile. After the gears are displaced. G*. G.104 High-Conformal Gearing db. the equality [ΔC] = [ΔCg] + [ΔCp] is observed. is centered at point cg. must be entirely located outside the boundary N-circle of the radius rN.19) db. rN. is shifted parallel to the center line. the inequality rg > rN is valid). g + db. rg. r g* . G*. As it follows from the analysis of Figure 4. of this profile is known (here and below only circular-arc gear tooth pro- files are discussed as examples). The expression can be used for the calculation of the radius r g* r g* = r g + [∆C g ]2 + (c g P)2 − 2[∆C g ](c g P)sin φt (4. rg. The original concave gear tooth profile. c*g . the minimal permissible radius. The center.6. of the concave gear tooth profile.20) It is clear that the inequality r g* > r g is observed.e. p [∆C p ] = [∆C] ⋅ (4. p The components [ΔCg] and [ΔCp] of the resultant tolerance [ΔC] are signed values. G*. (i. the gear tooth profile. . is greater compared to radius. The radius. at a distance [ΔCg]. is greater than the radius. in a high-conformal gear pair with the altered center distance (ΔC).. The radius. rg. ϕt υg L C rg rN cg PA Ppc * Ppc P * υg [ΔCg] c*g r*g FIGURE 4. ℄. is centered at point c*g . G*. Evidently.6 Configuration of the concave gear tooth profile.

The smaller the angle. at a certain angle. the involute tooth profiles are truncated to the involute point. This is because the involute tooth point of the gear and the involute tooth point of the pinion make contact at culmination.21) ϕt L C rp* cp* rN * PA P cp * Ppc Ppc [ΔCp] υp rp υp FIGURE 4. and the tangent to the profile G* is designated as υg. In conformal and in high-conformal gearings. the contact point between the tooth flanks of the gear and the pinion travels along the tooth profiles that are designed so as to not to be engaged in gear mesh. PA. * In involute gearing. P * (Figure 4. Due to this.* An equation similar to Equation 4. PA. PA. the better. The concave gear tooth profile. Because the tooth profiles are of involute geometry. in a high-conformal gear pair with the altered center distance (ΔC). G. this makes involute gearing insensitive to the variation of the center distance. . intersects the plane of action. G*. υg.7 Configuration of the convex pinion tooth profile. at a right angle.High-Conformal Gearing 105 The original concave gear tooth profile. The angle between the perpendicular to the plane of action.20 can be derived for the convex pinion tooth profile.7) r p* = r p − [∆C p ]2 + (cp P)2 − 2 [∆C p ](cp P) sin φt (4. when the center distance changes. When the center distance changes. P *. The last makes both conformal and high-conformal gearings sensitive to the variation of the center distance. all three conditions of meshing are met when the displacement is zero ([ΔC] = 0). the contact point between the tooth flanks of the gear and the pinion travels along the involute tooth profiles. intersects the plane of action.

For this analysis. angular displacements can also be taken into account when designing a gear pair. gearings with a larger radius of the boundary circle. then both the angles υg and υp are zero. In ideal high-conformal (as well as in conformal-Novikov) gearings. rN. all three conditions for proper transmission of a rotation can be satisfied. [ΔC]. The calculated min min value of the diameter dcnf is then compared with the threshold [dcnf ] . . for the real high-conformal gearing need to be calculated taking into account Equations 4.21. Both [ΔC] and [ΔΣ] are signed values. the analysis needs to be performed for both the values of the displacements. In such a scenario. is also zero. [ΔC]. Similarly to the linear displacements of the gears in high-conformal gear- ing. when the inequality dcnf > [dcnf ] is observed. [ΔC+] and [ΔC−]. For example. that is. is zero. If the min min inequality dcnf < [dcnf ] is observed then the gearing can be referred to as min min high-conformal gearing. when the displacement. All possible efforts need to be undertaken to minimize the angle υ = υg + υp. the gearing represents an example of a conformal gear pair. and having [ΔΣ] as the tolerance for the axis alignment [38]. are less sensitive to axes misalignment. [ΔC+] and [ΔC−]. Otherwise.20 and 4. that is. This particular problem is more bulky compared to the case considered earlier. the parallel-axis high-conformal gear needs to be considered as a crossed-axis gear pair having [ΔC] as the center distance. and the resultant angle. dcnf . In a case where the linear displacement. can take place in both the directions. The discussion in this section of the book also indirectly confirms that neither profile nor longitudinal modifications are allowed for conformal and high-conformal gears. υ.106 High-Conformal Gearing min The degree of conformity.

In other words. namely (a) the shape and the geometry of the gear tooth flank. The concept that establishes the priority of the kinematics of gearing over the remaining elements of the gear pair is the cornerstone concept of the developed scientific theory of gearing [38]. 107 . it is possible to synthe- size the rest of the design parameters of the gear pair. Other important elements of gearing. P (as well as numerous others) are considered as the secondary elements of gearing. Favard‡ in his “Course de Gèomètrie * Joseph-Louis Lagrange (January 25. and A. this is incorrect. on the premise of the desirable kinematics of the gear pair.L. 1965)—a French mathematician. The study of the contact of curves and sur- faces was undertaken in considerable detail by J.L. This does not mean that the importance of the secondary elements is lower than that of the primary elements. an appropriate analytical description of contact geometry of the gear tooth flank G and the mating pinion tooth flank P is required. and (b) the shape and the geometry of the mating pinion tooth flank. 1902–January 21. Investigation of contact geometry of curves and surfaces can be traced back to the eighteenth century. ‡ Jean Favard (August 28.5 Contact Geometry of the Gear and the Mating Pinion Tooth Flanks In the theory of gearing. This just means that the most favorable parameters of the secondary elements can be expressed in terms of the parameters of the prime element. Cauchy† in his “Leçons sur les Applications du Calcul Infinitésimal á la Geometrie” (1826) [4]. In order to solve the problem of synthesizing the most favorable gear pair. The problem of ana- lytical description of contact geometry between two smooth regular surfaces in the first order of tangency is a sophisticated one. 1736–April 10. No. 1789–May 23. that is. Lagrange* in his “Theorié des Fonctions Analytiques” (1797) [17]. in the twentieth century. 1857)—a famous French mathematician. Ultimately. † Augustin-Louis Cauchy (August 21. the entire gear pair can be synthesized on the premise just of the prime element. G. the kinematics of gearing is considered as the prime element of the gear pair. Only the kinematics of gearing is used for the purposes of synthesizing of the best possible gear pair for transmitting the input rotation and torque. having just the desirable kinematics of the gear pair to be designed. 1813)—an Italian born [born Giuseppe Lodovico (Luigi) Lagrangia] famous French mathematician and mechanician. Later on. an investigation in the realm of contact geometry of curves and surfaces was undertaken by J.

It is convenient to begin the discussion starting from the analytical descrip- tion of the local relative orientation of the gear tooth flank G and the mating pinion tooth flank P. .1 ​L ocal Relative Orientation at a Point of Contact of Gear and Mating Pinion Tooth Flanks When the gears rotate. In the theory of gearing. which fits the needs of the theory of gearing. The requirement to be permanently in tangency to each other imposes a kind of restriction on the relative con- figuration (location and orientation) of the tooth flanks G and P and on their instant relative motions. is necessary. a quantitative measure of the relative orientation of the gear tooth flank G and of the mating pinion tooth flank P is estab- lished [28]. the gear tooth flank G and the mating pinion tooth flank P are in permanent tangency with one another.108 High-Conformal Gearing Diffèrentialle Locale” (1957) [9]. Therefore. The results of the research obtained in the field of contact geometry of two smooth regular surfaces are widely used in the theory of gearing. Latest achievements in the field are discussed in the papers [28. and in the monograph [41]. The problem of synthesizing of the most favorable gear pair can be solved on the premise of the analysis of topology of the contacting surfaces in differential vicinity of the point of their contact.32]. The proposed analytical description is relevant to the differential vicinity of the point of contact K of the tooth flanks G and P. Locally. An overview of the methods can be found out in the monograph by Radzevich [31].31. A few more names of the researchers in the field will be mentioned. Such a method is worked out in this chapter. The relative orientation at a point of contact of the gear tooth flank G and of the mating pinion tooth flank P is specified by the angle μ local* relative * The surface orientation is local in nature because it relates only to differential vicinity of the point K of contact of the tooth flanks G and P. 5.1. the contact- ing surfaces G and P can be approximated by the corresponding quadrics as schematically illustrated in Figure 5. an accurate method for analytical description of contact geometry between two smooth regular surfaces G and P in the first order of tangency. Various methods for analytical description of contact geometry between two smooth regular surfaces have been developed. A detailed analysis of known methods of the analytical description of the geometry of contact between two smooth regular surfaces uncovered the poor capability of the known methods of solving problems in the field of designing efficient gear pairs.

S.1) cos µ = t1. g ⋅ t 2.p of the sec- ond principal directions of the surfaces G and P at a point K of their contact.p ng t2.p.1 Local configuration of two quadrics tangent to a gear tooth flank G and to a mating pinion tooth flank P at a point K of their contact. g × t1.g C2.g xp yg xg np R2.) orientation of the surfaces.g are the unit vectors of principal directions on the gear tooth flank G measured at a contact point K and t1.p C1. g × t 2. p| tan µ = ≡ (5.p Tangent plane t1. g ⋅ t1. p = t 2.g zp FIGURE 5.p are the unit vectors of prin- cipal directions on the mating pinion tooth flank P at that same contact point K of the surfaces G and P.. the angle μ is equal to the angle that the unit tangent vector t1.p yp R2.3) t1. and Synthesis.p K m t2. p where t1. g ⋅ t1. By definition.p C2. t2.g and t2. 2012. That same angle μ can also be deter- mined as the angle that makes the unit tangent vectors t2. Theory of Gearing: Kinematics.g of the first principal direction of the gear tooth flank G forms with the unit tangent vector t1. p| = |t 2. t2.Contact Geometry of the Gear and the Mating Pinion Tooth Flanks 109 zg R1. 743pp.2) |t1. p t 2.P. p| (5. . (Adapted from Radzevich. Boca Raton. g × t 2. p| |t 2.g R1.g t1.g.p C1. g × t1. This immediately yields equations for the calculation of the angle μ sin µ = |t1. CRC Press. g ⋅ t 2. p (5. FL.p of the first principal direction of the mating pinion tooth flank P. Geometry.

5) where rtp is the position vector of a point of the common tangent plane. or just as characteristic E.1.6) sin ω g = Eg G g * It is worthy pointing out here that in a case of line contact. The actual value of the angle ωg can be calculated from one of the following equa- tions [38]: EgGg − Fg2 (5. However. an equation of the common tangent plane to the tooth flanks G and P at the contact point K is necessary (Figures 5.g and t1. For fur- ther analysis. unit vectors of the principal directions t1.g of the principal directions on the part surface G (as well as directions of the unit tangent vectors t1. which are represented in a common reference system. If the tooth flanks G and P are in line contact.110 High-Conformal Gearing Directions of the unit tangent vectors t1. the actual value of the angle μ is calculated at the point K of contact of the surfaces.1 and 5. rK is the position vector of the contact point K. Consider tooth flanks G and P in point contact. The angle ωg is the angle that is formed by the unit vectors ug and vg.4) dU g ( p ) dU g ( p ) Lg ( p ) + Mg( p) Mg( p) + N g( p) dVg ( p ) dVg ( p ) In case of the point contact of the surfaces G and P.p and t 2. The corresponding values of the ratio dUg(p) /dVg(p) are calculated as roots of the quadratic equation dU g ( p ) dU g ( p ) Eg ( p ) + Fg ( p ) Fg ( p ) + Gg ( p ) dVg ( p ) dVg ( p ) =0 (5.* The line of contact of the tooth flanks G and P is commonly referred to as characteristic line E. and vg are unit vectors that are tangent to Ug and Vg are coordinate lines on the gear tooth flank G at the contact point K. the relative orientation of the sur- faces G and P is predetermined in a global sense. . Determination of the angle μ of local relative orientation of the tooth flanks G and P of a gear and a mating pinion are illustrated in Figure 5. the actual value of the angle μ of the surfaces local relative orientation at different points of the characteristic E is different. ug.p are employed.p of the principal directions on the pinion tooth flank P) can be specified in terms of the ratio dUg/dVg (or in terms of the ratio dUp/dVp in case of the pinion tooth flank P).2) (rtp − rK ) ⋅ u g ⋅ v g = 0 (5. The surfaces make a contact at a point K. In order to calculate the actual value of the angle μ of local relative orienta- tion of the tooth flanks G and P. then the actual value of the angle μ can be calculated at every point within the line of contact.g and t 2.

9) cos ε = v g ⋅ v p (5.g ωg µ ξp t2.p C2.p K t1.g C1.8 are also valid for the calcu- lation of the angle ωp at a point on the pinion tooth flank P.7) Eg G g EgGg − Fg2 tan ω g = (5.Contact Geometry of the Gear and the Mating Pinion Tooth Flanks 111 C2. Tangent directions ug and vg to the Ug and Vg coordinate lines at a point on the gear tooth flank G.10) .6 through 5. Fg cos ω g = (5.2 Local relative orientation at a point of contact of the tooth flanks of a gear G and a mating pinion P considered in a common tangent plane.8) Fg Equations similar to Equations 5. and tangent directions up and vp to the Up and Vp coordinate lines at a point on the pinion tooth flank P are specified in terms of the angles θ and ε.p ug ξg µ t1.g vp up θ C1.g ε vp ωp FIGURE 5. For the calculation of the actual values of the angles θ and ε. the following equations can be used: cos θ = u g ⋅ u p (5.p t2.

the following equality tan ξg = ηg is observed.112 High-Conformal Gearing The angle ξg is the angle that the first principal direction t1.16) |U g| ⋅ |drg| The last expressions yield sin ξ g |U g × drg| |U g × drg| tan ξ g = = = cos ξ g U g ⋅ drg U g ⋅ (U g dU g + Vg dVg ) |U g × drg|⋅ dVg = (5. The equation for the calculation of the actual value of the angle ξg is derived by Radzevich [28.15) |U g| ⋅ |drg| U g ⋅ drg cos ξ P g = (5. drg can be represented in the form drg = U g dU g + Vg dVg (5.11) 2 η − 2ηg cos ω g + 1 g where ηg designates the ratio ηg = (∂Ug/∂Vg).2).g on the gear tooth surface G forms with the unit tangent vector ug (see Figure 5. tan ξg = (sin ξg/cos ξg).37] ηg sin ξ g = sin ω g (5. Here. Following the chain rule.17) U g ⋅ U g dU g + U g ⋅ Vg dVg .14) By definition. the ratio ηg is equal to the root of the quadratic equation ( Fg Lg − Eg M g )η2g + (Gg Lg − Eg N g )ηg + (Gg M g − Fg N g ) = 0 (5.30.13) Lg dU g + M g dVg M g dU g + N g dVg The equation for the calculation of the actual value of the angle ξg allows for another representation.12) which immediately follows from the equation Eg dU g + Fg dVg Fg dU g + Gg dVg =0 (5. The functions sin ξg and cos ξg yield representation as |U g × drg| sin ξ g = (5. In the event Fg = 0.

22 through 5. . n g ) ⋅ u g (5. The performed analysis makes possible the following equations for the calculation of the unit vectors of principal directions t1.g: t1. Equation 3.24)  π  t 2.Contact Geometry of the Gear and the Mating Pinion Tooth Flanks 113 By definition [38] U g ⋅ U g = Eg (5. n g  ⋅ u p (5. n g  ⋅ u g (5. p = Rt(ξ p . EgGg − Fg2 tan ξ g = (5.g and t 2.19) U g × Vg = EgGg − Fg2 (5.A0) through an angle φA about an axis A0 is employed for the calculation of the operators of rotation in Equation 5. g = Rt  ξ g +  .25. p = Rt  ξ p +  .20 yield the formula.21) ηg ⋅ Eg + Fg for the calculation of the actual value of the angle ξg.p and t 2.14 through 5.25)   2   for the pinion tooth flank P.p.p at a point on the pinion tooth flank P forms with the unit tangent vector up.23)   2   for the gear tooth flank G.21 are also valid for the calculation of the actual value of the angle ξp that the first principal direc- tion t1. t1. Equations similar to those above Equations 5. g = Rt(ξ g .11 and 5.22)  π  t 2.20) Equations 5.18) U g ⋅ Vg = Fg (5. n g ) ⋅ u p (5.16 for the operator of rotation Rt(φA. and similar equations for the calculation of the unit vectors of principal directions t1.

114 High-Conformal Gearing 5.1 ​Preliminary Remarks: Dupin’s Indicatrix At any point of a smooth regular gear tooth flank G (as well as at any point of a smooth regular pinion tooth flank P) a corresponding Dupin’s indicatrix can be constructed. The second-order analysis incorporates elements of both of the first-order and of the second-order analysis. the plane occupies consecutive positions W1 W2 W3 ng Q δ m Dup ( ) FIGURE 5. 5. Generation of this planar char- acteristic curve is illustrated with a diagram in Figure 5. A plane W through the unit normal vector ng to the part surface G at a point m rotates about ng. 1873)—a French mathematician. consideration of the second-order parameters is necessary. While rotating. 1784–January 18. They are used for graphical interpretation of the distribution of normal radii of curvature of a surface in the differential vicinity of a surface point. familiarity with Dupin’s indicatrix is highly desir- able.3. For performing the second-order analysis. * Fransua Pier Charles Dupin (October 6. . Dupin’s indicatrix at a point of the tooth flank G (and P the tooth flank) is of critical importance in the theory of gearing.* Dupin’s indicatrix is a perfect startingpoint for consideration of the second-order analysis.2. Dupin’s indicatrices Dup(G) at a point of a gear tooth flank G and Dup(P) at a point of the pinion tooth flank P are planar charac- teristic curves of the second order.2 ​The Second-Order Analysis: Planar Characteristic Images For a more accurate analytical description of contact geometry of the gear tooth flank G and the pinion tooth flank P.3 ​Dupin’s indicatrix at a point of a smooth regular gear tooth flank G.

Dup(G). W1. and others. For local surface patches having negative full curvature (Gg < 0). In the case of plane.g Dup( ) m xg m xg m xg Rg R2.g R2. G. all points of Dupin’s indicatrix are remote to infinity. This plane is at a cer- tain small distance δ from the point m.g | |R1. (a) Elliptic.2. Because of this.3).3. Rg. Dupin’s indicatrices of the five different types are distinguished in differential geometry of surfaces (Figure 5. then the line of intersection of the gear surface G by the plane Q approaches to the planar characteristic curve that is commonly referred to as Dupin’s indicatrix. (d) hyperbolic. W3 are equal to Rg. . (b) umbilic.g | FIGURE 5. Rg.4d and e are shown in dashed lines.1.4 a–e). to the gear tooth flank G at a point m) of the characteristic curve Dup(G) in Figures 5. W2.g Dup( ) (d) (e) yg Dup ( ) yg Dup( ) R2.Contact Geometry of the Gear and the Mating Pinion Tooth Flanks 115 (a) (b) (c) yg yg yg R1. etc.g m xg m xg |R1.g Dup( ) Dup ( ) R1.4 ​Five different types of Dupin’s indicatrices. The gear tooth flank G is intersected by a plane Q (see Figure 5. the branches that are not intersected by a plane perpen- dicular to the unite normal vector. phantom branches (that is. Dupin’s indicatrix for a plane local surface patch does not exist. The radii of normal curvature of the line of intersec- tion of the gear tooth flank G by normal planes W1. ng. W2. W3. and (e) minimal. at a point m of a smooth regular gear tooth flank. An easy way to derive an equation of the characteristic curve Dup(G) is discussed immediately below. (c) parabolic. When the distance δ approaches zero (δ → 0) and when the scale of the line of intersection of the gear tooth flank G by the plane Q approaches infinity. In differential geometry of surfaces a surface is construed as a zero thick- ness film. The plane Q is orthogonal to the unit normal vector ng. Dup(G).

g y g2 = 1 (5. 0) + z1 x + z2 y + ( z11 x12 + 2z12 xy + z22 y 2 ) +  = (b11 x 2 + 2b12 xy + b22 y 2 ) 2 2 This gives the equation (b11 x 2 + 2b12 xy + b22 y 2 ) = ±1 of Dupin’s indicatrix.g and k2.g into Equation 5.30.32) * The same equation of Dupin’s indicatrix could be derived in another way. g x g2 + k2.116 High-Conformal Gearing Euler’s formula k1. an equation* for Dupin’s indicatrix Dup(G) can be represented in the form k1.g and k2. After substituting the last formulas into Equation 5. g cos 2 ϕ + sin 2 ϕ = 1 (5. (5.30) k g ρ2 k g ρ2 It is convenient to designate ρ = k g−1 .31) M g − Fg k g N g − Gg k g Substituting the calculated values of the principal curvatures k1. and after performing necessary formulae transform­ations. g k 2.26) yields representation in the form k1. g y g2 ⋅ + ⋅ = 1. Coxeter [13] con- siders a pair of conics obtained by expanding an equation in Monge’s form z = z(x. g cos 2 ϕ + k2. .g are the roots of the quadratic equation L g − Eg k g M g − Fg k g =0 (5.27.28) y g = ρ sin ϕ (5.27) kg kg Transition from polar coordinates to Cartesian coordinates can be per- formed using well-known formulas x g = ρ cos ϕ (5. one can come up with the equation k1. y) in a Maclauren series: 1 1 z = z(0. g x g2 k 2.29) These formulas make the following expressions for cos 2 ϕ = x g2 /ρ2 and sin 2 ϕ = y g2 /ρ2 possible. g sin 2 ϕ = k g (5. Principal curvatures k1.

and in terms of the fundamental magnitudes Lg. Φ1.g.2. 1917). a French mathematician. 5.g at a point of the gear tooth flank. the characteristic curve Dup(G) is expressed in terms of the fundamental magnitudes Eg. when multiple coordinate system transformations are required. * Jean Gaston Darboux (August 13.33.35)  0 0 ∓1 0  0       0 0 0 1  0  It is convenient to implement matrix representation of equation of Dupin’s indicatrix (see above). crossed-axis gearings.33) Eg Eg G g Gg In Equation 5. G. G. for instance. and Gg of the first. when investigating spatial gearings. Mg.Contact Geometry of the Gear and the Mating Pinion Tooth Flanks 117 Equation 5. and Ng of the second order. 1842–February 23. is often represented as [38] Lg 2 2Mg Ng 2 Dup( G ) ⇒ xg + xg y g + yg = 1 (5. that is. which is represented in Darboux’ frame.32 describes a particular case of Dupin’s indicatrix.* The general form of equation of Dupin’s indicatrix at a point m of a gear tooth flank.34) In the Darboux frame this equation reduces to  Lg Mg 0 0  xg  M Ng 0 0   y g  Dup( G ) ⇒ [x g 0] ⋅  g yg 0 ⋅ = ±1 (5. Φ2. equation of Dupin’s indicatrix of the gear tooth flank. Fg. G.2 Matrix Representation of Equation of Dupin’s Indicatrix of the Gear Tooth Flank Like any other quadratic form. . can be represented in the matrix form as  Lg 2Mg   E 0 0 Eg G g  g   xg   2Mg Ng  yg  Dup( G ) ⇒ [x g yg 0 0] ⋅  0 0  ⋅   = ±1  Eg G g Gg  0  0   0 ∓1 0  0     0 0 0 1  (5.

It shrinks to the point m on the surface G.k (ϕ ) = |k g (ϕ )| ⋅ sgn Φ2−. the closer these surfaces are to each other in differential vicinity of the point K. Dup(G).k (ϕ ) exists. a higher order analysis is needed. three geometrical parameters are interrelated when a deviation of a surface from the tangent plane is considered in dif- ferential vicinity of a surface point.3. As shown in Figure 5.1g (5. the characteristic curve Dup(G) does not exist.3 ​Degree of Conformity at a Point of Contact of Gear and Mating Pinion Tooth Flanks in the First Order of Tangency For an accurate analytical description of contact geometry of the gear and the mating pinion tooth flanks in the first order of tangency. Equation of this characteristic curve can be postulated in the form rDup. For a plane surface. the measure of the deviation. This approach is proven to be computationally ineffec- tive. lcnf * Similar to Dupin’s indicatrix Dup(G). However. .1 ​Preliminary Remarks Implementation of the resultant deviation lcnf (Figure 5.1g . a planar characteristic curve of another type can be introduced.5. Application of the curvature indicatrix in the form rDup. This qualitative (intuitive) definition of degree of conformity of two smooth regular surfaces is needed in a corresponding quantitative measure.k (ϕ ) makes avoiding uncertainty possible in cases of a plane surface. of a gear tooth flank G from the tangent plane.118 High-Conformal Gearing The equation of Dupin’s indicatrix can be represented in the form rDup (ϕ ) = Rg (ϕ ) ⋅ sgn Φ2−.5) [38] of two smooth regular surfaces in contact for the analytical description of contact geometry of two surfaces in contact is a type of straightforward solution to the problem under consideration. mg m*g . the approach gives an insight for how an effective method for solving the problem under consideration can be developed.36) The last equation reveals that the position vector of a point of Dupin’s indi- catrix. while rDup. in any direction is equal to the square root of the radius of curvature in that same direction. The method discussed below of a higher order analysis is targeting the development of an analytical description of the degree of conformity of the pinion tooth flank P to the gear tooth flank G at a current point K of their contact. 5.* 5. The higher the degree of conformity of the tooth flanks G and P. They are a.

Consider two smooth regular tooth flanks. the following expression is valid: (mg m*g )2 + (Km*g )2 Rg = (5. b. For a specified radius of normal curvature Rg of the part surface . for the radius of normal curvature Rg at a point of the gear tooth flank. and Rg.37) mg → K Inversely. the distance. of a current point mg from the contact point K c.5: mg m*g = R g − Rg2 − (Km*g )2  lcnf (5. in the first order of tan- gency that make a contact at a point K.Contact Geometry of the Gear and the Mating Pinion Tooth Flanks 119 Og Rg mg mg m*g lcnf tg K m*g Tangent plane Km*g 0 FIGURE 5. lcnf . The degree of conformity of the tooth flanks G and P can be construed as a function of the radii of normal curvature Rg and Rp of the contacting surfaces.5 On transition from the resultant deviation. radius of normal curvature Rg of the gear tooth flank G at the contact point K As a consequence from this relationship among the parameters mg m*g . G and P. As it is following from Figure 5.38) 2 ⋅ mg m*g Ultimately. G. Km*g. Km*g.. The radii of normal curvature Rg and Rp of the surfaces G and P are taken in a common normal plane section through the point K. of two tooth flanks to indicatrix of conformity Cnf(G/P) at a contact point K between a smooth regular tooth flanks G and P. any one of them can be used for the purposes of quantitative evalua- tion of the degree of conformity of the contacting tooth flanks G and P of the gear and the mating pinion. one may conclude that any legitimate analytical function of normal radii of curvature Rg and Rp at a point of contact of the gear tooth flank G and the pinion tooth flank P can be used for this particular purpose.

1 In the example shown in Figure 5. (b) convex-to-convex (Rp2 > Rp1 ). In Figure 5. This statement immediately follows from the conclusion made above that the degree of conformity at a point of contact of the tooth flanks G and P yields interpretation in terms of the radii of normal curvature Rg and Rp.120 High-Conformal Gearing G. (c) convex-to- planar.6a.6. the radius of normal curvature Rp of the convex plane section P of the gear tooth flank P is positive (Rp > 0). the degree of conformity of the surfaces depends upon the corresponding value of radius of normal curvature Rp of the pinion tooth flank P. for which that same normal plane section of the gear tooth flank G makes contact with different plane sections Pi of the pinion tooth flank P. and (d) convex-to-concave local patches of the tooth flanks G and P. . The degree of the surfaces conformity to one another depends on the orientation of the normal plane section through the contact point K and changes as the normal plane section is turning about the common perpendicular ng. 1 1 The convex normal plane section of the pinion tooth surface P makes con- tact with the convex normal plane section (Rg > 0) of a gear tooth surface G. (a) (b) R1p ng R2p ng K K 1 2 Rg Rg (c) (d) R3p ng ng K K 3 4 Rg R4p Rg FIGURE 5. The change of degree of conformity of a gear tooth flank G and a mating pinion tooth flank P due to turning of the normal plane section about the common perpendicular ng is illustrated in Figure 5. In most cases of gear meshing.6 Sections of two smooth regular tooth flanks G and P in contact by a plane through the common perpendicular ng: contacts of (a) convex-to-convex. just two- dimensional examples are shown.6. the degree of conformity at a point of con- tact of the tooth flanks G and P is not constant and it changes as coordinates of the contact point change.

the radius of normal curvature Rp4 is of negative value (Rp4 < 0 ). In this case. for a concave normal plane section P4 of the pinion tooth flank P that is illustrated in Figure 5.6c. When rotating the plane section about the common perpendicular.6b) being greater compared to that shown in Figure 5. In the next example depicted in Figure 5. the degree of conformity at a point of contact of two tooth flanks G and P is gradually increased. Another example is shown in Figure 5.6.6b. However. its value exceeds the value Rp of the radius of normal 2 1 curvature in the first example (Rp > Rp ). Therefore. . ng. This results in the degree of confor- mity of the pinion tooth flank P to the gear tooth flank G (Figure 5. it can be observed that the (a) (b) ng Rp K K Rg FIGURE 5.7 Analytical description of contact geometry of two smooth regular tooth flanks G and P of a gear and a mating pinion: (a) contacting convex local patches of the tooth flanks G and P. The examples shown in Figure 5. A similar observation is made for a given pair of the tooth flanks G and P when different sections of the surfaces by a plane surface through the com- mon perpendicular ng are considered (Figure 5.7a).6d.Contact Geometry of the Gear and the Mating Pinion Tooth Flanks 121 The degree of conformity of pinion tooth flank P to the gear tooth flank G in Figure 5.6a–d.6a. The radius of normal curvature Rp3 of the flatten plane section P3 approaches 3 infinity ( Rp → ∞). and (b) various sections of the tooth flanks G and P  by planes through the common perpendicular. Finally. the normal plane section P3 of the pinion tooth flank P is represented with the locally flatten section.6a is relatively low as both the contacting surfaces are convex. The radius of normal curvature Rp2 of the convex plane section P2 of the gear tooth flank P is also positive 1 (Rp2 > 0).6c is also gets greater. the degree of conformity of the pinion tooth flank P to the gear tooth flank G is the greatest of all the four examples considered in Figure 5. Intuitively one can realize that in the examples shown in Figure 5. ng. the degree of conformity of the pinion tooth flank P to the gear tooth flank G in Figure 5. the inequality Rp3 > Rp2 > Rp1 is valid. Thus.6 qualitatively illustrate what is known intuitively regarding the different degree of conformity of two smooth regu- lar surfaces in the first order of tangency.

The abovementioned examples provide an intuitive understanding of what the degree of conformity at a point of contact of two smooth regular tooth flanks G and P means.2 Indicatrix of Conformity at a Point of Contact of a Gear and a Mating Pinion Tooth Flank This section aims to introduce a quantitative measure of degree of confor- mity at a point of contact between two smooth regular surfaces. Dup(G) and Dup(P). constructed at a point of contact of the gear tooth flank G and the pinion tooth flank P. The examples cannot be employed directly for the purpose to evaluate in quantities the degree of conformity at a point of contact of two smooth regular tooth flanks G and P. the degree of conformity at a point of contact of a smooth regular surface P to another surface G can be expressed in terms of the differ- ence between the corresponding radii of normal curvature of the contacting surfaces. This particular type of congruency between the contacting surfaces G and P can also be construed as the local congruency of the contacting surfaces. The next necessary step to be made is to introduce an appropriate quantitative evaluation of the degree of conformity of two smooth regular surfaces in the first order of tan- gency. say how much the surface P is congruent to the surface G in differential vicinity of the point K.8). how can a certain degree of conformity of two smooth regular surfaces being described analytically? 5. for example. It is natural to assume that the smaller difference between the normal cur- vatures of the surfaces G and P in a common cross-section by a plane through the common normal vector ng results in the greater degree of conformity at a point of contact of the tooth flanks G and P.7b). for a concave elliptic patch of the surface G (Figure 5. the equation of this characteristic curve in polar coordinates can be repre- sented in the form Dup( G ) ⇒ rg (ϕ g ) = |Rg (ϕ g )| (5. Dupin’s indicatrix Dup(G) indicates the distribution of radii of normal cur- vature at a point of the gear tooth flank G as it had been shown.39) where rg is the position vector of a point of Dupin’s indicatrix Dup(G) at a point of the gear tooth flank G and φg is the polar angle of the indicatrix Dup(G). respectively. .122 High-Conformal Gearing degree of conformity of the gear and the pinion tooth flanks G and P is dif- ferent in different configurations of the cross-sectional plane (Figure 5. In other words. Quantitatively.3. it is convenient to implement Dupin’s indicatrices. For a gear tooth flank G. The degree of conformity at a point of contact of two tooth flanks G and P indicates how the pinion tooth flank P is close to the gear tooth flank G in differential vicin- ity of a point K of their contact. In order to develop a quantitative measure of the degree of con- formity of the tooth flanks G and P.

The similar is true with respect to Dupin’s indicatrix Dup(P) at a point of the pinion tooth flank P as it had been shown.40) where rp is the position vector of a point of Dupin’s indicatrix Dup(P) at a point of the pinion tooth flank P and φp is the polar angle of the indicatrix Dup(P). μ) bφ Dup ( ) aφ rp (φ) rg (φ) FIGURE 5.41) Dup(P ) ⇒ rp (ϕ . µ)| (5.Contact Geometry of the Gear and the Mating Pinion Tooth Flanks 123 yg yp xp t2.g Dup ( ) φ μ t1. the equali- ties φg = φ and φp = φ + μ are valid. μ) becomes smaller and vice versa.39 and 5. .40 cast into Dup( G ) ⇒ rg (ϕ ) = |Rg (ϕ )| (5. for instance. Therefore. In the coordinate plane xg yg of the local reference system xg yg zg. µ) = |Rp (ϕ . The equation of this characteristic curve in polar coordinates can be represented in the form Dup(P ) ⇒ rp (ϕ p ) = |Rp (ϕ p )| (5.p t 1.42) When degree of conformity at a point of contact of the pinion tooth flank P to the gear tooth flank G is greater. then the difference between the functions rg(φ) and rp(φ.p t2.g cφ K xg rcnf (φ. for a convex elliptical patch of the cutting tool surface P (Figure 5. which are in the first order of tangency.8 Derivation of equation of indicatrix of conformity Cnf R(G/P) at a point of contact of a smooth regular gear tooth flank G and the mating pinion tooth flank P. The last makes the follow- ing conclusion valid. Equations 5. in the coordinate plane xg yg.8).

44) Φ2. Ultimately. µ)| accordingly just for the purpose of remaining the cor- responding signs of the functions. The equation of the indicatrix of conformity Cnf R(G/P) at a point of contact of a gear tooth flank G and the a mating pinion tooth flank P is postulated of the following structure: Cnf R ( G /P ) ⇒ rcnf (ϕ .124 High-Conformal Gearing 5.43 rg = |R g| is the position vector of a point of Dupin’s indicatrix of the gear tooth flank G at a point K of contact with the pinion tooth flank P and rp = |R p| is the position vector of a corresponding point of Dupin’s indicatrix of the pinion tooth flank P. * Corresponding points of Dupin’s indicatrices Dup(P) and Dup(T) share the same straight line through the contact point K of the surfaces G and P and are located at the same side of the point K. to maintain that same sign that the radii of normal curvature Rg(φ) and Rp(φ. The multipliers sgn Rg(φ) and sgn Rp(φ. µ )sgn Rp (ϕ . µ ) = |Rg (ϕ )|sgn Rg (ϕ ) + |Rp (ϕ . µ) Because of the location of a point aφ of Dupin’s indicatrix Dup(G) at a point of the gear tooth flank G is specified by the position vector rg(φ). Therefore. the location of a point cφ (see Figure 5.1 ​Conclusion The distance between the corresponding* points of Dupin’s indicatrices Dup(G) and Dup(P) constructed at a point of contact of a gear tooth flank G and a mating pinion tooth flank P can be employed for the purpose of indi- cation of the degree of conformity at a point of contact of the gear surface G and of the pinion surface P at the contact point K. μ).2.g can be used.g Rg (ϕ ) = (5. µ) = |Rp (ϕ . In Equation 5.43) = rg (ϕ )sgn Rg (ϕ ) + rp (ϕ . µ ) (5. . and the length of the straight line seg- ment Kcφ is equal to the distance aφ bφ. one can conclude that position vector rcnf of a point of the indi- catrix of conformity Cnf R(G/P) can be expressed in terms of position vectors rg and rp of Dupin’s indicatrices Dup(G) and Dup(P). μ). For the calculation of the current value of the radius of normal curvature Rg(φ) at a point of the gear tooth flank G. µ )|sgn Rp (ϕ . the equality rcnf (φ. μ) have. that is. and that of a point bφ of Dupin’s indicatrix Dup(P) at a point of the pinion tooth flank P is specified by the position vector rp(φ.8) of the indicatrix of conformity Cnf R(G/P) at a point of contact K of the tooth flanks G and P is specified by the position vector rcnf (φ.3. μ) = Kcφ is observed. μ) are assigned to each of the functions rg (ϕ ) = |R g (ϕ )| and rp (ϕ . the equality Φ1.

47 and 5. and Gp. Mg. for the calculation of the current value of the radius of normal curvature Rp(φ. Fg. Use of the angle μ of local relative orientation of the tooth flanks G and P indicates that the radii of normal curvature Rg(φ) and Rp(φ. g R g (ϕ ) = (5. and Gg.48) M g ⋅ Rg − Fg N g ⋅ Rg − G g Recall that the inequality R1. Equation 5. Fp. µ)sgn Φ 2−. µ ) = (5.p Rp (ϕ .Contact Geometry of the Gear and the Mating Pinion Tooth Flanks 125 Similarly. one can conclude that the radius of normal curvature Rp(φ. μ) are taken in a common normal plane section through the contact point K. g ⋅ R2. it is well known that the inequalities Φ1. μ) at a point of pinion tooth flank P. Therefore. g ⋅ cos 2 ϕ Here.43 can be rewritten in the following form: rcnf = rg (ϕ )sgn Φ2−. and Ng. and Np. the radii of principal curvature R1. Equations 5. Omitting routing analysis.48 allow for the expression of the radius of normal curvature Rg(φ) at a point of the gear tooth flank G in terms of the funda- mental magnitudes of the first order Eg.p1 (5. and of the fundamental magnitudes of the second order Lp. it is convenient to use Euler’s equation for normal radius of curvature Rg(φ) at a point of the part surface G [38]: R1. A similar consideration is applicable for the pinion tooth flank P. the following equation for the indicatrix of conformity Cnf R(G/P) at a point of contact of the tooth flanks G and P can be derived . on the premise of the above-performed analysis. g ⋅ sin 2 ϕ + R2.p ≥ 0 are always valid.g ≥ 0 and Φ1. Finally.p can be employed.g1 + rp (ϕ .47) R1. Mp.g and R 2.45) Φ2.g are the roots of the qua- dratic equation: L g ⋅ R g − Eg M g ⋅ Rg − Fg =0 (5.g < R 2. and of the fundamental magnitudes of the second order Lg. μ) at a point of the pinion tooth flank P can be expressed in terms of the funda- mental magnitudes of the first order Ep.46) For the derivation of an equation of the indicatrix of conformity Cnf R(G/P). Further. the equality Φ1.g is always observed.

The first example (Figure 5. B23C 3/16. Analysis of Equation 5.P. Filed: December 27. No.50) Eg G g It is natural that the position vector rcnf (φ. In particular cases.126 High-Conformal Gearing EgGg rcnf (ϕ . Gp. [27]. 1984.P. 1249787. S. the position vector of a point rcnf (φ. where n designates an integer number. the abovementioned analysis makes it clear why the position vec- tor rcnf (φ. A Method of Sculptured Part Surface Machining on a Multi-Axis NC Machine.49) Equation 5. . for example. Radzevich. No.9. Independence of the characteristic curve Cnf R(G/P) of the fundamental magnitudes Fg and Fp is because of the following.p1 LpGp cos 2 (ϕ + µ) − Mp EpGp sin 2(ϕ + µ ) + N pEp sin 2 (ϕ + µ ) (5. 1983 [26]. Filed: October 24. USSR. A Method of Sculptured Part Surface Machining on a Multi-Axis NC Machine.49 reveals that the indicatrix of conformity Cnf R(G/P) at a point of contact of a gear tooth flank G and the mating pin- ion tooth flank P is represented by a planar centro-symmetrical curve of the fourth order. when the angle μ of local relative orientation of the tooth flanks G and G is equal to μ = ±π × n/2. μ) does not depend on the fundamental magnitudes Fg and Fp. μ) depends on the fundamental magnitudes Eg. The coordinate angle ωg at a point of the gear tooth flank G can be calcu- lated by the formula Fg ω g = arc cos (5. μ) of a point of the indicatrix of conformity Cnf R(G/P) is not a function of the coordinate angle ωg. Mirror symmetry of the indicatrix of confor- mity is observed. μ) of the indicatrix of conformity Cnf R(G/P) is not dependent on the fundamental magnitudes Fg and Fp. It is important to note here that even for the most general case of gearing. S. USSR.g1 LgGg cos ϕ − M g 2 EgGg sin 2ϕ + N g Eg sin 2 ϕ EpGp + sgn Φ2−. B23C 3/16.49 of the characteristic curve* Cnf R(P/T) is known from the late 1970s and is published in Reference 27 and (in a hidden form) in Reference 26. Although the position vector rcnf (φ.9a) relates to the cases * Equation of this characteristic curve is known from 1. Pat. Two illustrative examples of the indicatrix of conformity Cnf R(G/P) at a point of contact of a gear tooth flank G and a mating pinion tooth flank P are shown in Figure 5. Radzevich. Pat. Gg and Ep. µ ) = sgn Φ2−. and (in hidden form) from: 2. 1185749. this characteristic curve possess also a property of mirror symmetry.

Examples of contact of (a) an elliptic-to-hyperbolic.p xg Crv ( ) Crv ( ) dcnf μ np CnfR ( ) C1.g C1. and the corresponding indicatrices of conformity. of contact of a saddle-like local patch of the tooth surface G and of a convex elliptic-like local patch of tooth surface P. Cnf R(G/P). the corresponding curvature indicatrices* Crv(G) and Crv(P) at the point of contact of the tooth flanks G and P are depicted in Figure 5.9b) is for the case of contact of a convex parabolic-like local patch of the tooth surface G and of a convex elliptic-like local patch of tooth P. and (b) elliptic-to-parabolic local patches of the tooth flanks G and P. For both cases (see Figure 5.p K xg Crv ( ) μ Crv ( ) np C2. K.g K K C1.9 Examples of indicatrix of conformity Cnf R(G/P) at a point of contact K of a smooth regular gear tooth flank G and a mating pinion tooth flank P in the first order of tangency.g C2.Contact Geometry of the Gear and the Mating Pinion Tooth Flanks 127 CnfR ( ) yg CnfR ( ) (a) ng dcnf Crv ( ) φ C1.p (b) yg CnfR ( ) np ϕ Crv ( ) C2.g K C2.p FIGURE 5. constructed at point of contact.9 as well.9). The imaginary (phantom) branches of Dupin’s indicatrix Dup(G) (not labeled in * See Reference 35 for details on the curvature indicatrices Crv(G) and Crv(P). . The second one (Figure 5.

10. A gear tooth flank G and the pinion tooth flank P can make a contact geometrically however physical conditions of their contact could be vio- lated.11a. The condition of physical contact is fulfilled when all diameters of the indicatrix of conformity Cnf R(G/P) are positive. equation of Dupin’s indicatrices Dup(G) and Dup(P) simpli- fies to Lg x g2 + 2 M g x g y g + N g y g2 = ±1 (5.11b. An example of indicatrix of conformity Cnf R(G/P) for such a case is depicted in Figure 5. measured along the corresponding straight line through the center of symmetry of the curve. When correspondence between the radii of normal curvature of the contacting tooth flanks G and P is inappropriate. In this case. The orientation of the normal plane section with respect to the tooth flanks G and P is specified by the corresponding central angle φ.51 and 5.52 makes possible a simplified equation of the indicatrix of conformity Cnf R(G/P) at a point of contact of the tooth flanks G and P: * Diameter of a centro-symmetrical curve can be defined as a distance between two points of the curve. use of Equation 5.c). The value of the current diameter* dcnf of the indicatrix of conformity Cnf R(G/P) indicates the degree of conformity to each other of the gear tooth flank G and the mating pinion tooth flank P in a corresponding cross-section of the surfaces by the normal plane through the common perpendicular. For the orthogonally parameterized gear tooth flank G and the mating pin- ion tooth flank P. . Another interpretation of satisfaction and violation of physical conditions of contact of two smooth regular tooth flanks G and P is illustrated in Figure 5.9a).10b.52) After been represented in a common reference system. In cases when this planar characteris- tic curve has negative diameters as it is schematically shown in Figure 5.11.10a). or all of its diameters become negative (Figure 5. then the indicatrix of con- formity Cnf R(G/P) either intersects itself (Figure 5.9a) for the saddle-like local patch of the gear tooth flank G are shown as a dashed line (see Figure 5.51) Lp x p2 + 2 M p x p y p + N p y p2 = ±1 (5.128 High-Conformal Gearing Figure 5. the physical contact between the tooth flanks G and P is infeasible. Implementation of the indicatrix of conformity Cnf R(G/P) immediately uncovers the surfaces interference if there are any. Violation of the physical conditions of contact results in the bodies bounded by the contacting surfaces G and P interfering with one another. Three illustrative exam- ples of the violation of physical condition of contact are illustrated in Figure 5. the gear tooth flank G and the mating pinion tooth flank P may contact one another like two rigid bodies do.

µ) = (Lg cos 2 ϕ − M g sin 2ϕ + N g sin 2 ϕ )−0.10 Examples of violation of physical condition of contact of a smooth regular gear tooth flank G and a mating pinion tooth flank P  : cases of interference of (a) elliptic and hyperbolic.5 sgn Φ 2−. rcnf (ϕ . (b) hyperbolic and hyperbolic.p Crv ( ) K C1.g C2.g K CnfR ( ) xg C2.p K xg Crv ( ) np min < 0 dcnf (b) yg CnfR ( ) C2. and (c) parabolic and parabolic local patches of the tooth flanks G and P.53 is valid for the orthogonally parameterized tooth flanks G and P.5 sgn Φp. .g1 (5.Contact Geometry of the Gear and the Mating Pinion Tooth Flanks 129 (a) yg CnfR ( CnfR ( ) ) ng C2.p C1.T −1 Equation 5.p np K min < 0 dcnf Crv ( ) Crv ( ) FIGURE 5.p xg Crv ( ) K Crv ( ) np Crv ( ) Crv ( ) min < 0 dcnf (c) Crv ( ) yg Crv ( ) ng C1.g C1.g Crv ( ) C2.g CnfR ( ) ng C1.g C2.53) + [Lp cos 2 (ϕ + µ) − M p sin 2(ϕ + µ ) + N p sin 2 (ϕ + µ )]−0.p K C1.

3 Directions of Extremum Degree of Conformity at Point of Contact of a Gear and a Mating Pinion Tooth Flanks The directions. µ ) = | r1.1p (5. are of prime importance for engineering applications. These directions feature an extremum degree of con- formity of the pinion tooth flank P to the gear tooth flank G.p FIGURE 5. that is. the degree of conformity reaches either maximal of its value or mini- mal of its value. p sin 2 (ϕ + µ )|sgn Φ −2. p cos 2 (ϕ + µ ) + r2.p φ C1.p K xg K xg μ min dcnf < 0 C2. g sin 2 ϕ |sgn Φ −21. This issue is especially important for synthesizing a favorable gear pair.11 Another interpretation of satisfaction (a) and of violation (b) of condition of physical contact of a smooth regular gear tooth flank G and the mating pinion tooth flank P. the directions pointed along the extre- min max mal diameters dcnf and dcnf of the indicatrix of conformity Cnf R(G/P).g C1.g C1.g C1. that is.55) ∂ϕ . those along which the degree of conformity at a point of con- tact of a gear tooth flank G and a mating pinion tooth flank P is extremum.54) Two directions within the common tangent plane are specified by the angles φmin and φmax. the equation of this characteristic curve is transformed and is represented in the form rcnf (ϕ . Actually.130 High-Conformal Gearing (a) (b) CnfR ( ) yg CnfR ( ) CnfR ( ) yg CnfR ( ) C2.g dcnf C2. can be found from the equation of the indicatrix of conformity Cnf R(G/P). µ ) = 0 (5. g cos 2 ϕ + r2. the angles are the roots of the equation ∂ rcnf (ϕ .3. For the reader’s convenience.p C2. 5. The directions of extremal degree of conformity of the contacting smooth regular tooth flanks G and P. g + | r1.

the difference between the angles φmin and φmax is not equal to 0. Generally speaking.5πn is fulfilled only in cases when the angle μ of local relative orientation of the contacting surfaces G and P is equal to μ = ±0. and in most cases the relationship ϕ min − ϕ max ≠ ±0. The condition [see Equation 5. Equation 5. along with the specified the gear and the shaving cutter configuration. This means that the equality ϕ min − ϕ max = ±0. and thus the principal directions t1.5πn (5.57) is valid (here n is an integer number). This statement is important for engineering applications. Let us consider an example that illustrates the statement 5.p of the mating pinion tooth flank P are either aligned to each other or are directed oppositely. At the point K of the tooth flanks contact.p and t 2.g and t2.1 As an illustrative example.55 allows for two solutions ϕ min and ϕ max . Therefore.5πn (5. the design parameters of the gear and of the shaving cutter. say when the angle μ of local relative orientation of the surfaces G and P fulfills the relationship μ = ±0. EXAMPLE 5. the direc- tions along which the degree of conformity of the tooth flanks G and P is extremal are not orthogonal to one another. In the example under consideration.Contact Geometry of the Gear and the Mating Pinion Tooth Flanks 131 It can be easily proved that in a general case of contact of two smooth regu- lar tooth flanks G and P. the extremal difference * * * ∆ϕ min = ϕ min − ϕ min .g of the gear tooth flank G and the principal directions t1.12). nor the extre- mal difference Δφmax is equal to zero. The example pertains to finishing a helical involute gear by a disk-type shaving cutter. as well as the extremal difference ∆ϕ max = ϕ max − ϕ *max . This enables one to make the following statement: Statement 5.1 In the general case of contact of two smooth regular tooth flanks.5π.5πn. yield the fol- lowing numerical data for the calculation. They are equal to zero only in particu- lar cases.5πn. let us describe analytically the contact geom- etry of two convex parabolic patches of the contacting tooth flanks G and P (Figure 5. Solution to equation ∂rrel(φ)/∂φ = 0 returns two extremal angles φmin and φmax = φmin + 90° [where rrel(φ) denotes the position vector of a point of Dupin’s indicatrix at a point of the surface of relative curvature].1. principal curvatures of the gear tooth flank G are equal to . neither the extremal difference Δφmin. can be easily calculated.56] φmin = φmax ±0.56) is not always observed.

g sin ϕ cos ϕ + 2k 1.g = 4 mm−1 and k2.p = 1 mm−1 and k2.1: Determination of the optimum instant kinematics for a gear shaving operation. can be analytically expressed as k R = k 1. normal curvature kR of the surface of relative curvature.132 High-Conformal Gearing yg Crv ( ) Δφ2 π CnfRim ( ) 2 Δφ1 π ˆ2 φ CnfR ( ) Crv ( ) 2 max tcnf φ1 φ2 ˆ1 φ K xg min dcnf CnfR ( ) Dup ( ) CnfRim( ) FIGURE 5. . Two approaches can be implemented for the analytical description of the contact geometry of the tooth flanks G and P.58) Therefore. g cos 2 ϕ − k1. The second one is based on the application of the indicatrix of conformity Cnf R(G/P) constructed at a contact point K of the tooth flaks G and P. The angle μ of the local rela- tive orientation of the tooth flanks G and P is equal to μ = 45°. R. The first one is based on implementation of Dupin’s indicatrix of the surface of relative cur- vature. the following equality ∂k R = −2k1.12 Example 5.p = 0. k1. p sin(ϕ + µ )cos(ϕ + µ) = 0 ∂ϕ (5. Principal curvatures of the mating pinion tooth flank P are equal to k1. The First Approach In the case under consideration. p cos 2 (ϕ + µ ) (5.59) is valid for the directions of the extremum degree of conformity of the tooth flaks G and P at every point of their contact. For the directions of the extremal degree of conformity at the point of contact of the gear tooth flank G and the mating pinion tooth flank P.g = 0.

The Dupin’s indicatrix of the surface of relative curvature could be equivalent to the indicatrix of conformity only in degenerate cases of contact of the surfaces. Imaginary branches of the indicatrix of conformity Cnf Rim ( G /P ) at the point of contact of the tooth flanks G and P in Figure 5.12 are depicted as a dashed line. is a curve of the fourth order.49 of the indicatrix of conformity Cnf R(G/P) at a point of contact of a gear tooth flank and a mating pinion . that is specified by the angle φmax = 97°. That same direction corresponds to the maximal degree of conformity at the point of contact of the tooth flanks G and P. Cnf R(G/P). First. Dupin’s indicatrix of the sur- face of relative curvature can be implemented for this purpose only in particular cases of the surfaces G and P relative orientation.Contact Geometry of the Gear and the Mating Pinion Tooth Flanks 133 Equation 5. use of Equation 5. It is important to stress the readers’ attention here to two issues. the extremal angles φmin and φmax that are calculated using the first approach are not equal to the corresponding extremal angles ϕ *min and ϕ *max that are calculated using the second approach.59 yields the calculation of the extremal values φmin = 7° and φmax = φmin + 90° = 97° of the angles φmin and φmax. indicates the direction of the minimum degree of conformity of the contacting tooth flanks G and P at that same contact point. The direction that is specified by the angle φmin = 7° indicates the direction of the minimal diameter of Dupin’s indicatrix of the surface of relative curvature. the difference Δφ* between the extremal angles ϕ *min and ϕ *max is not equal to half of π. the indicatrix of conformity Cnf R(G/P) can be implemented for the purpose of accurate analytical description of the contact geometry of the surfaces. The Second Approach For the case under consideration. The discussed example reveals that in the general cases of contact of two smooth regular tooth flanks.4 ​Important Properties of Indicatrix of Conformity CnfR (G/P ) at a Point of Contact of the Gear and the Mating Pinion Tooth Flanks The performed analysis of Equation 5.3.49 of the indicatrix of conformity Cnf R(P/T) at a point of contact of the gear tooth flank G and the mating pinion tooth flank P makes the calculation of the extremal angles ϕ *min = 19 and ϕ *max = 118 possible. Another direction. the relationship ϕ max − ϕ min  ≢ 90° * * between the extremal angles ϕ min and ϕ max is observed. 5. Therefore. Advantages of the indicatrix of conformity over Dupin’s indicatrix of the surface of relative curvature are due to the fact that this characteristic curve. the directions of the extremal degree of conformity of the gear tooth flank G and the mating pinion tooth flank P are not orthogonal to one another. The relation- ships ϕ min ≠ ϕ min and ϕ max ≠ ϕ max are generally observed. Application of Dupin’s indicatrix of the surface of relative curvature enables only approximate analytical description of the geometry of contact of the sur- faces. In the general * * case of contact of two sculptured surfaces. * * Second.

p. Indicatrix of conformity Cnf R(G/P) is closely related to the surfaces G and P second fundamental forms Φ2. but its equation is. However.3. while the shape and parameters of this characteristic curve remain unchanged. there exists a corresponding inverse Dupin’s indicatrix Dupk(G/P). This characteristic curve can be expressed directly in terms of the surfaces G and P normal curvatures kg and kp: Cnf k ( G /P ) ⇒ rcnf cnv (ϕ . for the indicatrix of conformity Cnf R(G/P) at a point of contact of the tooth flanks G and P. R. there exists a corresponding converse indicatrix of conformity Cnf k(G/P).5 ​Converse Indicatrix of Conformity at a Point of Contact of the Gear and the Mating Pinion Tooth Flanks in the First Order of Tangency For Dupin’s indicatrix Dup(G/P) at a point of the surface of relative curva- ture.60) For derivation of an equation of the converse indicatrix of conformity Cnf k(G/P). It possesses the property of central symmetry and. 1. Therefore. The characteristic curve Cnf R(G/P) is independent of the actual value of the coordinate angle ωg that forms the coordinate lines Ug and Vg on the gear tooth flank G. µ ) = |k g (ϕ )| ⋅ sgn Φ2−.1g − |k p (ϕ . 4.1p (5. for a given pair of the tooth flanks G and P. parameters of the indicatrix of conformity Cnf R(G/P) depend upon the angle μ of local relative orienta- tion of the tooth flanks G and P. µ )| ⋅ sgn Φ2−. 3. 2. in particular cases. Similarly. the degree of conformity of the surface varies corre- spondingly to the variation of the angle μ while the pinion tooth flank P is spinning around the unit vector of the common perpendicular.g and Φ2. It is also independent of the actual value of the coordinate angle ωp that forms the coordinate lines Up and Vp on the mating pinion tooth flank P.134 High-Conformal Gearing tooth flank reveals that this characteristic curve possesses the following important properties. More properties of the indicatrix of conformity Cnf R(G/P) at a point of contact of a gear tooth flank G and a mating pinion tooth flank P can be outlined. Indicatrix of conformity Cnf R(G/P) at a point of contact of the tooth flanks G and P is a planar characteristic curve of the fourth order. 5. A change in the sur- faces G and P parameterization leads to the fact that the equation of the indicatrix of conformity Cnf R(G/P) also changes. also the property of mirror symmetry. This characteristic curve is invariant with respect to the kind of parameterization of the tooth flanks G and P. Euler’s formula for a surface normal curvature is used in the fol- lowing representation: .

60.p can be expressed in terms of the corresponding fundamental magnitudes Eg. one can come up with the equation cnv rcnf (ϕ .1g − |k1. in Equation 5. p cos 2 (ϕ + µ ) + k 2. Equation 5. g sin 2 ϕ|sgn Φ2−.p and k2.61 and 5.Contact Geometry of the Gear and the Mating Pinion Tooth Flanks 135 k g (ϕ ) = k1. principal curvatures k1. the characteristic curve Cnf k(G/P) also possess the property of central symme- try. In particular cases of the surfaces contact. µ ) = |k1.61 and 5.61) k p (ϕ . it also possesses the property of mirror symmetry.g. µ ) = k1. mating pinion tooth flank P.62.63 of the inverse indicatrix of conformity Cnf k(G/P) can be cast to the form that is similar to Equation 5.63 of the converse indicatrix of conformity Cnf k(G/P) is conve- nient for implementation when a.49 of the ordinary indicatrix of conformity Cnf R(G/P) at a point of contact of the tooth flanks G and P. p cos 2 (ϕ + µ) + k 2. either the gear tooth flank G. p sin 2 (ϕ + µ )|sgn Φ2−. while the principal curvatures of the mating pinion tooth flank P are designated as k1.g. In the point(s) or (line(s)) of inflec- tion. Mp. Fp.1p (5. p sin 2 (ϕ + µ) (5. and in terms of the corresponding fundamental magnitudes Ep. radii of normal curvature Rg(p) of the surface G(P) are equal to infinity. g cos 2 ϕ + k 2. k2. After substituting Equations 5. . and Gp of the first and Lp. Mg.63) for the converse indicatrix of conformity Cnf k(G/P) at a point of contact of the tooth flanks G and P in the first order of tangency.63 of the converse indicatrix of conformity Cnf k(G/P) is free of the disadvan- tages of such kind and therefore it is recommended for practical applications. and Ng of the second order of the gear tooth flank G. μ) of a point of the characteristic curve Cnf R(G/P). g sin 2 ϕ (5. or b. g cos 2 ϕ + k 2.62 into Equation 5. the principal curvatures of the gear tooth flank G are designated as k1. or c.63. The directions of the extremal degree conformity of the gear tooth flank G and the mating pinion tooth flank P are orthogonal to one another only in degenerate cases of the surfaces contact. Equation 5.62) where in Equations 5. and Np of the second order of the mating pinion tooth flank P. Following this way. Fg.g and k2. Equation 5.p. k2. It can be shown that similar to the indicatrix of conformity Cnf R(G/P). Points/lines of inflection cause indefiniteness when calculating the position vector rcnf (φ. both of them feature point(s) or line(s) of inflection.g and k1.p. and Gg of the first and Lg. Here.

In contrast to the operating of conformal and high-conformal gearing. is a straight line through the pitch point. P. ϕt. the inactive portions of the gear and the pinion tooth profiles are not conjugate to one another. No other shapes of the gear teeth allow for the path of contact. Because of this. The rest of the tooth profiles of both the gear and the pinion are inactive and do not interact with each other. with the perpendicular to the center-line. in invo- lute gearing aligns with the line of action. No other shapes of the gear teeth are conjugate to one another—gear teeth of other geometries can be enveloping to each other. in a gear hobbing opera- tion. LA. It is shown earlier (see Figure 3. ℄. The mesh of the gear to be machined with the gear cutting tool is commonly referred to as the gear machining mesh. interacts with the corresponding involute tooth point of the mating pinion. This line forms the transverse pressure angle. not point contact of the tooth flanks. a certain free- dom is given to the gear designer when designing an inactive portion of the gear and the pinion tooth profiles. the identity Pc ≡ LA is valid. is required in the gear machining mesh. that is. worm grinding. gear shaping process.7) that both conformal and high-conformal gearings represent a degenerate case of a corresponding involute gearing. Involute gearing is a unique gearing from this perspective. as is observed in mesh of the tooth flanks G and P. of the gear pair. Pc. the line of action.6 On the Impossibility to Cut Gears for Conformal and High-Conformal Gearing Using Generating (Continuously-Indexing) Machining Processes In the discussion of machinability of gears for conformal and high-conformal gearing in a generating machining process. that is. machining gears for conformal and high-conformal gear pairs. shaving operation. Pc. the only point of the gear tooth profile. It is instructive to note here that involute gearing is the only type of parallel-axis gearing for which the identity Pc ≡ LA is observed. to be congru- ent to the line of action. etc. LA. Moreover. that is. it is conve- nient to begin with the analysis of meshing of the gear to be machined and the gear cutting tool to be applied. Satisfaction of the condition Pc ≡ LA makes involute profiles conjugate to each other. of the gear and the mating 137 . When either conformal or high-conformal gears rotate. the involute tooth point of the gear. In involute gearing. LA. but not conjugate to one another. The path of contact.

in generating (continuously indexing) machining processes of gears for conforming and high-conforming gearing. subdivides the center line ℄ at a current pitch point Pi. C = Og Pi + Op Pi).1). at every contact point. Instead. and the gear cutting tool. LAinst. The instant line of action.2). Og Pi ωp = (6. G. T. G.1 at a current contact point. The same is valid with respect to the P to T  machining mesh.138 High-Conformal Gearing pinion. the gear tooth flank G and the machining surface T  of the gear cutting tool contact each other along a line. that is. in the gear machining mesh causes a huge difference in meshing compared to that when the high-conformal gears operate. is along the unit normal vector. The tangent to Pc at Ki is the instant line of action. The instant pitch point. The char- acteristic line E is a spatial 3D curve that intersects the plane of drawing in Figure 6.1 ​Instant lines of action. Ki. line contact between the tooth flanks of the gear. and paths of contact. subdivides the center distance C onto two portions Og Pi and Op Pi (i. T. Pc. The instant ratio Og Pi/Op Pi is reciprocal to the instant gear ratio in the gear machining mesh.e. along the characteristic line E. Pc. LAinst. LAinst. The instant line of action. When a high-conformal gear spins in a gear machining mesh (Figure 6. is required in the gear machining mesh. ni (Figure 6. The required line contact between the tooth flanks of the gear. it is tangent at Ki to the path of contact. This means that conjugacy of the tooth profiles G and T  is a must when machining gears for conformal and high-conformal gearings. . Pi. and of the gear cutting tool. Ki. and therefore.1) Op Pi ωg Gear tooth profile Common tangent Common tangent Ki+1 L C Ki Instant (i + 1)th line of action Pi+1 Pi P Rack-cutter tooth profile Path of contact FIGURE 6. LAinst. that is..

Pi and Pi+1. A rigid body. ng and n*g. Because of this. This immediately results in that there is an instant pitch point. LAinst . while the rotation of the gear cutting tool must be unsteady. When the contact point travels along the path of contact. Pi. LC. as a con- sequence. to the gear tooth flank. Ki and K* (Figure 6.To Cut Gears for Conformal and High-Conformal Gearing 139 where ωg and ωp are the rotations of the gear and the mating pinion correspondingly. Another evidence of impossibility of machining gears for high-conformal gearing in generating (continuously-indexing) machining processes is as follows. Og n*g LAiinst Line of contact K∗ Ki ng FIGURE 6. The last is impossible.2). to the gear tooth flank. in generating (con- tinuously-indexing) machining processes of gears for conformal and high- i conformal gearing is different. the gear cutting tool cannot spin at two different angular velocities simultaneously. at different points. Pc. for every slice. because there could be two contact points Ki and Ki+1 simultaneously. each slice is turned about the center line through a cer- tain angle.2 Orientation of unit normal vectors. Ki and K*. for example. The orientation of unit normal vectors. in generating (continuously indexing) machining processes of gears for conforming and high-conforming gearing. Assume that a gear is sliced by planes perpendicular to the gear center line on an infinite number of slices. The instant lines of action. ℄. the contact point within each slice is shifted in relation to each other along the path of contact. ng and n*g . G. within the instant line of contact. G. Pi. . G. two instant pitch points. the rotation of the gear can be steady. As gears for high-conformal gearing are always helical. LC. and. at different points. the instant line of action intersects the center distance. at different points. are along the corresponding perpendicular to the gear tooth flank. that is. of the line of contact. This means that when the gear and the gear cutting tool rotate in a gear machin- ing mesh.

P. especially high-conformal gearings.140 High-Conformal Gearing Once there is a plurality of the pitch points in the gear machining mesh. machining of a gear for high-conformal gearing in a generating (continu- ously-indexing) gear machining process becomes impossible. Wide tolerances for the gear tooth profile accuracy are not applicable for conformal and. The geometry of the path of contact in the gear machining mesh is strongly correlated to the geometry of the tooth flank of the gear to be machined. as well as the pinion tooth flanks. of the boundary N-circle. G and P. rN. only a wide tolerance band for the gear tooth pro- file accuracy makes an approximation of the actual path of contact in the gear machining by a straight line segment possible. Therefore. The geometry of the boundary N-circle is different from that of the involute curve. but is not practical because of the following. is close to the radius. This is correct in general consideration. The radii of curva- ture of the gear tooth flank of both the gear. can be generated within the tolerance band for the accuracy of the tooth profile. the gear. G. the path of contact for a gear tooth profile with a limited mismatch from the boundary N-circle is different from that of a straight path of contact that occurs for involute tooth profiles. and the pinion. It could be thought that in the cases when the active portion of the path of contact in the gear machining mesh is close enough to a straight line. As a result. .

C. XYZ. Op. consider a crossed-axis gear pair (Ca-gearing) together with the associated rotation vectors ωg and ωp. and the actual configu- ration of the axes Og and Op. The rotation vectors ωg and ωp are at a center distance. ωg and ωp. can be determined based on the rotation vectors ωg and ωp. The kinematics of a gear pair includes rotations of the driving and driven gears about their axes.1. and (2) rotation of the pinion with the rotation vector. ωg and ωp. Og. 7. about the gear axis of rotation. In this general case. instant rotations of the driving and the driven gears in relation to each other. 141 .1. and axial and profile sliding of tooth flanks of the mating gears. as well as the instant screw motion of the pinion in relation to the gear. is associated with the Ca-gear pair. Consider the most general case of gearing when the axes of rotation of the gear and pinion are skewed. 7. Making use of the rotations ωg and ωp allows for the determination of axial and profile sliding of the tooth flanks of the mat- ing gears. It is understood here and below that the rotations. the kinematics of a gear pair can be entirely expressed in terms of the two rotation vectors* ωg and ωp [39.40]. the configuration of the rotation vectors. However. A Cartesian coordinate system. about the pinion axis of rotation. are not vectors in nature. ωg. Ultimately. The instant screw motion of the gear in relation to the pinion.1  Concept of Vector Representation of Gear Pair Kinematics Referring to Figure 7.1  Vector Representation of Gear Pair Kinematics The kinematics of a gear pair comprises two rotations: (1) rotation of the gear with the rotation vector. C. and the crossed-axis angle Σ. rotations can be treated as vectors with special care. ωp. The center-distance is the closest distance of approach * Angular velocities are treated in this book as vectors directed along the corresponding axis of rotation in a direction defined by the right-hand screw rule. can be expressed in terms of the center distance.7 Kinematics of a Gear Pair The main purpose of a gear pair is to transmit and transform a motion from the input shaft to the output shaft.

. In a particular case under consideration. ωg. Og. is equal to 90°. at points of intersection of the corresponding axes of rotation Og and Op by the centerline. of a crossed-axis gear pair are at a certain center-­ distance. The rotation vectors of the gear. ωg. is ωp = |ωp|. They can be applied at any point within the gear axis. and the pinion axis. ωp. are in fact types of sliding vectors. when C = 0). from each other. It is convenient to apply the rotation vectors. it is convenient to apply the rotation vectors ωg and ωp at the point of intersection [39. respectively.1 On the concept of vector representation of the kinematics of a gear pair with constant tooth ratio. The magnitudes of rotations ωg and ωp are synchronized with each other in a timely manner. Op. . ωg and ωp.142 High-Conformal Gearing ωg C L ωp ωp Op C Z ωg Og X Y ωg L C ωp Pln Ag Apa Ap Op ωpl C Og FIGURE 7. The last case is a degenerate case when the center distance. between the axes Og and Op. and the pinion. In a case when the axes Op and Og intersect (i. ℄. The magnitude of rotation of the gear.e.40]. is zero (C = 0). Σ. C. Σ. the crossed-axis angle. whereas the magni- tude of rotation of the pinion. is ωg = |ωg|. C. u: the rotation vectors. ωp. and cross at a crossed-axis angle. ωg and ωp.

  and the resultant rotation of the gear is equal to the following ω gp = (ω g − ω p ) (7. Consider two straight lines.. C. is observed for rotation vectors ωg and ωp of a gear pair. the pinion becomes station- ary  [ωp + (−ωp) = 0]. for which directions are not speci- fied (Figure 7.e. Σ. the equality Σ = ∠(ω g . that is. The speci- fications of the crossed-axis angle of the straight lines L1 and L2 by means of the angles Σ and Σ* are equivalent to one another as long as the directions of the straight lines L1 and L2 are not specified. no duality in specification of the crossed-axis angle. The crossed-axis angle. it is easy to see when the crossed-axis angle Σ is acute (Figure 7. the straight line A1 A2 is the center-distance.2c). ω p ) (7. of the pinion in relation to the gear (or vice versa. Op. Once the directions of the straight lines L1 and L2 are specified (i. −ωp. Under this scenario.2b) and when it is obtuse (Figure 7. Two options are available in this regard: First.Kinematics of a Gear Pair 143 (a) (b) (c) L1 L1 s1 L1 A1 L2 A1 L2 A1 L2 Σ Σ s1 s2 A2 A2 A2 s2 Σ* Σ FIGURE 7.2 Definition of the crossed-axis angle for a gear pair. with the rotation vector. makes possible construction of the vector of instant rotation. L1 and L2. ωg and ωp. when the latter is considered motionless. Σ.1) is observed for a gear pair. In the case under consideration. is measured between the rotation vectors ωg and ωp. Thus. Σ*. or by the obtuse angle. Angular configuration of the straight lines L1 and L2 can be specified either by the acute angle. ωpl. Σ. A more detailed explanation is required to make clear the concept of the crossed-axis angle. the vector of instant rotation of the gear in relation to the pinion). Parts (a)–(c) are discussed in the text. . Σ. the gear pair can be rotated about the pinion axis. The use of rotation vectors.2) Such a situation corresponds with the case of rotation of the gear in rela- tion to the pinion.2a). the directions are specified by unit vectors s1 and s2).

  and the resultant rotation of the pinion is equal to the following ω pg = (ω p − ω g ) (7. are opposite to each other (ωgp = −ωpg). Under this scenario. the gear pair can be rotated about the gear axis. the torque Tp) is the input torque.3b). the torque Tg) is the output torque.3. Evidently. a vector diagram for rotation vectors ωg and ωp is shown. ωgp and ωpg. a vector diagram for the input and output torques Tg and Tp. . the rotation vectors.3) Such a situation corresponds with the case of rotation of the pinion in ­relation to the gear.3a. In Figure 7. when the gear is driving and the pinion is driven. and torque on the ­pinion shaft is ­designated as Tp. corre- sponding vector diagrams can be constructed for torque vectors. Og. which is constructed for the case when the gear is driving and the pinion is driven. is shown.144 High-Conformal Gearing Second. In addition to the vector diagrams for rotation vectors ωg and ωp. This configuration corresponds to a case of reduction gears.3c. and (c). when the pinion is driving and the gear is driven. and two torque diagrams for a gear pair: (a). (a) (b) (c) Tg Og ωg Pln C Pln Pln Ag Op Ag Op Ag Apa Apa Apa Tp Op Tp ωp Ap Ap Ap C C Og Og ωpl Tg FIGURE 7.3 Vector diagram for the rotations. Then a corresponding vector d ­ iagram for the input and output torques Tg and Tp is constructed for the case in which the pinion is driving and the gear is driven (Figure 7. One of the torques (commonly. An example of vector diagrams for the input and output torques Tg and Tp is schematically illustrated in Figure 7. while another (usually. the case of reduction gearing. and two torque diagrams for the same gear pair corresponding to (b). This configura- tion corresponds to a case of increasing gears. the case of increasing gearing. −ωg. vector diagram for a crossed-axis gear pair. when the latter is considered stationary. with the rotation vector. In Figure 7. Torque on the gear shaft is denoted by Tg. the gear becomes motionless [ωg + (−ωg) = 0].

• Zero-gearing. for which the apex point Apa coincides with the gear apex Ag [The term “zero” is related to the cases of rack-type gearing. • Rack-type spatial gear pairs for which the apex point Apa coincides with the gear apex Ag [38]. gearings of this type are referred to as the internal spatial gearing. Tg and Tp. is of a positive value.2  Three Different Types of Vector Diagrams for Spatial Gear Pairs If two axes of rotations are positioned in space and the task is to transmit a motion and torque between them using gears of some type. then only three different types* of spatial (crossed-axis) gear pairs are distinguished. in contrast to the direction of the rotation vectors ωg and ωp. the gear ratio.c).38]. No other types of spatial gear pairs are feasible. the torque vectors Tg and Tp are pointed in the same direc- tion. that is. gear pairs for which the apex point Apa is located within the center distance C [The term “negative” is related to the cases when the direction of the rotation changes by the gear pair. and any known or newly designed gear pair falls into one of the three aforementioned types of spatial gear pairs.3b. when the gear ratio. in this case. is zero. gearings of this type are referred to as the external spatial gearing. . in this case. • Positive-gearing: (internal gearing and internal gearing). However. 7. and therefore. gear pairs for which the apex point Apa is located outside the center distance C [The term “positive” is related to the cases when the direction of the rotation is remained the same.1. u. as well as when the  axes  of  rotation of the driving and driven shafts are parallel to one another. the gear ratio. depends on which of the two elements is the driving element. gearings can be designed as the internal gearings as well [24. The actual direction of the torque vectors. and therefore.38]. Commonly. that is. (u < 0)].Kinematics of a Gear Pair 145 In both cases. Torque diagrams can be constructed for all external and internal gear- ings. and gearing featuring crossing axes of rotation. However. and which is the driven element (see Figure 7. Commonly. u. (u > 0)]. gear pairs. They are as follows: • Gear pairs for which the apex point Apa is located within the ­center-distance C. gearings can be designed as the external gearings as well [24. (u = 0)]. is of a negative value. * It is preferable to represent these three possible types of spatial gearing in the following manner: • Negative-gearing: (external gearing and internal gearing). u. that is. • Gear pairs for which the apex point Apa is located outside the ­center-distance C.

” The vector of instant rotation. some new ­terminologies need to be introduced. depends on • The magnitudes of the rotations. internal.4. is the straight line through the point Apa along the vector of instant rotation. The point Ag is referred to as the “gear apex. this is the plane Xln Zln ωpl Cln-plane ωp Ap Op Nln-plane Apa Yln Pln-plane Ag Pln C ωg L C Og FIGURE 7. ωpl. Pln. ωpl. and the pinion axis of rotation.” Two straight lines through a common point uniquely specify a plane through these two lines. whether an external. of the gear and of the pinion. or rack-type spatial gear pair. In the case under consideration. and they cross one another. This straight line is also referred to as “pitch line. of the pinion in relation to the gear is a vector through the point Apa. respectively. Op. Σ.” and the point Ap is referred to as the “pinion apex. and normal plane (Nln-plane) in Ca-axes (spatial) gearing.” The axis of instant rotation. . Points Ag and Ap are points of intersection of the gear axis of rotation. Og. This point is located within the centerline. ℄. centerline plane (Cln-plane). ℄.4 On the definition of the pitch-line plane (Pln-plane). The point Apa is referred to as the “plane of action apex. respectively • The crossed-axis angle. ωg and ωp.146 High-Conformal Gearing Type of spatial gear pair. Consider the vector diagram for an arbitrary gear pair given in Figure 7. C Before proceeding with the analysis of vector diagrams. between the rotation vectors ωg and ωp • The center-distance. The rotation vectors ωg and ωp of the gear and the pinion are at a certain center-distance. with the centerline. C.

as well as for parallel- axis ­gearing.3 The normal plane (Nln-plane) in a crossed-axis gear pair is the referenced plane. For intersected-axis gearing. The plane is referred to as the pitch-line plane.2 The centerline plane (Cln-plane) in a crossed-axis gear pair is the reference plane through the centerline perpendicular to the axis of instance rotation of the gear and the pinion. . the axis of instance rotation of the gear. ℄. Cln-plane. Two more important planes can be introduced here. A fundamental Cartesian reference system XlnYlnZln is associated with a gear pair. and Nln-plane are of sig- nificant importance in the theory of gearing. In a case of crossed-axis gearing. Definition 7. Pln-plane can be also defined as the plane through the axis of ­rotation of the gear. the centerline plane is perpendicular to the axis of instance rotation of the gear and the pinion. They are referred to as the fundamental planes of a gear pair. (Nln-plane). and the axis of rotation of the pinion.Kinematics of a Gear Pair 147 through the axis of instant rotation. and through the centerline. and the normal plane. The three planes. They are ­so-called the centerline plane. correspond­ingly: Definition 7. (Cln-plane).4. With that said. In a case of parallel-axis gearing as well as intersected-axis gearing. and the pinion perpendicular to the centerline. and in the theory of high-­ conformal gearing in particular.1 The pitch-line plane (Pln-plane) in a crossed-axis gear pair is the reference plane through the centerline and the axis of instance rotation of the gear and the pinion. Definition 7. The axes of the reference system XlnYlnZln are along the lines of intersection of the fundamental planes as shown in Figure 7. let us consider vector diagrams for each type of spatial gear pairs in more detail [39. the pitch-line plane reduces to the plane through the axis of rotation of the gear and the pinion. Pln-plane. that is.40]. Pln.

148 High-Conformal Gearing 7. An example of such a construc- tion is illustrated in Figure 7. to the gear. etc. crossed-axis angle.1  Vector Diagrams of External Spatial Gear Pairs A vector diagram that is constructed for a certain combination of the rotation vectors ωg and ωp. and so on. the rotation of the pinion is the superposition of two rotation vectors. the rota- tion vectors. Following a convention adopted in descriptive geometry. can be determined graphically by implementing the methods developed in descriptive geometry. The rotation −ωg does not affect the relative motion of the gear and the pinion. and center-distance. which is the axis of instant rotation. is performed about a straight line. Immediately after the rotation vector ωpl is determined. Under the additional rotation −ωg. The instant rotation. In this scenario. lines. In a particular case. that is. and housing.5a). the axis of projec- tions π1/π2 can be constructed so that it is parallel to the vector of instant rotation.5. The rotation of the gear pair housing (denoted by rotation vector −ωg) is oppo- site to the rotation vector of the gear (denoted by ωg). Apa. the gear becomes stationary [ωg + (−ωg) = 0]. ωg and ωp. Ultimately. ωpl. corresponds to an external spatial gear pair. namely.2. ωpl. Onto the plane of projection π1. the plane of action apex. the subscript “1” is assigned to projections onto plane π1 of all points. ωpl. are depicted in the reference system π1π2 parallel to the horizontal plane of projection π1. For convenience. Similarly.* With two rotation vectors ωg and ωp. ωpl.1. pinion. the vector ωpl is projected with no distor- tion since the rotation vectors ωg and ωp are parallel to π1. The centerline is projected onto plane π1 into a point. is implemented (Figure 7. Within the horizontal plane of projection π1. For the purposes of construction of a vector diagram. rotation vectors ωp and −ωg. The location and orientation of a pair of the rotation vectors ωg and ωp within the reference system π1π2 can be arbitrary. can be determined as the vector difference of the rotation vectors ωg and ωp. Such a configuration of the axis π1/π2 is not mandatory. π1 and π2. Let us assume that a rotation. The resultant of two rotations ωp and −ωg is the instant rotation ωpl = (ωp − ωg) of the pinion about the pitch line Pln. and the pitch point P can coincide with each other. the subscript “2” is assigned to projections onto plane π2 of all points. is applied to a gear pair. lines. The vector ωpl is applied at a certain point Apa within the centerline ℄. the corresponding vector of instant rotation. The vector of instant rotation. of the pinion in relation to the gear can be constructed (ωpl ≡ ωpg = −ωgp). Σ. C. is projected onto plane π1 with no distortion. the crossed-axis angle. as well as other kinematical parameters of an external gear pair. Pln. ωpl. This point is denoted as C. . −ωg. a reference ­system π1π2 of two orthogonal planes of projection. Σ. the vector of instant rotation. the * See footnote * on page 145.

Parts (a) and (b) are discussed in the text. These components cause pure rolling of the a­ xodes of the gear and of the pinion. Projections of the rotation vectors ωg and ωp onto the fron- tal plane of projections π2 are designated as ω rlg and ω rlp . respectively. Convenience is the only reason for selecting this particular orientation for the axis of projections π1/π2 in relation to the ­rotation vector.5 Vector diagram of an external crossed-axis (spatial) gear pair.40] rp C rg = = (7. configuration can be arbitrary. Pln.Kinematics of a Gear Pair 149 (a) ~ rp π2 π3 ωpsl Op ωprl Ap ωpsl Vpsl ωpl Apa Pln Vgsl Apa r~g C Og ωpsl π2 ωgrl Ag ωgsl π1 ωpl –ωg Apa Pln ωpsl ωg ωp Op Og Σ > Σcr (b) p L C Op Ap ωprl ωpsl Apa Ag ωpl ωg ωp Og C g Σ > Σcr FIGURE 7. ωpl. The following ratio [39.4) ω g ⋅ cos Σ g ω pl ω p ⋅ cos Σ p . The com- ponents ω rlg and ω rlp of the rotation vectors ωg and ωp are parallel to the axis of instant rotation.

In Equation 7. within the centerline.7.150 High-Conformal Gearing is valid for magnitudes ω p. are equal to each other (i. ωp. the distance between the apex. and the gear axis.10) ω rlp + ω rlg for calculating the distance rp can be derived. ω pl ) (7. the equality rp + rg = C (7.8. the following ratio rg ω rlp = rl (7. Generally speaking. The equality ω rlg = ω rlp is observed only in particular cases when the tooth number of the gear. From Equation 7. are not equal to each other. and ωpl of the rotation vectors ωg. Ng = Np). In Equation 7.5) Σ p = ∠(ω p . is commonly rl observed. The condition of pure rolling can be employed for the determination of the location of plane of the action apex.4. both of them are positive (i. Ng.9) Substituting this expression for distance rg in Equation 7.e. Apa. and ωpl.8. a formula ω rlg rp = ⋅C (7. The inequality. Og. rp > 0 and rg > 0). the designations ω rlg =| ω rlg | and ω rlp =| ω rlp | are used. and tooth number of the pinion. magnitudes ω rlg and ω rlp of the vectors of pure rolling. Apa.7) is valid for an external spatial gear pair. Np.6) Evidently. . Op. The angles Σg and Σp are specified by the following equalities: Σ g = ∠(ω g . is designated as rp.. ω pl ) (7.8) rp ωg should be fulfilled. the distance rg can be expressed in terms of center-­ distance. ℄. is designated as rg. ω g and ω rlp . The distances of the same point Apa from the pinion axis. The distances rg and rp are signed values. ω rlg < ω rlp . and the distance rp rg = C − rp (7. For an external gear pair. C.e. In compli- ance with the condition. ωg..

ω slp = −ω slg ).15) . is perpendicular to the axis of projections. π1/π2. Pln. The vector of the resultant velocity of sliding. Vpsl− g . The plane of projections.13) The expressions | ω slg |=| ω slp | and rg ≥ rp are valid for an external spatial gear pair. Vgsl and Vpsl. The vector of linear velocity of sliding that is created by the gear is equal to Vgsl = rg ⋅ ω slg (7. π3. the component of sliding velocity. Vgsl.10 in Equation 7.. Vgsl− p. Op. Vpsl. of the pinion in relation to the gear is opposite to the vector Vgsl− p Vpsl− g = − Vgsl− p = Vpsl − Vgsl (7. Og. Relative sliding of the axodes is created by both the gear and by the pinion. The rotations ω slg and ω slp cause pure sliding of the axodes of an external spatial gear pair with respect to each other. Apa. the inequality| Vgsl |≥| Vpsl |is always observed. The vectors of sliding velocities. π3. the equality rg = C − rp can be transformed as follows: ω rlp rg = ⋅C (7.Kinematics of a Gear Pair 151 Further. Equation 7.9 can be used for calculating the distance rg. the vector of linear velocity of sliding that is created by the ­pinion is equal to Vpsl = rp ⋅ ω slp (7. of the rotation vectors ωg and ωp are perpendicular to the axis of instant rotation.14) The vector of the resultant velocity of sliding. are opposite to each other. that is caused by the gear exceeds or is equal to the component of sliding velocity.e. and the pinion axis. is located within centerline between the gear axis.9.11) ω + ω rlg rl p For external spatial gear pairs. the plane of action apex. The vectors ω slg and ω slp are pointed in oppo- site directions (i. then.12) Similarly. Two others components. ω slg and ω slp . that is caused by the pinion. that is. Magnitudes ω slg =| ω slg | and ω slp =| ω slp | are equal (ω slg = ω slp ). of the gear in relation to the pinion is equal to the difference Vgsl− p = Vgsl − Vpsl (7. With no distortion these components are projected onto the frontal plane of projections. After s­ubstituting Equation 7.

For the calculation of the reduced pitch. the resultant instant relative motion of the gear and the pinion is composed of • An instant rotation.40]: Vsc C ⋅ ω p ⋅ sin Σ p C ⋅ ω g ⋅ sin Σ g psc = = = (7. The screw parameter. psc. The parameter of screw motion is designated as psc. can be constructed for a given pair of rotations.152 High-Conformal Gearing The magnitude of speed of the resultant sliding in an external spatial gear pair can be calculated from the following formula: Vsc = Vgsl + Vpsl (7.17) can be used for calculating the magnitude of vector Vsc.21) rg tan Σ p . is parallel to the vector of instant rotation. Pln • An instant translation. along the pitch line Pln Superposition of the rotation.18) ω pl ω pl ω pl An expression C ⋅ ω p ⋅ cos Σ p C ⋅ ω g ⋅ cos Σ g ω pl = = (7. The following formula Vsc = Vsc = C ⋅ ω p ⋅ sin Σ p = C ⋅ ω g ⋅ sin Σ g (7. psc. and the translation. ωpl. about the pitch line. Ultimately. the following formula is applied [39.4. Vsc. An equivalent velocity vector of the translation motion. The velocity vector.20) This immediately returns the following proportion: rp tan Σ g = (7. Vsc. Therefore. the parameter of a screw motion can be calculated from the ­following formula: psc = rp ⋅ tan Σ g = rg ⋅ tan Σ p (7. Vsc. Vsc.19) rg rp for the calculation of magnitude of instant rotation can be derived from Equation 7.16) If the component vectors ω slg and ω slp are of the same magnitude and are opposite to each other. then they comprise a so-called pair of rotation. results in a screw motion. is also often referred to as the reduced pitch. ωpl. ωpl.

Pln. which are more informative and can be drawn much more easily. Similarly. Ag and Ap. The vector of instant rotation. ωpl. One of the hyperboloids. The vector of instant rotation.Kinematics of a Gear Pair 153 The resultant instant motion of the gear and the pinion can be construed as rolling with sliding of two hyperboloids of one sheet over each other. The instant rotation occurs about the pitch line. the equality ωpl = ωp − ωg is valid.5b. contact each other along the axis of instant rotation. * See footnote * on page 145. which is associated with the gear. The similarity allows us to focus attention mostly on the peculiarities of vector diagrams for internal spatial gear pairs [39. ωpl is projected onto the refer- ence plane π1 with no distortions. the hyperboloid Ap.5). when the axis is rotated about the gear axis Og. 7. which are used for describing the kinematics of an external spatial gear pair are also depicted in Figure 7. is associated with the gear. Ap. An example of a vector diagram for an ­internal spatial gear pair is shown in Figure 7. is constructed so it is parallel to the plane of projections π1. when the axis is rotated about the p­ inion axis.2  Vector Diagrams of Internal Spatial Gear Pairs A vector diagram for an internal spatial gear pair is constructed similar to that for an external spatial gear pair (see Figure 7. Pln. π1 and π2. ωp. In one particular case. In all possible cases. axodes of the gear and the pinion have very limited use in this book. The use of axodes for the analysis of the kinematics of gear pairs has been proved to be inconvenient because axodes cannot be drawn easily and are less informative compared to the vector dia- grams. Pln. which is associated with the pinion. ωpl. It should be mentioned here that the axodes Ag and Ap are shown just for illustrative purposes. Pln. Op. Pln. Therefore. is associated with the pinion. In such a scenario. .2. Ap. In the case under consideration. The  instant  translation is observed in the direction. axodes are replaced with the corre- sponding vector diagrams.6.5).40]. respectively. Similar to that above (see Figure 7. the gear hyper- boloid. Ag. is generated by the axis of instant rotation. can be considered stationary. is gen- erated by the axis of instant rotation. and C) is given. The vector diagram (Figure 7. As schematically shown in Figure 7. parallel to the pitch line. is con- structed as the difference of the rotation vectors ωg and ωp.1. Ag.5b. two axodes. The vectors. instant rotation is performed by the pinion hyperboloid. Σ. Consider an internal spatial gear pair* for which a set of parameters for which (ωg.6) is referred to a system of two orthogonal planes of projections. The hyperboloid Ag. Because of this. those components of the rotation vectors ωg and ωp that cause pure rolling of the axodes are designated as ω rlg and ω rlp . while the other hyperbo- loid. the rotation vector.

inter- sects the centerline. Op. C. ℄. Equation 7. the ­following formulas . is located outside the center-distance. Og. Parts (a) and (b) are discussed in the text. ℄.22 allows expression rg = C + rp. Making use of this equality and taking into account the conditions of pure rolling of the axodes. Hence. the following equality − rp + rg = C (7.6 Vector diagram of an internal spatial gear pair. Apa. the pinion axis of rotation. the plane of action apex.154 High-Conformal Gearing (a) r~p Vpsl π 2 π3 Pln ωpl Apa Apa Op sl Ap ωpsl ωpsl ωprl Vg r~g C ωgsl Og ωgsl ωgrl π2 Ag π1 ωpl –ωg Pln Apa ωg ωpsl ωp Op Og Σ < Σcr (b) C L C Op Apa p ωpl ωg ωp Og g Σ < Σcr FIGURE 7.22) is valid for an internal spatial gear pair. For an internal spatial gear pair. by the gear axis of rotation. at a point located between the point Apa and the point of intersection of the centerline. Instead.

the magnitude of the component Vgsl of slid- ing v ­ elocity. Vgsl− p . of the pinion in rela- tion to the gear is opposite to vector Vpsl− g : Vgsl− p = − Vpsl− g = Vgsl − Vpsl (7. of the resultant velocity of sliding. that is. the vector of linear velocity of sliding that is created by the ­pinion is equal to Vpsl = rp ⋅ ω slp (7.23) ω rlp − ω rlg ω rlg rp = ⋅C (7. The vectors of sliding velocities. With no distortion. Vgsl and Vpsl . As it is already shown with respect to an external spatial gear pair. ω slg and ω slp . ωg and ωp. are opposite to each other. The vector of linear velocity of sliding that is created by the gear is equal to Vgsl = rg ⋅ ω slg (7. ωg and ωp.Kinematics of a Gear Pair 155 ω rlp rg = ⋅C (7. Vpsl. these components are projected onto the frontal plane of projections..26) The following expressions: | ω slg |=| ω slp | and rg ≥ rp are valid for an ­internal spatial gear pair. of sliding velocity caused by the pinion. ω slg = −ω slp ). are of equal magnitude and are opposite to each other (i. of the rotation vectors. exceeds or is equal to the magnitude of the component. Thus. ω slg and ω slp . caused by the gear.24) ω rlp − ω rlg for the calculation of distances rg and rp can be derived. the sliding components.e. Two others components.25) Similarly. Vgsl− p . of the rotation vectors. the inequal- ity | Vgsl |≥| Vpsl | is always observed. of the resultant velocity of sliding of the gear in relation to the pinion is equal to the following difference: Vpsl− g = − Vgsl− p = Vgsl − Vpsl (7.27) The vector. The vector. cause pure sliding of the axodes of the gear and the pinion relative to each other.29) . π3.28) The magnitude of speed of the resultant sliding in an internal spatial gear pair can be calculated from the following formula: Vsc = Vgsl + Vpsl (7.

. ω pl ) < 90 (7.2. and the vector of instant rotation. In other words.6). between the rotation vector. and the vector of instant rotation. Ag and Ap. the gear angle. are significantly less informative in comparison with corresponding vector diagrams. ωg and ωp. are schematically illustrated in Figure 7. ωg. A generalized rack-type spatial gear pair* can be interpreted as the degen- erate (critical) case of either external or internal spatial gear pairs when the tooth number of the gear (in external and internal spatial gearing) approaches infinity. ωg ⊥ ωpl)? * See footnote * on page 145. 7. of a gear and a mating pinion. of the rotation vectors ωg and ωp comprise a pair of rotation for an internal gear pair.5) or an internal (Figure 7.1. the components.30) is an obtuse angle (see Figure 7. It is reasonable to question the case when the gear angle.156 High-Conformal Gearing Similar to that of an external spatial gear pair. Σg. For an internal spatial gear pair. between the rotation vector.3  Vector Diagrams of Generalized Rack-Type Spatial Gear Pairs The performed analysis of external and internal spatial gear pairs makes it reasonable to assume that gear pairs with intermediate kinematics similar to that the gear-to-rack pair is for a cylindrical external and internal gear pairs are also feasible and they exist.6. ωpl Σ g = ∠(ω g . ωg. This allows for a formula for the calculation of the magnitude Vsc of speed of the resultant sliding similar to Equation 7. Spatial gear pair of this nature is referred to as generalized rack-type spatial gear pairs.e. ωg.5). ω slg and ω slp . Σ g = ∠(ω g . Σg. . the axodes. Therefore.4. between the rotation vector. It is inconvenient to draw the axodes for illustrative purposes. it can be said that for an external spatial gear pair the gear angle. preference is given to vector diagrams rather than to axodes of a gear and of the mating pinion. Ag and Ap. Two axodes. Again. in further discussions in this chapter.6) spatial gear pair.17. Without going into a detailed analysis of the vector diagrams depicted in Figure 7. The pair of rotation is equivalent to a straight motion.31) is an acute angle (see Figure 7. there must exist a generalized rack-type gear pair as the limit case of either an external (Figure 7. ωpl. is a right angle (i. of the gear. of the gear and the vector of instant rotation. along with cor- responding rotation vectors. Σg. ωpl. ω pl ) > 90 (7.

ωg. The gear pair. is reduced to a plane that is rotated about an axis perpendicular to the plane. ω slg .33) It must be stressed here that not every case of the rolling of a cone of revolution over the rotating plane corresponds with a generalized rack-type s­ patial gear pair. . Vsc. The vector diagrams of generalized rack-type spatial gear pairs is of ­particular interest in the designing of gear cutting tools for the machining of hypoid and Spiroid gears. Within the plane through the centerline. of the gear. Vgsl . ω slp ≠ 0). with the vector. ℄. the resultant linear velocity. of the sliding of the axodes in the case under consideration is equal to Vsc = Vgsl (7. (a hyperboloid of one sheet).7. of instant rotation of the pinion in relation to the gear. of the crossed-axis angle.32. if the condition in Equation 7. and so forth [34].32 is fulfilled then the equality Σ = Σcr is observed.4  Analytical Criterion of a Type of Spatial Gear Pairs The angle formed by the rotation vector of a gear. A spatial gear featuring this type of kinematics is referred to as generalized rack-type spatial gear pair. ωp. for which the vector diagram is shown in Figure 7. is the root cause for the principal difference between spatial gear pairs of different types. is produced by the rotating gear. A critical value. internal. (a hyperboloid of one sheet) is reduced to a cone of revolution. the axode of the gear.e.Kinematics of a Gear Pair 157 The vector diagram of a spatial gear pair for which the equality Σ g = ∠(ω g . These ­differences analytically are described by Equations 7. that is. The equal- ity rg = C entails the equality rp = 0. between external. Vpsl . is equal to zero (Vpsl = 0). The equality ω pl = ω p − ω g (7. ω pl ) = 90 (7. is not equal to zero (i.32 is fulfilled in this regard..34) is observed for a spatial gear pair.31 and 7. ωg. It is critical that the condition in Equation 7. Ap.7. Ag. and generalized rack-type gear pairs. the linear velocity.1. ωpl. In the case under consideration.32) is valid is shown in Figure 7.2. Ultimately. Σcr. of the slid- ing of the axodes is due to the component ω slg of the rotation vector. The axode of the pinion. In other words. This component. can be interpreted as the case of rolling of the cone of revolution over the rotating plane. corresponds to a general- ized rack-type spatial gear pair. the linear speed. Although the com- ponent ω slp of the rotation vector. 7. The last equality is possible because the equality rg = C is valid for generalized rack-type spatial gear pairs. Σ.

. Parts (a) and (b) are discussed in the text.158 High-Conformal Gearing (a) π2 π3 Op Pln ωprl ωpl Apa Vgsl Apa ωpsl Vpsl ωpsl C ωgsl Og π2 –ωg ωgsl π1 ωpl Pln Apa ωg ωp Op Σ = Σcr Osl Og (b) Op L C Pln Apa –ωg ωpsl ωprl ωgsl ωp ωpl ωg Og p C Σ = Σcr g FIGURE 7.7 Vector diagram of a generalized rack-type spatial gear pair.

1 Analytical Criteria of a Type of Crossed-Axis Gear Pairs Type of Crossed-Axis Gear Pairs Analytical Criterion External spatial crossed-axis gear pair ωg ⋅ (ωp − ωg) < 0 Generalized rack-type crossed-axis gear pairs ωg ⋅ (ωp − ωg) = 0 Internal spatial crossed-axis pairs ωg ⋅ (ωp − ωg) > 0 Equations 7.31.1 possible.e.34 make the representation of the analytical ­criteria of a type of a spatial gear pair as shown in Table 7. External crossed-axis gear pairs are well-known and are widely used in the industry. . The remaining possible types of gear pairs can be interpreted as a reduction (simplification) of the corresponding type of the crossed-axis gear pairs. 7. exceeds right angle (i. As stated at the beginning of this section of the book. there are only three different types of gear pairs those featuring crossed axes (see footnote * on page 145): • External crossed-axis gear pair • Generalized rack-type crossed-axis gear pair • Internal crossed-axis gear pair No other types of spatial gear pairs are feasible. 7. 0° < Σ < 90°).2 Classification of Possible Types of Vector Diagrams of Gear Pairs Possible types of the vector diagrams of gear pairs can be classified based on the vector representation of gear pair kinematics. For all types of external spatial gear pairs.32. or it can be equal to Σ = 90°.e. and then of all possible types of gear pairs. Σ. or obtuse. The development of all possible types of gears. Analytical expressions specifying the criteria for the spatial gear pair are composed of the premises of well-known properties of the dot product of two vectors. Σg > 90°). the shaft angle. An external crossed-axis gear pair can feature shaft angle of various values. Σ.Kinematics of a Gear Pair 159 TABLE 7. and 7. Such a classification is necessary for many purposes.1). In particular. can be either acute (i. Crossed-axis (spatial) gear pairs are considered in this book as the most general type of gear pairs. the inequality ωg ⋅ (ωp − ωg) < 0 is observed (see Table 7. The component Σg of the shaft angle... is one of the reasons for the development of the classification.

. Let us begin the consideration from the first case when the center-distance. of an external intersected-axis gear pair is reduced to zero. crossed-axis gear pairs. can be of zero value. intersect each other at a point. Og and Op. the center-distance. For gear pairs of this type. 1.2. it is convenient to investigate the engagement of the gear teeth on a sphere centering at the point Apa.” The name “spherical” is because the tooth profiles of the gear and the pinion in this case are generated on spheres. the crossed-axis angle. intersected- axis gear pairs are loosely referred to as “spherical gear pairs.160 High-Conformal Gearing Three types of crossed-axis gear pairs comprise the first stratum of the classification of possible types of the vector diagrams of gear pairs as shown in Figure 7. the gear and the pinion axes of ­rotation. * The term “spherical gear pair” is incorrect as gears of other types. and 1. can be parallel to each other. There are two possible ways for the reduction: First. The rotations vectors.3  Complementary Vectors to Vector Diagrams of Gear Pairs It is convenient to introduce a few more vectors for analytical description of a gear pair.” or just as “Ia -gearing” for simplicity. In the second case. are of particular importance. Og and Op. When the equality C = 0 is observed. Therefore.1. C. Due to this. as well as those along the gear and the pinion axes of rotations. Crossed-axis gear pairs can be reduced to gear pairs of a simpler design.* 7. is equal to either Σ = 180° or Σ = 90°. are also engaged in mesh on a sphere. Vectors along the centerline. are two vectors through the point Apa. ωg and ωp. gearing of this type is referred to as “intersected-axis gearing. for example.8 (see footnote * on page 145): • External gear pairs • Generalized rack-type gear pairs • Internal spatial gear pairs Numbers 1. C. respectively. and.8. They are along the axes Og and Op. the gear and the pinion axes of rotation. Apa.3 are assigned to spatial gear pairs comprising the first stratum of the classification. second. Σ. High-conformal gear pairs can be designed according to each of the vector diagrams in the possible types of the vector diagrams of gear pairs as shown in Figure 7. replacement of the obsolete and widely used term “conical gear pair” with the term “spherical gear pairs” is not valid. In order to avoid ambiguities in further discussions.

3 1.1 1.2.2 1.2.1 1.3.1 Vector diagrams of gear pairs External gear pairs Generalized rack-type gear pairs Internal gear pairs (Σg > 90º) (Σg = 90º) (Σg < 90º) 1.1.1.3.3.Kinematics of a Gear Pair 161 Vector diagrams of gear pairs External gear pairs Generalized rack-type gear pairs Internal gear pairs (Σg > 90º) (Σg = 90º) (Σg < 90º) ωpl ωpl ωp 1.1 1.1 1. .1 1.3 Ap ωp Apa Apa ωp Apa Op Ap Σp Op C Σp Op –ωg C Σp ωg Ag C Og Σ –ωg Og Σg Ag Σ ωg ωg Ag Og Σ Σg ωpl Σg ωp Σg Σp ωpl Σg ωpl ωp ωp Σ Σp Σ Apa Σp –ωg Apa ω –ωg ωg ω Σ g –ωg Apa g 1.2 1.1 1.2.1.2.1 Ap ωpl ωp ~ 0.2.1 FIGURE 7.2.5 dp ωp ωp Ag Apa Vg ωg Ap ωpl ωg Apa Ap ωpl Ag Σ Apa Vp C C 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2.1.3.2 1.2.1 1.2 ωpl ωp ωpl ≡ 0 Vg Ap Apa Ag ≡ Ap ≡ Apa 1.2.1 1.1.1 1.1.1 ωpl 1.2.3.2.8 Classification of possible types of vector diagrams of gear pairs.3.3.2 1.

This axis originates from the plane of action apex. Σg. Ultimately.3. Pln c is the unit vector along the X-axis The magnitude of the centerline vector.* The ­rotation vectors. proper manner. ωg. C. ωg and ωp. ωg and ωp. XYZ. as depicted in Figure 7.9. Cg. Cg. These vectors specify the ­distances of the axes of the rotations of the gear. the parameters of the vector diagram. Cg and Cp. The axis X is along the centerline of the rotation vectors ωg and ωp. for example. C(t). ωp.9. from the point Apa. is associated with the rota- tion ­vectors. The gear centerline vector.162 High-Conformal Gearing 7. the pinion centerline vector Cp. Σp. are apart from each other by a center-­ distance C. Σp(t). All the parameters are synchronized with each other in a timely. and others should be considered as corresponding functions of time t. ωpl. is always greater in comparison with the magnitude of the centerline vector. from the axis of instant rotation. * For gear pairs with varying tooth ratios. the inequality |Cg| ≥ |Cp| is observed. the Y-axis c­ omplements the X and Z axes to a left-hand-oriented reference ­system. Op. Σ. ωp(t). A Cartesian coordinate system. C g.36 rg is the distance of the gear axis of rotation. Cg(t). ωpl(t). can be calculated from the ­following equation: C g = − rg ⋅ c (7. Two vectors. Op. C p(t).36) In Equations 7. The  Z-axis is along  the axis Pln of the instant rotation. ωpl. XYZ.35) Another centerline vector. Σ(t). Og. consider the vector diagram of a gear pair. or (the same) as the correspond- ing functions of the angle of rotation either of the gear φg or of the pinion φp. for gear pairs composed of non- round gears. is ­specified as follows: C p = rp ⋅ c (7. Apa. Cp. Σg(t). that is.1  Centerline Vectors of a Gear Pair Referring to Figure 7. and the pinion. Ultimately. Pln rp is the distance of the pinion axis of rotation. are along the X-axis. . Og.35 and 7. and is pointed toward the pinion axis of rotation. from the axis of instant rotation. Op. Therefore. these functions can be represented in a generalized way as ωg(t). C p.

This vector is applied at the point of intersection of the gear axis.3.2  Axial Vectors of a Gear Pair Three different locations of a gear in relation to the centerline are distinguished. to the position below the centerline.9 Complementary vectors to the vector diagram of a gear pair. These shifts in two opposite directions enable two more ­different locations of a gear in relation to the centerline. to the position above the centerline. in Figure 7. ℄. a gear can be located at a certain distance from the centerline. of the gear (and by the corresponding axial vector. . Og. ℄. A hypoid gear pair is a perfect example of a gear pair with the gear and  the  pinion shifted in axial direction of the gear and the pinion correspondingly. The axial vector. Ag. that is. ℄. goes through the ­middle of the gear width.Kinematics of a Gear Pair 163 Z ωpl Vsc X ωp ωprl Σp Op Ap Ap ωpsl r~p Cp Apa Ag C Y Cg r~g Pln –ωg ωgsl Ag Σ ωgrl ωg Og L C Σg FIGURE 7. Ag. The third configuration features a negative shift of the gear in relation to the centerline. ℄. First. in Figure 7.10. a gear can be located such that the centerline. A p.10. Og. 7. of the pinion). Conventional helical gearing with skew axis of rotation features such a location for the gear and the pinion with respect to the centerline.10. In a more general case. The actual location of the gear in relation to the centerline is specified by the axial vector. The second configuration features a positive shift of the gear in relation to the centerline. ℄. as schematically shown in Figure 7. associated with the gear is along the gear axis of rota- tion. that is.

correlate with each other as Fg = Fg ⋅ cos Γ.164 High-Conformal Gearing Zg ωg ~ Fg Fg Ag L C C Yg Og Xg ωg FIGURE 7. Fg. Ap. the distance along the gear axis of rotation. and the centerline (Figure 7. Fg.10). The width. Og.38) |ωg | The axial vector. Fg. from the centerline. associated with the pinion is along the pinion axis of rotation. of the gear. Here. and the gear face width. This vector is applied at the point of intersection of the pinion * The width of a gear. whereas the width of a conical gear. of a cylin- drical gear is equal to its face width. The vector Ag can be expressed in terms of two parameters ag and Ag Ag = A g ⋅ ag (7. ℄. The unit vector ag is dimensionless. to the middle of the gear face width. Fg. in a spatial gear pair specified by the axial vector Ag.10 Possible configurations of the gear in relation to the centerline. are not identical. is denoted as Ag. and its face width.37) Here. . Op.* Fg . Fg. It can be calculated from the following formula: ωg ag = ⋅ sgn(ω g ⋅ ω pl ) (7. ωg. Fg. ℄. the pitch angle of the conical gear is denoted by Γ. The unit vector ag is the vector along the rotation vec- tor. The equality Ag = |Ag| is observed.

thus. by the centerline. the following expressions rp = rp2 + Ap2 ⋅ tan 2 Σ p (7. and it is acute for an internal gear pair. The angle between the vectors ωg and ωpl is obtuse for an external gear pair. If magnitude Ag of the vector Ag is known. to the middle of the face width Fp of the pinion ap is nondimensional unit vector along the rotation vector of the pinion. then for the calcula- tion of the axial shift of the gear the formula rg2 − rg2 Ag = (7. the following are designated: Ap is the distance along the pinion axis of rotation. the gear and the pinion of a gear pair are located at the same side of the centerline.39. The multiplier sgn(ωg ⋅ ωpl) in Equation 7.41) tan Σ g can be used. ℄.43) tan Σ p . Because of this. ωpl. Once a gear is assumed stationary when determining the vector of instant rotation. from the center- line. should always be acute. Op. rg. always form an acute angle. The multiplier sgn(ωp ⋅ ωpl) is always positive and.Kinematics of a Gear Pair 165 axis. Op. This is accounted for by the multiplier sgn(ωg ⋅ ωpl). ℄.39) In Equation 7. Ag and Ap. Similar to Equations 7. ωp. ℄.42) and rp2 − rp2 Ap = (7. ωp and ωpl.40) can be implemented for the calculation of pitch radius of the gear. it is not necessary to implement it in Equation 7. it can be calculated from the formula ag = ωg/|ωg|.41. The vector Ap can be expressed in terms of two parameters ap and Ap A p = Ap ⋅ a p (7.40 and 7. Conversely.38 allows the accommodation of the unit vector ag for both kinds of gear pairs. then the rotation vectors. for external as well as for internal gear pairs. is given. then the following formula rg = rg2 + Ag2 ⋅ tan 2 Σ g (7. so the axial vectors. rg. if the pitch radius of the gear. that is.39.

and the pinion axis of rotation. can be expressed in terms of magnitude Agof the axial vector Ag: cos Σ p A p = Ag (7. then Equation 7. Ag = 0. the following equality is valid: rg + rp = C (7. and ωpl..47) .e. ωg. Pln. onto a plane that is perpendicular to the centerline ℄ (Figure 7. The components ω rlg and ω slg of the rotation vector of the gear. for external and internal gear pairs. Ag > 0. Ap = 0).3  Useful Kinematic and Geometric Formulas The proposed vector diagrams (rotations/torques) of gear pairs make it pos- sible to derive numerous auxiliary formulas for calculating the kinematic and geometric parameters of gear pairs. Ap. Ag < 0. of a pinion. can be expressed in terms of the distance.e. rg . rp .9). The rolling components ω rlg and ω rlp of the rotation vectors. ωg and ωp. The distance. the following approach can be applied: Let us project the rotation vectors. have the same sign.. Ap. and the compo- nents ω rlp and ω slp of the rotation vector of the pinion.46 is valid for both. rg and rp . rp. are within a plane through the centerline. rg and rp .166 High-Conformal Gearing are valid for calculating the axial shift. Og. Consequently. as rp = C − rg (7. rg and rp. ωp. Both are positive (i. and of pitch radius. ωp. of the axial vector. Ag and Ap. are considered signed values. from the axis of instant rotation. of the axial vectors. are also depicted. and the ­center-distance. ωg. For calculation of the distances. Ap.46) If the distances. 7. Op.44) cos Σ g Magnitudes. It can be easily shown that magnitude. or are negative (i.45) For the distances. C.3. Ag and Ap. ℄. of the gear axis of rotation. having zero value (i. The following expression can be derived on the premises of pure rolling in the gear pair: ω rlg ⋅ rg = ω rlp ⋅ rp (7.. three different locations of a gear in relation to the centerline can be distinguished.e. Ap > 0). Ap < 0).

Kinematics of a Gear Pair 167 This allows the representation of Equation 7.49) 1 + ωp Once the distance rg is determined.48) This immediately returns a formula for the calculation of the distance. Equation 7.54) 1 + ωg − ωp 2 .53) 1 + ωg If the angle Σg = 90° is entered into Equation 7.51) For calculation of the gear angle Σg between the vectors ω rlg and ωpl.52. of a vector of instant rotation.52) 1 + ωp Similarly. Equation 7.50) 1 + ωg It is right to discuss a few more formulas for the calculation of kinematic and geometric parameters of a gear pair here.9. ωpl. for the calculation of the distance rp . the fol- lowing equation can be used: 1 + ωp − ωg Σg = ⋅Σ (7. In the case under consideration. ωpl. The magnitude. which directly follow from analysis of Figure 7. can be calculated from the following equation: ω pl = (ω rlg )2 + (ω rlp )2 − 2 ⋅ ω rlg ⋅ ω rlp ⋅ cos Σ (7. the pinion angle Σp between the vectors ω rlp and ω pl can be calcu- lated from the equation: 1 + ωg − ωp Σp = ⋅Σ (7.47 can be implemented.45 in the following form: ω rlg ⋅ rg = ω rlp ⋅ (C − rg ) (7. then the expression 1 + ωg π Σ cr = ⋅ (7.47 allows the following formula: 1 + ωg − ωp rp = ⋅C (7. rg : 1 + ωp − ωg rg = ⋅C (7.

53. Transmitting a rotation 2. Op. It would be natural to use the ratio of the components ω rlg and ω rlp for the evaluation of rotation transformation. instead. respectively.168 High-Conformal Gearing for the calculation of a critical value Σcr of the angle Σ between the gear axis of rotation. ω rlp and ω slp .5. by means of which transformation of the rotation is specified. the rotations ω rlg and ω rlp are expressed in terms of the magnitudes ωg and ωp and of the angles Σg and Σp. For this purpose. Substituting the calculated values of angles Σg and Σp in . Transmission and transformation of rotation occurs due to the components ω rlg and ω rlp only. ω rlg and ω rlp .5 through 7. Og. rotation vectors ωg and ωp can be rep- resented as the summation of two components.55 can be expressed in terms of the design parameters of the gear pair and magnitudes ωg and ωp the rotations ωg and ωp. for a pinion. Components ω slg and ω slp neither transmit the rotation nor transform it. the ratio of magnitudes ω rlg and ω rlp is used for this purpose ω rlp u= (7. the following equalities are valid for the ­rotations ω rlg and ω rlp : ω rlg = −ω g cos Σ g (7. for a gear. the ration of the components ω rlg and ω rlp is not used for specifying the tooth ratio u. Because it is not feasible to divide a vector by another vector.52 and 7. As it follows from the analysis of Figure 7. and two components. in Equation 7. can be derived. 7.7. Transforming a rotation The tooth ratio of a gear pair is a design parameter. ω rlg and ω slp − g .57) The angles Σg and Σp can be calculated from Equations 7.56) ω rlp = ω p cos Σ p (7.55) ω rlg Both the magnitudes. As shown in Figure 7. and the pinion axis of rotation.4  Tooth Ratio of a Gear Pair Gear pairs are designed and applied for two purposes: 1.

the tooth ratio for an internal gear pair is a positive value (i. and is not transformed in this case.. then the expression rgrl u=− (7.e. the components ω rlg and ω rlp are pointed in oppo- site directions. No rotation transformation is observed in this case.55. the tooth ratio can be equal to one (i. For an internal gear pair..e. The negative sign allows us to avoid discrepancies when calculating the tooth ratio of a gear pair. u = ∞). The use of a signed value for tooth ration. these compo- nents have different signs.e.55. for a gear pair has proved to be convenient in numerous applications. In a particular case. The tooth ratio u = ∞ is the maximum fea- sible tooth ratio of positive value. High-conformal gear pairs can be designed according to each of vector diagrams discussed in this section of the book. the direction of rotation of the output shaft is changed to the opposite of the input shaft.57 and then into Equation 7. the components ω rlg and ω rlp are pointed in the same direction. In gear couplings.. u = 1). u > 0).e. Because the pitch radius of an external gear is commonly considered as a positive value (i. the rotation is just transmitted from the input shaft to the output shat. the tooth ratio of a gear pair can be  ­calculated based on the kinematics and design parameters of the gear pair. u.e. Rotation of the input shaft is transformed by the rack-type gear pair to a translation motion or vice versa. Therefore.e.. Therefore.56 and 7.Kinematics of a Gear Pair 169 Equations 7. Thus. rgrl > 0) and that of an internal gear is considered negative value (i. u < 0).. for example. The tooth ratio of a rack-type gear pair is equal to infinity (i. . In external gearing. For an external gear pair. rgrl < 0).. No change in the direction of rotation occurs in internal gearing. the tooth ratio for an external gear pair is of negative value (i. This means that these components are of the same sign.58) rprl for a tooth ratio can be used instead of Equation 7.

is constructed to fulfill the expression ωpl = ωg − ωp.e. ωpl. Apa. for an intersected-axis gear pair.8 High-Conformal Intersected-Axis Gearing High-conformal intersected-axis gearing can be used for transmitting a ­rotation from a driving shaft to a driven shaft that intersect one another. ωpl. Accordingly. and the rotation vector of the pinion. ωg and ωp. ωg. and the rotation vec- tor of the gear. Generally speaking. They form a shaft angle. Having constructed the rotation vectors. Referring to Figure 8. or with the rotation vector of the pinion.1. ωp. is denoted by Σg.1. and the rotation vec- tor of the pinion. can be decomposed into two components. ωpl. the angle between the vector of instant rotation. is aligned with the axis of rotation of the gear. are the vectors through a common point.1) The component ω rlpl of the vector of instant rotation. The angles Σg and Σp are signed values. ωp)]. Thus. does not align with the rotation vector of the gear. ωp. Pln. is designated as Σp. 8. ωpl. ωg. consider the rotation vector of the gear. the rotation vector of instant rotation. Og. the use of a vector diagram is helpful. ωpl. Under such an assumption. Σ = ∠(ωg. The rotation vectors. ωg and ωp. Σ. ωp. ω rlpl and ω slpl ω pl = ω rlpl + ω slpl (8. with one another [i. Any and all intersected-axis gear pairs meet one of three expressions listed in Table 8. High-conformal gears are capable of transmitting a uniform rotation from the driving shaft to the driven shaft. the gear is considered motionless while the pinion performs an instant rotation in relation to the axis of instant rotation. ωg. This component causes pure rotation of the 171 . ωpl.1 Kinematics of the Instantaneous Motion in High-Conformal Intersected-Axis Gearing For the investigation of the kinematics of instant rotation in high-conformal intersected-axis gearing. the rotation vector. The angle between the vector of instant rotation.. the rotation vector of instant relative rotation.

Σp. ω rlpl. and the shaft angle.172 High-Conformal Gearing ωpl Og rl ωpl ωp ωplsl Σp Apa Σg Op Σ ωg Pln FIGURE 8. can be expressed in terms of the rotations. Σ [38] 1 + ωg − ωp Σp = ⋅Σ (8. TABLE 8.4)  1 + ωg  .1 A vector diagram for a high-conformal intersected-axis gear pair. ωp.3) 1 + ωg Equation 8. The magnitude. gear and the pinion.2 casts into  1 + ωg − ωp  ω rlpl = −ω pl cos  ⋅ Σ (8. ω rlpl. ωg.2) As the angle. can be calculated from the formula ω rlpl = ω pl cos(180° − Σ p ) (8.1 Analytical Criteria of the Type of Intersected-Axis Gearing Analytical Criterion Type of Crossed-Axis Gearinga [C = 0 and Σ ≠ 0] External intersected-axis gear pair ωg ⋅ (ωp − ωg) < 0 Rack-type intersected-axis gear pair ωg ⋅ (ωp − ωg) = 0 Internal intersected-axis gear pair ωg ⋅ (ωp − ωg) > 0 a See footnote * in Chapter 7 on page 145. of the rotation vector.

High-Conformal Intersected-Axis Gearing 173

The component ω slpl of the vector of instant rotation, ωpl, is perpendicular to
the axis of rotation of the gear, Og. Therefore, the component ω slpl causes pure
sliding (with no rolling) of the gear tooth flank and the pinion tooth flank.
The magnitude, ω slpl, of the rotation vector, ω slpl, can be calculated from the
formula

ω slpl = ω pl sin(180° − Σ p ) (8.5)

Substituting Equation 8.3 into Equation 8.5, we obtain the formula

 1 + ωg − ωp 
ω slpl = ω pl sin  ⋅ Σ (8.6)
 1 + ωg 

for the calculation of the magnitude, ω slpl, of the rotation vector, ω slpl.

8.2  Base Cones in Intersected-Axis Gearing
Geometrically accurate intersected-axis gear pairs (or, in other words, ideal
intersected-axis gear pairs) are capable of transmitting a uniform rotation
from the driving shaft to the driven shaft. From this perspective, geometri-
cally accurate intersected-axis gear pairs resemble the previously discussed
geometrically accurate parallel-axis gear pairs (Figure 2.7). The similarity
between these two types of gears can be extended further [38]. Therefore, for
convenience, it makes sense to consider geometrically accurate intersected-
axis gearing in comparison with geometrically accurate parallel-axis gear-
ing, as parallel-axis gearing has been investigated much more deeply, and
the meshing of the tooth flanks of the gear and of the pinion in parallel-axis
gearing is better understood.
Geometrically accurate parallel-axis gear pairs feature two base cylinders,
as shown in Figure 2.7. Uniform rotation of the base cylinders allows for
an interpretation of parallel-axis gearing as a corresponding belt-and-pulley
analogy. This is also valid with respect to geometrically accurate intersected-
axis gear pairs. The base cones are associated with the gear and the pinion of
any and all geometrically accurate intersected-axis gear pairs. This concept
is schematically illustrated in Figure 8.2. An orthogonal intersected-axis gear
pair is depicted here for illustrative purposes. Without going into details of
the analysis, it should be stated here that that same approach is applicable
with respect to angular bevel gears that have a shaft angle, Σ ≠ 90°.
The schematic shown in Figure 8.2 is constructed based on the rotation
vectors, ωg and ωp, of the gear and the pinion. The gear and the pinion rotate

174 High-Conformal Gearing

ωpa PA
Base cone
(the pinion)

Pln Σ
ωg ωp γb
Σg π1
π4 Base cone
Apa ωp (the pinion)
Op
c1 lcp ωp
Σp
Γb e1 d1
ωpl
a1 Op

ωg PA
lcg f1
b1 lcp
Base cone Og ωg , ωp
(the gear)
ωpa
Pln
Feff d5
PA
lcp

f5 ϕt.ω
rl.pa c5 Og
ωg lcg
Pln
e5
PA
ωpa
Opa
Base cone
φpa a5 π4 (the gear)
lcg π5
b5
ro.pa

FIGURE 8.2
Base cones and the plane of action in orthogonal geometrically accurate intersected-axis
­gearing. (Adapted from Radzevich, S.P., Theory of Gearing: Kinematics, Geometry, and Synthesis,
CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2012, 743pp.)

about their axes, Og and Op, respectively. The rotation vectors, ωg and ωp,
allow for the construction of the vector, ωpl, of instant relative rotation. The
axis of instant rotation, Pln, is aligned with the rotation vector, ωpl.
Based on the tooth ratio u = ωp/ωg, the corresponding ratio sin Σg/sin Σp of
sines for the angles, Σg, of the gear and, Σp, of the pinion can be calculated [38] as

rp sin Σ g
= (8.7)
r g sin Σ p

The plane of action, PA, is a plane through the axis, Pln, of instant rotation.
The plane, PA, is in tangency with both base cones, namely with the base
cone of the gear and with the base cone of the pinion. The plane of action,
PA, is at a transverse pressure angle, ϕt.ω, in relation to a perpendicular to

High-Conformal Intersected-Axis Gearing 175

the axis of instant rotation, Pln, within the plane through the rotation vec-
tors, ωg and ωp. The pressure angle, ϕt.ω, is measured within a plane, which is
­perpendicular to the vector of instant rotation, ωpl.
The left upper portion of the schematic in Figure 8.2 is plotted within
the plane of projections, π1. Two others planes of projections, π2 and π3, of a
­standard set of planes of projections, π1, π2, and π3, are not used in this partic-
ular consideration. Instead, two auxiliary planes of projections, namely the
planes, π4 and π5, are used. The axis of projections, π1/π4, is constructed so as
to be perpendicular to the axis of instant rotation, Pln. The axis of projections,
π4/π5, is constructed so as to be parallel to the trace of the plane of action, PA,
within the plane of projections, π4.
The plane of action can be imagined as a flexible zero thickness film that is
free to wrap/unwrap from and onto the base cones. The plane of action is not
allowed for any bending about an axis perpendicular to the plane, PA, itself.
Under uniform rotation of the gears, the motion of the plane of action, PA, is
a steady rotation about the axis Opa. The rotation vector, ωpa, is along the axis
Opa. The vector ωpa is perpendicular to the plane of action.
For intersected-axis gear pairs, the plane of action, PA, can be viewed as a
round cone that has a 90° cone angle. As sin 90° = 1, the magnitude, ωpa, of the
rotation vector, ωpa, can be calculated from the formula

ωg ωp
ω pa = = (8.8)
sin Γ b sin γ b

For intersected-axis gear pairs, the base cone angles, Γb and γb, vary
within the intervals 0° < Γb < 180° and 0° < γb < 180°, respectively. So, here
and below all equations are valid for external, rack-type, and internal gear
pairs.* Formally, the base cone angles, Γb and γb, can be considered in the
­narrower intervals, namely within the intervals 0° < Γb < 90° and 0° < γb < 90°,
respectively. Under such a scenario, the following inequalities are valid for
­intersected-axis gear pairs of various types:

1. The base cone angles are of positive values (Γb > 0° and γb > 0°) for
external gear pairs.
2. The base cone angle of the gear is equal to the right angle (Γb = 90°
and γb > 0°) for rack-type gear pairs.
3. The base cone angles of the gear are of negative value (Γb < 0° and
γb > 0°) for internal gear pairs.

The face width of the plane of action, Fpa, or, in other words, the working
portion of the plane of action, PA, is located between two circles of radii,
ro.pa and rl.pa. The total portion of the plane of action spans within a central

* See footnote * in Chapter 7 on page 145.

176 High-Conformal Gearing

angle, ϕpa. The angle, ϕpa, is measured between the lines of contact, lcg and
lcp, of the plane of action, PA, and each of the two base cones.

Definition 8.1

Geometrically accurate intersected-axis gear pairs are those capable of
t­ ransmitting a rotation smoothly.

Intersected-axis gear pairs that do not allow for the construction of equiva-
lent base cones and the plane of action, PA, are referred to as approximate
intersected-axis gear pairs. The tooth flanks of approximate intersected-
­
axis gear pairs feature geometry for which no equivalent belt-and-pulley
­mechanism can be designed to replace the gear pair.

Definition 8.2

Approximate intersected-axis gear pairs are those that are not capable of
transmitting a rotation smoothly.

Approximate intersected-axis gears are not discussed here as neither con-
formal nor high-conformal gear pairs can be designed on the premise of
approximate intersected-axis gearings.

8.3 Path of Contact in High-Conformal
Intersected-Axis Gearing
The path of contact in a high-conformal intersected-axis gear pair is a trace
of contact point when the gears rotate.
Since the relative motion of the gear and the pinion is an instant r­ otation,
ωpl, about the axis of instant rotation, Pln, the plane perpendicular to the
­vector of instant rotation, ωpl, at an arbitrary point, P, within the axis of
instant rotation, Pln, can be constructed and the relative motion can be inves-
tigated within the normal plane (Figure 8.3).
Within the normal plane, a boundary N-circle can be constructed. The ­center
of the boundary N-circle is coincident with the point of intersection of the axis
of instant rotation, Pln, by the normal plane. The radius, rN, of the boundary
N-circle is equal to a desirable displacement, l, of the contact point, K [either in
the positive direction to the position of the point, K+, or in the negative direc-
tion to the position of the point, K−], from the point, P (that is located within
the pitch line, Pln), along the instant line of action, LAinst. The point P can be
a pitch point in a particular gear pair. The desirable displacement, l (either of
positive value, +l, or of negative value, −l), is a trade-off between the contact

High-Conformal Intersected-Axis Gearing 177

Og Pln ωp ϕt.ω

LAinst K–
Apa
sl
ωpr
sl
ωlw
Op –l
Σ
Σg ωplsl
ωg
rN Pln
Σp +l

P lla
K+
ωpl
Boundary N-cone
Γl Boundary N-circle

FIGURE 8.3
Configuration of the boundary cone in a high-conformal intersected-axis gear pair.

strength of the gear teeth and the sliding of the teeth flanks of the gear and
the pinion, G and P, in relation to one another. The larger the distance, l, the
higher the contact strength of the gear teeth and the higher the sliding of the
teeth flanks. The smaller the distance, l, the lower the contact strength of the
gear teeth and the lower sliding of the teeth flanks.

8.3.1  Bearing Capacity of High-Conformal Gearing
The influence of an increase in radius, rN, of the boundary N-circle onto a rise
of contact strength in high-conformal gearing is schematically illustrated in
Figure 8.4, where normal sections of the teeth flanks of a gear and a mating

(a) (b)
r″p
r″g
r′p
r′g

rrel rrel
rel

K K
δ δ
l′cnf l″cnf

FIGURE 8.4
Impact of the magnitude of the radii of curvature of the gear tooth flank, G, and the pinion
tooth flank, P, on the bearing capacity in gear pairs featuring an equal radius of relative curva-
ture, rrel. Parts (a) and (b) are discussed in the text.

178 High-Conformal Gearing

pinion for two high-conformal gear pairs are shown. Both normal sections
feature equal radii of relative curvature, rrel.
In the first case shown in Figure 8.4a, the radius of curvature of the gear
tooth profile, G, is denoted by rg′ , while the radius of curvature of the pin-
ion tooth profile, P, within that same plane is denoted by rp′ . The radius of
relative curvature, rrel, of the interacting teeth flanks is equal to rrel = − rg′ − rp′
(as is adopted in this book, the radii of curvature are signed values: convex
profiles feature radii of curvature of positive values while concave profiles
feature radii of curvature of negative values). When a load is applied at a
contact point, K, the teeth flanks, G and P, approach each other at a certain
distance. This distance is designated as δ. Under the applied load, the con-
tact point spreads over a certain area of contact. The width of the contact
area within the normal plane section in this particular case is designated
as l′cnf .
In the second case, shown in Figure 8.4b, the radius of curvature of the
gear tooth profile, G, is denoted by rg′′ while the radius of curvature of the
pinion tooth profile, P, within that same plane is denoted by rp′′ . It should be
stressed here that inequalities |rg′′|>|rg′| and rp′′ > rp′ take place in the consid-
eration. The radius of relative curvature, rrel, of the interacting teeth flanks is
equal to rrel = − rg′′ − rp′′. Let us assume that when a load is applied at contact
point, K, the teeth flanks, G and P, approach each other at the same distance δ
as in the abovementioned case (Figure 8.4a). Under the applied load, the con-
tact point spreads over a certain area of contact. The width of the contact area
within the normal plane section in this particular case is designated as lcnf ′′ .
A detailed analysis is not necessary to make it evident that the arc, lcnf ′′ , is
larger compared to the arc, lcnf ′′ > lcnf
′ . As the inequality lcnf ′ is valid, it becomes
evident that the bearing capacity of high-conformal intersected-axis gearing
depends not only on relative curvature, rrel, of the contacting tooth flanks, but
also on the magnitudes of the radii of curvature of the tooth flanks, G and
P, at a point of their contact. The larger the magnitudes of the radii, rg and
rp, of normal curvature of the interacting teeth flanks, G and P, the greater
the load capacity of high-conformal intersected-axis gearing and vice versa.
Ultimately, this makes the following conclusion valid.

Statement 8.1

High-conformal gearing with the larger magnitudes of the radii of normal
curvature of the tooth flanks feature higher load capacity.

It is right to recall here that the magnitudes of the radii, rg and rp, of nor-
mal curvature of the interacting teeth flanks, G and P, strictly correlate to
the radius rN of the boundary circle in the cross-section of the tooth flanks
through the corresponding pitch point. Therefore, high-conformal ­gearing
with the larger radius, rN, of the boundary N-circle features higher load capacity.

causes sliding in the lengthwise direction of the tooth flank.14)  1 + ω g  .2  Sliding of Teeth Flanks in a High-Conformal Gearing The dependence of sliding of the teeth flanks. the linear velocity of sliding can be expressed in terms of the mag- nitude. Og.13) Equation 8. The magnitude.12)  1 + ωg  for the calculation of the magnitude. of the rotation vector. ω slpr. At a given point of contact of the gear tooth flank.3. ω slpl. and the pinion tooth flank. is briefly discussed below. The rotation vector. Pln.13 casts into the formula  1 + ωg − ωp  ω sllw = ω slpl cos  ⋅ Σ (8. P.10) Equation 8. G. of the pinion. ω slpr . of sliding can be decomposed into two compo- nents (Figure 8. and the distance of the contact point from the axis. The magnitude. ωpl. of slid- ing can be calculated from the formula ω sllw = ω slpl cos(180 − Σ p ) (8. of the rotation vector. G. G. ω sllw. ωpl. Pln.3) ω slpl = ω slpr + ω lw sl (8. the component ω lw sl is perpendicular to the axis of instant rota- tion.10 casts into the formula  1 + ωg − ωp  ω slpr = ω slpl sin  ⋅ Σ (8. of the rotation vector. of the pinion. is along the axis of instant rotation. This compo- nent of the rotation vector of sliding. ω slpl. Similarly. of the gear and the tooth flank. can be calculated from the formula ω slpr = ω slpl sin(180 − Σ p ) (8. The component of the rotation vector of sliding. G and P. ω slpr.High-Conformal Intersected-Axis Gearing 179 8. P. of the rotation vector. This is also true with respect to the pinion. P. ω lw sl . ω slpr. causes profile sliding of the tooth flank.11)  1 + ω g  or  1 + ωg − ωp  ω slpr = ω pl sin 2  ⋅ Σ (8. from the value of the displacement. ω slpr.9) One component. l. of the gear and the tooth flank. ω slpr.

Similarly. through the point m. π7. Vsl. P. Og.5.16) The sliding velocity in high-conformal intersected-axis gearing can be determined using the methods developed in descriptive geometry of surfaces. lla.15)  1 + ωg  for the calculation of the magnitude. Pln. In the plane of projections. is perpendicular to the axis of rotation. The unit vector. π6. of the rotation vector. the corresponding projections Prπ1 Vgm. consider a schematic of a high-conformal intersected- axis gear pair. Refer to Figure 8. LAinst. m The velocity vector. is located in a plane. will be decomposed onto the velocity vector of pure rolling and the velocity vector of pure sliding of the tooth flanks.5b. the velocity vector Vpm is projected with no distortion (Figure 8. Vpm.5c). is along the instant line of action. in the following formula: V sl = ω slpl × l la ⋅ l (8. pl Vrel . the velocity vector. Then. π6. as shown in Figure 8. can be calculated from Equation 8. is located in a plane. γg.25) and not the actual values of the velocities. and Vrel m onto the plane of projections π1.9. ω sllw. The rotation vector. ω slpl. is perpendicular to the axis of instant rotation. Op. Therefore. It is permissible to do because when calculating specific sliding of the gear. and Prπ1 Vrel m are considered as the known parameters. allows for a construction of projections of the velocity vectors Vgm. of the m gear and the pinion (Figure 8. pl Vrel . pl Vgm .180 High-Conformal Gearing or  1 + ωg − ωp  ω sllw = ω pl sin 2  ⋅ Σ (8. In the plane of projections. Prπ1 Vpm. The con- structed velocity vector. Later on. G. Vrel . Vgm. through the point m m. of a point m within the active portion (a helix line) in a pinion tooth flank. pl Vgm. of the relative motion of the gear and the pinion m tooth flanks at a point m is located within a plane. γp. The magnitude of the velocity vector Vpm can . The linear velocity vector. pl Vgm. The plane. pl Vgm.5a). Vgm. the calculated value of ω slpl is used for the calculation of the vector of linear velocity of sliding.5a). The plane. of the pinion (Figure 8. G and P. through the point m. of a point m within the active portion (a helix line) in a gear tooth flank. Vgm. the velocity vector Vgm is projected with no distortion. ω lwsl .5a).24 and 3. The velocity vector Vgm is constructed in the plane of projections. The plane. Vrel . the ratio of the velocities is important (see Equations 3. The magnitude of the velocity vector Vgm can be chosen arbitrarily. is perpendicular to the axis of rotation. of the gear (Figure 8. the linear velocity vector. and the pinion.

(d) veloc- ity of the relative motion of the gear and the mating pinion at m.5 Sliding in a right-angle high-conformal gear pair: (a) rotations of the gear and of the pinion. (c) linear velocity of point m with the pinion. ωp Prπ1 Vm Prπ1 Vm rel Og g ωpa pl Vm g Pln m PA Vsl = Prπ1 Vm rel ϕt.ω pl Vm rel pl Vm Pc Pln g m Pc Og m Prπ1 Vm g Opa Og pl Vm Prπ1 Vm rel π4 p π5 Prπ1 Vm Vm rel p (c) π1 π7 pl Vm g Pln ωg ωp Op Op Apa ωpl pl Vm rel pl Vm g m m Prπ1 Vm Vm p g Og Prπ1 Vm p Prπ1 Vm rel (d) PrP Vm m g ≡ PrP Vp ln ln pl V m p Pln Pln Op φm Apa ωpl PrP Vm g ≠90° ln Pc m pl Vm g m PrP Vm p Prπ1 Vm g ln Og pl Vm rel Prπ1 Vm rel Prπ1 Vm p (e) Pln π1 φm Op π4 Apa ωpl pl Vmrel pl Vm Prπ1 Vmg g m Op ωg .High-Conformal Intersected-Axis Gearing 181 (a) pl Vm g (b) m Pln ωg π1 Og ωp Op π4 Apa Vm g ωpl pl Vm Pc Op π6 g m π1 Vm ωpa Og pl rel ωg Pln Pln ωp Op m Apa PA ωpl PA ϕt. .ω Og FIGURE 8. (b) linear velocity of point m with the gear. (e) sliding velocity.

and the pinion.7). onto the pitch line. γp. based on the graphical solution to the problem under consideration. Pc. However.182 High-Conformal Gearing be determined on the premise of the design parameters of the gear pair under consideration using for this purpose conventional rules developed in descriptive geometry of surfaces. Ultimately this allows to construct the pro- jections. XpaYpaZpa. The axis Ypa is along the pitch line. can be constructed at any point. Consider a plane of action. These components of the velocity vectors cause rolling of the tooth flaks. is centered at the PA apex.25 using for this purpose direct measurements of the velocity vectors taken from Figure 8. can be calculated from Equations 3. Vsl. within the active portion of the path of contact. γg. Pc. along the active portion of the path of contact. Vgm and Vpm . Pc.17) The sliding velocity vector. PrPln Vgm and PrPln Vpm. Apa. In this way. and the pin- ion.5) makes an analytical solution to the problem of sliding in high-conformal gearing possible. Finally. it is suf- ficient to construct the vector Vsl just for one point. V sl = Prπ1 Vrel m . The performed analysis (Figure 8. Pln. Pln. in an intersected-axis gear pair (Figure 8. . in an intersected-axis high-conformal gear pair. to plot the distribution of the sliding velocity vector. Otherwise. The axis Xpa is located within the plane of Vsl Apa Pc m Opa FIGURE 8. m. PA.24 and 3.5d.5e). This due to the equality is valid m | = |V sl|2 +|Prπ1 Vgm|2 = |V sl|2 +|Prπ1 Vpm|2 |Vrel (8. The sliding velocity vector at other points can be determined as shown in Figure 8. Vsl. γp. The specific sliding of the gear. Vsl. of the velocity vectors. the distribution of Vsl along the Pc can be plotted.6. The Cartesian reference system. along the active portion of the path of ­contact. the sliding velocity vector. γg. over each other as illustrated in Figure 8.6 The distribution of the sliding velocity vector.5. is projected with no dis- tortion onto the plane of projections π4 (Figure 8. G and P. a set of equations can be derived for the calculation of the specific sliding of the gear.

The operator. The axis Z0 is perpendicular to the coordinate plane X0Y0 (Figure 8. can be expressed in terms of the distance. X0Y0Z0. Rs ( pa  0). that the position vector. rm. The Cartesian reference system.19) where the pinion angle is denoted by Σp and the transverse pressure angle is designated as ϕt. φm. ϕ m ) =   m m (8.8. Rs ( pa  0).ω . Og. The axis Y0 is along the pinion axis of rotation. and the central angle. from the coordinate system XpaYpaZpa to the reference system X0Y0Z0.7). is centered at the PA apex.18)  0     1  The reference system.7 Plane of action. Pln  − Rm cos ϕ m   R sin ϕ  rm (R m . X0Y0Z0. PA. of the point m forms with the pitch line.ω. Z0 ) ⋅ Rt (φt.High-Conformal Intersected-Axis Gearing 183 PA Ypa φm Pln Apa m Rm Xpa FIGURE 8. Op. The axis Zpa is perpendicular to the coordinate plane XpaYpa (Figure 8. Rs ( pa  0) = Rt (Σ p . in an intersected-axis gear pair. Ypa ) (8. To represent the point m in the reference system X0Y0Z0. The coordinates of an arbitrary point m within the plane of action.8). PA. of the point m from the origin of the coordinate system XpaYpaZpa. that is. it is necessary to compose an operator of the resultant coordinate transformation. Apa. The axis X0 is along the gear axis of rotation. is associated with the right-angle intersected- axis gear pair as shown in Figure 8. Rm. action and is perpendicular to the axis Ypa. . can be calculated as a dot product of two operators of rotations about the coordinate axis.

Rt(φt.ω ) 0 sin(φ t. can be represented in the matrix form as  cos Σ p sin Σ p 0 0  − sin Σ cos Σ p 0 0  Rt(Σ p . Z0).184 High-Conformal Gearing View A Z0 Zpa Og ϕt. of the point m can be analytically described as rm0 (R m . ϕ m ) = Rs ( pa  0) ⋅ rm (8.20)  − sin(φ t.ω ) 0  0 1 0 0  Rt(φt. The operator of rotation. Z0 ) =  p (8.ω .22) . X0Y0Z0. Ypa ) =  (8.ω XpaYpa Zpa Ypa X0Y0 Apa Y0 Apa Op Σp Σg Pln Xpa A X0 FIGURE 8. the operator of rotation.21)  0 0 1 0    0 0 0 1 With that said.8 Reference system.ω ) 0    0 0 0 1 Similarly. is considered below. Rs ( pa  0). Rt(Σp. rm. the position vector.ω ) 0 cos(φt. the operator of the resultant coordinate transformation. associated with a right-angle intersected-axis gear pair.ω Ypa). can be represented in the matrix form as  cos(φ t. In the coordinate system X0Y0Z0.

from the axis X0 of the Cartesian coordinate system X0Y0Z0.9 Linear velocity vector. coordinates of the point m are as follows: Ymyz = R m (cos ϕ m cos φ t. .26) Z0 g Vm m yz rm Y0 Og φg φg = upa/g · φm FIGURE 8. This radius is the distance.ω p m p (8.24) it traces a circle of a radius rmyz .23)  cos ϕ m sin φ t.9.ω sin Σ p + sin ϕ m cos Σ p ) (8.ω cos Σ p + sin ϕ m sin Σ p   cos ϕ cos φ sin Σ + sin ϕ cos Σ  rm0 (R m . Og. is rotated about the gear axis of rotation. of the point m from the axis Og.High-Conformal Intersected-Axis Gearing 185 Equation 8. ϕ m ) = Rm ⋅   m t .ω cos Σ p + sin ϕ m sin Σ p ) (8.22 can be rewritten in an expanded form  − cos ϕ m cos φ t. rmyz . In Figure 8.9.ω     1  The point m within the tooth flank of the gear.ω (8. as shown in Figure 8.25) Zmyz = R m cos ϕ m sin φ t. In the plane X0 = R m (− cos ϕ m cos φ t. that is. G. Vmg. in the rotational motion of the gear in an intersected-axis gear pair.

is equal to ωg = upa/g ⋅ ωpa. φm.10.ω sin Σ p + sin ϕ m cos Σ p ) (8. the velocity vector.186 High-Conformal Gearing The angle of rotation of the gear. of the plane of action.10 Linear velocity vector. and the gear ratio. where ωpa is the angular velocity of the plane of action. φg. is determined. In the plane X0 = R m (cos ϕ m cos φ t.ω sin Σ p + sin ϕ m cos Σ p )   g  − rmyzω g cos ϕ g  Vm =   (8. can be determined. Vmg . of the pair gear-to-plane-of-action: ϕ g = upa/g ⋅ ϕ m (8. can be analytically described by a column matrix in the form  Rm (cos ϕ m cos φ t. in the rotational motion of the pinion in an intersected-axis gear pair. the linear velocity vector. Op. Vmp. and the velocity ­vector. can be expressed in terms of the angle of rotation. Vmg.27) In the rotational motion of the point m. Vmp .7). as shown in Figure 8. of the point m within the pinion tooth flank. P.29) p Vm Z0 m xz rm X0 Op φp φp = upa/g · φm FIGURE 8. PA (Figure 8. upa/g. The point m within the tooth flank of the pinion. PA. ωg. P. Similar to that. is rotated about the pinion axis of rotation. .28) rmyzω g sin ϕ g    1  The angular velocity of the gear.

31) The angle of rotation of the pinion. This radius is the distance. . coordinates of the point m are as follows: Ymxz = R m (− cos ϕ m cos φ t.30) Zmxz = R m cos ϕ m sin φt. in such a relative motion.32) In the rotational motion of the point m.34) The sliding velocity vector. npa. and the gear ratio. Vmrel . rmxz. PA Vmsl = Prn. can be expressed in terms of the angle of rotation.ω sin Σ p + sin ϕ m cos Σ p ) Vm = (8. Vmp . of the point m in the relative motion of the gear and the pinion tooth flanks. of the pair pinion-to-plane-of-action ϕ p = upa/p ⋅ ϕ m (8. in high-conformal intersected-axis gear pairs. A bound- ary N-circle is traced up by the contact point. In Figure 8. where ωpa is the angular velocity of the plane of action. Vmsl .High-Conformal Intersected-Axis Gearing 187 it traces a circle of a radius rmxz. the linear velocity vector. pa Vmrel (8.35) Other approaches can be used for the calculation of the sliding velocity vector. is the projection of the vector Vmrel onto the direction of a perpendicular. Pln. can be analytically described by a column matrix in the form  − rmxzω p cos ϕ p    g  Rm (cos ϕ m cos φt. φm. 8. from the axis Y0 of the Cartesian coordinate system X0Y0Z0.7).ω (8.3  Boundary N-Cone in Intersected-Axis High-Conformal Gearing When gears rotate.3. of the point m from the axis Ogp.ω cos Σ p + sin ϕ m sin Σ p ) (8. to the plane of action. PA (Figure 8.10. φp. upa/p. Vsl . K. ωg. The velocity vector.33)  rmxzω p sin ϕ p     1  The angular velocity of the pinion. G and P. is equal to Vmrel = Vmg − Vmp (8. the motion of the pinion in relation to the gear can be viewed as instant rotation about the axis of instant rotation. that is. of the plane of action. is equal to ωp = upa/p ⋅ ωpa. PA.

In this way. LAinst. and the pinion. φti. No kinematical and/or geometrical constraints on the intersected-axis high-conformal gearing are violated in such a consideration.L. of a certain constant value. This is newly introduced (circa 2008) concept to intersected-axis high-conformal gearing by Dr. Pc. approaches the apex. in relation to their desirable position should be taken into account.188 High-Conformal Gearing In theory. run-out of the gear and the pinion. this line generates a cone of revolution. G and P. in its rotation in relation to the axis Pln. Pln. Under the assumptions that Δl = 0 and that manufacturing errors are zero. K. P. Novikov. is the straight line through all the contact points. P) must be entirely located within the interior of the boundary N-cone. G and P. of the boundary N-circle is a trade-off between desir- able high contact strength and low friction between the teeth flanks of the gear. can be con- structed. the radius r Ni of the boundary N-circle should be get- ting smaller accordingly. as a normal section through a point within the axis of instant rotation. is not mandatorily of the same value at all normal sec- tions of the axis. the boundary N-cone is generated as the loci of consecutive positions of the path of contact.ω. and an instant line of action LAinst can be constructed as well. The pressure angle.* * The concept of the boundary N-cone was not known in the times of Professor M. p The concave tooth flank of another member (primarily of the gear. Consider a straight line. This makes the following definition possible: Definition 8. Pln.3 A boundary N-cone in intersected-axis high-conformal gearing is a cone of revolution that is generated by the rotation of the path of contact. The instant line of action. Pln. . LAinst. In practice. within the active face-width of the gear pair. of the intersected-axis high-conformal gear pair. of the gear and the pinion and through the common apex. When the path of contact. Pc.P. S. Pc. r Ni . In practice. Moreover. The convex tooth flank of one member of a gear pair (primarily of the ­ inion. as well as displacements of other types of the tooth flanks. Apa. is rotated about the axis of instant rotation. This cone of revolution is referred to as the boundary N-cone in intersected-axis high-conformal gearing. Pln.ω. it is reasonable to keep the pressure angle. Pc. the radius. Apa. When rotating about the axis of instant rotation. Pln. a boundary N-circle of a certain radius. φti. ϕt. the point of contact. The path of contact passes through the apex. the path of contact. of the tooth flanks. Ki. is a line through the axis of instant rotation. about the axis of instant rotation. Pa. G. K. Pln. rN. is located at the point of intersection of the boundary N-circle by the instant line of action.ω. At any point within the axis of instant rotation. Radzevich. G) of the gear pair must be entirely located outside the interior of the boundary N-cone. through the point of contact. Pc.

ωp. ωp. of instant rotation.36)  Ai  In a more general case. and the pinion. and the pinion. respectively. Γ.38) ω /  g p ω + cos Σ  .38]:  sin Σ  Γ = − tan −1   (8. and Pln. The boundary cone angle. of the boundary N-circle at a current point within the axis of instant rotation. Apa:  ri  Γ l = tan −1  N  (8. Og. and (b) of the cone distance. r Ni . 8. of that point from the apex.37) ω /  p g ω + cos Σ   sin Σ  γ = tan −1   (8. makes possible the determination of the tooth ratio. should be given prior to beginning designing a high-conformal intersected-axis gear pair. Op.11 Angle. Og. The known configuration of the axes of rotations. (Figure 8. Pln. ωg. Ai. and the pitch cone angles of the gear. Op. and Pln.4 Design Parameters of High-Conformal Intersected-Axis Gearing The rotation vectors of the gear. the vector. γ [23.High-Conformal Intersected-Axis Gearing 189 Pln Γi rNi ωg ωpl Apa –ωg ωp Ai FIGURE 8. are the straight lines along the rotation vectors. and ωpl. The axes of rotations. Γi. u.11) can be expressed in terms (a) of the radius. Γl. are known. can be determined. as well as the shaft angle. but a boundary N-surface of revolution should be considered instead. Σ. ωpl. not a boundary N-cone should be considered. ωg. of the boundary N-cone in high-conformal intersected-axis gearing. ωg and ωp. Once the rotation vectors.

and of the pinion. and the axis of instant rotation. and to the pitch cones of the gear and the pinion in high-conformal intersected-axis gearing. P. to a great extent. the vector of instant rotation.42) dg Σ Op rN ωp ωg Pln View A ωpl Apa P –ωg Γl BCp Og op dp A FIGURE 8. A. . as well as the back cone distance of the pinion.12. Pln. The calculated values of the pitch cone angles. the design parameters of a high-conformal intersected-axis gear pair can be specified within a reference plane through the pitch point. ωpl. is at a cone distance.12 Configuration of a normal reference plane in relation to the axis of instant rotation.41) BC p = 2 A sin γ (8. from the apex Apa. Γ and γ. are of critical importance. make it possible to calculate the pitch diameter of the gear. Pln.39) dp = 2 A cos γ (8. BCp. As the instant motion of the pinion in relation to the mating gear is interpreted as instant rotation about the axis. can be calculated in a way similar to that above BC g = 2 A sin Γ (8. on those of parallel-axis gearing.40) The back cone distance of the gear. Pln. A. dg. The pitch point. From this perspective. Pln. BCg. dp dg = 2 A cos Γ (8.190 High-Conformal Gearing The design parameters of a high-conformal intersected-axis gear pair can be specified based. P. along with the given cone distance. The reference plane is perpendicular to the axis of instant rotation. as depicted in Figure 8.

Referring to Figure 8. The points. ϕt.13 Geometry of a high-conformal intersected-axis gear pair within the reference plane perpen- dicular to the pitch line.g ρ f. Once the normal reference plane is constructed. LAinst. Ultimately. the higher the losses on friction that occur between the teeth flanks and the higher wear of the teeth flanks of the gear and the pinion. The line. are at a distance cn = (BCg + BCp) from one another. og and op. The further the contact point.p rN = rp a BC*f.High-Conformal Intersected-Axis Gearing 191 ϕt. from the pitch point. P. the tooth profile param- eters of the gear and the pinion can be specified. LAinst. cn. Let us assume that the pinion is stationary and that the gear performs an instant rotation in relation to the pinion.ω BCo. P. The axis of instant . are in nature the points of intersection of the axes. which is the pitch point P.g LAinst ρp BCg ρg BCp cg BCf.ω. within the normal reference plane is the line through the pitch point. the more freedom in selecting the radii of curvature of the tooth profiles is observed. that have the points og and op as the centers are constructed. Pln.13. ωpl. Two circles of radii. is a kind of trade-off between the two aforementioned factors. two points. At the same time. by the normal reference plane. K. the further the contact point.p ag cn = (BCg + BCp) FIGURE 8. of the tooth flanks of the gear and the pinion is a point within the instant line of action. The point of contact.g P op cp rg og BCf. Pln. The circles share a common point. the actual location of the contact point. P. An instant line of action. with the perpendicular to the center distance. of the instant rota- tion. LAinst. forms a certain transverse pressure angle. is the straight line through the pitch point. is from the pitch point. K.g d b c K BCo. P. Og and Op. K. namely og and op. K. BCg and BCp. The axis.

The transverses contact ratio. traces a boundary circle of radius. the point of contact will travel along the path of contact.44) 1+ u . or it can be relieved in the bodily side of the pinion tooth. It is clearly a condition of operation that in a given profile the tooth surfaces should not interfere before or after culmination when rotated at angular speeds that are in the gear ratio. of the concave gear tooth profile. P. centered at P. For the calculation of the design parameters of a high-conformal gear pair. It is therefore fundamental to the operating of the gears that contact occurs nominally at a point and that the point of contact travels across the full face width of the gears during the rotation. mF. can either align with the circular arc of the boundary circle. P. P. and the pinion. When a rotation is transmitted from the driving shaft to the driven shaft. G. as u BC g = cn ⋅ (8. is equal to the face contact ratio. that is. BCp. Pc. the pitch point. travels along the path of contact. K.13. Both the pinion teeth and the gear teeth are helical and of opposite hand. the contact point. and the tooth ratio. The total contact ratio. the location of the center of curvature. G. Pln. LAinst. Theoretically. Therefore. K. of the gear pair should be given. When the pinion is motionless. This is because mp ≡ 0 and mF > 1 as previously mentioned. cn. u. P. is located within the plane through the axes. and the tooth ratio. the center distance. Because both the gear and the pinion are helical with the helices of opposite hand. while the contact point. og and op. is limited to the open interval P → ∞. and it goes through the apex. the contact point. However. within the instant line of action. in a high-conformal gear pair is zero (mp ≡ 0). is smaller than that. the radius of curvature. mF. and the center of cur- vature cg is actually located beyond the pitch point P. the identity mt ≡ mF is valid in intersected-axis high-conformal gearing. On the other hand. within the instant line of action. As a consequence. The back cone distance of the gear. is limited to the straight line segment. within the normal reference plane. PK. of the concave the gear tooth profile. cn.192 High-Conformal Gearing rotation. rg. rN. The pinion tooth profile. can be expressed in terms of the center-distance. u = ωp/ωg. the location of the center of curvature. cg. K) as it is shown in Figure 8. K. Apa. of the convex pinion tooth profile. mp. Pc (and it does not travel within the transverse section of the gear pair). is not.43) 1+ u 1 BC p = cn ⋅ (8. LAinst. The face contact ratio. of the convex the pinion tooth profile. this is completely impractical. rp. Spur high-conformal gearing is not feasible in nature. of the gear pair is always greater than one (mF > 1). mt. BCg. cp. can be included in that interval for K. The pitch point is included into the interval (P. (the inequality rp < rg is observed). rN. that is.

1 … 0.49) where ag is the dedendum of the mating gear [ag = (0. is the principal design parameter of a high-conformal gear pair. The actual value of the factor. as the factor.46) are used. The factor. is calculated from the equation BC f . kpo.03 … 0. of the tooth profiles of the gear and the pinion respectively. Pc. the formulas rg = l ⋅ (1 + k rg ) (8. l. BCf. krg. the pinion addendum factor. For the calculation of radii of curvature. p (8. krp.47) The addendum factor. p = BCp + (1 − k po ) ⋅ l (8. many of the design parameters of the high-conformal gear pair can be expressed (l = KP). The radius of the outer back cone distance of the pinion. g = BC g + ag (8. BCo. l. absolute dimensions of the gear pair. is calculated from the expression BCo. BCf.10.51) . The displacement. is remote from the pitch point. is equal to BC f . is set in the range k po = 0.3 ⋅ l. at which the path of contact.2) ⋅ l] and δ is the radial clearance in the gear pair (δ = l ⋅ kpo) It is practical to set the fillet radius. the equality rp = l is observed. is within the range krg = 0. krp. ϕt.g. is often set equal to zero. l. P. However.1 ÷ 0.p.45) rp = l ⋅ (1 + k rp ) (8. g = cn − BCo.g. is calculated from the formula BCo.ω. accuracy of machining.50) The radius of the outer back cone distance of the gear. The root back cone distance of the gear. In terms of the displacement.ω. must be known. BCo. ρp.48) The root back cone distance of the pinion. as well as the transverse pressure angle.p. Commonly. and conditions of lubrication. in the range of ρp = 0. p = BC p − ag − δ (8. kpo. ϕt. rg and rp. of the pinion depends on the pressure angle. should satisfy the inequality krp ≥ 0.2 (8.High-Conformal Intersected-Axis Gearing 193 A distance.

2) ⋅ p ⋅ tan λ (8. ρp = 0.p φa.10 ⋅ rp. For the design parameters. gear φw. bg.52) For a preliminary analysis of high-conformal gearing. gear φd. an empirical expression l = (0.p φt. respectively. tp. and circular pitch of teeth p = tg + tp + B. The effective face width of the gear pair can be calculated as follows: Feff = (1. pinion φd. tg. which is less than the fillet radius.194 High-Conformal Gearing TABLE 8. of the pinion (ρg < ρp). gear φt.n φm. CL. The following relations among the design parameters of a high-conformal gear pair have been proved practical: rp = l. and the total contact .p φd. mn. Consider a case when at a uniform rotation of the gear and the pinion.53) returns a practical value for the displacement l. ρg.1 ÷ 1.n = tan−1(mn/A) Angular pitch pφ pφ = tan−1(p/A) Angular tooth thickness.g φa.05 ÷ 0.5.8.p = tan−1(wp/A) Angular backlash φB φB = tan−1(B/A) Angular addendum. ϕt. The functional face width and axial pitch of a high-conformal gear pair depend on each other. λ = 60 … 80° (ψ = 10 … 30°).4 mm.p = tan−1(bp/A) The designations: ag. travels along the contact line. rg ≤ 1. K. the contact point. pinion φa. and B.g = tan−1(tg/A) Angular tooth thickness. l.g φd. corresponding angular val- ues can be calculated (Table 8. pinion φt. p. As the transverse contact ratio is zero (mp = 0).g = tan−1(wg/A) Angular space width. and ap.p = tan−1(ap/A) Angular dedendum.p = tan−1(tp/A) Angular space width. at a certain uniform liner speed.g = tan−1(bg/A) Angular dedendum. bp relate to the addendum and dedendum of the gear and the pinion.g φt. pinion φw.g = tan−1(ag/A) Angular addendum.g φw. The corner of the gear tooth addendum should be rounded with a radius.p φw. gear φa.20) ⋅ BCp (8. ρp. where backlash B = 0. These design parameters are ­measured within the normal reference plane of the high-conformal inter- sected-axis gear pair. tp/tg = 1.3 ⋅ l. mn/l = 0.2 … 0.2).ω =30°.2 Design Parameters of High-Conformal Intersected-Axis Gearing Design Parameter Symbol Equation Angular displacement φl φl = tan−1(l/A) Angular module φm.

can be calculated from the formula Feff pcl. mt. of the helix on the pinion tooth flank. that travels along the path of contact. interact with one another only at a culminating point. pcl.g.High-Conformal Intersected-Axis Gearing 195 ratio. The quality of high-conformal gearing strongly depends on the following design parameters: l.ω. p = ⋅ cos γ (8. The tooth flanks. g = ⋅ cos Γ (8. G. ϕt. . of the helix on the gear tooth flank.54) mt A similar expression Feff pcl. is equal to the face contact ratio.55) mt is valid with respect to the axial pitch. the axial pitch. Pc. K. P. pcl.p. mF. and λ. G and P.

Σg. are along the straight lines. Σ = ∠(ωgωp)]. Therefore. The total number of vector diagrams for different types of crossed-axis gear pairs is limited just to three diagrams when the actual configuration of the rotation vectors. for simplicity) have wide applications in the industry. Both the input rotation and the output rotation can be easily rep- resented by c­orresponding rotation vectors.1. ωg and ωp. These vector diagrams are depicted in Figure 9. When motion is to be trans- mitted between two shafts whose axes cross. between the rotation vector. The closest distance of approach  between the lines of action of the rotation vectors. 9. is taken into account.* The vector diagram shown in Figure 9. This distance is commonly referred to as the center-distance C. ωp. of the gear and the rotation vector. some form of bevel-like gear is applied. Early designs of crossed-axis gears can be found in Leonardo da Vinci’s famous book The Madrid Codices [7]. ωg and ωp. only three different types of intersected- axis gear pairs are feasible. which cross one another.9 High-Conformal Crossed-Axis Gearing Crossed-axis gears (or just Ca-gearing. of the pinion. is specified as the angle between the rotation ­vector. ωg and ωp. ωg and ωp. Σ. ωg. ωg and ωp.e. of the gear and the pinion in relation to the vector of instant rotation. Although gears of this type are often made for a shaft angle of 90°. i.1a features an obtuse gear angle. The vectors..1  Kinematics of Crossed-Axis Gearing Transmission and transformation of rotation from a driving shaft to a driven shaft is the main purpose of implementation of crossed-axis gears. 197 .  is  denoted by C. ωg. of the gear and the vector of instant * See footnote * in Chapter 7 on page 145. ωpl. they can be produced for almost any shaft angle. The variety of all possible types of crossed-axis gear pairs is limited to the total number of possible combinations of the rotation vectors. (a)  of  various magnitudes and (b) featuring different shaft angles Σ [remember that the shaft angle.

rotation. Equation 9. Σ.198 High-Conformal Gearing (a) (b) (c) ω pl ω pl ω pl ωp Ap ωp Apa Op Ap ≡ Apa ωp Pln Apa Op Σp Ap C Pln Σp C Pln Σp Op Ag C ωg Σ –ω g Σg Σg Ag ωg Σ Σ Og ω g Ag –ω g Og Og FIGURE 9. ωg and ωp  sin Σ  Σ g = tan −1   (9.1 reduces to  ωg  Σ g = tan −1   (9.1 and 9. Σp.2  sin Σ  Σ p = tan −1   (9. the relation Σg = ∠(ωgωpl) > 90° is valid. This relation can be represented in an equivalent form ω g ⋅ (ω p − ω g ) < 0 (9.1 The total number of possible types of vector diagrams for crossed-axis gear pairs is limited just to three vector diagrams. are similar to Equations 9. Parts (a)–(c) are discussed in the text. of the rotation vectors. The gear angle.4)  ωg  For a gear pair of this particular type (Σ >  90°). and the magnitudes.1) ω /  p g ω + cos Σ  For a shaft angle of 90°. ωg and ωp. ωpl. Σg.5) . can be expressed in terms of the shaft angle.3)  ω g /ω p + cos Σ  and for a right shaft angle reduces to  ωp  Σ p = tan −1   (9.2)  ωp  The formulae for the calculation of the pinion angle.

Σg = ∠(ωgωpl) = 90°. The earlier-derived formulas [38] 1 + ωp − ωg rg = ⋅C (9. ωpl.11) |ω g|⋅|ω p − ω g| are valid for crossed-axis gearing that meet the condition Σg = ∠(ωgωpl) = 90°. can be interpreted as the summa of the pitch radii of the gear. the rotation vector of the gear. in relation to the ­vector of instant rotation. rg. can be orthogonal to the vector of instant rotation. rg and rp. ωg. Two equivalent forms ω g ⋅ (ω p − ω g ) = 0 (9.1a) corresponds to an external crossed-axis gearing. The configuration of the rotation vector of the gear. C.7) For external crossed-axis gearing of all types. rp > 0).10) and ω g ⋅ (ω p − ω g ) =1 (9.8) 1 + ωp 1 + ωg − ωp rp = ⋅C (9. rp C = rg + rp (9. both the pitch radii. that is. of the gear and its pinion. is of secondary importance in this consideration. ωg and ωp. respectively. is critical for the determination of whether or not  a gear pair is external while the relative configura- tion of the  ­rotation  ­vectors. ωpl. In a particular case.High-Conformal Crossed-Axis Gearing 199 or ω g ⋅ (ω p − ω g ) = −1 (9. rg and rp.9) 1 + ωg can be used for the calculation of the pitch radii.6) |ω g| ⋅ |ω p − ω g| The center-distance. ωg. . and the pinion. are of positive values (rg > 0. The vector diagram (Figure 9.

the relation Σg = ∠(ωgωpl) < 90° is valid. the cross product of the rotation vectors of the gear.1 Analytical Criteria of the Type of Crossed-Axis Gearing Type of Crossed-Axis Gearinga Analytical Criterion [C ≠ 0 and Σ ≠ 0] External crossed-axis gear pair ωg ⋅ (ωp − ωg) < 0 Rack-type crossed-axis gear pair ωg ⋅ (ωp − ωg) = 0 Internal crossed-axis gear pair ωg ⋅ (ωp − ωg) > 0 a See footnote * in Chapter 7 on page 145. The last expression can be represented in two other forms: ω g ⋅ (ω p − ω g ) > 0 (9. Any and all crossed-axis gear pairs meet one of three expressions those listed in Table 9.200 High-Conformal Gearing Crossed-axis gear pairs for which the condition ωg ⊥ ωpl is fulfilled feature pitch radii of the value: rg = 0 and rp = C accordingly (the condition C = rg + rp is still valid).12 are summarized in Table 9.1. a crossed-axis gear pair may feature acute angle.5 through 9.1. The vector diagram for gear drives of this particular type is schemati- cally depicted in Figure 9. the centerlines of the driving shaft and the driven shaft cross each other at a right angle (Σ = 90°). The vector diagram corresponds to a crossed- axis gear pair composed of a round rack (or face gear) and a conical pinion. ωg. For a gear pair of this particular type. is always equal to zero (ωg × ωp = 0). and the pinion. This particular case is the most common in practice.1c) corresponds to an internal crossed-axis gearing. In particular cases. For gearing of this particular type. Crossed-axis gear pairs of this particular type are referred to as orthogonal crossed-axis gear pairs. ωg. between the rotation vector.13) |ω g| ⋅ |ω p − ω g| Crossed-axis gear pairs for which the condition ωg ⊥ ωpl is fulfilled feature pitch radii of the value rg < 0 and rp > 0 (the condition C = rg + rp is still valid). of the gear and the vector of instant rotation ωpl (Figure 9. .1c). Σg. Ultimately. TABLE 9. A vector diagram of the type (Figure 9. ωp. The analytically expressed conditions (see Equations 9.1b.12) and ω g ⋅ (ω p − ω g ) = +1 (9.10) along with Equation 9. Crossed-axis gearing of this type is analogous to the aforementioned pinion- to-rack gearing in the case of the parallel axes of the gear and the pinion.

Pln. and the center distance. 9. This gearing is often referred to as miter gears. Pln. The belt-and-pulley analogy is also valid with respect to geometrically accurate crossed-axis gearing. Np. Ng. Without going into details of the analysis. Crossed-axis gearing of this particular type fulfills the requirement ωg × ωp = 0.2. An orthogonal intersected- axis gear pair is illustrated here for illustrative purposes only. Σ. ωg and ωp. The gear and its pinion rotate . Smooth rotation of the base cones can be interpreted as a belt-and-pulley mechanism with the belt in the form of a round tape. the configuration of the axis of instant rota- tion.High-Conformal Crossed-Axis Gearing 201 An orthogonal crossed-axis gear pair may feature equal tooth number of the gear. This similarity can be extended further. C. is denoted by C. ωg and ωp. can be expressed in terms of the rotations ωg and ωp.7). The closest distance of approach of the axes of the rotations. in this case are equal (ωg = ωp). It is evident that magnitudes. ideal crossed-axis gear pairs) are capable of transmitting a rotation smoothly. Recall that geometrically accurate parallel-axis gear pairs feature two base cylinders (see Figure 2. in other words. namely crossed-axis gearing of a particular type can also transmit a uniform rota- tion from a driving shaft to a driven shaft. Og and Op. From this perspective. it should be stated here that the same approach is applicable with respect to angular bevel gears with a shaft angle Σ ≠ 90°. of the rotation vectors. cross each other at a shaft angle. This concept is schematically illustrated in Figure 9. in relation to the rotation vectors ωg and ωp.2). and their relative location and orientation are specified. The axis of rotation of the gear. Once the rotation vectors.2  Base Cones in Crossed-Axis Gear Pairs Geometrically accurate crossed-axis gear pairs (or. Then. two base cones are associated with the gear and with the pinion in an intersected-axis gearing (see Figure 8. Og. Smooth rotation of the base cylinders allows for an interpretation as a corresponding belt-and-pulley mechanism. and the pinion. ωg and ωp. there is no freedom in choosing a config- uration of the axis of instant rotation. geometrically accurate crossed-axis gear pairs resem- ble the earlier-discussed geometrically accurate parallel-axis gear pairs and intersected-axis gear pairs. A base cone can be associated with the gear and another base cone can be associated with the pinion of any and all geometrically accurate crossed- axis gear pairs. ωg and ωp. namely either an obtuse or acute shaft angle Σ.2 is constructed starting from the rotation vectors. of the gear and the pinion. and the axis of rotation of the pinion. The schematic shown in Figure 9. It should be noted here that in the case of crossed axes of rotation of the driving shaft and the driven shaft. Op.

Og.ω Feff f5 Og c5 Δφpa. ωpl. The point Apa is at a certain distance. rg. ℄. ℄.g a5 b5 L C ro. pa Fg FIGURE 9.202 High-Conformal Gearing ωpa Base cone (the pinion) Σg Σ γb π1 π4 Base cone ωp C Ap (the pinion) ωg Op Pln ωp Ag A ωp pa c1 lcp ΣP Base cone L C a1 ωpl e Op (the gear) 1 d1 ωg lcg PA f1 lcp ωp b1 ωpa Og Ap Pln ωg π4 Γb Ag π1 Fp rp PA d5 lcg rl. within the center-distance. The rotation vector. ωpl. Og and Op. Apa. are labeled as Ag and Ap.pa ϕt. Ag is the point of intersection of the center-line. Op. Pln. is aligned with the vector of instant rotation. ωpl. in an orthogonal crossed-axis gear pair. and the gear axis of rotation. allow for the construction of the vector. The vector of instant rotation.2 Base cones and the plane of action. about their axes. The rotation vectors. Ap is the point of intersection of the center-line. meets the requirement ωpl = ωp − ωg. and the pinion axis of rotation. C. C. p Pln rg e5 φpa Ap PA ωg ωpl Base cone Opa ωpa (the gear) Ag ∆φpa. The axis of instant rotation. ωg and ωp. is the vector through a point. of instant relative rotation. . ωpl. The endpoints of the straight line segment. PA. respectively.

Due to that.16) rg = ⋅C 1 + ωp and 1 + ωg − ωp rp = ⋅C (9. PA. ωg and ωp. Og. Here. in Equation 9. The following expression rg + rp = C (9. When point. Apa. Pln. ωpl. in relation to a perpendicular to the plane associated with the axis of instant rotation. is located outside the center-distance. ϕt. the distance. the distances rg and rp are signed values. the plane of action.2 is constructed within the plane of projections. while the dis- tance. makes a certain transverse pressure angle.High-Conformal Crossed-Axis Gearing 203 from the axis of rotation. is located within the center-distance. π1.15) rp ωg makes it possible to calculate the distances. from the axis of rotation. is in tangency with both base cones. rg. rp > 0) when point. The distances rg and rp are of positive values (rg > 0. Equation rg ω rlp = rl (9. PA. The pres- sure angle. C. Apa. The plane of action. ϕt. and through the center-line.ω. Two others planes of . remains of positive value (rp > 0). rp. namely with the base cone of the gear and with the base cone of the pinion. Pln. is measured within a plane that is perpendicular to the axis of instant rotation. Op. the ratio tan Σg/tan Σp can be cal- culated [38] rp tan Σ g = (9.ω.14. PA.18) rg tan Σ p The plane of action. rp. Pln. is of negative value (rg < 0). the point Apa is at a certain distance.17) 1 + ωg For a pair of rotation vectors. The portion of the schematic plotted in the left upper corner in Figure 9. ℄. is a plane through the axis of instant rotation. The perpendicular is constructed to the plane through the vector of instant rotation. rg and rp [38]: 1 + ωp − ωg (9. C.14) is valid. At that same time.

π1. Γb is the base cone angle of the gear. can be understood as a round cone that has a cone angle of 90°. Opa. while γb > 0°) for internal crossed-axis gearing . can be calculated from the formula ωg ωp ω pa = = (9. the base cone angles. the base cone angles. the plane of action. π4 and π5. is along the axis. is constructed so as to be parallel to the trace of the plane of action. are not used in this particular consideration. all the equations here and below are valid for (1) external crossed-axis gear pairs. (2) rack-type crossed-axis gear pairs. Under such a scenario. Thus. ωp is the rotation of the pinion. The sliding of the plane of action. Og. For intersected-axis gear pairs. namely within the intervals 0° < Γb < 90° and 0° < γb < 90°. are used. and π3. The plane of action. is constructed so as to be perpendicular to the axis of instant rotation. the pure rolling of the base cones of the gear and of the pinion over the plane of action. can be considered in the narrower intervals. is not allowed to bend about an axis perpen- dicular to the plane. The rotation vector. are not shown in Figure 9. Pln. respec- tively. PA. Under uniform rotation of the gears. The plane of action can be interpreted as a flexible zero thickness film. Pln. The plane of action. and the axes of rotations of the gear. ωpa. itself. Formally. π2. ωpa. and the pinion. The base cone angle of the gear is equal to the right angle (Γb = 90°. PA. Op. Γb and γb.204 High-Conformal Gearing projections. π1/π4. PA. is perpendicular to the plane of action. and (3) internal crossed-axis gear pairs. is projected with no distortions onto the plane of projections π4. is not observed. Pln. π2 and π3.2. PA. The axis of projections. is observed in the direction of the pitch line. these planes. respectively. cross one another. PA. the following three inequalities are valid for crossed-axis gear pairs of various types: 1. Γb and γb. the magnitude. The axis of projections. and γb is the base cone angle of the pinion. ωpa. PA. Therefore. namely the plane of projections. ωpa. Instead. As sin 90° = 1. π4/π5. rotates about the axis. For intersected-axis gearing. Opa. of the rotation vector. the plane of action. two auxiliary planes of projections. vary within the intervals 0° < Γb < 180° and 0° < γb < (180° − Γb). The base cone angle of the gear is of negative value (Γb < 0°. while γb > 0°) for rack-type gear pairs 3. As the axis of instant rotation. but rolling together with sliding of the PA over the base cones is observed instead. of the standard set of planes of projections. PA. The film is free to wrap or unwrap from and onto the base cones of the gear and the pinion. PA. The base cone angles are of positive values (Γb > 0° and γb > 0°) for external gearing 2. The rotation vector. π2 and π3. within the plane of projections.19) sin Γ b sin γ b where ωg is the rotation of the gear. π4. PA.

p are centered at the pinion apex Ap. should be of values as shown in Figure 9. can be constructed in the following way. The inequalities. are along the corresponding lines of contact of the plane of action. Consider a straight-line segment.g and rl. in other words.2). which do not pass through the apex. travels together with the plane of action. Fp. the face width of the gear. Fg.g are centered at the gear apex Ag. Feff. ef.pa. PA. Og. rl. while the point e traces a circular are of radius. and thus sliding in axial direction of the gear and the pinion is inevitable in crossed-axis gearing. within the axis of instant rotation. In order to get the desired face width of the plane of action. Similar to parallel-axis high-conformal gearing and intersected-axis high-conformal gearing. g + ∆ϕ pa.20) The components Δφpa. Crossed-axis gear pairs of this type are referred to as approximate crossed-axis gear pairs.g and rl. The point f traces a circular arc of radius. ro. spans within the central angle Φ pa = ϕ pa + ∆ϕ pa.p. overlap the face width.pa. The main features of crossed-axis high-conformal gearing are due to the kinematics of instantaneous relative motion of the gear and the pinion.2. Fg > Feff and Fp > Feff. with the base cones of the gear and the pinion. . The straight-line segments. In reality. crossed-axis gear pairs can be comprised of a gear and a pinion with tooth flank geometry for which base cones cannot be constructed. PA. and the face width of the pinion. p (9. or. while the radii ro.pa. PA.g and ro. Fg.High-Conformal Crossed-Axis Gearing 205 A desirable working portion. should be of values under which both the face width of the gear. Feff. the straight-line segment. are not coincident to one another. working (functional) portion of the plane of action is located between two circles of radii. The concept of high-conformal gearing is enhanced further and applied to transmit a rotation from a driving shaft to a driven shaft that has crossed axes of the gear rotation. in other words. also cannot be constructed.pa and rl. PA. Feff. are the straight lines. The radii ro. Op. functional portion of the plane of action. The tooth flanks of approximate crossed-axis gear pairs feature geometry for which no equivalent belt-pulley mechanism can be designed to replace the gear pair. In such a case. or. lcg and lcp. In angular directions. the plane of action. ro. Ag and Ap. Fp. and the face width of the pinion. It should be pointed out here that crossed- axis high-conformal gearing is capable of transmitting a rotation under uni- form angular velocity of both a driving shaft and a driven shaft.g and Δφpa. Apa. The face width of the plane of action. ro. Pln (Figure 9.p and rl. PA. occur because the apexes. rl. ef. of the plane of action apex. effective portion of the plane of action. When the gears rotate. and the pinion axis of rotation.p are due to the gear axis of rotation. this particular concept is applicable to crossed-axis gearing as well. as well as of the inner circles. The appropriate radii of the outer circles.p.

is the vector through a point. ωpl. ωpl. ℄. The use of a vector diagram is helpful to investigate the instantaneous relative motion of the gear and of the pinion in crossed-axis high-conformal gearing. Pln. is constructed so as to meet the requirement: ωpl = ωg − ωp. Accordingly. ωpl. The point Apa in nature is the point of intersection of the axis of instant rotation. consider the rotation vector of the gear. ωg and ωp. or with the L C Op Ap Pln ωp C Apa ωg ωpl ∑g Ag ∑ ∑p Og FIGURE 9. by the centerline. the vector of instant rela- tive rotation. with one another. The rotation vectors. does not align either with the rotation vector of the gear. Σg and Σp. The vector of instant rotation. an angle between the vector of instant rotation. are measured so as to use the vector of instant rotation as the reference. Pln. is designated as Σg. ωg. and the rotation vector of the gear. The rotation vectors. and the rotation vector of the pinion. Σ.3  Kinematics of the Instantaneous Relative Motion Instant relative motion in a high-conformal gear pair is a kind of instant screw motion. C. Both the angles. are at a cer- tain distance.3 Vector diagram for a high-conformal crossed-axis gear pair. An angle between the vector of instant rotation. for crossed-axis gearing the vector of instant rotation. This vector is along the axis of instant rotation. ωpl. ωp. Having constructed the rotation vectors.206 High-Conformal Gearing 9. Under such an assumption.3. Pln. . which is commonly referred to as the center-distance. ωpl. ωg. ωg. Generally speaking. ωg and ωp. ωg and ωp. the gear is considered motionless while the pinion performs an instant rotation in relation to the gear about the axis of instant rotation. Apa. Referring to Figure 9. form a shaft angle. and the rotation vector of the pinion. ωp. is denoted by Σp.

22) As the pinion angle. G. The center-distance. can be calculated from the formula ω slpl = ω pl sin(180° − Σ p ) (9. is perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the gear. P.21) The component. is observed. Due to this. of the rotation vector. ωp. Σ. ωg and ωp. of the rotation vector. Because of this. pure sliding (with no roll- ing) of the gear tooth flank. can be expressed in terms of the rotations. can be construed as the summa of the pitch radii of the gear. ω rlpl . This component causes pure rotation of the gear and the pinion. The magnitude. ω rlpl . and the pinion tooth flank.27) .23) 1 + ωg therefore Equation 9. [38] 1 + ωg − ωp Σp = ⋅Σ (9. of the rotation vector ω slpl.High-Conformal Crossed-Axis Gearing 207 rotation vector of the pinion.26)  1 + ωg  for the calculation of the magnitude. the vector of instant rotation. Og. ωpl.23 into Equation 9. Σp. can be calculated from the formula ω rlpl = ω pl cos(180 − Σ p ) (9.25 yields a formula  1 + ωg − ωp  ω slpl = ω pl sin  ⋅ Σ (9. of the vector of instant rotation. ω slpl . ω slpl. ω slpl. and that of the pinion. The magnitude. Og.25) Substituting Equation 9. can be decomposed into two components ω rlpl  and ω slpl : ω pl = ω rlpl + ω slpl (9. rp C = rg + rp (9. ω rlpl . is aligned with the axis of rotation of the gear. rg.24)  1 + ωg  The component. of the vector of instant rotation. ωpl. and the shaft angle.22 can be cast into  1 + ωg − ωp  ω rlpl = −ω pl cos  ⋅ Σ (9. ωpl. ω slpl. C.

rg and rp. Op ϕt. ωpl. As the relative motion of the gear and the pinion is an instant rotation. a plane perpendicular to ωpl at an arbitrary point P within Pln can be constructed. both the pitch radii. .28) 1 + ωp 1 + ωg − ωp rp = ⋅C (9. is commonly con- sidered in a stationary reference system associated with the gear housing.ω L C Ap LAinst K– Pln Apa ωp C ωg Boundary N-cone –l Ag ωpl rN Pln ∑g +l ∑ ∑p Ila Og K+ Γl Boundary N-circle FIGURE 9. rg and rp. The relative motion of the gear and the pinion can be investigated within the normal plane (Figure 9. Pln. about the axis of instant rotation.29) 1 + ωg can be used for the calculation of the pitch radii.4). The earlier derived formulas [38] 1 + ωp − ωg rg = ⋅C (9.208 High-Conformal Gearing For external crossed-axis gearing of all kinds. Pc.4 Configuration of the boundary N-cone in high-conformal crossed-axis gearing. are of positive values (rg > 0. rp > 0).4  Path of Contact in High-Conformal Crossed-Axis Gearing The path of contact in a high-conformal crossed-axis gear pair is a trace of contact point when the gears rotate. The path of contact. 9.

of the boundary N-circle is equal to a desired displacement.1  Bearing Capacity of Crossed-Axis High-Conformal Gearing The influence of an increase in radius. The bearing capacity of high-conformal crossed-axis gearing depends not only on the relative curvature.High-Conformal Crossed-Axis Gearing 209 Within the normal plane. rN. is a trade-off between the contact strength of the gear teeth and between sliding between the teeth flanks. rg and rp. rrel. by the normal plane.* In other words: Statement 9. the larger the load capacity of high-conformal crossed-axis gearing and vice versa. G and P. and the higher the sliding between the teeth flanks.1 High-conformal crossed-axis gearing with larger magnitudes of radii of cur- vature of the tooth flanks feature higher load carrying capacity. * It is right to recall here that the magnitudes of the radii. of the contact point. K. rg and rp. Therefore. are potentially possible. of the boundary N-circle feature higher load carrying capacity.1. a boundary N-circle can be constructed. the higher the contact strength of the gear teeth. The smaller the dis- tance. of curvature of the interact- ing teeth flanks. G and P. The magnitude of the desired displacement. of normal curvature of the interacting teeth flanks. l. The radius. 9. high-conformal crossed-axis gearing with a larger radius. The larger the displacement. are feasible. of the gear and the pinion in relation to one another. The aforementioned conclusion on the bearing capacity of intersected-axis high-conformal gearing is also valid with respect to the bearing capacity of crossed-axis high-conformal gearing. K+ and K−. LAinst. of the boundary N-circle on the rise of contact strength in a crossed-axis high-conformal gear pair resembles much that of the cases of parallel-axis and intersected-axis high-conformal gearing. strictly correlate to the radius rN of the boundary circle in the cross- section of the tooth flanks through the corresponding pitch point.  l. G and P. G and P. −l. the lower the contact strength of the gear teeth and the lower the sliding between the teeth flanks. at a point of their contact. l. rN. and negative. from the pitch point along the instant line of action. . +l. l. As it can be concluded from Statement 9. The displacements of both positive. The center of the boundary N-circle is coincident with the point of intersection of the axis of instant rotation. but also on the magnitudes of the radii of curvature of the teeth flanks. of the interacting tooth flanks.4. Pln. rN. two contact points. The larger the magnitudes of the radii.

4.5): ω slpl = ω slpr + ω lw sl (9. ω slpl. ω slpr. and (3) of the distance of the point. Σp. This is also true with respect to the pinion. P. G.2 Sliding between Tooth Flanks of the Gear and the Pinion in Crossed-Axis High-Conformal Gearing Sliding between the tooth flanks. from the axis Og. This component of the rotation vector of sliding. of the gear and of the tooth flank. of the gear and the pinion in high-conformal crossed-axis gearing. of the rotation vector. can be calcu- lated from the formula ω slpr = ω slpl sin (180° − Σ p ) (9. At a specified point of contact. the linear velocity of sliding can be expressed in terms (1) of the magnitude. P. ω slpr. Σ.31) As the pinion angle.5 Determination of relative sliding of the tooth flanks.30) The component. (2) of the crossed-axis angle. and of the crossed-axis angle Σ. G. causes profile sliding of the tooth flank. of sliding can be decomposed into two compo- nents (Figure 9. and the pinion tooth flank. of the vector ωpl of instant rotation. of the gear tooth flank. of the rotation vector. of the gear and the pinion in crossed-axis high-conformal gearing depends on actual value of (1) the dis- placement.210 High-Conformal Gearing 9. K. G and P. Σ. ω slpl. Pln. . of sliding is along the axis of instant rotation. The magnitude. G and P. The rotation vector. ω slpr. l. then Equation 9. and (2) the crossed-axis angle. can be expressed in terms of the rotations. ω slpl. of the pinion. ωg and ωp. ωpl.31 can be represented in two equivalent forms Og Pln ωp ωp Ap Op Apa Pln Apa sl ωpr C sl ωlw Op ωpl Σ Σg ωg sl ωpl Ag Σp ωg Og ωpl FIGURE 9. K.

High-Conformal Crossed-Axis Gearing 211  1 + ωg − ωp  ω slpr = ω slpl sin  ⋅ Σ (9. of the rotation vector. ω lw sl .35)  1 + ωg  or  1 + ωg − ωp  ω lw sl = ω pl sin 2  ⋅ Σ (9. The magnitude. The rotation vector. ω sllw . and of the crossed-axis angle. Σ. ω lw sl . of the rotation vector. ω sllw .37) . Similarly. then Equation 9. ωg and ωp. of the pinion to slide in a lengthwise direction.32)  1 + ωg  or  1 + ωg − ωp  ω slpr = ω pl sin 2  ⋅ Σ (9. P. Having calculated the angular velocity.34 can be represented in two equivalent forms  1 + ωg − ωp  ω sllw = ω slpl cos  ⋅ Σ (9. ω slpr . the relative sliding of the tooth flanks. ω slpl . ω slpl. lla. ω lw sl . causes the tooth flank. ω slpr. by the distance of the point of interest from the axis of instant rotation.34) As the pinion angle. ω slpr . Pln. is along the instant line of action. Pln. of the rotation vector. Vsl: V sl = ω slpl × lla ⋅ l (9. can be expressed in terms of the rotations. ω slpl. of the gear and the tooth flank. LAinst. of the rotation vector. This component of the rotation vector of sliding.36)  1 + ωg  for the calculation of the magnitude. G and P.30). Σp. the following formula can be used for the calculation of the vector of linear velocity of sliding.33)  1 + ωg  for the calculation of the magnitude. G. of sliding is per- pendicular to the axis of instant rotation. the component. of sliding can be calculated from the formula ω lw sl = ω slpl cos(180 − Σ p ) (9. having been calculated (see Equation 9. that is caused by this rotation is calculated by multiplying the magnitude. ω slpr . The unit vector.

Pln. LAinst. Pln. as a normal cross section through a point within the axis. K. and of the pinion. Pc. within the active face width of the gear pair.ω . The instant line of action. Ki. Pln. The pressure angle. 9. In practice. rN. When the path of contact is rotated about the axis of instant rotation. of the boundary N-circle is a trade-off between the desired high contact strength of the interacting tooth flanks and low friction between the teeth flanks of the gear. the radius r Ni  of the boundary N-circle gets smaller. about the axis of instant rotation. Pln. Apa. is the straight line through all the contact points. Liinst .1 The boundary N-cone in crossed-axis high-conformal gearing is a cone of rev- olution that is generated by rotation of the path of contact. the boundary N-cone is generated as loci of consecutive positions of the path of contact. Pln. the motion of the pinion in relation to the gear can be construed as instant rotation about the axis of instant rotation. φ it. Under the assumption that Δl = 0 and manufacturing errors are zero.212 High-Conformal Gearing Ultimately. the point of contact. No kinematical and/or geometrical constraints are violated in such a consideration. Pc. P. At any point within the axis of instant rotation. Pln. is a line through a point within the pitch line. G. of a certain constant value.ω. When the gears rotate. Apa. Pc. The path of contact passes through the apex. Pln. In this way. Definition 9. in its rotation in rela- tion to the axis. In practice. The apex of the boundary N-cone is coincident with the plane of action apex. ω slpr and (2) sliding. LAinst. is the superposition of two components: (1) profile sliding due to the rotation. in such a rela- tive motion. r Ni . approaches the apex.3  Boundary N-Cone in Crossed-Axis High-Conformal Gearing A boundary N-cone in crossed-axis high-conformal gearing can be con- structed in a similar manner to that of a boundary N-cone in intersected-axis high-conformal gearing (see Chapter 8). . and the pinion. φ it. P. G.ω. Apa. K. it is reasonable to keep the pressure angle. In theory. run-out of the gear and of the pinion should be taken into account.4. a boundary N-circle of a certain radius. Moreover. can be constructed as well. A boundary N-circle is traced up by the contact point. in the lengthwise direction. is located at the point of intersection of the boundary N-circle by the instant line of action. the resultant sliding of the tooth flanks of the gear. Vsl. is not mandatorily of the same value at all normal sections of the axis. can be con- structed. φ t. the radius. the path of contact. and a line of action.

Γl.38)  Ai  In general. Og. The envelopes to consecutive positions of the boundary N-cone in their instant screw motion are used for this purpose instead. Ap. Ag. a boundary N-surface should be considered. In practice. Γl. For the gear tooth flank. Ag Ai ωg Pln Γl rNi C ωpl Apa Ap ωp FIGURE 9. . r Ni . The boundary N-surface is a kind of Archimedean screw surface. of the boundary N-circle at a current point within the axis of instant rotation. The boundary cone angle. as the apex. Apa:  ri  Γ l = tan −1  N  (9. Pln and (2) of the cone distance. the constraint is generated when the boundary N-cone is rotated about the gear axis of rotation. G and P. in high-conformal crossed-axis gearing. Op. the convex tooth flank of one member of the gear pair must be entirely located with the interior of the corresponding enveloping surface. Apa. for the pinion tooth flank. or with the pinion base cone apex. is not coincident either with the gear base cone apex. G) is located outward from the boundary N-cone. the constraint is generated when the boundary N-cone is rotated about the pinion axis of rotation. This is possible geometri- cally under the assumption that manufacturing errors are zero.High-Conformal Crossed-Axis Gearing 213 It is naturally to assume that the concave tooth flank (primarily of the gear. of that point from the apex. P) is located within the interior of the boundary N-cone.6). while the convex tooth flank (primarily of the pinion. Similarly.6 The boundary N-cone angle and the cone angle. (Figure 9. the bound- ary N-cone is not the only constraint onto the geometry of the tooth flanks. Ultimately. a boundary N-cone is a reasonable approximation to the screw boundary N-surface. while the concave tooth flank of another member of the gear pair must be entirely located outside the interior of the corresponding enveloping surface. However. Ai. can be specified in terms (1) of the radius.

make it possible to calculate the pitch diameter of the gear.7. The axes of rotations.5 Design Parameters of High-Conformal Crossed-Axis Gearing Designing of a high-conformal crossed-axis gear pair begins with the deter- mination of the rotation vectors of the gear. are known. the design parameters of a high-conformal crossed-axis gear pair can be specified within a reference plane through the pitch point. as well as the back cone distance of the pinion. As the instant motion of a pinion in relation to the mating gear is interpreted as instant rotation about the axis. as schematically depicted in Figure 9. and pitch cone angles. The pitch point. P. ωp. A. respectively. is at a cone distance.214 High-Conformal Gearing 9. of the gear and the pinion. Once the rotation vectors. and the axis of instant rotation. Σ. along with the given cone distance. Pln. ωp. Pln. from the apex Apa. makes it possible to determine the tooth ratio. Op. ωg and ωp. can be deter- mined. the vector. on that for high-conformal intersected-axis gears. and ωpl. the known configuration of the axes of rotations.41) dp = 2 A cos γ (9. in a certain reference system. Op. Og. are of critical importance. P. and Pln. The reference plane is perpendicular to the axis of instant rotation. Pln. and of the pinion. of instant rotation.40)  ω g /ω p + cos Σ  The design parameters of a high-conformal crossed-axis gear pair can be specified based. are the straight lines along the rotation vectors ωg. and Pln. Γ and γ. A. The calculated values of the pitch angles. as well as the shaft angle. Γ.39)  ω p /ω g + cos Σ   sin Σ  γ = tan −1   (9. the vector of instant rotation. can be calculated in a similar manner to that mentioned above: BC g = 2 A sin Γ (9. ωg. ωpl. From this perspective. BCg. u. Og. dg.42) The back cone distance of the gear. and of the pinion.43) . to a great extent. BCp. Then. γ:  sin Σ  Γ = − tan −1   (9. ωpl. dp dg = 2 A cos Γ (9.

. BCg and BCp. by the normal reference plane.8. Two circles of radii. that have the points og and op as the centers are con- structed.High-Conformal Crossed-Axis Gearing 215 dg Σ Op ωp rN ωg Pln View A ωpl Apa P –ωg Γl BCp Og op dp A Ag Og C Apa Pln View A ωpl Ap Op FIGURE 9. namely og and op. Referring to Figure 9. which is the pitch point P. are in nature the points of intersection of the axes. Og and Op. BC p = 2 A sin γ (9. The circles share a common point. The points are at the distance cn = (BCg + BCp) from one another. the tooth profile param- eters of the gear and the pinion can be specified within the reference plane. two points.7 Configuration of a normal reference plane in relation to the axis of instant rotation.44) Once the normal reference plane is constructed. Pln and the pitch cones of the gear and the pinion in a high-conforming crossed-axis gear pair.

The axis. of the tooth flanks of the gear. the further the contact point. P. The further the contact point.ω. A straight line of action. and the gear is performing the instant rotation in relation to the pinion. P. LAinst. K. P. with the perpendicular to the center-distance. Apa.g P op cp rg og BCf .g rN = rp d b c K BCo. Pln.8 Geometry of a high-conforming crossed-axis gear pair within the normal reference plane. centered at P. The axis of instant rota- tion. K. is a point within the straight line LAinst. G. The line LAinst forms a certain transverse pressure angle.ω BC0. rN. K. is a trade-off between the two above-mentioned factors. Let us assume that the pinion is stationary. P.p ag cn = (BCg + BCp) FIGURE 9. the contact point. cn. is the straight line through the pitch point.g ρf . the more the freedom in selecting the radii of curvature of the tooth flanks. ϕt. Pln. from the pitch point. within the straight line .g LAinst ρp BCg ρg BCp cg BCf . Ultimately. As a consequence.216 High-Conformal Gearing ϕt. from the pitch point. K. When the pinion is motionless. P. P. can either align with a circular arc of the boundary circle. In the normal cross section. the actual location of the contact point. traces a boundary circle of a radius. the pinion tooth profile. Og and Op.p a BC*f . within the normal reference plane is the line through the pitch point. or it can be relieved in the bodily side of the pinion tooth. cp. the location of the center of curvature. is located within the plane through the axes. ωpl. rN. of the convex pinion tooth profile. of the instant rotation. P. the higher the losses on friction between the tooth flanks and wear of the tooth flanks of the gear and the pinion. At that same time. The point of con- tact. and the pinion. and it goes through the apex. K.

can be included in that interval for. K) . Pc. mp. Due to this. perpendicular to the normal reference plane. The transverses contact ratio. this is completely impractical. K. center-distance. Pc (and it does not travel within the transverse cross section of the gear pair). l. To calculate the design parameters of a high-conformal crossed-axis gear pair. is limited to the straight line segment. The face contact ratio. is equal to the total contact ratio (mt) of the gear pair and is always greater than one (mF = mt > 1). the location of the center of curvature. Pc.8. and the tooth ratio. is limited to the open interval P → ∞. and of the tooth ratio. in a given profile the tooth surfaces should not interfere before or after culmination when rotated at angular speeds that are in the gear ratio. of the concave gear tooth profile. of the gear pair should be specified. at which the path of contact. that is. the point of contact travels along the path of contact. while the contact point. BCp. l. u u BC g = cn ⋅ (9. G. Many of the design parameters of the high-conformal gear pair can be expressed in terms of the displacement (l = KP). This is due to mp ≡ 0 and mF > 1 as mentioned above. P. is smaller than that. as shown in Figure 9. LAinst. mF. is the principal design parameter of a high-conformal crossed-axis gear pair. Both the pinion teeth and the gear teeth are helical and of opposite hand. PK. and the pinion. K.High-Conformal Crossed-Axis Gearing 217 of action. LAinst.46) 1+ u The displacement. ϕt. Because both the gear and the pinion are helical and of opposite hand. It is therefore fundamental to the operating of the gears that contact occurs nominally at a point and that the point of con- tact travels across the full face width of the gears during rotation. P. P. of a high-conformal crossed-axis gear pair is zero (mp ≡ 0). can be expressed in terms of the center distance. as well as the transverse pressure angle. the pitch point. of the convex pinion tooth profile. within the straight line of action. cg. is located beyond the pitch point. u = ωp/ωg. travels along the path of contact. is not. No spur high-conformal gearing is feasible in nature. and actually the cen- ter of curvature. is remote of the pitch point. . When rotation is transmitted from the driving shaft to the driven shaft. cn. (the inequality rp < rg is always observed). rg. the contact point. P. rp. (P. cn.ω. On the other hand. It is clearly a condition of operation. Theoretically.45) 1+ u 1 BC p = cn ⋅ (9. BCg. K. However. The back cone distance of the gear. the radius of curvature. must be known. cg. that is. G. The pitch point is included into the interval. The displacement. of the concave gear tooth profile.

3 ⋅ l. can be set equal to zero. is within the range krg = 0.218 High-Conformal Gearing For the calculation of the radii of curvature.1 … 0. p = BCp + (1 − k po ) ⋅ l (9. ρp.2 (9.52) The radius of the outer back cone distance of the gear. (3) the accuracy of machining.53) The corner of the gear tooth addendum should be rounded with the radius. the formulas rg = l ⋅ (1 + k rg ) (9. g = BC g + ag (9. BCf.47) rp = l ⋅ (1 + k rp ) (9. is calculated from the formula BCo. BCo. The radius of the outer back cone distance of the pinion.p. The actual value of the factor. and (4) the conditions of lubrication. The factor. respectively. of tooth profiles of the gear and the pinion.1 ÷ 0. can be practically set in the range of ρp = 0. can be calculated from the equation BC f .2) ⋅ l] and δ is the radial clearance in the gear pair (δ = l ⋅ kpo). p = BC p − ag − δ (9. The fillet radius.ω.48) can be used. rg and rp. is calculated from the expression BCo. BCo. of the pinion (ρg < ρp). is equal to BC f . krp. should satisfy the inequality krp ≥  0. ρp.10. kpo. when the factor.g. can be set in the range k po = 0.49) The addendum factor. krp. ρg. BCf. (2) absolute dimensions of the gear pair. The pinion addendum factor.51) where ag is the dedendum of the mating gear [ag = (0. krg.03 … 0. p (9. ϕt. of the pinion depends on (1) the pressure angle. kpo. which is less than the fillet radius. g = cn − BCo. .g. The root back cone distance of the gear. However. the equality rp = l is observed.50) The root back cone distance of the pinion.p.

the axial .62) yields the value for the displacement.57) l tp = 1.High-Conformal Crossed-Axis Gearing 219 The following relations among the design parameters in a high-con- formal crossed-axis gear pair are anticipated to be practical (as the first approximation): rp = l (9. p. an empirical expression l = (0. travels along the path of contact. Consider a case when at a uniform rotation of the gear and the pin- ion.ω = 30° (9.5 (9. and B corresponding angular val- ues can be calculated (Table 9. tp. K. at a certain ­uniform liner  velocity. the contact point.2). which could be practical.55) ρp = 0. The effective face width of the gear pair can be calculated as follows: Feff = (1. where backlash B = 0.3 ⋅ l (9.4 mm. tg.8 (9. is equal to the face contact ratio. The functional face width and axial pitch of a high-conformal gear pair depend on each other. For the design parameters l. mt. mF.1 ÷ 1.20) ⋅ BCp (9. Pc.2–0.59) λ = 60… 80°(ψ = 10… 30°) (9.05 ÷ 0.58) tg φ t. l. mn.54) rg ≤ 1.56) mn = 0. Because the transverse contact ratio is zero (mp = 0) and the total contact ratio.60) circular pitch of teeth p = tg + tp + B.61) For preliminary analysis of high-conformal crossed-axis gearing.10 ⋅ rp (9.2) ⋅ p ⋅ tan λ (9.

This gearing has received only episodic application as no practical guide to design of this gearing has been developed. can be calculated from the formula Feff p cl. G. they are not enveloped to one another.2 Design Parameters of High-Conformal Crossed-Axis Gearing The Design Parameter Symbol Equation Angular displacement φl φl = tan−1(l/A) Angular module φm. and the pinion. bg. P. moreover.g = tan−1(ag/A) Angular addendum (pinion) φa. These design parame- ters are measured within the normal reference plane of the high-­conforming intersected-axis gear pair. High-conformal crossed-axis gearing has not been deeply investigated yet.p = tan−1(tp/A) Angular space width (gear) φw.p φa. P.g φw.220 High-Conformal Gearing TABLE 9. pitch pcl. p = ⋅ cos γ (9.63) mt A similar expression Feff p cl. g = ⋅ cos Γ (9. ϕt. of high-conformal crossed-axis gearing are not conjugate surfaces.p.p = tan−1(ap/A) Angular dedendum (gear) φd.p = tan−1(bp/A) Note: The following designations: ag.p φd.g φt. .p φw.g = tan−1(wg/A) Angular space width (pinion) φw.g φd.g = tan−1(tg/A) Angular tooth thickness (pinion) φt.n φm. pcl. and λ.n = tan−1(mn/A) Angular pitch pφ pφ = tan−1(p/A) Angular tooth thickness (gear) φt. and ap.p = tan−1(wp/A) Angular backlash φB φB = tan−1(B/A) Angular addendum (gear) φa.ω.g φa. The tooth flanks of the gear.p φt.64) mt is valid with respect to the axial pitch.g = tan−1(bg/A) Angular dedendum (pinion) φd. of the helix on the pinion tooth flank.g of the helix on the gear tooth flank. bp relate to addendum and to dedendum of the gear and of the pinion respectively. The quality of high-conformal gearing strongly depends first of all on the following design parameters: l. G.

that is. along the path of contact. It is shown that conformal gearing. and Novikov gearing in particular. However. In internal involute gearing. even in cases of geometrically accurate Hc -gearing (i. ideal Hc -gearing). It is shown that none of the known designs of conformal gearings meet this criteria. the contact point travels in the lengthwise direction. and only one point of the involute tooth profiles remains. this could be an additional source of vibration and noise excitation from the gear pair. P. This boundary circle establishes constraints onto the geometry of the tooth flanks of the gear and the pinion in conformal and high-conformal gearings. and the pinion. the concept of the boundary Novikov circle is enhanced to the concept of the boundary Novikov cone (or just N-cone. When the gears rotate. A reasonable approximation to the boundary Novikov surface by a corresponding boundary Novikov cone is possible. Conditions to transmit a rotation smoothly. are briefly outlined. and (d) the requirement according to which the total contact ratio of the gear pair must be greater than one. Pc. G and P. (c) equality of the base pitches of the gear and the pinion to the operating base pitch of the gear pair. (b) the condition of conjugacy. the known designs are either approximate gearings or they are not workable at all. Use of the con- cept of Hc -gearing makes it possible to take control over the contact geometry between the tooth flanks of the gear and the mating pinion. that is. for which the involute tooth profiles are truncated. The boundary Novikov circle (or just the boundary N-circle. the cor- responding screw boundary Novikov surface (or just N-surface.Conclusion A brief overview of conformal gearing is performed from the perspective of how the known designs of conformal gearings meet the criteria for geomet- rically accurate (ideal) gearing. G. that is. to proceed beyond the threshold that separates conformal gearing (Novikov gearing) from high-conformal gearing (Hc -gearing). 221 . for simplicity) in intersected-axis gearings (Ia -gearings). the conditions ideal gearings need to satisfy. The load being transmitted by an Hc -gearing is applied at a point of contact of the tooth flanks of the gear. This set of conditions includes (a) the condition of contact of the tooth flanks. the degree of conformity at the point of con- tact of the gear and the pinion tooth flanks. This point is referred to as the involute tooth point. Therefore.. even in cases of internal gearing the concept of high-conformal gearing is useful as it allows achieving or even exceeding the desirable degree of conformity of the tooth flanks. for simplicity) is introduced. In a case of crossed-axis gearing (Ca -gearing). In later chapters of the book. is a degenerate case of parallel-axis involute gearing (Pa -gearing). G and P.e. for simplicity) in conformal gearing is introduced into consideration. that is. is greater compared to that in external involute gearing.

This is. Also. It is proved that neither conformal nor high-conformal gears can be cut in a continuously-indexing process (i. first of all. The concept of high-conformal gearing is introduced. The accuracy requirements to conformal and to high-conformal parallel- axis gearing are investigated.222 Conclusion Tooth profile sliding in conformal gearing (in Novikov gearing) and in high- conformal gearing is investigated. intersected-axis as well as crossed-axis conformal and high-conformal gearings are considered.e. No profile modification is allowed to high-conformal gears. . form grinding wheels. High-conformal gears feature a higher degree of conformity at the point of contact of the tooth flanks of the gear and the pinion. no lead modification is allowed to high-conformal and Novikov gears. because Hc -gearing features the involute tooth flanks truncated to a point. Gears can be cut by form milling cutters.. as well as to Novikov gears. etc. Based on the scientific classification of the vector diagrams for gearings of all possible types. in generating process).

or (c) crossed-axis gearing. The distance from the chord to the top of the tooth is known as the chordal addendum. alphabetically. Addendum: In parallel-axis gearing. which is the chord length subtended by the two flanks of a gear tooth at the nominal pitch circle. Apa.g ≠ pb. the addendum of a gear tooth is the radial distance from the nominal pitch circle to the top of the tooth (or. (b) intersected-axis gear- ing.p ≠ pb.p ≠ φb. This must be calculated from the known cir- cular tooth thickness. Addendum (chordal): The chordal addendum is used for the purpose of set- ting a gear tooth vernier to measure the tooth thickness. φb. Arc of recess: The arc on the pitch circle through which a tooth profile moves from contact with a mating tooth profile at the pitch point until con- tact ends. The sides of the angle are through the corresponding points of inter- section of two adjacent teeth flanks of the gear. Arc of approach: The arc on the pitch circle through which a tooth profile moves from its beginning of contact with a mating tooth profile until it reaches the pitch point. usually expressed in radians. this is the angle between elements of the pitch cone and the face cone. Active profile: Part of the tooth profile that experiences contact during the mesh cycle.Glossary Here we list.op. in other words. 223 .g ≠ φb. The apex of the angle is coincident to the plane of action apex. the most commonly used terms in gearing. Addendum angle: In a bevel gear. by means of which a rotation of the driving shaft at a uniform angular velocity is transmitted to the corre- sponding rotation of the driven shaft at a not uniform angular velocity. Angular pitch: This is the angle subtended by the circular pitch. Angular base pitch: This is an angle measured within the plane of action. This concept can be applied to gearing of all other kinds.op and or φb. The tooth flanks of the gear and of the mating pinion in approximate gearing are shaped so that the base pitch of the gear is not equal to the base pitch of the pinion. Approximate gearing: A (a) parallel-axis gearing. and both of them are not equal to the operating base pitch of the gear pair (pb.op). Most newly introduced terms are also listed below. this is the portion of the gear tooth above the reference pitch surface).op and/or pb.

also referred to as the pitch line. Back cone distance: The distance along an element of the back cone from its apex to the pitch circle. It is therefore the circumference of the base pitch divided by the number of teeth. this is the diameter of the base circle of an involute gear. by definition. there is no bottom land as such. Base diameter: In parallel-axis gearing. an obsolete term with limited usage (not recommended for use in the Theory of Gearing). Base spiral angle: The angle measured within the plane of action between tangent to the desirable line of contact and radial direction through the point of interest. this is the circle that subdivides a transverse section of the . It is therefore normal circular pitch divided by the sine of the helix angle. measured at just below the root circle. It is expressed as a “total indicator reading. It is the same if measured along the line of action because the corresponding profiles of invo- lute gear teeth are parallel curves. Base angular pitch: The angular distance between two adjacent lines of con- tact of the tooth flanks of the gear and the pinion in intersected- axis and in crossed-axis gearing. Backlash: Amount the tooth space of one gear exceeds the tooth width of its mating gear.224 Glossary Axial pitch: The pitch measured in the axial direction in helical gears. Back angle: The elements of the back cone of a bevel gear extend from the outside diameter of the gear blank to its axis and are perpendicu- lar to the elements of the pitch cone. Axial runout: Also known as “wobble. For full fillet teeth. Axodes: A pair of ruled surfaces that roll and slide upon one another in a special way such that there is no relative sliding perpendicular to the generators of the ruled surfaces.” this is the runout of the gear in the axial direction. Base circle: In parallel-axis gearing. Base helix angle: The angle of crossing of the straight generating line of a screw involute tooth surface with the gear axis of rotation. and the base pitch is the constant distance between them along the common normal in the direction of rotation. which. the base circle is the circle from which involute tooth profiles are developed. in inches or millimeters. measured along the circumference of the base circle or along the line of action (or along the instant line of action). Bottom land: This is the surface at the bottom of a tooth space which adjoins the fillets. Base pitch: This is the pitch. It is usually equal to the pitch angle. This design parameter is measured within the plane of action of the gear pair. Boundary N-circle: In Novikov gearing and in parallel-axis high-conformal gearing. is the line of action.” Axis of instant rotation: The straight line through the plane of action apex along the vector of instant rotation.

Center distance: In parallel-axis gearing.† Boundary N-cylinder: See “Boundary N-circle. M. Determination of the location of a point in the Cartesian coordinate sys- tem is based on the distances along the coordinate axes. the center distance is often referred to as the offset. Centerline: This is the straight line that is perpendicular to the two axes of rotation.L. while the concave tooth flank of another member of the gear pair must be entirely located within the exterior of the boundary N-cone.). The convex tooth flank of one member of the gear pair must be entirely located within the interior of the boundary N-cone. this is the cone that subdivides the space onto two por- tions. † The concept of the boundary N-cone was introduced at around 2008 by Dr. Characteristic line: A limit configuration of the line of intersection of a moving surface that occupies two distinct positions when the distance between the surfaces in these positions approaches zero. Radzevich. Dr. S. S. The convex tooth profile of one member of the gearing must be entirely located within the interior of the boundary N-circle. this is the distance between the axes of rotation of two gears in mesh with each other on parallel shafts. an obsolete term with limited usage (not recommended for use in Theory of Gearing). In the case of crossed-axis gearing (skew axis helical gearing.P. Boundary N-cone: In intersected-axis as well as in crossed-axis high-confor- mal gearing. while the concave tooth profile of another mem- ber of the gearing must be entirely located within the exterior of the boundary N-circle. a characteristic line aligns with the line of * The concept of the boundary N-circle was introduced at around 2008 by Dr. himself did not use the concept of the boundary circle.Glossary 225 gearing into two portions. Often. The term centrode is applicable to parallel axes gearing. called the line of centers. This concept was not known to Dr. the centerline plane is the reference plane through the centerline perpendicular to the axis of instance rotation of the gear and the pinion.” Cartesian coordinate system: A reference system comprised of three mutually perpendicular straight axes through the common origin. Novikov. the cen- ter distance is equal to the closest approach of two axes of rotation crossing in space.L. It is measured along the mutual perpendicular to the shafts. XYZ.P. Radzevich. the axes are labeled as X. either a subscript or a super- script is added to designation of the reference system. Y. Commonly. Centrode: A line of intersection between axodes and their corresponding transverse planes.* To be more precise. the concept of boundary N-circle should be referred to as the boundary N-cylinder. and Z. Centerline plane: In a crossed-axis gear pair. etc. In particular case of hypoid gearing. M. . Novikov. worm gearing. In the limit case. hypoid gearing.

A Darboux frame exists at any nonumbilic point of a surface. In parallel-axis gearing. Contact ratio: The measure of the average number of pairs of teeth in con- tact during the mesh cycle. etc. In other words. point of culmination): This is a point of intersection of the instant line of action and the boundary N-circle. Clearance: A measure of the amount of space that exists between the tip of one gear tooth and the tooth-space bottom of the mating gear. usually at the nominal pitch circle diameter. Darboux frame: In the differential geometry of surfaces. Novikov gearing is a perfect example of conformal gearing. Circular tooth thickness: The length of arc between the two flanks of a gear tooth. Dedendum angle: In a bevel gear. this is a local mov- ing Cartesian reference system constructed on a surface. The axes of the Darboux frame are along three unit vectors. Conjugate: A term used to describe gear tooth forms which properly mate with each other. it is equal to the length of the arc of action divided by the base pitch. and do not interact with one another before and after the culminat- ing point. In conformal and in high-conformal gearing the tooth flanks of the gear and the mating pinion interact with each other at culmination. The Darboux frame is analogous to the Frenet–Serret frame as applied to surface geometry. It is therefore the cir- cumference of the pitch circle divided by the number of teeth. lines. Dedendum: The dedendum of a gear tooth is the radial distance from the nominal pitch circle to its root circle. In other words. Conformal gearing: This a gearing that features convex-to-concave contact between the teeth flanks of the gear and the mating pinion.e. It is named after a French mathematician Jean Gaston Darboux. conjugate stands for reciprocally related and interchangeable as to properties. this is a portion of the gear tooth below the reference pitch surface. The origin of the Darboux frame is at a current point of interest on the surface. this is the angle between elements of the root cone and pitch cone. Circular pitch: The distance between the corresponding profiles of two adja- cent teeth as measured along the pitch circle. along the unit normal vector to the surface and along two unit tan- gent vectors along the principal directions on the gear tooth flank. .226 Glossary tangency of the moving surface and with the envelope to consecu- tive positions of the moving surface. Reversibly enveloping form (i. this is the curve of intersection of a single surface as defined by two distinct configurations. Re -form) is another terminology for conjugate profiles/surfaces.. namely. Culmination (culminating point. More generally. as two points. Cone distance: In a bevel gear. the distance from the base of its cone to the cone’s apex is called the cone distance.

or the pinion). Fillet radius: The radius of an arc approximating the root fillet curve. Desirable line of contact: A planar curve that is entirely located within the plane of action of the gear pair. In helical or herringbone gearing. or crossed-axis gearing that is capable of transmitting . Face contact ratio: This is a design parameter equal to the face width divided by the axial pitch of the gear teeth. Geometrically accurate (ideal) gearing: A parallel-axis gearing. Generalized rack-type gear pair: This is a crossed-axis (spatial) gearing for which the vector of instant rotation is perpendicular to the gear axis of rotation. The interacting tooth flanks of a gear and a mating pinion in an ideal (geometrically accurate) gear pair are generated by means of the desirable line of contact. EAP-point: (end-of-active-profile point). it is equal to the length of the teeth multiplied by cosine of the helix angle. intersected- axis gearing. and by two lines specified in terms of effective face width of the gear pair (it is also often called the zone of action). Face width: The length between two ends of a gear. Fillet: A part of the tooth profile below the active region. which is the number of teeth in the driven member (usually the larger. Gear machining mesh: This is the mesh between the gear to be machined and the imaginary (phantom) surface that is generated by the mov- ing cutting edges of the gear cutting tool. Gear ratio: The ratio between the instantaneous displacement of the output and the input. It is equal to the teeth length of spur gearing. this is the number of teeth per inch of pitch diameter.Glossary 227 Degree of conformity: A qualitative parameter to evaluate how close the tooth flank of one member of a gear pair is to the tooth flank of another member of the gear pair in the differential vicinity of a point of their contact (or at a point within the line of contact of the teeth flanks). Evolute: A locus of the centers of curvature for a planar curve. this is a point of intersection of the gear axis of rotation with the centerline. or the gear) divided by the number of teeth in the driver (usually the smaller. Gear apex: In a crossed-axis (spatial) gear pair. This last surface is com- monly referred to as the generating surface of the gear cutting tool. Diametral pitch: In spur gearing and transversal pitch-helical gearing. Effective radius of curvature: A measure of the relative distance between two planar curves in tangency expressed in terms of the radius of curvature of each curve. It is also known as the speed ratio. Field of action: A portion of the plane of action bounded by two lines of intersection of outer surfaces of the gear and the pinion. end-of-active-profile circle Effective length of the lines of contact: A portion of the total length of the line(s) of contact within which the driving gear is acting against the driven gear.

Ideal gearing: A gearing with conjugate tooth flanks that has zero linear and angular displacements of the axes of rotations from their nominal configuration. Length of action: The distance along the line of action that a tooth moves from the beginning to the end of contact with its mating tooth. Lead angle: The angle between any helix and plane of rotation. Indicatrix of conformity: A planar centro-symmetrical characteristic curve of fourth order that is used for the analytical description of the geometry of contact of the gear tooth flank and the pinion tooth flank. Heel: The thickest end of a bevel gear tooth. This phenomenon used to describe two toothed bodies in mesh where the ratio of number of teeth cannot be reduced using a common integer. each tooth of one body meshes with each tooth of the other body. If the hunting ratio exists between two toothed bodies in mesh. the indicatrix of conformity also possesses the property of mirror symmetry.228 Glossary a uniform rotation of the driving shaft to a uniform rotation of the driven shaft. Hunting ratio: A particular tooth ratio of a gear pair. Helix angle: In helical and herringbone gears. Instant line of action: A straight line that is tangent to the path of contact at an arbitrary point. Commonly. Involute: A curve traced by a point on a flexible band at it is wrapped on/ unwrapped from another curve (the Evolute). . Line of action: The straight line that is tangential to the base circles of two mating gears. Involute tooth point: The only point that remains from a truncated involute tooth profile. In particular cases. It is the com- plement to the helix angle and used for convenience in worms and hobs. It is understood to be at the standard pitch diameter. the helix angle is measured at the pitch circle. Length of path of contact (see Length of action): In conformal and high- conformal gearings length of path of contact is zero. this is the angle between the gear teeth and the axis of rotation of the gear. The orientation of the basic rack in relation to the gear axis of rotation is specified by the helix angle. Its intersection with the centerline of the two base circles defines the pitch point. high-conformal gearing is often referred to as the Hc-gearing. Lead: The axial advance of a helix for one complete turn. as in the treads of cylindrical worms and the teeth of helical gears. Ideal gearing is commonly referred to as geometrically accurate gearing. the so-called threshold. High-conformal gearing: This is a particular type of conformal gearing for which the degree of conformity at point of contact between the tooth flanks of the gear and the pinion exceeds a certain value. For simplicity. The line of action is the path the teeth follow while in contact.

that is. the master gear is hardened. Operating base pitch: The angular distance between corresponding points within two desirable lines of contact of the tooth flanks of two neigh- boring teeth (measured within the plane of action. In ideal parallel-axis gearing. db. in degrees/ radians). and the pinion tooth flank. Pa -gearing: Gearing that features the axes of rotation of the gear and the pinion parallel to one another (parallel-axis gearing). (LTC-gearing is the another term used for gears of this particular type). The mesh cycle also yields inter- pretation in terms of angles of rotation or in terms of the length the contact point travels through. Master gear: Used in checking a production gear in a composite action inspection test. operating base pitch is a lin- ear dimension.g. of the gear. Noninvolute gearing is an example of approximate gearing. Low-tooth-count gear: A gear that has a base diameter. Path of contact: Path of contact is a line segment within which the tooth flanks of the gear and the mating pinion interact with one another. Usually. Module (of a gear): The design parameter used for specifying the size of gear teeth using ISO standards. PA. and pro- duced to a high degree of accuracy.Glossary 229 Line of contact: A line within which the gear tooth flank. G. The module is reciprocal of diametral pitch. It is used in assembling bevel gearing. P. Noninvolute gearing: In parallel-axis gearing. N by -gears: These are conformal gears with the path of contact situated beyond the pitch point.g is valid with respect to low-tooth-count gearing. Normal plane: The normal plane (Nln-plane) in a crossed-axis gear pair is a reference plane through the axis of instance rotation of the gear and the pinion perpendicular to the centerline. . N bf -gears: These are conformal gears with the path of contact situated before the pitch point.g ≥ dl. this is the distance from the crossing point of the axes of two bevel gears in mesh with each other to a locating surface of each. Mesh cycle: The time length defined as the instance that two teeth come into contact until they get separated.g. by rolling the master with the production gear in tight mesh (spring loaded) and measuring the variation in centers. share common points. Number of teeth or threads: The number of teeth or threads contained in the whole circumference of the pitch circle. equal to or greater than the limit diameter. Mounting distance: In intersected-axis and in crossed-axis gearing. the inequality db. Novikov gearing: (see conformal gearing). with ground teeth. noninvolute gearing is com- prised of gears that have noninvolute tooth profile. The module is specified as the ratio of the pitch diameter in millimeters to the number of teeth. dl.

In general. Point of contact: Any point at which two tooth profiles/flanks touch each other. and I on the line of centers (other definitions for the pitch point are also known). of the path of contact. Pitch plane: The pitch-line plane (Pln-plane) in a crossed-axis gear pair is the reference plane through the centerline and the axis of instance rota- tion of the gear and the pinion. Lpc = 0). Pinion: The smaller of two gears in mesh. Plane of action apex: In a crossed-axis (spatial) gear pair. the Pln-plane can be also defined as the plane through the axis of rotation of the gear and the pinion. as well as for parallel-axis gearing. is zero (i. Pinion apex: In a crossed-axis (spatial) gear pair. For intersected-axis gearing. Pitch line: Straight line through the pitch point that is perpendicular to the centerline (other definitions for the pitch line are also known). Pitch circle: Circle through the pitch point that is centered on the gear/pinion axis of rotation (other definitions for the pitch circle are also known).230 Glossary The path of contact is measured within the plane perpendicular to the axis of instant rotation. will be greater than the nominal pitch circles and they will be tangential to each other. The operating pitch circles of two gears when meshing at greater than standard centers. Pressure angle: The included angle between the line of action and the plane tangential to two reference pitch surfaces where the line of action . the length. It is perpendicular to the teeth flanks of two gears in mesh. The nominal pitch circles of two gears in mesh at standard centers will be tangent to each other. Pitch diameter: Pitch nominal diameter is the diameter of the pitch circle of a gear. Lpc. Pc. Plane of action: The plane tangential to the base surfaces of two gears in mesh. Pitch surfaces: A pair of ruled surfaces that roll and slide upon one another and are used as a reference when designing direct-contact mech- anisms for spatial motion. In conformal and high-conformal gearing. Pitch point can also be specified as the point of tangency of two pitch circles. this is the plane through the centerline and through the axis of instance rotation of the gear and the pinion. Pln -plane: In a crossed-axis (spatial) gear pair.. or of the pitch circle and the pitch line. Pitch: This is a measure of tooth spacing and size. this is a point of intersection of the axis of instant rotation with the centerline. this is a point of intersec- tion of the pinion axis of rotation with the centerline.e. of the gear pair. Pln. Pitch point: Point of intersection of the centerline by the line of action in a parallel-axis gearing. pitch surfaces are different from axodes. Power density: The amount of power transmitted per unit volume of the gearbox. as when the pinion is oversize.

tooth number is infinite. in a reference system associated with the housing. The magnitude of the rotation vector is commonly denoted by ω. the equality ω = |ω| is valid. this is a line traced by the contact point in a stationary reference system. Rotation. special care needs to be undertaken when treating rotations as vectors. Profile contact ratio is a unitless parameter. It is measured in the radial direction and the amount of runout is the difference between the highest and the lowest reading in 360°. The pseudo path of contact equals to the effective face width of the gear pair. Profile angle: The angle that makes a tangent to the gear tooth profile and centerline of the gear tooth. SAP-point: (start-of-active-profile point). start-of-active-profile point (SAP-point). Therefore. Rotation vector: A vector along an axis of rotation that has a magnitude equal to the rotation about the axis. The measurement is made along a line tangent to the base circle. axial. Rack: A toothed wheel whose pitch radius is infinite. Commonly. For gear teeth. It is used to determine tooth thickness and tooth spacing accuracy. runout is usually checked by placing a pin in tooth spaces and rolling past a dial indicator or by rolling with a master gear. that is. For such measurements a span measuring tool is used. set to touch the flanks of teeth at the ends of each span at or near the middle of the tooth height. the rotation vector of the mating pinion is designated as ωp and the rotation vector of the plane of action is designated as ωpa. Therefore. is NOT a vector. This angle is defined in terms of the transverse. and normal pressure angles. Profile contact ratio: This is the length of the path of contact in transverse cross section (either in millimeters or in degrees) divided by the base pitch also either in millimeters or in degrees (profile contact ratio is also referred to as Transverse contact ratio). Runout: Phenomenon describing the variation in pitch surface that results from nonzero eccentricity. A span measure tool will usually be set by a vernier and will be equipped . Spacing: The term “spacing” is used as a general term to describe the accu- racy with which teeth are spaced around the gear. The rotation vector of a gear is designated as ωg. in nature. There is a difference between the desired location of the axis of rotation and its actual location. Shaft angle: The angle between the axes of two nonparallel gear shafts. pitch circle is a straight line.Glossary 231 intersects. Ppc is the com- monly used designation for the path of contact. The direction of the rotation vector depends on the direction of the rotation. the rota- tion vector is designated as ω. Span measure: The measurement of the distance across several teeth of gears too large to use pin measurements. Pseudo path of contact: In conformal and high-conformal gearing.

The rotation vector is commonly designated as ωpl. Whole depth: The distance from the top land of a gear tooth to its root. It is usually expressed as the difference between the maximum and minimum limits allowed. and it increases as the number of teeth becomes less. the cutting tool will cut away that portion of the involute that is near and below the base circle. This cut away portion is called undercut. Undercut: A condition during gear fabrication involving a generation pro- cess where auxiliary material is removed as a result of the relative motion between the cutter and the gear blank. The direction of the vector of instant rotation depends on the direction of rotation of the gear and the pinion. or thickness.232 Glossary with a dial indicator to indicate any deviation from the theoretical chord length. full depth is the distance between the top land and the bottom land of a gear tooth. Winding relationship: A manufacturing specification between the coordi- nates used to parameterize the cutter and those used to parameter- ize the desired gear. Total contact ratio: This is the summa of the transverse (profile) and the face contact ratios. or of a gear in relation to the pin- ion. . Tolerance: The amount by which a specific dimension is permitted to vary. Zone of action: The portion of the plane of action within which the teeth flanks of the gear and of the pinion interact with one another (it is often called field of action). Toe: In a bevel gear or pinion. In parallel-axis gearing. For pinions with small numbers of teeth. Transmission function: The ratio between the instantaneous position of the output and the instantaneous position of the input. Transverse contact ratio: see Profile contact ratio. Top land: The width. Working depth: The depth at which gear teeth are engaged. of a gear tooth measured at its maximum (for external gears) or minimum (for internal gears) diameter. Transverse pressure angle: The pressure angle that is measured within a plane perpendicular to the axis of instant rotation of the gear and the pinion. this is the thinnest end of a tooth. It is equal to half the difference between the outside diameter and the root diameter of a gear. Vector of instant rotation: A vector along the axis of instant rotation either of a pinion in relation to the gear.

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Some aspects of the design and performance of Wildhaber–Novikov gear- ing.. Moscow Zhuokuovskiy Military Aviation Academy.W. 2. 1841. 90.References 235 39. www. Fed’akin. Power Transm. E. 91–102. 17–26.J. 2009.. 1967. Vol. T. February 28. 1924. Sci. 18–67–36. Radzevich. 1957.I. Mech. Chironis. February 14. Proc. Discussion on Novikov gears. 49. N.P. 1951. Wildhaber. G.. Theory of Surface Generation and of Contact of Moving Bodies. 1956.I. Parker. 1967.P. Civ. Wildhaber. Shishkov. 1960. 179. 722. V. Vol. 1946. 2008. 7. 42. No. Willis. 1960. 6. 257. Engineer. Mashgiz. 64–73. (28th Thomas Lowe Gray lecture). Astridg.http://tmm. Calculation of Cylindrical Novikov Gearings. Principles of Mechanisms. Gear Design and Application. Leningrad. Bibliography Allan.html. Eng.. 29. Machinery. Marine reduction gearing. pp. NIIINFORMT’AZhMASh. pp. Design of Novikov gears. & J. American Machinist. et al. 96(2461). V. London.. Wildhaber. 1961. 1982.spbstu. Shishkov.. Fed’akin. John W. 43. R.. 50. March 14.. 48. Power Transm. Inst. 32. 5. Novikov gearing.. Vector representation of gear pairs.. N. Conformity of circular-arc gears. 4. McGraw-Hill. 33(19). S.P. 90.. 494pp. Willis. in: Theory of Mechanisms and Machines. Basic Relationship of Hypoid Gears-II. Mech. Moscow.. W. in: Theory and Calculation of Gears. R. Eng. Tribology of high conformity gears. J..A. pp. S. Vol. 446pp. 1964. 7(1). Eng. 819–825. Chesnokov. p. 931–954. and Pecheniy.. Davis. American Machinist. Surface Curvature. Moscow. 41. Part II. LONITOMASH. West Stand.html.. Mech. On Selection of Tooth Geometries with Circular-Arc Profile. 46. London. 477.. Cambridge. Eng. E. 179.. Moscow Zhukouvskiy Military Aviation Academy.. London. in: Reliability and Quality of Gearing. Vector representation of gear pairs.. 1948. Moscow. Wildhaber. London.. 138. Elements of kinematics of generating and conjugating in gear- ing. A. 45. Moscow. Mech. R. 1956. Radzevich. 1999.S.A. 30. New York. E. 63–94. 152pp. vol. Shevel’ova.ru/journal.J.J. 170.. May.. 6(2). Eng. Proc. London. American Machinist.V. pp. 1965. Generation of Surfaces in Continuously-Indexing Methods of Surface Machining. Prod. E. Vol. V.V. Inst. 74–81. Discussion on Novikov gears. Trans. Moscow. pp. (ed.). French. Designed for the Use of Students in the Universities and for Engineering Students Generally. Vol. www. in: Theory of Mechanisms and Machines.. 47. Product Engineering. MosSTANKIN.G.. J. No. Proc. On the teeth of wheels. An experimental investigation of the load distribution within the patch of contact in Novikov gears. 1946. vol.http://tmm. 1987.. Basic Relationship of Hypoid Gears. Yakovl’ev. Vol. and Friction Transmissions. 220.P.. Davis. 90. A. R. 1838.A. Eng.. 6.spbstu. Inst. D. Basic Relationship of Hypoid Gears-III. Vol. London. V. Enveloping gear teeth. Part I. 44.. Chironis. Deighton. 114.. M. No. 1962.ru/journal. 374pp. 1946. 40. .

.. Novikov Gearing.. Mack.. 1966.C. Ye G. D. Roslivker. Ye G. 1976. London..A. Mech. 4. London.F. Mashinostroyeniye-1. April 1965. 1013–1024. D. Moscow. 1990.. 188. Fed’akin. D. 33(13). 180(43).. Comment on H. A.. Vol. R. 410. Rostov-on-Don.. Krasnoshchokov N. Novikov gear: Gear teeth with circular arc profiles. A. Nova Science Publishers.N.C. pp. http://trove. Walker’s. Yu.A.E. Morton PA. Fundamentals of Accuracy and Determination of Tolerances for Novikov Gearings. Fletcher. Gribanov. The Guardian 18th November 1958. A critical look at the Novikov gears.D. Doctoral Thesis. Novikov-gear system and other special gear systems for high load car- rying capacity. Lugansk Machin-Building Institute. A.. Efficiency and noise of a Novikov gear pair. Johnson. 249. 1991. Chesnokov. London.au/work/18014966 Johnson. V. Moscow. Engineering. in: Novikov Gearings. 11. Inst.M. 1051. Russ. 87–112. pp. Moscow..M. National Research Council of Canada. Korotkin.G. 1959.. R. 1959... 174pp. Gears that “conform”. Machinery. N. Kharitonov.. Inc. 25. Boeing Co. Onishkov. The Guardian. 2011. 294. 102. G. Eng.P.I..D. DME/NAE Quarterly Bulletin. Geometrical Calculations of Cylindrical Novikov Gearings. 1965. Lugansk..I. CirCarC gear for the science museum. Roslivker. The wildhaber-Novikov system of gearing. 1959.A. Chesnokov. More about Novikov. Gear conformity and load capacity.. Engineering. D. Engineer. V. Eng.J. 1958. J.. PDF Url: AD0605844. Onishkov. M. pp. Kharitonov. First A. Niemann. pp. 1964. R. (Translation of Vestnik Mashinostroyeniya).. Investigation and Implementation of Novikov Gearings.J. 384pp.V. Yu.gov. Research Institute Publishers. Nishn’evolzhskoye Publishers. Theory of Novikov Gearing. 1964.I. 39(5). V.. Moscow. 312pp. Novikov Gearings. USSR Academy of Sciences Publishers. pp. 1965 (1). 1962. London. Gunner..A. 5–85. in: Novikov Gearings. 790..V. Proc. Effect of variation of centre distance on the load capacity of Novikov type gearing. 1960. 1960. Vol. Kiev. 1973. 88. Gear teeth with circular arc profiles: The novikov gearing ­system. 3–11. V. pp. Gear teeth with circular arc profiles. 294. Itkis. 1978. Yu. Rostov State University Publishers. Kharitonov. New York.. G. Vertol Div. Gunner.D. 208pp.V.. Part I. 1963. 1959. Korotkin. N. 144. Technika. Vol.. 3... Berry. Prod. Novikov Gearing: Achievements and Development. V. I. Moscow Zhuokuovskiy Military Aviation Academy. Novikov Gearing: Achievements and Development. G. Investigation of hyperboloid cylindrical and bevel Novikov gearings.. M.N. Klein.. Fed’akin. French. Korotkin. Vol. NEL Report No.. New Scient. Pavlenko. Volgograd. Chesnokov.A. 46.M.. Investigation of the Conformal Gear for Helicopter Power Transmission.P. 2007. South Kensington. 1960. Engineering. H... 20th October.nla. 725. Vestnik Mashinostroyaniya. Rostov-on-Don. Novikov Gearings.C. V. 209. Eng.I. Progress report on wildhaber-Novikov gearing. Johnson.236 References Fed’akin.. J. V...Ya. June 1964. Nauka. Vol. Hyperboloid Novikov gearing. Parker. Grishel.. . pp. 136pp. Novikov gearing.

The LYNX transmission and conformal gearing.D. Mashgiz.I. Kurgan. London. [In Russian]. Winter. H.B.. The development of a “CisCarC” gearing. and Shotter. Enveloping tooth gearing. The Novikov system of gearing. Shotter.. H. Moscow. 25.A.B. Eng.A.. B. Aerospace Meeting. Tools for making helical circular arc spur gears.I. Town & Country. VDI Berichte. A. Doctoral Thesis. W. pp. V. Foundations of Meshing of Bevel and Hypoid Gearings. 7. 1999. 93. Kharkov. A. Translated and comments by A. 56.A. 1260.. E. 371. 47. G. The Guardian. B. The Novikov Gearing System. SAE Paper 781041.V. 725–729. Slepak.. pp. Mar. Thompson. Wells. 1978.B. 1960.F. November 27–30. Walker. 1962. Theory of Screw-Circular Surfaces in Design of Novikov Gearings. 13. pp. 665. 1958.. Eng..E. Development of Geometrical Theory of Novikov Gearings. 1933. 1960. 11th November 1958. A.References 237 Russia adopts the Novikov system of gearing. Machinery. 209.. and Looman. 1948. and Tooth Flanks Generation.A. 2. A critical look at the Novikov gear.. 5. C. New Scient. Sevr’uk. 1972. Report 60–3. Wildhaber. Vol. San Diego. .. Kharkov University Publishers. M.J. April 29.. V. London. 7pp. London. Tuplin. 1961. Vol. 534pp. 19. 83. Silich. The shape of gear teeth. The Engineer. 167pp. Vol..N. 176 pp. Review of Soviet and Western literature 1957–60.

1. gear experts who were deeply involved in research and development of Novikov gearing often had no access even to the S.Appendix A: On the Concept of “Novikov Gearing” and the Inadequacy of the Term “Wildhaber–Novikov Gearing” or “W–N Gearing” The beginning of wisdom is to call things by their right names —An Old Chinese Proverb Novikov gearing was invented early in 1950 by Dr. gear experts in western countries had very limited access to original sources in which the concept of Novikov gearing is discussed in detail.1 Preamble For a long while. A. In western countries. Novikov on his invention of the novel gear system. His doctoral dissertation [18] is the first source in which the novel concept of gearing is discussed. Novikov. Novikov in three main sources. An increased power density through a gear train is the main advantage of Novikov gearing.19. Third. a comprehensive discussion on the concept of Novikov gearing can be found out in the monograph by Dr. The concept of Novikov gearing was disclosed by Dr. Pat. where additional information on the issue can be found.1  Kinematics and Geometry of Novikov Gearing An attempt to demonstrate the principal features of the novel system of gearing.L. Novikov [19]. M. Second. 109113 [23] granted to Novikov gearing. the Soviet Union patent [23] had been granted to Dr. A.23]. had been undertaken by the author [36]. The kinematics and geometry of Novikov gearing is disclosed in detail in these three sources [18. Dyson et al. The discussion below is based mostly on the original works by Dr. Novikov. No. namely of Novikov gearing.U. When making the 239 . For example. [8] undertook an analysis of Novikov gearing in comparison to helical gearing earlier proposed by Ernest Wildhaber [22].

greater circular forces are permissible by the proposed gearing.F.23].U. The points of intersection of the * S. a section of the tooth flanks by a plane that is perpendicular to the instant axis of relative rotation is shown. The axis is through the current point of contact of the tooth flanks.” Moreover. For this purpose. My gearing never had a real test here. It would be wrong to dismiss the Russian development as old and known. Novikov gearing was developed for but not limited to parallel axis gear trains. makes it clear that the authors [8].19.1. Pat. However. National Cl.240 Appendix A comparison. A. 109750. as well as many others. although a pair of gears was made in the 1920s. d.” The discussion below reveals that Dr.750 [USA]) is NOT workable in nature. mistakenly referred to the S. No. Filed: January 2.U.601. 28b./P. they were not familiar with the main patent [23]. it is easy to show that helical gearing by Dr. 36. 1. It should be mentioned here that in his work [6].1. Pat. the point of intersection of the planar section by the axis of instant relative rotation is denoted by P. along with numerous other cases of using wrong sources of information for comparison. gear pairs featuring intersecting axis.U. it is sufficient just to recall the result earlier obtained by Leonhard Euler in the eighteenth century on involute tooth profile for mating gears. Pisulin. Under equivalent contact stress. The aforementioned. 109750*  and not to the S. Gearing of this kind featureshigher contact strength due to favorable curvatures of interacting tooth flanks. No. 1957. 801. Chironis quoted to Wildhaber’s opinion: “All the characteristics of the Novikov gearing are com- pletely anticipated by my patent. A Water Sprayer. similar dimensions and comparable parameters for the rest of the design. 109113 [23]—a very common mistake committed by many gear experts in western countries. Wildhaber was mistaken when making the statement “All the char- acteristics of the Novikov gearing are completely anticipated by my patent. This has resulted in a poorly made comparison of the two inventions [22. Chironis [6] approached very close to the understanding and to the correct interpretation of the concept of Novikov gearing. as well as gear pairs having crossing axes of the rotations of the gears. No.1. In Figure A. Possible geometries of tooth profiles of the Novikov gears are schematically shown in Figure A. Here.23]. can be designed on the basis of the concept proposed by Novikov. . No. But even he failed to make correct conclusions from the analysis that he undertook. moreover.2  Main Features of Novikov Gearing Novikov gearing had been developed with the intent to increase contact strength of the gear teeth. Dyson et al. were not familiar with the main sources [18. Pat. Wildhaber (Pat.

A coordinate system is associated with the gear. respectively.. The line of action is denoted as PA. Multiple curves CAC illustrate examples of possible tooth profiles of the second of the mating gears. One of the contact lines is associated with the gear and the other one is associated with the pinion. and a corresponding coordinate system is associated with the pinion. No. All the curves BAB are arbitrary smooth regular curves. The location and orientation either of the straight line of meshing or of the smooth curved line of meshing is specified in a space in which the loca- tion and orientation of the axes of rotations of the gear and of the pinion are given..e. The line of meshing is located reasonably close to the axis of instant relative rotation of the gears. All the curves CAC feature a high rate of conformity to the circular arc ДAД. Either constant or time-dependent (smoothly varying in time) speed of motion of the point of contact along the line of meshing is assigned. Certain smooth regular surfaces through the meshing lines can . Pat. the arcs BAB are situ- ated within the bodily side of the limit tooth flank of one of the gears). the arcs CAC are located within the bodily side of the limit tooth flank of another of two gears). In the coor- dinate systems. The circle corresponds to the limit case of the tooth profiles (in the case that the profiles are aligned to each other).Appendix A 241 O1 P O2 B C rN B A C FIGURE A. ДAД is the circle center- ing at the point P. All the tooth profiles BAB feature a high rate of conformity to the limit circular arc ДAД. which are located inside the limit circular arc ДAД (i. All the curves CAC are arbitrary smooth regular curves. planar section by the axes of the gear and of the pinion are designated as O1 and O2. the moving meshing point traces contact lines.U.e. Multiple curves BAB illustrate examples of possible tooth profiles of one of the mating gears. which are located outside the limit circular arc ДAД (i. Ultimately. 109113 to explain the concept of Novikov gearing.1 The only schematic is used in the S. A point A is the point of meshing (in its current loca- tion).

The following requirements should be fulfilled so that the surfaces could be used as the tooth flanks of Novikov gearing: • At every location of the point of contact. It should be borne in mind that under the run-in period of time point meshing of the gear teeth will be transformed to the abovementioned line meshing of the tooth profiles. However. while the working portion of the other tooth flank is concave (in the direction toward the axis of instant relative rotation). which is perpendicu- lar to the instant axis of relative rotation. Point contact is preferred when designing tooth profiles. finally • No tooth flanks interference is allowed within the working portions of the surfaces Once two surfaces are generated by one of the moving curves BAB and by one of the moving curves CAC. The above discussion is easier to understand when a boundary circle of radius rN having the pitch point P as the center is drawn through the point . Tooth profiles of another geometries (those always passing through the mesh- ing point) should be located (for one gear) within the interior of the above mentioned circular arc profile that is centering at the point within the axis of instant relative rotation as shown in Figure A. Centers of both the profiles in this particular case are located at the axis of instant relative rotation. Tooth flanks are generated as loci of tooth profiles constructed for all possible locations of the contact point. A small difference between the radii of curvature of tooth profiles is necessary. The constructed circular arcs can be considered as an example of tooth profiles of the gear and of the pinion. The arc centers are located within the line of action and close to the pitch point. Construct two circular arcs center- ing at points within the straight line through the pitch point and the meshing point. This would require an extremely high accuracy of the center distance and independence from operation conditions. The working portion of one of two tooth flanks is convex. tooth profiles of circular arc shapes are not mandatory.242 Appendix A be employed as tooth flanks of the gear and of the pinion. the theoretical point contact of the tooth flanks will be retained. which is impractical. For the other gear the tooth profile should be located outside the circular arc. the point kind of contact reduces to a special kind of line contact. Generally speaking. the tooth flanks should have a common perpendicular and thus the requirements of the main theorem of meshing should be satisfied • Curvatures of tooth profiles should correspond to each other. then the above listed requirements are fulfilled and the surfaces can be employed as the tooth flanks of Novikov gearing. Consider a plane through the current meshing point. and.1. In such a scenario. In a particular case radii of tooth profiles could be of the same magnitude and equal to the distance from the meshing point to the axis of instant relative rotation.

Radzevich..2 illus- trates tooth flank of a gear G. helical gearing by Ernest Wildhaber has features which make the configuration of circular-arc teeth profiles unfavorable and not workable in nature [22]. the line of meshing should not be too far from the axis of instant relative rotation. As an example. too close a location of the line of meshing to the axis of instant relative rotation is also not desirable as contact strength of the gear tooth flanks is thereby reduced. However. This concept has proved convenient in the theory of high-­conformity gearing. the sliding velocity should be reduced as much as possible.e. The centers are chosen so as to fulfill the necessary condition for magnitudes ρg and ρp for radii of curvature of the teeth profiles G and P at the point of tangency K (ρg > ρp). Tooth thicknesses and the tooth pitch are assigned to ensure the required bending strength of the teeth. Circular-arc teeth profiles G and P are centering at points Og and Op accordingly. probably dur- ing 2008). For this purpose.1. Friction and wear loss are proportional to the relative sliding velocity in the gear mesh. this circle was added by the author to the original drawing by Dr. . It is proposed to call this circle boundary Novikov circle or just boundary N-circle for simplicity. the speed of the point and its trajectory) should be chosen to minimize friction and wear loss. which makes contact at the point K with tooth flank of the mating pinion P. As shown below. it is rec- ommended to ensure favorable angles between the common perpendicular (along which tooth flanks of one of the gears act against the tooth flanks of the other gear) and between the axes of rotations of the gears. In addition. Figure A.2 Using the concept of the boundary N-circle is proven to be helpful to distinguish feasible and not feasible circular-arc tooth profiles for Novikov gearing. as the cir- cular arcs G and P intersect the boundary N-circle. Novikov). and in Novikov gearing in particular. rN K op P ρp og ρg Boundary N-circle FIGURE A. On the other hand. The law of motion of the meshing point (i. gearing of this kind is not feasible.Appendix A 243 of contact point K (in Figure A. The pposite sides of tooth profiles are designed in a similar manner to that just discussed. Novikov himself did not use the concept of the boundary circle (the concept of the boundary circle was introduced later by Dr. Therefore.

mF. Further. consider a parallel-axis Novikov gear pair that is comprised of a driving pinion and of a driven gear. The axis. is the straight line through the pitch point P. The pitch circles (Rg and Rp) are tangent to each other. Gears that feature tooth flanks of such geometry are easy to manufacture. ωpl. In this particular case. let us assume that the pinion is stationary and the gear is per- forming instant rotation in relation to the pinion. is a straight line through the pitch point P at a certain transverse pressure angle. Pln.3. The pitch circle of the gear is of radius Rg and the pitch circle of the pinion is of radius Rp accordingly. Linst. The further the contact point K is situ- ated from the pitch point P. the radii of curvature of tooth profiles in all sections by planes are equal to each other. The rotation of the gear ωg and the rotation of the pinion ωp are synchronized with each other in a timely proper manner. or they can feature multiple contact points when tooth flanks contact each other at several points simultaneously. A line.1. The point of tangency of the pitch circles is the pitch point P of the gear pair. An example of parallel-axis gearing with limit geometry of tooth profiles is illustrated in Figure A. At the same time. the more freedom is there in selecting radii of curvature of the tooth profiles. The speed of motion of the contact point along the straight line of meshing may be of constant value. Gear pairs can feature either one point of contact (when working portions of the tooth flank contact each other at just one point. When axial thrust in the gear pair is strongly unde- sirable herring-bone gears can be used instead.244 Appendix A The face width of the gear or length of the gear teeth should correlate to their pitch to ensure the required value of the face contact ratio. in relation to the perpendicular to the center- line Og − Op. The axes of rotations Og and Op are at a certain center-distance apart from each other. while the pinion is rotated about the axis Op. For parallel axis gear pairs. and they can be cut on machine tools available in the market. the further the contact point K is situated from the pitch point P. Tooth flanks in this case are a type of regular screw surfaces. The point of contact K of tooth flanks of the gear and of the pinion is a point within the straight line Linst. The gear is rotated about the axis Og. Ultimately. the higher the losses on friction between the tooth flanks and wear of the tooth flanks. actual location of the contact point K is a kind of trade-off between these two factors. . ϕt. excluding the phases of the teeth re-engagement). The axis of the instant rotation Pln is parallel to the axes Og and Op of the rotations ωg and ωp. The kinematics and geometry of Novikov gearing is different from that for involute gearing as well as from gearing of other designs. Referring to Figure A. of the instant rotation. it is preferable to employ a straight line as the line of meshing. The curved contact line is located across the tooth profile. Point contact of the teeth flanks in this particular case is transformed to their line contact. The straight line is parallel to the axes of rotations of the gear and of the pinion.

Appendix A 245 R2 R1 R2 H r2H O2 ρ O1 R1r R 2H R r1 r2 1H R 2r r2 A r r 1H αA h′ FIGURE A. Gearing with a Novel Type of Teeth Meshing. Zhukovskii Aviation Engineering Academy. rg. while the contact point K is not.e. Moscow. However.) When  the pinion is motionless. M. 1958. Due to this. of the convex pinion tooth profile P within the straight line Linst is limited just to the straight line segment PK.3. of the convex pinion tooth profile P is smaller than that. (After Novikov. rp < rg). radius of curvature. As a con- sequence.3 A schematic that illustrates the concept of Novikov gearing in more detail.. while the pinion tooth profile is concave. rp. the location of the center of curvature.. Theoretically. On the other hand. It should be mentioned here that there are no physical constraints to design a gear pair having a convex gear tooth profile. cg. rlim. this is completely impractical. of the concave gear tooth profile G within the straight line Linst is limited to the open inter- val P → ∞. The pitch point is included into the interval as is shown in Figure A. cp.L. the location of the center of curvature. or it can be relieved in bodily side of the pinion tooth. and the center of curvature cg is situated beyond the pitch point P. . the pitch point P can be included in that interval for K. of the concave gear tooth profile G (i. the contact point K traces a circle of limit radius rlim centering at P. 186pp. The pinion tooth profile P can either align with a circular arc of the limit circle.

No spur Novikov gearing is feasible in nature. therefore. ±l. The axes Og and Op are at a cer- tain center-distance C. P (in the direc- tion of rotation of the gears) features positive displacement. The point P is the pitch point of the Novikov gearing. The center-distance C is subdivided by a point P on two segments OgP and OpP correspondingly. For parallel-axes configuration. Transverses contact ratio. A straight line Linst through the pitch point P is at the transverse pres- sure angle ϕt. Face contact ratio.1. the point of contact will move axially along the gears while remaining at the same radial position on both gear and pinion teeth. The gear and the pinion are rotating about the axes Og and Op. This distance. It is clearly a condition of operation that in a given profile the tooth surfaces should not interfere before or after culmination. then the equality rg/rp = u is observed. Once the straight line segments OgP and OpP are the pitch radii OgP = rg and OpP = rp of the Novikov gear pair. The ratio of lengths of the straight line segments OgP and OpP is reciprocal to the gear ratio u of Novikov gear pair. and the rotations are labeled as ωg and ωp correspondingly. when rotated at angular speeds that are in the gear ratio. the displacement. l. The line of action. The gear ratio of the Novikov gearing is equal to u = ωg/ωp. It is.246 Appendix A Both the pinion and the gear are helical and of opposite hand. Two points K are within the straight line Linst and are displaced from the pitch point P a certain distance ±l from the pitch point P. Because the gears are helical and of the opposite hand. Lines of action are the two straight lines through the points K parallel to the rotation axes Og and Op. is parallel to the axes Og and Op. which is located before the pitch point (in the direction of rotation . of the gear pair is always greater than 1 (mF > 1).4. Instant line of action. which is located beyond the pitch point. The strength of gear teeth and performance of a gear pair strongly depend on the value of the displacement.3  Construction of the Boundary N-Circle The boundary N-circle for Novikov gearing can be constructed in the way briefly outlined below. A. l. Linst. is a straight line through the contact point K.ω with respect to the perpendicular to the centerline OgOp. fundamental to the operation of the gears that con- tact occurs nominally at a point and that the point of contact moves axi- ally across the full face width of the gears during rotation. A conformal gear mesh of this type is referred to as BY-mesh of Novikov gear pair. mF. Linst. namely. Consider two axes of rotations Og and Op of a parallel-axis Novikov gearing as it is schematically depicted in Figure A. of the Novikov gear pair is zero (mp ≡ 0). In transverse section of the gear pair the contact point K is motionless. The line of action. of the line of action is one of important geometrical parameters of Novikov gearing. instant line of action. mp.

−l. K.4 Construction of the boundary N-circle for Novikov gearing.4  Possible Geometries of Teeth Flanks for Novikov Gearing Prior to design mating the tooth profiles of a Novikov gear pair.1. traces a circle within the corresponding transverse section of the gear pair. This circle is also centering at P. and for the mating gear tooth profile (Figure A. where N-circle of radius rN is con- structed for the pinion tooth profile (Figure A. of the gears). The area within the boundary circle of radius rN (including points those within the circle itself) represents the area of pos- sible shapes of tooth profiles of one of the mating gears. traces a circle within that same transverse sec- tion of the gear pair. To avoid violation of the conditions of meshing. Refer to Figure A. the N-circle should be drawn. Let us assume that the pinion is motionless. then the contact point. K.Appendix A 247 ϕt · ω LAinst K rg ωg ωp –l rN P Og +l rp Boundary N-circle K C FIGURE A. features negative displacement. the gear can be assumed to be station- ary. as well as targeting wear reduction and reduction in friction losses the contact lines are displaced at a reasonably short distance from the axis of instant rotation.5a). Similarly. then the contact point. It is clear from the above consideration how the boundary circle of radius l can be constructed. Pln. and the area outside the circle of radius rN (including points those within the circle itself) rep- resents the area of possible shapes of tooth profiles of the other of the two mating gears. The circle is centering at P. A transverse section of a Novikov gear pair is subdivided by a circle of radius rN = |l| onto two areas. The tooth profile of the pinion addendum is a convex segment of a smooth . A conformal gear mesh of this type is referred to as BF-mesh of Novikov gear pair.5.5b) of a Novikov gear pair. The displacement l is of positive value (l > 0) for the pinion addendum. A.

The radius of cur- vature. This case of profile of the pinion addendum is the limit one of theoretical importance. The case of equality R P = rN is the limit case. regular curve. …). not any arc of a smooth . the profile of the pin- ion addendum can be shaped in the form of a circular arc of the radius rN. Therefore. which is mostly of theoretical interest.5 Examples of possible tooth flank geometries for Novikov gearing: Possible shapes of teeth flanks of a pinion (a) and of a mating gear (b). It should be stressed here that not one of the feasible profiles Pia of a pinion addendum intersects the N-circle.2.248 Appendix A (a) ϕt · ω b 1 LAinst rg ωp Kb ωg b cr –l a 1 Op rN P Og +l rp a 2 a Ka cr C ϕt a (b) cr a LAinst 1 Ka ωg ωp a rg 2 –l Op P Og rN +l b rp b 1 cr Kb b 2 C FIGURE A. R P. Geometrically. The pinion addendum profile is entirely located within the boundary N-circle. through the contact point Ka. of the addendum profile is equal to or less than the radius rN of the boundary N-circle (R P ≤ rN). Pia(i = 1.

6 Examples of feasible (a) and not feasible (b) ellipse-arc tooth profiles for Novikov gearing. spiral curves intersect the corre- sponding N-circle. can be selected as a tooth addendum profile of a high-conformity gear pair. The ellipse-arc.6a) is entirely located outside the N-circle. Circular arc.6b) intersects the boundary N-circle. . ef.6a. As shown in Figure A. This case of profile of the pinion addendum is the limit one of theoretical importance. which is mostly of theoretical interest. The displacement l is of negative value (l < 0) for the pinion dedendum (Figure A. at the point of tangency. This. ab.6. Ultimately it should be clear that variety of smooth regular curves can be used in designing a tooth profile of Novikov gearing. The ellipse-arc. Schematically this is illustrated in Figure A. Therefore. Ultimately. cd. The variety of curves is not limited to circular arc only.5a). due to the radius of curvature of a spiral curve (as well as of many other curves). An ellipse-arc cd (Figure A. The case of equality R P = rN is the limit case. cycloidal profile containing an apex. is changes steadily when a point travels along the curve. an ellipse-arc ab is entirely located within the bound- ary N-circle. The same is valid for most of spiral curves. Pib (i = 1.…). The ellipse-arc. logarithmic spi- ral.2. an ellipse-arc ef (Figure A.Appendix A 249 regular curve can be used as tooth profile of the pinion addendum. through the contact point Kb. can be selected as a tooth dedendum profile of a high-conformity gear pair. arc of ellipse at one of its apexes. etc. cannot be used as a tooth profile of a high-conformity gear pair. R P. are examples of applicable kinds of curves for the addendum tooth pro- files. (a) (b) c e rN rN 1 a K K b d P P f 2 Boundary N-circle Boundary N-circle 3 FIGURE A. the profile of the pinion addendum can be shaped in the form of a circular arc of the radius rN. Radius of curvature. The tooth profile of the pinion dedendum is a concave segment of a smooth regular curve. Archimedean spiral. Geometrically. Spiral curves (involute of a circle. of the dedendum profile is equal to or exceeds the radius rN of the boundary N-circle (R P ≥ rN).) are examples of smooth regular curves no arc of which can be used in design of a pinion tooth addendum. which is prohibited. etc.. K.

the contact points K′ and K″ are displaced in axial direction in relation to one another at a distance ΔZ.5b. The contact lines Ppc .V. The gear tooth addendum. An arc . The invention by R. shares a point with N-circle (the contact point Kb).bf and Ppc . while the gear tooth dedendum. as Novikov gear system does. Fed’akin to propose (1955) a kind of Novikov gear pair that features not one contact line CL. A boundary N-circle of a Novikov gear pair is a type of constraint imposed on the gear tooth profile and on the pinion tooth profile.250 Appendix A Constraints imposed on tooth profile geometry of the pinion dedendum are similar to that imposed on tooth profile of the pinion addendum. is entirely located outside the boundary N-circle. Gia. The dedendum profile is entirely located outside of the N-circle. Not all smooth regular curves can be implemented in designing the pinion tooth dedendum.7. The importance of the concept of the boundary N-circle for gear engineers is as follows. The gear engineer is also free to select an arc of any smooth curve to shape the tooth dedendum profile if the arc is entirely located outside the N-circle. Two paths of contact.bf and Ppc . and does not intersect the N-circle.by. An analysis similar to that performed earlier with regard to the pinion tooth profile can be performed with regard to the gear tooth profile as well. is entirely located within the boundary N-circle. The average number of contact points between the gear and the pinion teeth flanks is doubled in the Novikov gear pair of this design.V. but two lines of action instead. As Novikov gears are helical. Fed’akin is schemati- cally illustrated in Figure A. This distance can be computed from the formula l ∆Z = 2 (A. inspired R. Both the profile of the gear tooth addendum Gia as well as the profile of the gear tooth dedendum Gib share a common point with the boundary N-circle (the point Ka in the first case and the point Kb in the second).1) tan ψ The axial displacement of contact points results in the smoother rotation of the driven shaft of the Novikov gear pair. the gear designer is free to pick a favorable smooth curve to shape the tooth profile of the gear and of the pinion. When designing Novikov gears. The gear engineer is free to select an arc of any smooth curve to shape the tooth addendum profile if the arc is entirely located within the boundary N-circle. are straight lines parallel to the axis of instant rotation of the gears. K′ and K″ simultaneously. respectively.by pass through the points K′ and K″. A possibility of a Novikov gear pair having two contact points. They are at distances +l and −l from the pitch point P. namely Ppc . The analysis is illustrated in Figure A. Gib. No intersection of tooth profiles Gia and Gib is allowed within tooth height of the gear and of the pinion.

by Og Y0′ φg Yp φp φg Xp ϕt Xg X0 X0′ FIGURE A.8 shows a section in the transverse plane.bf φp P Y0 rp Op Ppc.1.Appendix A 251 ΔZ Ppc. parameters of a Novikov gear pair that influence geometry of contact of the teeth flanks G and P should be considered. of the curve must be entirely located inside the N-circle for the tooth adden- dum. and a corresponding arc of the dedendum must be entirely located outside the N-circle of radius rN.by φg Yg φp ωg P K′ φp Y0 Y0′ Yp φg Xp ωp ϕt · ω X0′ Xg X0 Op Og rg ωg Yg ωp Ppc.5  Contact of Teeth Flanks for Novikov Gearing The possibility to ensure favorable contact of teeth flanks of Novikov gearing is the major advantage of a gear system of this design. In order to system- atically describe favorable conditions of contact of the teeth flanks design. Fed’akin. Consider the configuration of the interacting teeth flanks at the point of culmination.bf K′′ Zg Zp Z0 Z0 Ppc. A. . The pinion.7 On the concept of Novikov gearing having two lines of contact that is proposed by R.V. Figure A.

this condition is maintained as the gears rotate with the teeth in contact. With circular-arc teeth. P. is rotating. When the gears are loaded. The point of contact. ωp. Immediately before as well as after the configuration shown in Figure A. ωg. The last is rotating. G. which results in a finite contact period. then due to elastic deformation of the gear materials the contact point spreads over a certain area of contact. then for the computation of the screw parameter. P. With teeth of involute form. pp. about the axis Op in a clockwise direction and is driving the gear.8 Design parameters of a Novikov gear pair that influence geometry of contact of the teeth flanks G and P. The pinion and the gear have working pitch radii of rp and rg = u ⋅ rp. about the axis Og.8. Contact lines on the gear tooth flank. If the screw parameter. . French proposed (1965) to refer to the instantaneous contact of profiles in a trans- verse section as to the culminating condition. there is no contact in that particular plane between the teeth shown. moves in a direction at right angles to and into the plane of the paper in Figure A. and on the pinion tooth flank. is given. of the pinion tooth flank (reduced pitch of the pinion). are helices of the opposite hands. however.252 Appendix A which has a left-hand helix. where u is the gear ratio. pg. The angle ϕt is the transverse pressure angle. The basic con- dition that the angular velocity ratio is equal to the gear ratio requires that the common normal at the point of contact between the teeth passes through the pitch point P. respectively. K. the condition occurs at only one instance in any one transverse plane as the pitch circles roll together.8. of the gear tooth flank G (reduced pitch of the gear) the K –l ϕt ρp rN ρg op P Op Og ωp og ωg C FIGURE A.

This means that Novikov helical gears. Ernest Wildhaber was granted the U. The main features of gearing of this design are illustrated in Figure A. Centers 8 are situated close to the pitch circle 9 of the gear. and rg is the pitch radius of the gear. the helical gearing is analyzed with reference to a normal section.2) pp φp Here is designated: pg = rg tan λg. and may be applied to helical gears.S. Pat. a famous American gear engineer Dr.750 on helical gearing. fundamental to the operation of Novikov gears that contact occurs nominally at a point and that the point of contact moves axially across the full face width of the gears during rotation.9. that is.Appendix A 253 expression pg = pp/u can be used. The invention relates to the tooth shape of the gears. Wildhaber features a circular-arc tooth profile. which run on paral- lel axes. and λg is the lead angle. will transform rotation with a constant gear ratio if their screw parameters pg and pp are related as follows: pg φg = (A. Because Novikov gears are helical and of opposite hand. To provide accurate gearing of a circular-arc profile is one of the purposes of helical gearing. therefore.9 illustrates the said normal section 2–2 for both pinion 4 and gear 1. Referring to Figure A. when rotated at angular speeds that are in the gear ratio. A. line 2–2 in the upper portion in Figure A.9 being normal to the helix of the pitch circle.601. It is clearly a condition of operation that in a given profile the tooth surfaces should not interfere before or after culmination. It is. and λp is the lead angle. Location of the centers 8 in relation to the line of action is not specified in the invention. in the shown normal section. The corresponding teeth of the pinion 4 are so shaped as to allow rolling of . such as single helical gears and double helical gears or herring-bone gears.9. No. As an example. As is customary. pp = rp tan λp.2  Main Features of Helical Gearing by Wildhaber In 1926. and rp is the pitch radius of the pinion. which are in point contact. 1. The helical gearing by Dr. it has been assumed that the tooth profiles 6 of the gear 1 are circular arcs of radii 7 and centers 8. No other tooth profiles except circular-arc profile are proposed in this invention. the point of teeth flanks contact will move axially along the gears while remaining at the same radial position on both gear and pinion teeth. The lower portion in Figure A. 1 denotes a helical gear having teeth 2 in contact with the teeth 3 of a mating pinion 4. Similarly.

2. 1.750. no freedom in choosing the pinion tooth profile is allowed in the invention. as well known to those skilled in the art. The said perpendicular is in the present case the connecting line between the pitch point 12 and the center 8 of the tooth profile. and its center at 8. then it contacts with tooth 3 at a point 11. 5.S. which can be determined like the point 11. Another position 2′ of the gear tooth. Pat. 1926.9 Schematic of “helical gearing” by E. No.9. the pitch circles 9 and 10 on each other. Wildhaber (U. Wildhaber Helical gearing Filed Nov. the point 12 being the contact point between the two pitch circles 9 and 10. The tooth profiles contact here at a point 11′.750 E. Commonly.601. 1926). When the gear tooth 2 is in position shown in Figure A. 1. 1923 2 sheets–sheet 1 2 3 17 16 1 11 12 4 17 16 2 2 4 4 8′ 10 7 12 8 15 3′ 15′ 11 14 11′ 6 9 2′ 3 2 14′ 13 1 FIGURE A.254 Appendix A Oct. and 3′ of the corresponding pinion tooth are shown in dotted lines in Figure A.601.9. It will be noted that the contact point has traveled from 11 to 11′ during the small angular motion . Therefore. which may be determined by a perpendicular to the tooth 2 through the point 12. the point 12 is referred to as pitch point.

The centers of these profiles are similarly situated on pitch circle of the pinion. Omitting numerous inconsistencies and discrepancies between the design parameters of the gear pair. The said normal pitch equals the circular pitch of the shown normal section. Euler reveal that helical gearing by Dr. It should be pointed out here that in the invention [22]. this mistake became widespread within the gear engineering community.* A certain line of action LA is passing through the points 11 and 11′. * The ability of contact point to travel over the tooth profile is mentioned several times in the patent description. Euler (in the eighteenth century). It is then claimed that helical gearing [22] is capable of ensuring better contact between the teeth of the gear and of the pinion in a direction per- pendicular to the contact line between two mating teeth.Appendix A 255 of the gears. which angle corresponds to a fraction only of the normal pitch 14.‡ In other words. . it is of critical importance to stress here that traveling of the contact point within a trans- verse section† of the gear pair indicates that transverse contact ratio mp of the “helical gearing” [22] is larger than zero (mp > 0). a short duration of contact and not instant contact between tooth profiles is anticipated. Their radii are substantially the same as the radii of the mate tooth profiles. The convex working profiles of the pinion are also of circular shape. it is expected that the proposed helical gearing features line contact of tooth flanks of the gear and of the pinion. The gearing according to the invention [22] is strictly a gearing for helical teeth. the contact point between two normal profiles passes over the whole active profile during a turning angle. then the projection of the contact point onto transverse section is traveling within the transverse section. on account of the explained short duration of contact between tooth profiles. 14′. and featuring transverse contact ratio that exceeds zero (mp > 0). In the gearing according to the invention [22]. The performed analysis reveals that helical gearing [22] is a type of heli- cal gearing having a noninvolute tooth profile. The contact point has passed practically over the whole active profile dur- ing a turning angle 13 of the gear. the results of the research earlier obtained by L. According to the results of research undertaken earlier by L. gear pairs of this particular nature are not feasible physically. ‡ It should be stressed here that helical gearing [22] is a kind of mistake committed by Dr. Therefore. Wildhaber. and usually to much less than that. Wildhaber [22] is not workable in nature. As the centers of the teeth profiles are situated within the corresponding pitch circles. † Once the contact point is traveling within the normal section 2–2. Unfortunately. the centers cannot be situated within the line of action. It would not be advisable on straight teeth. and their cen- ters are substantially situated on the pitch circle of the gear. which corresponds to less than one half the normal pitch. The working profiles of the gear are concave and circular.

total contact ratio mt in this case is equal to sum of transverse contact ratio mp. They must be considered individually and separately from one another. The main differences between two gear systems are as follows: • Transverse contact ratio mp for Novikov gearing always equals zero (mp = 0). as outlined next. Thus. Therefore. Wildhaber features a circular-arc tooth profile. the expression mt = mp + mF > 1 is valid for Wildhaber gearing. namely the transverse contact ratio mp = 0 and the transverse contact ratio mp > 0. and they should be considered separately from each other. This requirement is a must for Novikov gearing. Taking into account that both Novikov gear- ing as well as Wildhaber gearing are kinds of helical gears. less experienced gear engineers loosely decided to combine both gear systems into a common system. This inconsistency makes it clear that combining Novikov gearing and Wildhaber gearing into a certain common gear system is not possible. As a consequence of the equality mp = 0. This combination is incorrect. and of face contact ratio mF. It is clear that gearing of no kind can simultaneously feature two different values of transverse contact ratio. These should be eliminated from gear engineering vocabulary as is adopted by proficient gear experts. the two gear systems cannot be combined in a common system. and to refer to Novikov gearing as to Wildhaber–Novikov gearing or just to W–N gearing for simplicity. A. • Transverse contact ratio mp for Wildhaber gearing always exceeds zero (mp > 0) as the contact point is traveling within the transverse section (“…The contact point has passed practically over the whole active profile during a turning angle 13 of the gear …”). that is. Total con- tact ratio mt in this case is equal to face contact ratio mF. Novikov gearing can be designed so to have a reasonably small difference between the curvatures of the convex tooth profile of one member and the concave tooth profile of the mating mem- ber of a Novikov gear pair. the expression mt = mF > 1 is valid for Novikov gearing. The above men- tioned terms Wildhaber–Novikov gearing or and W–N gearing are meaningless. This particular feature of Wildhaber’s invention was confusing for some gear engineers in western countries. that is.3 Principal Differences between Novikov Gearing and Helical Gearing by Wildhaber The helical gearing by Dr. Wildhaber gearing does not allow for that. .256 Appendix A The infeasibility of Wildhaber’s helical gearing [22] along with the principal fea- tures of Novikov gearing (to be considered below) make it possible to conclude that these two types of gearing cannot be combined into a common gearing.

The absence of access to the original documents [18. Novikov.F. After 2 years of study at MBTU. Beginning 1934. are known to the author. 36.4 Possible Root Causes for the Loose Term Wildhaber–Novikov Gearing or W–N Gearing From the author’s standpoint. Filed: January 2.Appendix A 257 A. No. and not on the zero transverse contact ratio (mp = 0). 801. he switched to the Military Aircraft Engineering Academy (MAEA) that bears the name of the famous scientist Professor N. 1915 in the city of Ivanovo. This decision honors Dr. It is known that he was born on March 25. 1957.19.* Because of that. M. Novikov attended the Moscow Bauman Technical University (MBTU). Novikov is often mistakenly quoted as: S. Novikov as the inventor of the novel system of gearing. 28b. It is likely that this * No scientific publications by western gear engineers who quoted to original publications [18].L. along with the so-called iron curtain created a significant barrier for western engineers interested in the novel system of gearing.23] is the root cause for incorrect interpreta- tion of the concept of Novikov gearing.U. . Pat. National Cl. Once the equality mp = 0 is valid for a gear pair. 109750. and [19] by Novikov.  Mikhail L. which is of critical importance. Russia.5 A Brief Biographical Sketch of Dr. Mikhail L. 1957. At the age of 15. an All-Union Scientific Conference “Practice of Implementation of Novikov Gearing” was held in Moscow. A decision to call the novel system of gearing Novikov gearing had been adopted by the conference. and should be acknowledged by gear experts all around the world. A. Novikov (1915–1957) Not too much is known about Dr. in western countries the attention was wrongly focused on the similarity of the circular-arc tooth profiles (which is of secondary impor- tance for Novikov gearing). then the gear engineer gets much freedom in designing teeth profiles of mating gears. he began working as an apprentice in a machine building factory.19.I. Pisulin. making them maximum conformal to one another. some of which were classified for a long period of time. Zhukovsky. the unfamiliarity of western engineers with the original publications [18./P. It should be mentioned here that as early as in November 13–16. The other original publication [23] by Dr. d. He was born to a lower class family—his parents were workers. A Water Sprayer.23].

258 Appendix A transition was due to his significant achievements in education. Novikov was involved in intensive research. Novikov proposed that arcs of smooth regu- lar curves be chosen as the profiles of helical gears [23]. mistakenly identifying Novikov gearing with the helical gearing earlier proposed by E. After grad- uation from MAEA in 1940. Proficient gear engineers real- ize the inadequacy of these two last terms and avoid using them. They loosely call Novikov gearing. The research undertaken in this particular area of mechanical engineering ended with the development of a novel system of gearing later called Novikov gearing in his honor. he proposed to reduce transverse con- tact ratio. Over a short period of time. which resulted in valuable contributions being made to the theory of gearing. as for this gearing another relation among the design parameters observe (mp > 0. etc. Much research on Novikov gearing had been carried out in the United States as well as in other western countries. Dr. For this purpose. Wildhaber [22]. . which was a must for him. These arcs are con- structed in a plane that is perpendicular to the axis of instant rotation of the gears (perpendicular to the pitch line of a gear pair). For Wildhaber’s helical gearing the expression mt = mF > 1 is NOT valid. and mt = mp + mF > 1). In particular. His idea was that he could overcome the barrier caused by the relations between the curvatures of the contacting surfaces when the gear tooth surfaces are in line contact. Mikhail L. Wildhaber– Novikov gearing or. he was offered work there in one of the special departments. total contact ratio. He had been granted numerous patents on inventions most of which were of crit- ical importance for aviation. Under such a scenario. and. mp. of the gear pair equals the face contact ratio. mt. Dr. For gearing of this kind the gear designer has more freedom in setting the curvatures of the mating tooth flanks of a gear pair. His invention inspired many researchers. Mikhail L. having a wrong understanding of the kinematics and geometry of Novikov gearing. mF. he moved from the position of assistant professor to the chair of the Department with the military rank of colonel. thus. Novikov was concerned with the problem of increasing the bearing capacity of gear pairs. circular arcs could be used in design of the teeth profiles. Novikov became very well known in the international engi- neering community for the invention of a novel system of gearing. the expressing mt = mF > 1 is valid. Parallel to teaching engineering courses for academy students. for simplicity. In particular (but NOT mandatorily). W–N gearing. Evolving this concept. as well as teeth flanks displacements under the load. Researchers are not so proficient. and he was awarded a prestigious national prize. Novikov’s invention became very popular in the former USSR and later in Russia. of a helical gear pair to zero (mp = 0). The difference between the curvatures of the convex tooth profile of one of the gears and the concave tooth profile of the mate is chosen to be small to absorb manufacturing errors. mF > 0.

which allowed him to provide constancy of the tooth top-land. Mikhail L. Ernest Wildhaber is one of the most famous inventors in the field of gear manu- facture and design. and alacrity. Dr. In 1924. He proposed different pressure angles for the driving and coast tooth sides of a hypoid gear. Some of Wildhaber’s former colleagues from The Gleason Works have recounted how deeply impressed they were with his creativity.6 A Brief Biographical Sketch of Dr. Wildhaber’s milestone invention was the Revacycle and the unusual shape of the tool based on the location of blades on a spatial curve. Dr. for example. taking two steps at a time. His theoretical developments [47–50] also display his originality. which is still used in cars and (b) the Revacycle method. Could it be that he expected his coworkers to comprehend at the same speed as his thoughts? They remembered that he even sped up the stairs. Ernest Wildhaber’s talent was recognized not only in the United States but also by the world engineering community and particularly by his alma . He received 279 patents. Novikov was a modest person regard- less of the fame and power he had. a very productive way to generate straight bevel gears. and students. Wildhaber graduated from the Technische Hochschule of Zurich University in Switzerland and then came to the United States in 1919. Ernest Wildhaber (1893–1979) Dr. Wildhaber’s most famous inventions are (a) the hypoid gear drive. A. This last characteristic was even the source of a colleague’s complaint that Wildhaber was not as patient as university professors while giving expla- nations. almost legendary intuition. Wildhaber’s inventions reveal signs of his originality. colleagues. a catastrophe for his family.Appendix A 259 Through all of his life. he went to work for The Gleason Works where he began the most successful period of his career as a creative engineer and inventor. imagination. some of which have a broad application in the gear industry because of his work as an engi- neering consultant for The Gleason Works. he found the solution to avoid singularities and undercutting in hypoid gear drives. Intensive research work ceased with his sudden death at a young age.

U. Because of this and for the readers’ convenience. Pat. No. This causes problems in the proper understanding and in the interpretation of the significance of this milestone invention. 109113]). . which awarded him an honorary doctorate in engineering in 1962 (Gear Pairs and Cam Mechanisms Having Point System of Meshing by M. No. Pat. 109113 of 1956) is a rare publication which is not available to the most of gear experts. Novikov [S.L.U. Zurich University. Novikov’s patent (S.260 Appendix A mater. an invention disclosure of Novikov’s gearing along with its translation from Russian to English is placed next for free discussion and for a comparison with the Wildhaber’s gearing. No translation of the patent from Russian to English is available to the public.

Appendix A 261 .

262 Appendix A .

Appendix A 263 .

264 Appendix A O1 P O2 B C B C .

Lower sensitivity to manufacturing errors and to deflections under the load is another advantage of the proposed gearing. The proposed gearing can be designed either with parallel or with intersecting. application №550525 to Committee on Inventions and Discoveries at Council of Ministries of the USSR Known designs of gearing. featuring point system of meshing. The curves BAB are arbitrary smooth curves. greater circular forces are permissible by the proposed gearing.L. External gearing as well as internal gearing of the proposed system of meshing is possible. Novikov GEAR PAIRS AND CAM MECHANISMS HAVING POINT SYSTEM OF MESHING Filed: April 19. Contact strength of known designs of gearing having line system of meshing including the widely used involute gearing is limited as well. A is the point of meshing (current location). PA denotes the line of action. similar dimensions and comparable parameters for the rest of the design. The proposed gearing features higher contact strength due to favor- able curvatures of interacting tooth flanks. the arcs are located within . ДAД is the circle centering at the point P which corresponds to the limit case of the tooth profiles (in the case the profiles are aligned to each other). The proposed concept of gearing can be utilized in design of cam mechanisms.Appendix A 265 Classification 47n. feature low contact strength and are not widely used in practice. Here. Under equivalent contact stress. 6 №109113 USSR INVENTION DISCLOSURE to the Certificate on Invention M. the point of intersection of the planar cross-section by the axis of instant relative rotation is denoted by P. which are located inside of the circular arc ДAД (i.. Tooth ratio of the proposed gearing can be either of constant value or it can be variable. or with crossing axes of rotations of the gears. O1 and O2 are the points of intersection of the planar cross-section by the axes of the gear and of the pinion. 1956. Several curves BAB represent examples of tooth profiles of one of the mating gears. and time-dependent. Possible tooth profiles in cross-section of tooth flanks by a plane that is perpendicular to the instant axis of relative rotation through the cur- rent point of contact is illustrated in Figure.e.

finally • No tooth flanks interference is allowed within the working portions of the surfaces. A coordinate system is associated with the gear. The entity of the invention is disclosed next in detail. The curves CAC are arbitrary smooth curves. Certain smooth regular sur- faces through the meshing lines can be employed as tooth flanks of the gear and of the pinion. the tooth flanks should have a common perpendicular and thus the require- ments of the main theorem of meshing should be satisfied. Either constant or time-dependent (smoothly varying in time) speed of motion of the point of meshing along the line of meshing is assigned. The working portion of one of two tooth flanks is convex. In the coordinate systems. The proposed kinds of tooth flanks fulfill the above listed require- ments and allow for high contact strength of the gear teeth. which are located outside the circular arc ДAД (i. Location and orientation of either straight line meshing or smooth curved line of meshing is specified in a space in which location and ori- entation of axes of rotations of the gear and of the pinion are given. the moving meshing point traces contact lines. the arcs are located within the bodily side of the limit tooth flank of another of two gears). The curves CAC are also located close to the circular arc ДAД and they feature a high rate of conformity to the circular arc.. while . The curves BAB are located close to the circular arc ДAД and they feature a high rate of conformity to the circular arc. The following requirements should be fulfilled so that the surfaces could be used as the tooth flanks: • At every location of the point of meshing. One of the contact lines is associated with the gear and the other one is associated with the pinion. Tooth flanks are generated as loci of tooth profiles constructed for all possible locations of the meshing point. • Curvatures of tooth profiles should correspond to each other. The line of meshing is located reasonably close to the axis of instant rela- tive rotation of the gears. Consider a plane through the current meshing point. Construct two circular arcs centering at points within the straight line through the pitch point and the meshing point. The constructed circular arcs can be considered as an example of tooth profiles of the gear and of the pinion.266 Appendix A the bodily side of the limit tooth flank of one of the gears). and.e. The arc centers are located close to the pitch point. and a corresponding coordinate system is associated with the pinion. which is per- pendicular to the instant axis of relative rotation. Several curves CAC represent examples of tooth profiles of the sec- ond of the mating gears.

Gear pairs can feature either one point of contact (when working portions of the tooth flank contact each other just in one point. Tooth thicknesses and pitch are assigned to ensure the required bending tooth strength. it is recommended to ensure favorable angles between the common perpendicular (along which tooth flanks of one of the gears acts against the tooth flank of another gear) and between the axes of rotations of the gears. A small difference between the radii of curvature of tooth profiles is necessary. Friction and wear loss are proportional to the relative sliding velocity in the gear mesh. It should be kept in mind that under the run- in period of time point meshing of the gear teeth will be transforming to the abovementioned line meshing of the tooth profiles. For the other gear. The opposite sides of tooth profiles are designed in a way similar to that just discussed. Tooth profiles can differ from the circular arcs.e. Under such a scenario. This would require an extremely high accuracy of the center-distance and independence from operation con- ditions. too close a location of the line of meshing to the axis of instant relative rota- tion is also not desirable as that reduces the contact strength of the gear tooth flanks.. For parallel-axis gear pairs it is preferred to employ a straight line as the line of meshing. Face width of the gear or length of the gear teeth should correlate to their pitch to ensure the required value of the face contact ratio. the tooth profile should be located outside the circular arc. However. speed of the point and its trajectory) should be chosen to minimize friction and wear loss. the line of meshing should not be too far from the axis of instant relative rotation. The law of motion of the meshing point (i.Appendix A 267 the working portion of the other tooth flank is concave (in the direction toward the axis of instant relative rotation). In a particular case radii of tooth profiles could be of the same magnitude and equal to the distance from the meshing point to the axis of instant relative rotation. In addition. the sliding velocity should be reduced as much as possible. the theoretical point contact of the tooth flanks will be retained. Centers of both profiles in this particular case are located at the axis of instant relative rotation. Therefore. point kind of meshing reduces to a special kind of line meshing. excluding the phases of the teeth re-engagement) or they can feature multiple contact points when tooth flanks contact each other at several points simultaneously. On the other hand. which is parallel to axes of rotations of the gear . However. tooth pro- files of another geometries (those always passing through the meshing point) should be located (for one gear) within the interior of the above- mentioned circular-arc profile that is centering at the point within the axis of instant relative rotation as shown in Figure. Point meshing is preferred when design- ing tooth profiles. For this purpose. which is impractical.

Novikov is incorrect. this mistake significantly affected further developments in the field of gearing. No. E. 1. and. the loci of points of meshing in space (within which configuration of the axes of rotations of the gear and of the pinion are specified). Subject of the Invention Gear pairs as well as cam mechanisms having a point system of engage- ment that differ from known designs in the following: (a) tooth profiles are created as the lines of intersection of the tooth flanks by planes. When axial thrust in the gear pair is strongly undesirable. Wildhaber and the other proposed by Dr.” The combination of Wildhaber’s gearing with the gearing proposed by Dr. Novikov.750) With the greatest respect to Dr. . This mistake could be forgiven of Dr. An example of parallel-axis gearing with limit geometry of tooth profiles is illustrated in Figure. thus it should be eliminated from the sci- entific vocabulary. radii of cur- vature of tooth profiles in all cross-sections by planes are equal to each other. 1.L.760 of 1926) is a kind of mistake. those conformal to radii of curvature of the circular arc centering at the point of intersection of the instant axis of rotation by the plane (c). are circular arcs or other smooth regular curves. is a straight line or a smooth regular curve. M.601. must be considered individually. while the line of action. which are perpendicular to the axis of instant relative rotation and that is passing through the point of meshing in its current location (b). that is. Pat. Pat. Wildhaber—we all are mistaken from time to time.601.S. and can NOT be combined into the wrong term “Wildhaber–Novikov gearing. an invention disclosure of Wildhaber’s gearing is placed below for free discussion and for a compari- son with Novikov’s gearing. Tooth flanks in this case are a kind of regular screw surfaces.L. M.268 Appendix A and of the pinion. and ultimately it resulted in wide usage of the com- pletely wrong term “Wildhaber–Novikov gearing” or simply “W–N gearing.6. A. No. herring-bone gears can be used instead. it should be mentioned here that his “heli- cal gearing” (U. Speed of the meshing point along the straight line of meshing can be of constant value. The curved contact line is located across the tooth profile.” For this purpose and for the readers’ convenience. In this particular case. namely the one proposed by Dr. Point contact of the tooth flanks in this particular case is transformed to their line contact.1  Helical Gearing by Ernest Wildhaber (U. Ernest Wildhaber and to his achievements in the field of gearing and gear machining. Unfortunately. E. and they can be cut on machine tools available in the market. Gears that feature tooth flanks of such geometry are easy to manufac- ture.S. These two completely different type of gearings.

Appendix A 269 .

270 Appendix A .

Appendix A 271 .

272 Appendix A .

Appendix A 273 .

274 Appendix A .

Appendix A 275 .

Its components are given by (X. Y. Vectors possess certain properties. A or a. 0) to a point (X.1  Fundamental Properties of Vectors The distance-and-direction interpretation suggests a powerful way to visu- alize a vector. and the orientation of the segment and placement of the arrowhead (at one end of the segment or the other) represents its direction. Y.Appendix B: Elements of Vector Calculus The vector. A position vector runs from the origin of coordinate (0. • Direction vector. Z) and its length gives the distance of the point from the origin. Frequently. is a triple real number (in most computer languages these are usually called floating point numbers) and is noted in a bold typeface. Vector calculus is a powerful tool for solving many geometrical and kine- matical problems that pertain to the design and generation of part surfaces. Care must be taken to differentiate between two types of vectors: • Position vector. The essential concept to understand about a position vector is that it is anchored to specific coordinates (points in space). The set of points that are used to describe the shape of all part surfaces can be thought of as position vectors. Such normal vectors are also the key in many calculations in the theory of part surface generation. A direction vector differs from a position vector in that it is not anchored to specific coordinates. In this book. in this case they are said to be normalized. Z). for example. and that is as a directed line segment or arrow. vectors are understood as quantities that have magnitude and direc- tion and obey the law of addition. 277 . For this. direction vectors are used in a form where they have unit length. B. the key to all the theory of part surface generation. The most common application of a direction vector in the theory of part surface generation is to specify the orientation of a surface or ray direction. the set of which is commonly inter- preted as the set of fundamental properties of vectors. The length of the arrow (at some predetermined scale) represents the magnitude of the vector. 0. we use a direc- tion vector at right angles (normal) and pointing away from the part surface.

1) a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c (B. The vector ka has the same direction as a. Here. Position of the vectors is unimportant for equality. Then. A unit vector a in the direction of a vector a is a a a = = (B. b.3) (k + t ) a = k a + t a (B. B. c and two scalars k and t are given. Scalar multiplication.4) k (a + b) = k a + k b (B. k is called a scalar as it changes the scale of the vector a.2) k (t a) = kt a (B.7) |a| a . and az are the scalar components of a. Negation. Then. the line from the tail of a to the head of b is the sum c = (a + b). their sum (a + b) is graphically defined by joining the tail of b to the head of a. vector addition and scalar multiplication have the following properties: a + b = b+ a (B. with a magnitude k times that of a. From the properties of “addition” and “negation. Let us assume that a set of three vectors a.” the fol- lowing a − b = a + (−b) can be defined.5) Magnitude a of a vector a is a = |a| = ax2 + ay2 + az2 (B.278 Appendix B Addition. ay. Subtraction.2  Mathematical Operations over Vectors The following rules and mathematical operations can be determined from the above listed fundamental properties of vectors. The vector −a has the same magnitude as a but the opposite direction. Given two vectors a and b. Two vectors are equal when they have the same magnitude and direction. Equality.6) where ax.

and az by l.15) a ⋅ ( b + c) = b ⋅ a + b ⋅ c (B. m and n accordingly. ay . and az of a unit vector a are also the direction cosines of the vector a cos α = ax (B. Equation B.17) If a is perpendicular to b.18) .12)  bz  Angle ∠(a.11) is commonly used for calculation of scalar product of two vectors a and b.8) cosβ = ay (B. b) between two vectors a and b is calculated from  a⋅b ∠(a .14) a⋅b = b⋅a (B. then a⋅b = 0 (B.Appendix B 279 The components ax . b) = cos −1  (B.16) (k a) ⋅ b = a ⋅ (k b) = k(a ⋅ b) (B.13) |a||b| Scalar product of two vectors a and b features the following properties: a ⋅ a = |a|2 (B.10) It is a common practice to denote the components ax .11 can also be represented in the form  bx  T   a ⋅ b = [a] ⋅ [b] = [ax ay az ] ⋅ by  (B. Scalar product (or dot product) of vectors: The formula a ⋅ b = ax bx + ay by + azbz = |a||b| cos ∠(a . ay . b) (B.9) cos γ = az (B.

then the vector c is perpendicular to a plane through the vectors a and b. Y. k × i = j (B. and k are unit vectors in the X. in which the vectors a and b are specified.20) bx by bz a × b = |a||b| n sin ∠(a . Vector product of two vectors a and b features the following properties: i j k a × b = ax ay az (B. Vector product possesses the following properties: in case a × b = c.280 Appendix B Vector product (or cross product) of two vectors: Vector product of two vectors can be calculated from the formula a × b = ( a y bz − a z b y ) i + ( a z b x − a x bz ) j + ( a x b y − a y bx ) k (B.24) a × ( b + c) = a × b + a × c (B. j × k = i. i. b) (B.25) (k a) × b = a × (k b) = k(a × b) (B.26) i × j = k .23)  − ay ax 0   bz   − ay bx + ax by   a × b = −b × a (B. |a × b| = |a||b| sin ∠(a .21) where unit normal vector to the plane through the vectors a and b is denoted by n.19) Here.19. j. b) (B. in Equation B. then a × b = 0 (B.28) .22) Coordinates of the vector product a × b can also be expressed in the form  0 − az a y   b x   − a z b y + a y bz        |a × b| =  az 0 − a x  ⋅  b y  =  − a x bz + a z bx  (B. and Z direc- tions of the reference system XYZ.27) If a is parallel to b.

* * Joseph-Louis Lagrange (January 25.35) can be used.29) ( b × c) ⋅ a = a ⋅ ( b × c) (B. and mechanician.33) It should be mentioned here that in general. The product (a × b) ⋅ c is commonly referred to as triple scalar product of three vectors a. astronomer.31) ax ay az a ⋅ ( b × c) = bx by bz (B. The product (a × b) × c is commonly referred to as triple vector product of three vectors a. 1813). For the purposes of calculation of mixed product of vectors a and b an equation (a × b) ⋅ (a × b) = (a ⋅ a)(b ⋅ b) − (a ⋅ b)2 (B.30) (a × b) ⋅ c = a ⋅ (b × c) (B. a famous French mathematician. the triple vector products (a × b) × c and a × (b × c) are not equal (a × b) × c ≠ a × (b × c) (B. b. and c features the following properties: (a × b) ⋅ c = (b × c) ⋅ a = (c × a) ⋅ b (B. Triple scalar product of three vectors a. and c.35 is due to Lagrange. and c. . it can also be evaluated in a more simple way by use of the identity (a × b) × c = (a ⋅ c)b − (b ⋅ c)a (B.32) cx cy cz Triple vector product of three vectors.Appendix B 281 Triple scalar product of three vectors. However. b. Lagrange equation for vectors. b. 1736–April 10.34) The analytical interpretation of many problems and results in the field of geometry of surfaces are simplified when vector calculus is used. Equation B. The product (a × b) × c can be evaluated by two vector products.

we give a gear tooth flank G (Figure C. but angular coordinates are often helpful as well. are also valid for the pinion tooth flank. (Latinized form: Renatus Cartesius). and Zg. as functions of two Gaussian† coordinates Ug and Vg in a certain closed interval‡  X g (U g . and writer. Cartesian coordinate systems are the most commonly used. φ) or angular system.1). C. θ. Vg )  Y (U . ‡ All the equations that are valid for the gear tooth flank. G. 1777–February 23. † Johan Carl Friedrich Gauss (April 30. and all algorithms and formulas used in this book assume a right-handed convention. Therefore. the axes can be oriented in either a left. A right-handed Cartesian reference system is preferred. Vg )     1  * René Descartes (March 31. Two coordinate systems are particularly useful to us: the ubiquitous Cartesian (XYZ) rectilinear system and the spherical polar (r. 1855)—a famous German mathema- tician and physical scientist. V )  G ⇒ rg = r g (U g . in most cases. P.Appendix C: Elements of Differential Geometry of Surfaces The discussion in this book is primarily focused on the kinematics of confor- mal and high-conformal gearings and the geometry of tooth flanks of gears. 1596–February 11. by expressing its rectangular coordinated Xg. and Z. Yg. Mutually perpendicular coordinate axes of a Cartesian coordinate system are conventionally labeled as X. Vg ) =   g g g (C. In a Cartesian reference system. a French mathematician.or right-handed sense. 1650). The gear and pinion tooth flanks and their motion in space in relation with one another are analytically described in a reference system.1  Specification of a Gear Tooth Flank A gear tooth flank could be uniquely determined by two independent vari- ables. Y. philosopher. A coordinate system provides a numerical frame of reference for the three- dimensional space in which the theory is developed.1)  Zg (U g . 283 . An orthogonal Cartesian* reference system is a major kind of reference systems that is com- monly used for this purpose.

g ≤ U g ≤ U 2. g where rg is the position vector of a point of the gear tooth flank. where the rank is 1 or 0 are singular points. Yg.g are the boundary values of the closed interval of the Ug-parameter V1.1 Principal parameters of local topology of a gear tooth flank. g . then Equation C. V2. U1. Positions. g ≤ Vg ≤ V2. G. G U1. .2)  ∂X g ∂Yg ∂Z g     ∂Vg ∂Vg ∂Vg  has a rank 2.1 represents a curve. when the rank at all points is 1. which means that the matrix  ∂X g ∂Yg ∂Z g   ∂U ∂U g ∂U g  M =  g (C.g. G Xg. V1.g are the boundary values of the closed interval of the Vg-parameter The parameters Ug and Vg must enter into Equation C. U2. G Ug and Vg are curvilinear (Gaussian) coordinates of the gear tooth flank. Zg are Cartesian coordinates of the point of the gear tooth flank.1 independently.g.284 Appendix C Ug – curve Tangent plane ng vg Vg – curve m Zg ug rg +Ug Xg +Vg Yg FIGURE C.

1. Specification of a gear tooth flank by • An equation in explicit form • An equation in implicit form • A set of parametric equations are among the most frequently used in practice methods of surfaces specification.6. The first derivatives of rg with respect to Gaussian coordinates Ug and Vg are designated as ∂rg = Ug (C. C. or into the matrix form of its specification as it follows from Equation C.Appendix C 285 Other methods of surfaces specification are known as well.4) ∂VP and for the unit tangent vectors Ug ug = (C. .3) ∂U g ∂rP = VP (C.5 and C.5) |U g| Vg vg = (C. Similarly.6) |Vg| Correspondingly. the direction * It is right to underscore here that the unit tangent vectors u P and vP are dimensionless values as it follows from Equations C.* the direction of the tangent line to the Ug-coordinate line through a given point m on the gear tooth flank. It is assumed here and below that any given kind of a gear tooth flank specification can be converted either into the vector form. is specified by the unit tangent vector ug (as well as by the tangent vector Ug).2  Tangent Vectors and Tangent Plane: Unit Normal Vector The following notation is proven to be convenient in the consideration below. G.

8 and C.9) |N g| |U g × Vg| When the order of the multipliers in Equations C. vg. First.3  A Local Frame Two unit tangent vectors ug and vg along with the unit normal vector ng com- prise a local frame ug. vg ⊥ ng). and of the unit normal vector ng to a gear tooth flank G at a given point m N g = U g × Vg (C. Second.e..9 is chosen properly. then the unit normal vector ng (as well as the normal vector Ng) is pointed outward of the bodily side of the surface G. ug ⊥ ng). as well as unit tangent vector vg is also perpendicular to the unit normal vector ng (i. The significance of the unit tangent vectors ug and vg becomes evident from the following considerations. p − rgm    ug  Tangent plane ⇒  =0 (C. unit tangent vectors ug and vg yield an equation of the tangent plane to a gear tooth flank G at a specified point m: rt.8) and Ng U g × Vg ng = = = ug × v g (C.286 Appendix C of the tangent line to the Vg-coordinate line through that same point m on a gear tooth flank G is specified by the unit tangent vector vg (as well as by the tangent vector Vg). rt. Unit tangent vector ug is perpendicular to the unit normal vec- tor ng (i. the unit tangent vectors ug and vg are not perpendicular to each other. Generally speaking. tangent vectors yield an equation of the perpendicular Ng..e.p is the position vector of a point of the tangent plane to a gear tooth flank G at a specified point m and rgm is the position vector of the point m on a gear tooth flank G. they form a certain .7)  vg     1  where. and ng having origin at a current point m on a gear tooth flank G. C.

g. n g )] should also be a right-hand oriented local frame. Φ1. ng) is right-hand oriented.4  Fundamental Forms of a Surface Consider two other important issues concerning the gear tooth flank ­geometry—both relate to intrinsic geometry in differential vicinity of a cur- rent surface point m. then the newly constructed local frame [either the local frame (u*g . and vice versa. The metric properties of a gear tooth flank G are described by the first fundamental form. n g ). of the surface. or the local frame (u*g . namely.10 and C. The first issue is the so-called the first fundamental form Φ1.g. First fundamental form of a surface. v g . Φ1. and is briefly considered below in this section of the book. the following equa- tions can be used: u*g = u g × n g (C.g ⇒ dsg2 = Eg dU g2 + 2Fg dU g dVg + Gg dVg2 (C. It should be pointed out here that another possibility to construct an orthogonal local frame is also available.11. In order to construct an orthogonal local frame. For the calculation of the newly introduced unit tangent vectors u*g and v *g . 1917).10) v *g = v g × n g (C.Appendix C 287 angle ωg. vg. ng) must be substituted with a unit tangent vector v *g . the first fundamental form. Unit tangent vectors ug and vg to a surface G at a point m are of critical importance when solving practical problems in the field of gearing.11) It is convenient to choose that order of the multipliers in Equations C. 1842–February 23. which preserves the orientation (the hand) of the original local frame (ug. ng) must be substituted with a unit tangent vector u*g. Local frame of this kind is com- monly referred to as a Darboux* frame. . vg. C. v g . is represented as the quadratic form Φ1. either the unit tan- gent vector ug in the local frame (ug. This statement is proven by numerous examples shown below. vg. vg. Usually. a French mathematician.g of a gear tooth flank G.12) * Jean Gaston Darboux (August 14. ng). or the unit tangent vector vg in that same local frame (ug. if the original local frame (ug.

38]. is known from many advanced sources. another form of analytical repre- sentation of the first fundamental form.288 Appendix C Here. In the theory of gearing.15) Gg = Vg ⋅ Vg (C. Radzevich [28. Φ1. Eg.17) ∂U g ∂U g ∂U g ∂U g ∂U g ∂U g ∂U g ∂U g ∂rg ∂r g ∂X g ∂X g ∂Yg ∂Yg ∂Z g ∂Z g Fg = ⋅ = ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ (C.16 can be represented in an expanded form as ∂rg ∂rg ∂X g ∂X g ∂Yg ∂Yg ∂Z g ∂Z g Eg = ⋅ = ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ (C.12 is designated: sg is the linear element on a gear tooth flank G (sg is equal to the length of a segment of a certain curve on a gear tooth flank G). Φ1. Fundamental magnitudes of the first order Eg.13) 0 0 1 0  0      0 0 0 1  0  This kind of analytical representation of the first fundamental form Φ1. The practical advantage of Equation C. is proven to be useful  Eg Fg 0 0   dU g  F Gg 0 0   dVg  ⇒ dsg2 = [dU g dVg 0 0] ⋅  g Φ1. Equation C.14) Fg = U g ⋅ Vg (C.14 through C.18) ∂U g ∂Vg ∂U g ∂Vg ∂U g ∂Vg ∂U g ∂Vg ∂rg ∂rg ∂X g ∂X g ∂Yg ∂Yg ∂Z g ∂Z g Gg = ⋅ = ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ (C. Gg are fundamental magnitudes of the first order at a surface point. in Equation C.g.12 for the first fundamental form. g ⋅ (C.16) Equations C. Fg.13 is that it can easily be incorpo- rated into computer programs when multiple coordinate system transforma- tions are used.g.P is proposed by Dr. and Gg. The last is vital for the theory of gearing. can be calculated from the set of the following equations: Eg = U g ⋅ U g (C.19) ∂Vg ∂Vg ∂Vg ∂Vg ∂Vg ∂Vg ∂Vg ∂Vg . Fg.

and Vg-coordinates of a point of a gear tooth flank G. and the fundamental magnitude Fg can be equal to zero (Fg ≥ 0).20) Fg = Fg (U g .26) . Φ1.. Vg ) (C. and Gg. Square of a gear tooth flank G portion that is bounded by a closed curve on the surface c. which is bounded by a closed curve on the surface G. By use of the first fundamental form. Vg ) (C. Fg. the following major parameters of geometry of a gear tooth flank G can be calculated: a. the following equation can be used: Sg = ∫∫ Σ EgGg − Fg2 dU g dVg (C.e.22) It is important to point out here that fundamental magnitudes Eg and Gg are always positive (i. are functions of the Ug. is always positively defined (Φ1. Angle between any two directions on a gear tooth flank G Length.23) Vg = Vg (t) (C. these relationships can be represented in the form: Eg = Eg (U g . Φ1. In general form. Gg > 0). sg. of a gear tooth flank G patch Σ. Sg. This results in that the first fundamental form.g. of a curve-line segment U g = U g (t) (C. Vg ) (C.21) Gg = Gg (U g .24) on a gear tooth flank G is given by the equation t 2 2  dU g  dU g dVg  dVg  sg = ∫ Eg   dt  + 2Fg dt dt + Gg   dt  dt (C.g at a point of a gear tooth flank G.Appendix C 289 Fundamental magnitudes of the first order.g ≥ 0). Eg > 0.25) t0 t0 ≤ t ≤ t1 For calculation of square. and it cannot be of a negative value. Length of a curve-line segment on a gear tooth flank G b. Eg.

the following equation can be used: Hg = EgGg − Fg2 (C. The first fundamental form. Location of the point m is specified by the coordinates Ug + dUg and Vg + dVg as it is infinitesimally close to the point K.g ⇒ − drg ⋅ dn g = Lg dU g2 + 2 M g dU g dVg + N g dVg2 (C. Φ2.28) Eg G g Hg tan ω g = (C.27) Eg G g Hg sin ω g = (C. the value of the angle.290 Appendix C Ultimately.g ≥ 0 is always valid.g. Hg. Location of the point K is specified by two coordinates Ug and Vg.g describes the curvature of a smooth regular surface G. H g = + EgGg − Fg2 . Hg. The closest distance of approach of the point m to the tangent plane through the point K is expressed by the second fundamental form Φ2.g. The first fundamental form. remains the same when the surface is banding. Φ1. Second fundamental form of a surface. The second fundamental form. and thus it is always nonnegative—that is. Φ1.30) It is assumed here that the discriminant. The second fundamental form Φ2.29) Fg For the calculation of the discriminant. reg- ular part surface G.g. the distance a is assumed to be equal to zero (a = 0).31) .g. of the first fundamental form. ωg. The second fundamental form Φ2. Consider a point K on a smooth regular part surface G (Figure C. Usually.g. it is represented as the quadratic form (Figure C.g. describes the curvature of a smooth. is always nonnegative—that is. A line through the point K is entirely located within the surface G. Φ1.2): Φ 2. represents the length of a curve-line seg- ment. between two given directions through a certain point m on a gear tooth flank G can be calculated from one of the equations below Fg cos ω g = (C. A nearby point m is located within the line through the point K. This is another important feature of the first fundamental form Φ1.g of a gear tooth flank G is another of the two above mentioned issues. Torsion of the curve Km is ignored. Therefore. the inequality Φ1.2).

Equation C. G.g. another analytical representation of the second fundamental form. V + dV g g g g Tangent plane m* K Ug . is proven to be useful:  Lg Mg 0 0   dU g  M Lg 0 0   dVg  ⇒ [dU g dVg 0 0] ⋅  g Φ 2.38]. Φ2. The last is vital for both for the theory of gearing.13.33) ∂U g ∂U g .2 On definition of second fundamental form. Ng designate fundamental magni- tudes of the second order. Vg Zg Yg Xg FIGURE C.Appendix C 291 m m* K a=0 m* m U + dU . Φ2.P. Radzevich [28. is pro- posed by Dr. Mg. the parameters Lg. Φ2. By definition.g. g ⋅ (C.32 is that it can easily be incorporated into computer programs when multiple coordi- nate system transformations are used. fundamental magnitudes of the second order are equal: ∂n g ∂U g Lg = − U g ⋅ = ng ⋅ (C. at a point of a smooth gear tooth flank.32)  0 0 1 0  0       0 0 0 1  0  This analytical representation of the second fundamental form. In the theory of gearing.31 is known from many advanced sources. the practical advantage of Equation C. In Equation C.32. Similar to Equation C.

36) EgGg − Fg2 (∂U g /∂Vg ) × U g ⋅ Vg (∂Vg /∂U g ) × U g ⋅ Vg Mg = = (C.38) EgGg − Fg2 Equations C.37) 2 Eg G g − F g EgGg − Fg2 (∂Vg /∂Vg ) × U g ⋅ Vg Ng = (C.39) ∂X g ∂Yg ∂Z g ∂Vg ∂Vg ∂Vg Lg = EgGg − Fg2 ∂ 2X g ∂ 2Yg ∂ 2Zg ∂U g ∂Vg ∂U g ∂Vg ∂U g ∂Vg ∂X g ∂Yg ∂Z g ∂U g ∂U g ∂U g (C.292 Appendix C 1 ∂n g ∂n g  ∂U g ∂Vg Mg = −  U g ⋅ + Vg = ng ⋅ = ng ⋅ (C.35) ∂Vg ∂Vg For the calculation of the fundamental magnitudes of the second order of a smooth regular gear tooth flank G.36 through C.34) 2 ∂Vg ∂U g  ∂Vg ∂U g ∂n g ∂Vg N g = − Vg ⋅ = ng ⋅ (C.40) ∂X g ∂Yg ∂Z g ∂Vg ∂Vg ∂Vg Mg = EgGg − Fg2 . the following equations can be used: (∂U g /∂U g ) × U g ⋅ Vg Lg = (C.38 can be represented in an expanded form as ∂ 2X g ∂ 2Yg ∂ 2Zg ∂U g2 ∂U g2 ∂U g2 ∂X g ∂Yg ∂Z g ∂U g ∂U g ∂U g (C.

Gg and Lg.43) N g = N g (U g .Appendix C 293 ∂ 2X g ∂ 2Yg ∂ 2Zg ∂Vg2 ∂Vg2 ∂Vg2 ∂X g ∂Yg ∂Z g ∂U g ∂U g ∂U g (C. Mg. and when they satisfy the Gauss characteristic equation. Fg.44) The discriminant.45) We now come to the theorem.and Vg-coordinates of a point of a gear tooth flank G. 1800–March 9. Ng. these relationships can be represented in the form: Lg = Lg (U g . Φ2. 1824–July 21. and may be enunciated as follows: Theorem C. Vg ) (C. In general form. Tg. which is essential justification for consider- ing the differential geometry of surfaces in connection with the six funda- mental magnitudes. It has been proven (1867) first by Bonnet* [3]. and the two Mainardi† – Codazzi‡ relations. Vg ) (C. ‡ Delfino Codazzi (March 7. Ng are given. 1873)—an Italian mathematician. a French mathematician.1 When six fundamental magnitudes Eg. of the second fundamental form.g. 1819–June 22. Mg.42) M g = M g (U g . * Pierre Ossian Bonnet (December 22. can be calcu- lated from the following equation: Tg = Lg N g − M g2 (C.41) ∂X g ∂Yg ∂Z g ∂Vg ∂Vg ∂Vg NP = EgGg − Fg2 Fundamental magnitudes of the second order. they determine a gear tooth flank G uniquely say as to its position and orientation in space. 1892). are also functions of the Ug. Vg ) (C. . † Gaspare Mainardi (June 27. Lg. 1879)—an Italian mathematician.

g| T2. and passes through the vector of the second principal direction T2. is perpendicular to a gear tooth flank G at a current surface point m. two surfaces that have identical first and second fundamental forms must be either congruent or symmetrical to one another.5  Principal Directions on a Gear Tooth Flank Direction of vectors of principal directions. T1. principal directions at a point m of a smooth. but.g and t2. g = (C.g.294 Appendix C This theorem is commonly referred to as the main theorem in the theory of surface.g and t 2. The unit tangent vectors t1. C1.g at a point on a gear tooth flank G. For the vectors of the first. or simply as the Bonnet theorem. The second principal plane section. it is often preferred to not use the vectors T1. C2.g and T2. At umbilic points of a surface as well as at flatten points.g and t 2.g can be identified at any and all points of a smooth. instead. In the theory of gearing. and for the second. the unit tangent vectors t1. regular gear tooth flank G except of umbilic points.g and T2.g of principal direc- tions at a point m on a gear tooth flank G along with unit normal vector ng at . and in flat- ten points of the surface.g are calculated from the equations T1. T2. to use the unit vectors t1.g and T2.g.47) |T1. the corresponding values of the ratio dUg/dVg are calculated as roots of the quadratic equation Eg dU g + Fg dVg Fg dU g + Gg dVg =0 (C. C.46) Lg dU g + M g dVg M g dU g + N g dVg The first principal plane section. According to the main theorem. and passes through the vector of the first prin- cipal direction T1.48) | T2. is orthogonal to a gear tooth flank G at a current surface point m.g of the principal directions.g. g | Correspondingly. regular part surface G. g = (C. By use of six fundamental magnitudes. g t 2. T1. The principal directions T1. can be specified in terms of the ratio dUg/dVg. g t1. all parameters of local geometry of a given part surface can be calculated.g.g.g. principal directions cannot be identified.g of the principal directions.

Appendix C 295 that same point m comprise an orthogonal local frame (t1. C1. R1. R1. t 2.g. t 2.6  Curvatures at a Point of a Part Surface The first.g. the following equations are commonly used: k1. t 2. g + k 2. C. at umbilic points on a gear tooth flank G.g and R 2.(EgGg − Fg2 ) Lg N g − M g2 Gg = k1.g > R1.g. ng) is commonly referred to as a Darboux frame. no principal curvatures can be identified as all nor- mal curvatures of the tooth surface G at an umbilic point are equal to one another. principal radii of curvature at a point of a gear tooth flank G are measured within the first and in the second principal plane sections.g. g Mg = (C.g. g Eg N g − 2Fg M g + G g Lg Mg = = (C. the following equation is commonly used: Eg N g − 2Fg M g + Gg Lg Hg Rg2 − Rg + =0 (C. g + k 2. For the calculation of values of the principal radii of curvature. The local frame (t1.g.g.g.g. ng). and ng are mutually perpendicular to one another. g = (C. Another two important parameters of local topology of a gear tooth flank G are • Mean curvature. and the second.g.g and C2. Mg • Intrinsic curvature (Gaussian or full curvature) curvature. R 2.52) 2 . g ⋅ k 2.51) EgGg − Fg2 The expressions for the mean curvature Mg and for the Gaussian curva- ture Gg: k1. accordingly. Gg For the calculation of the curvatures Mg and Gg.49) Tg Tg Remember that algebraic values of the radii of principal curvature. relate to one another as R2. All three unit vectors t1.50) 2 2 .g. In particular cases.

56.56) are the solutions to Equation C. g (C. g (C. g ⋅ k 2. and R2.53) considered together yield a quadratic equation with respect to principal cur- vatures k1. g = (C. g The first principal curvature.g.296 Appendix C Gg = k1. it has been proved by Bonnet [3] that the specification of the first and the second fun- damental forms determines a unique surface if Gauss’ characteristic equa- tion and Mainardi–Codazzi’s relations of compatibility are satisfied.g are the reciprocals to the correspond- ing principal radii of curvature R1.g designates the second principal curvature of a gear tooth flank G at that same point m. of a gear tooth flank G at a current point m—that is the inequality k1. The principal curvatures k1.g and k2. is always larger than the second prin- cipal curvature.59) is always valid. and those two surfaces that have identical first and second fundamental forms . and k2.g: k g2 − 2 Mg k g + Gg = 0 (C.57) R1.55 and C. g = Mg − Mg2 − Gg (C. This brief consideration of the major elements of part surface geometry makes possible the introduction of two definitions that are of critical impor- tance for further discussion.54) The following k1.58) R2. g = Mg + Mg2 − Gg (C. Here. the first principal curvature of a gear tooth flank G at a current point m is designated as k1.55) k 2. k1.g.54. k2. in Equations C. g = (C. As it is already mentioned earlier in this section of the book.g.g. g 1 k 2. and k2.g. g > k 2.g 1 k 1.

Lg . N g ) (C. Gg ) ⇒ G = G (Φ1. g tan τ b. Gg .7  An Illustrative Example Consider an example of how an analytical representation of a surface in a Cartesian reference system can be converted into the natural representation of that same surface [28]. g = Φ 2. Cambridge. Vg ) =   b. Solid Shape. M g . The position vector of a point.60 can be derived from Equation C. g g (C. Fg . g cos Vg + U g cos τ b. 1990. g (Eg .61 casts into the equation  rb. A given gear tooth flank G can be expressed in both forms. g g g b.61) Each of the vectors A. g . g − U g sin τ b. 699 pages. . In general form. C. namely. except as to position and orientation in space. and C can be expressed in terms of projections onto the axes of the reference system Xg Yg Zg.60) Equation C. of the gear tooth flank G can be repre- sented as summa of three vectors rg = A + B + C (C. g sin Vg   r sin V − U sin τ sin V  rg (U g .J.1. Specification of a surface in terms of the first and the second fundamental forms is usually called the natural kind of surfaces representation. either by Equation C. Then. rg..—on differential geometry of surfaces for details about this specific issue. B. g = Φ1.Appendix C 297 are congruent.19. g     1  * Two surfaces with the identical first and second fundamental forms might also be symmetri- cal.* Six fundamental magnitudes determine a surface uniquely. J. Φ 2.62)  rb. Fg . Equation 1.1. Refer to the literature—Koenderink. MA. A Cartesian coordinate system Xg Yg Zg is associated with a gear tooth flank G as it is schematically shown in Figure C. g (Eg . or by Equation C.3. this kind of part surfaces representation can be expressed by a set of two equations: The natural form of a Φ1. g )  surface G representation Φ 2. The MIT Press.

g B Zg Ug H rb. g g g b. G. g . Vg) and Vg (Ug. which are correspondingly equal:  cos τ b. g     0   − rb.63)  − sin τ b. g sin Vg   − cos τ cos V  U g (U g . This yields the calculation of two tangent vectors Ug (Ug. g Fg = − (C.g Xg Vg F М0 M Yg Involute curve FIGURE C. g     0  Substituting the derived vectors Ug and Vg into Equation C.66) cos τ b. Vg ) =   b. we can come up with formulas for the calculation of the fundamental magnitudes of the first order Eg = 1 (C. g tan τ b. Vg ) =   b.298 Appendix C ψb. Vg). g g (C.14. g sin Vg + U g cos τ b.65) rb.g E C ng Base cylinder vg* helix m rg ug A λb. g cos Vg   r cos V + U cos τ sin V  Vg (U g . g g (C.64)  rb.3 Derivation of the natural form of representation of a gear tooth flank.

Vg). The interested reader may wish to complete these formulas on his or her own. Φ2⋅g. g Gg = (C.65 through C. G.g of the gear tooth flank.70) ∂U P 0    1  cos τ b⋅ g cos Vg   cos τ sin V  ∂U g ∂Vg =  b⋅ g g ≡ (C. g These expressions can be substituted directly to Equation C. rg(Ug. g ⇒ dU g2 − 2 dU g dVg + dVg2 (C. g cos 2 τ b. The discriminant.Appendix C 299 U g2 cos 4 τ b. G. Fg.72) ∂Vg  0     1  . of the first fundamental form of the gear tooth flank.64) make it possible the following expressions for the derivatives under consideration: 0  0  ∂U g =  (C.69) In order to derive an equation for the second fundamental form. In this way. G rb. of the gear tooth flank.13.67) can also be substituted to Equation C.and Vg-parameters are necessary. and Gg (see Equations C. g U g2 cos 4 τ b. g (C. The above derived equations for the tangent vectors Ug and Vg (see Equations C. with respect to Ug. g The derived expressions for the fundamental magnitudes Eg. G. can be calculated from the expression: H g = U g cos τ b.63 and C.67) cos 2 τ b.71) ∂Vg ∂U g  0     1   − rb⋅ g cos Vg − U g cos τ b⋅ g sin Vg   − r sin V + U cos τ cos V  ∂Vg =  b⋅ g g g b⋅ g g (C. can be calculated.12 for the first fundamental form Φ1.68) cos τ b. the second derivatives of the position vector of a point. g + rb2. Hg. a corresponding matrix representation of the first fundamental form Φ1. g + rb2.g of the gear tooth flank. g Φ1.

72) into Equations C.36 through C. of the second fundamental form. substitute these expressions (see Equations C. In this way.g/cos τb. the following expression can be used: Tg = U g sin τ b ⋅ g cos τ b ⋅ g (C.73 through C.1 Fundamental Magnitudes of the First and the Second Order of the Gear Tooth Flank. G Eg = 1 Lg = 0 Fg = (rb.75 into Equation C. For the calculation of the discriminant. g ) Ng = −Ug sin τb.38 cast into the set of for- mulas for the calculation of the fundamental magnitudes of the second order of the gear tooth flank. G.70 through C. After the necessary formula transforma- tions are complete. The result of the formulas deriva- tion are summarized in Table C.g . Mg and Ng: TABLE C.g cos τb.75) Further.77) The natural representation of the gear tooth flank. of the gear tooth flank. The interested reader may wish to complete this formula transformation on his or her own.300 Appendix C Further. G. Fg. then Equations C. after substituting Equations C. the derived expressions for the fundamen- tal magnitudes Lg. and Ng of the second order can be substituted into Equation C.g. g / cos 2 τ b. Gg and of the second Lg.38. Φ2.68.74) N g = −U g sin τ b⋅ g cos τ b⋅ g (C. an equation for the calculation of the second fundamental form of the gear tooth flank.76) Similar to Equation C. G.1. can be represented in the form: Φ 2⋅ g ⇒ − drg ⋅ dN g = −U g sin τ b⋅ g cos τ b⋅ g dVg2 (C. Φ2⋅g of the surface G can be derived.g) Mg = 0 Gg = (U g2 cos 4 τ b. Tg. Mg.32 for the second fundamental form Φ2⋅g. a corre- sponding matrix representation of the second fundamental form. can be expressed in terms of the derived set of six equations for the calculation of the fundamen- tal magnitudes of the first Eg. G. g + rb2. This set of formulas is as follows: Lg = 0 (C.31.73) Mg = 0 (C.36 through C.

g. g Rg = (C. g 2. g cos 2 θ + k 2. Location and orientation of the gear tooth flank.g. Φ1. In order to get a profound understanding of differential geometry of sur- faces. G. t1. the interested reader may wish to go to advanced monographs in the field. In order to demonstrate significant simplification of the calculation of parameters of a gear tooth flank G.78) Φ 2. of the first. Gg. Eg. Euler’s formula for the calculation of normal curvature.79) Here. g sin 2 θ (C. θ is the angle that the normal plane section. and others . Mg. can be represented as follows: kθ. In other words. it is expressed in terms of six fundamental magnitudes of the first and of the second order— then further calculation of parameters of a gear tooth flank G becomes much easier. of normal curvature within a normal plane section through a current point m on a gear tooth flank G and at a given direction the following equation can be used: Φ1. Eisenhart.79 also is a good illustration of the significant simplification of the calculations when fundamental magnitudes. fundamental forms.P. 1. of the second Φ2. in Equation C. are the two parameters that remain indefinite. Rg. Gg. Once a part surface is represented in natural form—that is.Appendix C 301 All major elements of local geometry of the gear tooth flank.79. Cg. Fg. Eg. C. several useful equations are presented below as examples. can be cal- culated based on the fundamental magnitudes. Fg.g). here tg designates the unit tangent vector within the normal plane section Cg. C1. kθ. Ng of the second order are used. makes with the first principal plane section. For the calculation of value of radius. Mg. Stuik. regular part surface G.8  A Few More Useful Equations Many calculations of parameters of geometry can be significantly simplified by use of the first and of the second fundamental forms of a smooth. of the first and Lg. θ = ∠(tg. Ng. and Lg. Systematic discussion of the topic is available from many sources. G. The author would like to turn the reader’s attention to the books by doCarmo. θ.g. Equation C. at a point m in a direction that is specified by the angle. g = k1.

the configuration (position and orientation) of the pinion relative to the gear can be analyti- cally described by means of a homogeneous transformation matrix corre- sponding to the displacement of the pinion from its current location to its consecutive location.1  Homogenous Coordinate Vectors Instead of representing each point r(x. D. inversions or combinations of linear trans- formations are simplified to inversion or multiplication of the corresponding matrices.1 Introduction Homogenous coordinates utilize a mathematical trick to embed three- dimensional (3D) coordinates and transformations into a four-dimensional (4D) matrix format.1  Coordinate System Transformation In this section of the book.1.Appendix D: Elements of Coordinate Systems Transformations Coordinate system transformation is a powerful tool for solving many kine- matical and geometrical problems that pertain to the theory of gearing. D. The implementation of coordinate system transformation is necessary for representation of the pinion. As a result.1. D. y.1. z) in 3D space with a single 3D vector x   r = y (D. and its motion relative to tooth flank of the gear in a common reference system. At every instant of time. the coordinate system transformation is briefly discussed from the standpoint of its implementation for the purposes of the theory of gearing. Consequent coordinate systems transformations can be easily described analytically with the implementation of matrices.1)  z  303 . The use of matrices for coordinate system transformation can be traced back to the late 1940s and early 1950s.

y1.3)  T * ⋅ z2   T * ⋅ i T* ⋅ j T* ⋅ k T * ⋅ m   T ⋅ z2   *   *     T  T ⋅ n T* ⋅ p T* ⋅ q T *   T  If any two matrices or vectors of this equation are known. rotation. z) to be represented by any of an infinite number of 4D vectors T ⋅ x  T ⋅ y  r=  (D. . because of the redundant representation of three-space in a homogenous coordinate sys- tem.2 Homogenous Coordinate Transformation Matrices of the Dimension 4 × 4 Homogenous coordinate transformation matrices operate on 4D homog- enous vector representations of traditional 3D coordinate locations.304 Appendix D homogenous coordinates allow each point r(x. In fact. The generic format representation of a homogenous transformation equation for mapping the 3D coordinate (x1. an infinite number of different 4 × 4 homogenous coordinate transfor- mation matrices are available to perform any given linear transformation. This means that 4 × 4 homogenous transformation matrix can incorporate as many as 15 inde- pendent parameters. y2. y. This redundancy can be eliminated to provide a unique representation by dividing all the elements of a 4 × 4 homogenous transformation matrix by the last element (which will become equal to one). the third matrix (or vector) can be calculated and then the redundant T element in the solu- tion can be eliminated by dividing all elements of the matrix by the last element. etc. z1) to the 3D coordinate (x2. and a 4D vector corresponding to any 3D vector can be created by simply adding a fourth element and setting it equal to 1. z2) is  T * ⋅ x2   T * ⋅ a T* ⋅ b T* ⋅ c T * ⋅ d   T ⋅ x2   *   *    T ⋅ y 2  =  T ⋅ e T* ⋅ f T* ⋅ g T * ⋅ h  T ⋅ y 2  ⋅ (D.2) T ⋅ z     T  The 3D vector corresponding to any 4D vector can be calculated by divid- ing the first three elements by the fourth. Any 3D linear transformation (translation.1. Various transformation models can be used to constrain the form of the matrix to transformations with fewer degrees of freedom.1. D.) can be represented by a 4 × 4 homogenous coordinate transformation matrix.

Appendix D 305 D. The translations can be analytically described by the homogenous transformation matrices of dimension 4 × 4.1 Analytical description of the operators of translation Tr(ax. Tr(az.1. and Tr(az. Tr(ay. (a) (b) (c) Z2 Z1 Z1 Z2 Z1 az ax Z2 X2 Y2 ay X1 X2 X1 X1 Y1 X2 Y2 Y2 Y1 Y1 FIGURE D. For an analytical description of translation along the coordinate axes. ay.5) 0 0 1 0   0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0  Tr( az .2  Translations along a Coordinate Axis The translation of a coordinate system is one of the major linear transfor- mations used for the purposes of the theory of gearing. Y ) =  (D.1. The opera- tors yield matrix representation in the form 1 0 0 ax  0 1 0 0  Tr( ax . Y). Y). az are signed values that denote distances of translations along corresponding axes.6) 0 0 1 az    0 0 0 1 Here ax. X). X).4) 0 0 1 0   0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 ay  Tr( ay . Z) are used. Tr(ay. the operators of translation Tr(ax. X ) =  (D. Translations of the coordinate system X2Y2Z2 along the axes of the coordinate system X1Y1Z1 are illustrated in Figure D. Z) along the coor- dinate axes. Parts (a)–(c) are discussed in the text. . Z) =  (D.

7) Equations similar to that above are valid for other operators Tr(ay. Therefore. and Rt(φz. Rt(φz. the transformation of translation is an example of direct transformation. X). the opera- tors of rotation Rt(φx.1a).2 Analytical description of the operators of rotation Rt(φx. X). Z) of the coordinate system transformation (Figure D.1b and c). or a direct transformation. Rt(φy. Y). . the position vector r 1(m) can be expressed in terms of the position vector r 2(m) by the equation r1(m) = Tr( ax . A point m in the coordinate system X2Y2Z2 is given by the position vector r 2(m). Any coordinate system transformation that does not change the orien- tation of a geometrical object is an orientation-preserving transformation. For an analytical description of rotation about coordinate axes. The rotation of the coor- dinate system X2Y2Z2 about the axis of the coordinate system X1Y1Z1 is illus- trated in Figure D. that same point m can be specified by the position vector r 1(m). Y). Y) and Tr(az.1. The operators yield representation in the form of homogenous matrices: 1 0 0 0 0 cos ϕ x sin ϕ x 0  Rt(ϕ x . Then.3  Rotation about a Coordinate Axis The rotation of a coordinate system about a coordinate axis is another major linear transformation used in the theory of gearing. X ) =  (D. X ) ⋅ r2 (m) (D. Rt(φy.306 Appendix D Consider two coordinate systems X1Y1Z1 and X2Y2Z2 shifted along the X1 axis on ax (Figure D. Z) about the coor- dinate axes. Z) are used. Parts (a)–(c) are discussed in the text.8) 0 − sin ϕ x cos ϕ x 0   0 0 0 1 (a) (b) (c) Z1 Z1 Z1 Z2 Z2 Z2 X2 X2 X2 φy φx X1 X1 φz X1 Y1 Y1 Y1 Y2 Y2 Y2 FIGURE D. In the coordinate system X1Y1Z1.2. D.

and φz is the rotation around the Z-axis (yaw). X) ⋅ Rt(φx. that is. that same point m can be specified by the position vector r 1(m). X ) ⋅ r2 (m) (D. This is because of the dot products Rt(φx. Tr(ax. In the coordinate system X1Y1Z1. X) and Tr(ax. followed by the translation. Then the position vector r1(m) can be expressed in terms of the position vector r 2(m) by the equation r1(m) = Rt(ϕ x . D. φy. followed by the rotation. Tr(ax. X) ⋅ Tr(ax. X) are identical to one another Rt(ϕ x .10)  0 0 1 0    0 0 0 1 Here. X). these two coordinate system transformations can be performed in different order equally. X).11) Equations similar to that above are valid for other operators Rt(φy. X). turned about the X1-axis through the angle φx (Figure D. and a rotation. X ) ≡ Tr( ax . XYZ. Consider two coordinate systems.9)  sin ϕ y 0 cos ϕ y 0    0 0 0 1  cos ϕ z sin ϕ z 0 0  − sin ϕ cos ϕ z 0 0  Rt(ϕ z . obey the commutative law.2b and c. X1Y1Z1 and X2Y2Z2. a certain point m is given by the position vector r 2(m). and φz are signed values that denote angles of rotation about the corresponding axis: φx is the rotation around the X-axis (pitch).Appendix D 307 cos ϕ y 0 − sin ϕ y 0  0 1 0 0  Rt(ϕ y . X). These elemen- tary coordinate system transformations are schematically illustrated in Figure D. X ) ⋅ Tr( ax . along X-axis of a Cartesian reference system. X ) (D. Z) =  z (D. In the coordinate system X2Y2Z2.4  Coupled Linear Transformation It is right to note here that a translation. X). Y ) =  (D. is performed initially.2a). XYZ. Y) and  Rt(φz. is per- formed initially. It makes no difference whether the translation. or the rotation.12) . Rt(φx. X). X ) ⋅ Rt(ϕ x .1. φy is the rotation around the Y-axis (roll). Z) of the coordinate system transformation. Tr(ax. φx. Rt(φx. about the axis X of that same coordinate system. Rt(φx.

6 for the linear transformation Tr(ax. X) as shown in Figure D. the two linear transformations. and on Equations D. X ) (D. X) and Rt(φx. Tr(ax. Cpx(ax.4 through D. . φx). can be coupled into a linear transformation Cpx ( ax . X ) ⋅ Tr( ax . Rt(φx. φx). ϕ x ) = Rt(ϕ x . X) ⋅ Rt(φx. X) ⋅ Tr(ax.12 is illustrated in Figure D.3a.8 through D. Rt(φx. Cpx(ax. X).3. X). This means that the translation from the coordinate system X1Y1Z1 to the intermediate coordinate system X*Y*Z* followed by the rotation from the coordinate system X*Y*Z* to the finale coordinate system X2Y2Z2 produces that same reference X2Y2Z2 as in a case when the rotation from the coordinate system X1Y1Z1 to the intermediate coordinate system X*Y*Z* followed by the translation from the coordinate system X*Y*Z* to the finale coordinate system X2Y2Z2.308 Appendix D (a) (b) Z1 Z* Z1 Z2 Z2 Z* ax ax φx φx X1 ≡ X * X2 X1 ≡ X * X2 Y1 Y1 Y* Y2 Y* Y2 FIGURE D. X). X ) ⋅ Rt(ϕ x . ϕ x ) =  (D.13) The operator of linear transformation.14) 0 − sin ϕ x cos ϕ x 0   0 0 0 1 This expression is composed based on Equations D. X). that is followed by the translation. X ) ≡ Tr( ax . are distinguished. as shown in Figure D. The translation. in the operator. is  equivalent to the rotation. X). Tr(ax. X). can be expressed in the matrix form 1 0 0 ax  0 cos ϕ x sin ϕ x 0  Cpx ( ax .3b. Rt(φx. The validity of Equation D. Tr(ax. Therefore. X) and Tr(ax.3 On the equivalency of the linear transformations. X). of coupled linear transformation of a Cartesian reference system XYZ. that is followed by the rotation. Cpx(ax. φx).10 that describes the linear transformation Rt(φx. Two degenerate cases of operator of the linear transformation.

5  Resultant Coordinate System Transformation The operators of translations Tr(ax. makes the linear transformations easier as all the operators of the linear transformations become uniform. Second. Y). that is. do not obey the commutative law. as well as values of the rotations φx. they are not screws. of the rotation is zero. φx) = Tr(ax. φz). special care should be undertaken when treating rotations as vectors—when implementing coupled operators of lin- ear transformations in particular. it could happen that in a particular case the component. Cpy(ay. and Cpz(az. ay. φx).15)  − sin ϕ y 0 cos ϕ y 0    0 0 0 1  cos ϕ z sin ϕ z 0 0  − sin ϕ cos ϕ z 0 0  Cpz ( az . φy). φy). φx). φy.1. φy) and Cpz(az. Cpy(ay. the operator of linear transformation. Y). are finite values (and not continuous). φy). The said is valid with respect to the translations and the rotations along and about the axes Y and Z of a Cartesian reference system XYZ. Cpy(ay. φx. it could happen that in a particular case the component.16)  0 0 1 az     0 0 0 1 In the operators of linear transformations. and a rotation about a coordinate axis of a Cartesian reference system. X) is observed in the case under consideration. Under such a scenario. Tr(ax. ax. reduces to the operator of rotation.  φz). thus. Rt(φx. Cpx(ax. φz). and the equality Cpx(ax. ϕ y ) =  (D. and Tr(az. φx) = Rt(φx. Z) are used for composing of the operator Rs(1 → 2) of the resultant coordinate system . Therefore. ax = 0. that is. The corre- sponding coupled operators. and φz. Introduction of the operators of linear transformation. Z) together with the operators of rotations Rt(φx. φx).Appendix D 309 First. Under such a scenario. X). They are just a kind of couples of a translation along. and Cpz(az. The operators of linear transformations Cpx(ax. X) is observed in the case under consideration. ϕ z ) =  z (D. φz). of the translation is zero. for linear transforma- tions of these kinds can also be composed  cos ϕ y 0 sin ϕ y 0  0 1 0 ay  Cp y ( ay . φx). Cpx(ax. φx). X). The linear and angular displacements do not correlate with one another in time. X). Cpx(ax. φx = 0°. reduces to the operator of translation. and the equality Cpx(ax. D. Tr(ay. and Rt(φz. This is because rotations are not vectors in nature. and Cpz(az. and az. Cpy(ay. X). values of the translations ax. Cpx(ax. Rt(φy. the operator of linear transformation.

A) of translation along an A-axis [Rs(1 → 2) = Tr(a. the operator of the resultant coordinate system transformation Rs(1 → 2) can be interpreted as the operator Rt(φA) of rota- tion about an A-axis [Rs(1 → 2) = Rt(φA)]. Rs(1 → 2). X ) ⋅ Tr( ay . the axis A is always an axis through the origin. az). Similarly. the A-axis is always an axis through the origin. Rs(1 → 2). X). Y1. Y) (2) rotation Rt(φx.19) indicates that the transition from the coordinates system X1Y1Z1 to the coor- dinate system X5Y5Z5 (Figure D. The operator Rs(1 → 2) is equal to 1 0 0 ax  0 1 0 ay  Rs(1 → 2) = Tr( az . Z) ⋅ Rt(ϕ y . (3) second rotation Rt(φz. ay. the equality r1(m) = Rt(5 → 1) ⋅ r5 (m) (D. and Z1.310 Appendix D transformation. The operator Rs(1 → 2) of the resultant coordinate system transformation analytically describes the transition from the initial coordi- nate system X1Y1Z1 to a certain coordinate system X2Y2Z2. X). Y ) ⋅ Rt(ϕ x . Suppose that a point m on a rigid body goes through a translation describing a straight path from m1 to m2 with a change of coordinates of (ax. Evidently. For example. Y ) (D. A)]. Z) ⋅ Tr( ay . the operator of the resultant coordinate system transformation. Y ) ⋅ Tr( ax . the expression Rs(1 → 5) = Tr( ax .17) 0 0 1 az    0 0 0 1 In this particular case. X ) ⋅ Rt(ϕ z . Tr(ay. Z). X). X ) (D. Z) of elementary coordinate system transformations. Z) ⋅ Rt(ϕ x . Consider three consequent translations along the coordinate axes X1.4) is performed in the following four steps: (1) translation Tr(ay. This motion can be described with an operator of the resultant coordinate system transformation. Tr(az. three consequent rotations about coordinate axes can be described with another operator of the resultant coordinate system transfor- mation Rs(1 → 2): Rs(1 → 2) = Rt(ϕ z . and (4) the translation Tr(ax.20) is valid. Evidently.18) In this particular case. The operator Rs(1 → 2) can be expressed in terms of the operators Tr(ax. . X ) =  (D. it is often necessary to perform coordinate system transforma- tions that comprise translations along and rotations about the coordinate axes. Ultimately. Y). can be interpreted as the operator Tr(a. Practically.

and Cpz(az. The following equality Rs(t → 1) = Rs −1(1 → t) (D. (see Equations D. . The operators of coupled linear transformations Cpx(ax. φx). φz) by the following expression: t −1 Rs(1  t) = ∏ Cp (a . y .z In Equation D. Cpy(ay. the transition in the opposite direction can be performed by means of the operator Rs(1 → t) of the inverse coordinate system transforma- tion. φy). ϕ ) i =1 i j i j i j (D. the operator. only operators of coupled linear transformations are used. When the operator Rs(1 → t) of a resultant coordinate system transforma- tion is known.5) can be used for the purpose of analytical description of a resultant coordinate system transfor- mation.4 An example of the resultant coordinate system transformation. Rs(1 ↦ t). φx). Under such the scenario. D. and Cpz(az.21) is valid for the operator Rs(1 → t) of the inverse coordinate system transformation.22) j= x.22.Appendix D 311 Z1 Z2 Z4 Z5 ax1 Z5 Z1 ay4 ay4 X1.16) (Figure D. Cpy(ay. of a resultant coor- dinate system transformation can be expressed in terms of all the operators Cpx(ax. φz).1.14 through D. X2 Y5 ax1 X5 Y1 Y2 Y4 m X4 r1(m) r5(m) ⇓ ⇑ Z3 Z2 Z3 X1 ⇒ Z4 X2 φy3 X5 Y3 Y3 X3 φz2 Y5 X3 Y4 Y2 X4 Y1 FIGURE D. φy).6  Screw Motion about a Coordinate Axis Operators for the analytical description of screw motions about an axis of the Cartesian coordinate system are a particular case of the operators of the resultant coordinate system transformation.

φz). φx). and (c) Cpz(az. φy). of linear transformation of a Cartesian reference system XYZ. (b) Cp y(ay.5 Analytical description of the operators (a) Cpx(ax. .312 Appendix D (a) Z1 Z2 ax φx X1 X2 Y1 Y2 (b) Z1 ay φy Z2 X2 X1 Y1 Y2 (c) Z2 Z1 X2 φz Y2 X1 az Y1 FIGURE D.

py) and Scz(φz. φx Z1 Z2 X1 X2 Y1 Y2 φx FIGURE D. are defined in a similar way to that above.6). px). px) of a screw motion about X-axis of the Cartesian coordinate system XYZ is equal to Sc x (ϕ x .14 casts into the expression: 1 0 0 px ⋅ ϕ x  0 cos ϕ x sin ϕ x 0  Sc x (ϕ x . X) (Equation D. The operators of screw motions Scy(φy. the operator of the screw motion Scx(φx. pz ) = Rt(ϕ z .5 and D.6 together with Equations D. the operator Scx(φx. Y ) (D.10. px) about the X-axis. Z) (D. px) is defined: Sc y (ϕ y . Y ) ⋅ Tr( ay . Z) ⋅ Tr( az . py ) =  (D. pz) about the Y and Z-axes.Appendix D 313 ax = px . X ) ⋅ Tr( ax .26) Using Equations D. we can come up with the expressions cos ϕ y 0 − sin ϕ y 0   0 1 0 py ⋅ ϕ y  Sc y (ϕ y . py ) = Rt(ϕ y .27)  sin ϕ y 0 cos ϕ y 0     0 0 0 1  .7).23) After substituting of the operator of translation Tr(ax.9 and D. X ) (D. X) (Equation D. Equation D. By definition (Figure D.24) 0 − sin ϕ x cos ϕ x 0    0 0 0 1  for the computation of the operator of the screw motion Sc x(φx.4) and the operator of rotation Rt(φx. px ) = Rt(ϕ x . px ) =  (D.25) Sc z (ϕ z .6 Analytical description of the operator of screw motion Sc x(φx. respectively.

py). Scy(φy. py) and Scz(φz. If necessary. D. Under such a scenario. py). pz) when designing gears. Y).7). Scy(φy. and it is remote from it at the distance Rw.314 Appendix D  cos ϕ z sin ϕ z 0 0   − sin ϕ cos ϕ z 0 0  Sc z (ϕ z .7 Illustration of the transformation of rolling. . φy Z1 Z2 φy Rw V ω X1 Y1 Y2 X2 FIGURE D. of a coordinate system. px). Consider a Cartesian coordinate system X1Y1Z1 (Figure D. and Scz(φz. pz). The speed of the transla- tion is denoted by V. the resul- tant motion of the reference system X1Y1Z1 to its arbitrary position X2Y2Z2 allows interpreting it in the form of rolling with no sliding of a cylinder of radius Rw over the plane. Scy(φy. The coordinate system X1Y1Z1 travels in the direction of the X1-axis. px). about the Y and Z-axes.28)  0 0 1 pz ⋅ ϕ z     0 0 0 1  for the calculation of the operators of the screw motion. and Scz(φz.7  Rolling Motion of a Coordinate System One more practical combination of a rotation and of a translation is often used when designing gears. the expression Rw = V/ω can be used. Rl x(φy. The plane is parallel to the coordinate X1Y1-plane. a certain correspondence between the translation and the ax = Rw . Screw motions about a coordinate axis. the operator of the screw motion about an arbitrary axis whether through the origin of the coordinate system can be derived in a similar manner to that used for the derivation of the operators Sc x(φx. as well as screw surfaces. Assume that the ratio V/ω is constant. pz). This makes practical use of the operators of the screw motion Scx(φx. The coordinate system X1Y1Z1 rotates about its Y1-axis simultaneously with the translation. For the calculation of the radius of the rolling cylinder. Because the rolling of the cylinder of radius Rw over the plane is performed with no sliding. The speed of the rotation is designated as ω. pz ) =   z (D. are com- mon in the theory of gearing.1.

the operator of rolling is equal cos ϕ y 0 − sin ϕ y − az ⋅ sin ϕ y   0 1 0 0  Rlz (ϕ y . and Rt(φy.29) are referred to as operators of rolling motion over a plane.31)  sin ϕ y 0 cos ϕ y az ⋅ cos ϕ y     0 0 0 1  For cases when the rotation is performed about the X1-axis the correspond- ing operators of rolling are as follows: 1 0 0 0  0 cos ϕ x sin ϕ x ay ⋅ cos ϕ x  Rl y (ϕ x . Y1) is the operator of the rotation about the Y1-axis. the operator of rolling is denoted by Rlx(φy. Y).29) is valid.Appendix D 315 rotation of the coordinate system is established. The operator Rs(1 ↦ 2) is equal Rs(1  2) = Rt(ϕ y . X1 ) (D. The transition from the coordinate system X1Y1Z1 to the coordinate system X2Y2Z2 can be analytically described by the operator of the resultant coordi- nate system transformation Rs(1 ↦ 2). For rolling of this kind. Y) can be calculated from the equation cos ϕ y 0 − sin ϕ y ax ⋅ cos ϕ y   0 1 0 0  Rlx (ϕ y . Y1 ) ⋅ Tr( ax . When the coordinate system turns through a certain angle φy.32) 0 − sin ϕ x cos ϕ x − ay ⋅ sin ϕ x    0 0 0 1  . When the translation is performed along the X1-axis. but along the Z1-axis instead. The operators of the resultant coordinate system transformation of the kind (see Equation D. X1) designates the operator of the translation along the X1-axis. Y) = Rs(1 ↦ 2) (see Equation D. In this particular case. Based on this equality.30)  sin ϕ y 0 cos ϕ y ax ⋅ sin ϕ y     0 0 0 1  While rotation remains about the Y1-axis.29) where Tr(ax. Y ) =   (D. Y ) =   (D. X ) =  (D. and the rotation is performed about the Y1-axis. the translation can be performed not along the X1-axis. the equality Rlx(φy. the translation of origin of the coordinate system along the X1-axis is equal to ax = φr ⋅ Rw. the operator of rolling over a plane Rl x(φy.

R 2. Rotations ω1 and ω2 of the coordinate systems can be interpreted so that a circle of a certain radius. is known. and the given rotations. ω1 and ω2. as shown in Figure D. C. which is associated with the coordinates system X1Y1Z1. then radii. of the circles can be expressed in terms of the center distance. rolls with no slippage over a circle of the cor- responding radius. When the center distance.35)  0 0 1 0     0 0 0 1  Use of the operators of rolling (see Equations D. C. D.316 Appendix D For the case of rolling along the Y1-axis and 1 0 0 0  0 cos ϕ x sin ϕ x az ⋅ sin ϕ x  Rlz (ϕ x . the following formulas 1 R1 = C ⋅ (D. Z) =  z (D. that is associated with the coordinate system X2Y2Z2.36) 1+ u . Z) =  z (D. X1Y1Z1 and X2Y2Z2.30 through D.8. For the calculations. Similar expressions can be derived for the case of rotation about the Z1-axis:  cos ϕ z sin ϕ z 0 ax ⋅ cos ϕ z   − sin ϕ cos ϕ z 0 ax ⋅ sin ϕ z  Rlx (ϕ z . R1.1. The axes of rotations are parallel to each other (Z1 ‖ Z2).34)  0 0 1 0     0 0 0 1   cos ϕ z sin ϕ z 0 ay ⋅ sin ϕ z   − sin ϕ cos ϕ z 0 ay ⋅ cos ϕ z  Rl y (ϕ z . combinations of two rotations about parallel axes are of particular interest. consider two Cartesian coordinate systems. The coordinate systems X1Y1Z1 and X2Y2Z2 are rotated about their axes Z1 and Z2. X ) =  (D.8  Rolling of Two Coordinate Systems When designing gears. As an example. R1 and R 2.35) sig- nificantly simplifies the analytical description of the coordinate system transformations.33) 0 − sin ϕ x cos ϕ x az ⋅ cos ϕ x    0 0 0 1  For the case of rolling along the Z1-axis.

the coordinate system X2Y2Z2 turns through the corresponding angle. Z1  Other equivalent combinations of the operators of elementary coordinate system transformations can result in that same operator Rs(1 ↦ 2) of the resultant coordinate system transformation. the X1 and X2 -axes align to each other.8 Derivation of the operator of rolling Rru(φ1.37) 1+ u can be used. φ1.38)  u. Here. the ratio ω1/ω2 is designated as u.38) are referred to as operators of rolling motion over a cylinder. φ2. In the case under consideration. X1 ) (D. When angle φ1 is known. Z1 ) ⋅ Rt  1  ⋅ Tr(−C . the operator Rs(1 ↦ 2) can be expressed in terms of the operators of the elemen- tary coordinate system transformations:  ϕ  Rs(1  2) = Rt(ϕ 1 . The operator of the resultant coordinate system transformations of the kind (see Equation D.Appendix D 317 Y1 φ1 Y1* Y2* φ2 Y2 X1 R1 R2 X1* X2* P O2 O1 φ2 ω1 ω2 X2 C FIGURE D. The Y1 and Y2 -axes are parallel to each other. u R2 = C ⋅ (D.8. The interested reader may wish to conduct the exercise on his/her own deriving the equivalent expressions for the operator Rs(1 ↦ 2). In Figure D. . In the initial configuration. Z1) of two coordinate systems. the corresponding angle φ2 is equal to φ2 = φ1/u. When the coordinate system X1Y1Z1 turns through a certain angle. The transition from the coordinate system X2Y2Z2 to the coordinate system X1Y1Z1 can be analytically described by the operator of the resultant coordi- nate system transformation Rs(1 ↦ 2). the initial configuration of the coordinate systems X1Y1Z1 and X2Y2Z2 is labeled as X1*Y1* Z1* and X 2*Y2* Z2* .

Z1).40)  u.39) derived for the calculation of the operator of rolling Rru(φ1. Z2  Other equivalent combinations of the operators of elementary coordinate system transformations can result in that same operator Rru(φ2.and Z2 -axis. It is equal to Rru (ϕ 2 . Z2 ) ⋅ Tr(C . the operator of rolling motion over a cylinder is denoted by Rru(φ1. Z2) can be used. the correspond- ing formulas can be derived for the calculation of the operators of rolling Rru(φ1. the equality Rru(φ1. Rru(φ2. For the calculation of the operator of rolling of two coordinate systems. Z2) of the resultant coordinate system transformation. The interested reader may wish to conduct the exercise on his/her own deriving the equivalent expressions for the operator Rru(φ2. In terms of the operators of the elementary coordinate system transforma- tions. the operator Rru(φ2. as well as about parallel axes Y1 and Y2. Z1) over a cylinder can be cal- culated from the equation:   u + 1  u + 1   cos  ϕ 1 ⋅ u  sin  ϕ 1 ⋅  u   0 −C      u + 1  u + 1  Rru (ϕ 1 . Based on this equality. Z2 ) =  sin  ϕ 1 ⋅  cos  ϕ 1 ⋅  0 0 (D. X1) and Rru(φ1.41)  u   u     0 0 1 0    0 0 0 1 Similar to the expression (see Equation D. Z2). In this particular case. the inverse operator of rolling of two coor- dinate systems Rru(φ2. Z1) around the Z1. Z2 ) = Rru−1(ϕ 1 . Y1) about parallel axes X1 and X2. Z1) = Rs(1 ↦ 2) (see Equation D. Z2 ) = Rt  1  ⋅ Rt(ϕ 1 . the operator of rolling Rru(φ1. Z1 ) =  − sin  ϕ 1 ⋅  cos  ϕ 1 ⋅  0 0  (D. . Z1 ). Z2) can be expressed as follows:  ϕ  Rru (ϕ 2 .38) is valid. Z2). X1 ) (D. the equation can be used:   u + 1  u + 1  cos  ϕ 1 ⋅ u  − sin  ϕ 1 ⋅  u   0 C     u + 1  u + 1  Rru (ϕ 2 .318 Appendix D When rotations are performed around the Z1 and Z2 -axis.39)  u   u     0 0 1 0     0 0 0 1  For the inverse transformation.

Appendix D 319 Use of the operators of rolling about two axes Rru(φ1. for example. In order to change the direction of the Xi-axis of the initial coordinate sys- tem. i. Yi±1 ≡ Yi. in the new coordinate system (i ± 1) the equalities Xi±1 = − Xi. and Rru(φ1. The opera- tors of reflections Rfy(XiZi) and Rfz(XiYi) in this case can be expressed ana- lytically in the matrix form 1 0 0 0 0 −1 0 0  Rfy (Xi Zi ) =  (D. are of the same hand. In the event the coordinate systems i and (i ± 1) are of opposite hand. i and (i ± 1). operators of reflec- tion are used. Y1). For conversion of a left-hand-oriented Cartesian coordinate system into a right-hand-oriented coordinate system and/or vice versa. to the opposite direction (in this case.42) 0 0 1 0   0 0 0 1 Similarly. X1).43) 0 0 1 0   0 0 0 1 . D. if one of them is a right-hand-oriented coordinate system while the other is left-hand oriented coordinate system. The operator of reflection yields representation in the matrix form as  −1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0  Rfx (Yi Zi ) =  (D. and Zi±1 ≡ Zi are observed) the opera- tor of reflection Rfx(YiZi) can be applied. This means that it assumed from the very beginning that both of them are either right-hand-oriented or left-hand-oriented Cartesian reference sys- tems.2  Conversion of the Coordinate System Orientation The application of the matrix method of coordinate system transformation presumes that both of the coordinate systems. Z1) substantially simplifies the analytical description of the coordi- nate system transformations. the implementation of the operators of reflections Rfy(XiZi) and Rfz(XiYi) results in reversal of the directions of Yi-axis and Zi-axes. one of the coordinate sys- tems will need to be converted into an oppositely oriented Cartesian coordi- nate system. Rru(φ1.

g ] = [dU g ⋅ (D. G.g and Φ2. the fundamental magnitudes Eg.g. D.46)  0 0 1 0  0       0 0 0 1  0  .g. the first fundamental form. Mg.g and Φ2. Transformation of reflection is an example of orientation-reversing transformations. as many times as the coordinate system transformation is performed. it is necessary to recalculate the coefficients of the first Φ1. rotation.38]  Eg Fg 0 0   dU g  F Gg 0 0   dVg  dVg 0 0] ⋅  g [Φ1. After calculation in an initial coordinate system. For convenience.g. can be given by  Lg Mg 0 0   dU g  M Ng 0 0   dVg  dVg 0 0] ⋅  g [Φ 2.g and the second Φ2.3  Direct Transformation of Surfaces Fundamental Forms Every coordinate system transformation results in corresponding changes to the equation of the gear tooth surface. G. Ng of the forms Φ1. and Lg. Fg.44) 0 0 −1 0   0 0 0 1 A linear transformation that reverses the direction of the coordinate axis is an opposite transformation.g become possible due to implementation of the formulas below. an equation of the second fundamental form. Transformations of these fundamental magnitudes Φ1. G. is represented in the matrix form [28. of the surface.g ] = [dU g ⋅ (D. This routing and time-consuming operation can be eliminated if the operators of coordinate system transformations are used directly in the fundamental forms Φ1. Φ1.g and Φ2. Consider a gear tooth surface. Gg. Because of this. that is given by the equation rg = rg(Ug. Vg) ∈ G. G. of the gear tooth surface. Φ2. and the resultant coordinate system transformation.45) 0 0 1 0  0      0 0 0 1  0  Similarly.g can be determined in any new coordinate system using for this purpose. where (Ug.320 Appendix D 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0  Rfz (XiYi ) =  (D. the operators of translation.g fundamental of the surfaces. Vg). G.

G. Φ1.g .49) [Φ *2. just the operators of coupled linear transformations are neces- sary to be applied for all coordinate system transformation. Vg* ) of that same surface G in a new coordinate system X2Y2Z2.g. the corresponding fundamental form.38] [Φ1* . P.p ] ⋅ Rs(1 → 2) (D.g and Φ2. which initially are represented in the coordinate system X1Y1Z1. results in that in the new coordinate system. and the second. G.g ] ⋅ Rs(1 → 2) (D. fundamental forms.p ] ⋅ Rs(1 → 2) (D. X1Y1Z1.g.g ] ⋅ Rs(1 → 2) (D. the corresponding fundamental forms are expressed in the form [28. fundamental forms from the initial coordinate system. either Φ1. Φ1.p ] = RsT (1 → 2) ⋅ [Φ1.48 reveal that after the coordinate system transfor- * mation is completed.48 [Φ1* .Appendix D 321 The coordinate system transformation with the operator of the resul- tant linear transformation Rs(1 → 2) transfers the equation rg = rg(UgVg) of the gear tooth surface.g.p ] = RsT (1 → 2) ⋅ [Φ 2.g ] = RsT (1 → 2) ⋅ [Φ 2. fundamental forms of the surface. it needs to be postmultiplied by RsT(1 → 2). Φ1. and the second.47 and D. It is clear that the position vector of a point of the tooth flank G in the first reference system X1Y1Z1 differs from the position vector of that same point in second references system X2Y2Z2 (that is. The operator of the resultant linear transformation Rs(1 → 2) of the sur- face.g .g to the new coordinate system. Φ *2.47) [Φ *2. Φ2. . needs to be premultiplied by Rs(1 → 2) and after that. rg ≠ rg* ). and the second. In this case. to the equation rg* = rg* (U g* . G. In order to convert the funda- mental forms Φ1. X2Y2Z2. that is initially given in X1Y1Z1.50) are valid for the pinion tooth flank.g.g. to the new coordinate system.48 significantly simplifies the transformations of formulas. that has the first.g ] = RsT (1 → 2) ⋅ [Φ1. Equations similar to Equations D.48) Equations D. Implementation of the coupled linear transformations matrices for trans- forming the coordinate systems is a possible way to enhance the approach. the first. Φ2.47 and D.g or Φ2. in the coordinate system X2Y2Z2 are expressed in terms of the first.47 and D. Implementation of Equations D.

V) and V* = V*(U.Appendix E: Change of Surface Parameters When designing a form cutting tool.2) ∂V * ∂U ∂V * ∂V ∂V * so that  ∂r ∂r  A* =  *  = A⋅J (E. ri and rj. the surface rj = rj(Uj. 323 . Use of the procedure allows representation of one of the surfaces.and Vj-parameters of another surface rj = rj(Uj. Vi) have to be synchronized with the corresponding Uj. V). then it is required that they are not only represented in a common reference system. but the Ui. for example.and Vi-parameters of one of the surfaces ri  =  ri(Ui. Vi). The procedure of changing of surface param- eters is used for this purpose. it is often necessary to treat two or more surfaces simultaneously. have necessarily been treated simultaneously. say as rj = rj(Ui.4)  ∂V ∂V   ∂U * *  ∂V  This is called the Jacobian matrix of the transformation. If the parameterization of a surface is transformed by the equations U* = U*(U. For example. we obtain the new derivatives ∂r ∂ r ∂U ∂ r ∂V = ⋅ + ⋅ (E. the cutting edge of the cutting tool can be considered as the line of intersection of the generating surface T of the form cutting tool by the rake surface Rs. Vj) in the terms of Ui- and Vi-parameters. Vj).1) ∂U * ∂U ∂U * ∂V ∂U * ∂r ∂ r ∂U ∂ r ∂V = ⋅ + ⋅ (E. When two surfaces. Equation of the cutting edge cannot be derived on the premises of equations of the surfaces T and Rs as long as the initial parameterization of the surfaces is improper.3)  ∂U ∂V  * where  ∂U ∂U   ∂U * ∂V *  J=  (E.

6. we can see by the properties of determinants that |G*| = |J|2|G|. They should be continuous if the surface is to be tangent and curvature continuous.2 and using the invariance of n.324 Appendix E It can be shown that the new fundamental matrix G* is given by G* = A *T A * = JT AT AJ = JT GJ (E. We conclude that the unit normal vector n and the principal directions and curvatures are independent of the parameters used. . The transformation of the second fundamental matrix can similarly by shown to be given by D* = JT DJ (E. Using this result.5) From this equation. we can show that the unit surface normal n is invariant under the transformation. it can be shown that the principal curvatures and directions are invariant under the transformation. and Equations E.5 and E.6) By differentiating Equation E. and are therefore geometric properties of the surface itself. as we could expect. From Equations E.2.

163 Center distance (C). 53 conformal gearing Basic rack. 2. 205 Condition of contact. 32 in crossed-axis gear pairs. 29 PA. 147. 166 Centerline vectors. 206 hypoid gear pair. 183. 283. 60 fundamental design parameters. 110 Condition of conjugacy. see also High- Base pitch helix angle. 64 axis of rotation. 23. Arbitrary smooth curves. 165 Characteristic line. 4 Approximate intersected-axis gear C pairs. 164. 205 close-up of conformal gear model. 100. 311–312 Archimedean screw surface. 162–163 unit vector. 204 meshing of helical noninvolute and plane of action. 141–142. 141 in intersected-axis high-conformal Approximate crossed-axis gear gearing. 29. 278 gearing. 1. 27–28 vector of instant rotation. 243. 205 Approximate gearings. 33 in intersected-axis gearing. 75 BF-mesh of Novikov gear pair. 185. 141–142. 197. 34 straight-line segments. 62. Nby -mesh of conformal gear pair. 59 in. 176 Cartesian coordinate system. 173 boundary N-circle. 24 ambiguities. 62 elements of kinematics and geometry in conformal gearing. 209. 71 conformal parallel-axis gear pair. 55 182. gear pair. 187–189 pairs. 34 intersected-axis gearing. 147 magnitudes. 204 main theorem of gearing. 201. 30. 59. 5–6 analogy. 1.Index A Boundary N-cone in high-conformal crossed-axis Addition. 201 instant line of action. 19 162. 297 Axial vectors. 187. 74. 163 202. 212–213 Angular velocities. 283. 173–176 instant pitch points. 60 ellipse-arc. 176. 150. 59–62. 65 mechanism. 247 convex-to-concave contact of Bonnet theorem. Axial pitch calculation. 22–25 instant line of action. 213 Cartesian reference system. 61 52–54 325 . 246–247 features. 30 Base cones cycloidal gearing. 203. 294 bones. 163 Centerline plane (Cln-plane). 201. 205 gear and pinion tooth dedendum. 202 gear pair. 2 Boundary N-circle. 36 pair. 63. 35 belt-and-pulley model of involute B gearing. 202–203 Conformal gearing. 212 dedendum profile. 4 Belt-and-pulley ancient designs. 3. 31 belt-and-pulley mechanism. 64 construction.

100 transformations operators. 49 base circle. 318 Cartesian reference system. 92–93 involute tooth profiles in relation to Contact lines. 316 quality of parallel-axis Novikov Cartesian coordinate system. convex-to-concave contact. 18–22 transverse contact ratio. 107 311–314 normalized design parameters. 73 screw motion about. 6–8 function. 72 length of action. 95 306–307 of gear and mating pinion tooth screw motion about coordinate axis. 75 Coordinate systems rolling. 106 307–309 involute tooth point. 101 transformation matrices of Conical gear pair. 160 dimension 4 × 4. 67 tooth profiles. 316 Conformal parallel-axis gearing. 94 incorrect configuration of involute tooth flanks. 1 toothed gearing. 303–304 in conformal parallel-axis gearing. 91 rotation about coordinate axis. see also Gear tooth homogenous coordinate flank vectors. relative orientation at point of contact 305–306 of gear. 311–314 Wildhaber’s helical gearing. 78 analytical description. 4–5 second-order analysis. 316 Novikov gearing elementary coordinate system accuracy requirements for. 8–11 Coordinate axis tooth geometries in. 315 transverse pressure angle. 2 requirements. 41 geometry. 1 Convex-to-concave contact of bones. 319–320 addendum factor. 105 direct transformation of surfaces parameters. see also Cartesian coordinate systems. 307 . 92 geometrically accurate gearings. 1. 39 point of contact. 11–18. 314 inactive portions of tooth flanks. 105 coupled linear transformation. 40 Novikov gearing. 93 tooth profiles. 114–118 improvements in and relating to gear three-dimensional plot of teeth. 149 power density. 319 concave gear tooth profile rolling motion over cylinder. 75 conversion. 108–113 Coupled linear transformation. 65 Coordinate system orientation Conformal gear pair. 304 Contact geometry. 100 operators of rolling. 306–307 transverses contact ratio. 320–321 variation of center distance and homogenous coordinate operating pressure angle. 20. 39 kinematics and tooth flank face contact ratio. 102 forms. 62 rotation about.326 Index Conformal gearing (Continued) scenarios. 72 Convenience. 77 rolling motion over plane. 3. 317 boundary N-circle. 93 translations along coordinate axis. 103. 309–311 considerations. 314 gearing. 104 Coordinate systems convex pinion tooth profile transformations. 303 configuration. 91 resultant. 3–4 Convex-to-convex contact of bones. flanks. 66 Contact ratio in gear pair. 76 Coordinate system rolling motion. high-conformal gearing. 317 configuration. 104 for inverse transformation.

116 D Darboux frame. 122. 149. 308 Direction vector. 118. 35. 124 Crossed-axis gear pairs. 120 End-of-active-profile point condition of physical contact. 147 . 119 Conformal gearing violation of physical condition center-distance. 148 Differential geometry of surfaces hyperboloid. 38 indicatrix of conformity. 148. 151 equations. 58. 126 of base pitches. see also deviation. 123 belt-and-pulley model. 278 coordinate angle. 252 planar characteristic curve. 39. 306 angle. see End-of-active-profile analytical description of contact point (EAP-point) geometry. 277 Crossed-axis Direct transformation. 122–130 surfaces. 27 flank. 114. 277 principal directions on gear tooth Fundamental conditions. 133–134 External crossed-axis gear pairs. 41 local frame. 39 derivation of equation.Index 327 Cartesian reference system. 56 converse indicatrix. 121 Ellipse of contact. 117 gear pairs matrix representation of equation Cross product. 143 of surfaces forms. 27 Dot product. see Vector product of. 286–287 Floating point numbers. 117–118 Culminating condition. see Scalar product gears. see also Contact geometry EAP-point. 295–297 vectors of sliding velocities. 134–135 Equality. 129. 37 preliminary remarks. 119 External spatial gear pairs vector on transition from resultant diagrams. 149 surface. 287–294 gear tooth flank. 145 tooth flanks. 85 change of. 285–286 equivalency of linear tangent vectors. 125 External spatial gearing. 283 pair of rotation. see Spatial magnitudes. 122 159–160 radii of principal curvature. 128 (EAP-point). 295 E Degree of conformity. 152 curvatures at point of part projections of rotation vectors. 35. 301 example. 31 at point of smooth regular gear tooth flank. 297–301 F forms of surface. 150 of contact. 285–286 transformations. 124 generation of screw involute indicatrix. 309 tangent plane. 130 horizontal plane of projection. 283–285 Face contact ratio. 122. 287. 294–295 Fundamental planes of gear pair. 197 Dupin’s indicatrix. 36 properties. 130–133 of gear. 153 elements. 36 directions of extremum. 320–321 gearings. 38 Dupin’s indicatrix. 118–122 operating base pitch. 127 line of contact. 114 principal curvatures. 115 Cycloidal gearing. quantitative evaluation.

46 critical value. see also High-conformal Gear machining mesh. 209 complementary vectors to vector boundary N-cone in. 285 conformal parallel-axis gearing. 162–163 boundary N-circle. 27. 176 geometries of tooth profiles. 46 geometry. 47 kinematics of instantaneous motion essence of Novikov gearing. 163–166 bearing capacity. see also High- conformal crossed-axis gearing H base cones in intersected-axis Helical gearing by Wildhaber.328 Index G similarities. 168–169 instantaneous relative motion vector diagram for rotations. 97 configuration. 210–212 principal directions on. 52–54 path of contact in. 208 166–168 design parameters. 171–173 fundamental design parameters. 197–201 vector representation. 156–157 100–106 Geometrically accurate gearing contact geometry in conformal permissible instant relative parallel-axis gearing. 284 see also Conformal gearing surfaces specification. see gearing. 206–208 vector diagrams types. 173–176 Wildhaber’s helical gearing bearing capacity. 201–205 axial vectors. 49 degree of conformity. 171. 146 197. Teeth flanks and pinion. 172 involute tooth point. 91. 50 Gear-to-plane-of-action. 106. 144 kinematics. topology. 141. 100 pseudo path of contact Hertz formula. 96 . 95 multiple curves. 159–160 kinematics. N-cone. 28 parallel-axis gearing. 45 teeth flanks sliding in. 200 gear pairs base cones in. 187–189 transverse contact ratio. 208 Gear tooth flank. 51 impact of degree of conformity. 191 coordinate system. 96 N by-gears. 212–213 diagrams. vector diagrams. 95–100 Geometrically accurate gearings. 137 intersected-axis gearing Gear pair kinematics. 177–178 Helical involute gearing with zero boundary N-cone in. 50 vector diagram. 209 centerline vectors. 141–145 path of contact in. 43 configuration of boundary cone. 206 principal parameters of local High-conformal gearing. 214–220 tooth ratio. 44–52 in. 179–187 interaction between tooth flanks. see also Spatial analytical criteria. 48 gearing. 189–195 stress. 91–95 motions in. 186 High-conformal crossed-axis gearing. 177 comparison of distribution of contact design parameters. see also Conformal sliding between tooth flanks of gear gearing. Generalized rack-type spatial gear pairs accuracy requirements for. 294–295 vector diagram for. 160 configuration of boundary kinematic and geometric formulas. 43 High-conformal parallel-axis law of motion of contact point. 283. 3. 4–5 High-conformal intersected-axis gearing. Gear apex. 54 transverses contact ratio.

153. 138 flanks. 27. 113 gear pair. 109 contact patches. 140 point of contact. 108 at culminating point. 57 gearing (HPD-gearing) line of contact. 60 Local relative orientation Interacting tooth flanks configuration chain rule. 84 instant lines of action and paths of shape of contact area between teeth contact. see Military Aircraft Internal spatial gear pairs vector Engineering Academy (MAEA) diagrams. 54 Hypoid gear pair. 43. 88 unit normal vectors. 29 axodes. 155 (MAEA). 154 University (MBTU) vector of linear velocity of Military Aircraft Engineering Academy sliding. 154 Main theorem of gearing. 98 Wildhaber’s helical gearing High-power-density gearing (HPD. 160 Miter gears. 56 Involute tooth point. 112 contact area between teeth characteristic line. 261–268 Novikov gearing and high-conformal Involute gearing. 103. 137 I Iron curtain. 111 design parameters. 137 of. 304 elements of parallel-axis gear pair Homogenous coordinate vectors. 105. 33. 139 Internal spatial gearing. 57. 163 tooth flank of gear. 257 Ideal gearings. 97. 89 external crossed-axis gearing. 54. 83 tangent directions. 257 Intersected-axis gearing. see High-power-density involute tooth point. see Moscow Bauman Technical pinion axis of rotation. 88 pinion tooth flanks. 89 local configuration of two contact lines. 83 ellipse of contact. 257 . 54 matrices. 110 flanks. 1 to conformal parallel-axis gearing Homogenous coordinate transformation transition. 206–207 Line of contact. 145 MAEA. 82. 55 gearing). 173–176 Moscow Bauman Technical University gear pairs. 86 at point of contact of gear and mating contact pattern. 84–89 boundary N-circle. 85 M line of contact. 206 Length of action. 40 crossed-axis gearing. 83 quadrics. 171 (MBTU). featuring zero transverse 303–304 contact ratio. 99 Invention disclosure form.Index 329 indicatrices of conformity. see also gearing. 89 local and global contact geometry Machining processes. see Geometrically accurate gearings L Instantaneous relative motion kinematics. 201 base cones in. 286–287 Instant line of action. 156 MBTU. 208 Local frame. axial pitch calculation. 87 unit vectors of principal design parameters of high-conformal directions. 137. 55 HPD-gearing.

1 contact lines. 49 Pinion apex. 3. 246–247 Power density. 59 arbitrary smooth curves. 145 243. 17 geometries of teeth flanks Reduced pitch. 2–3. 20 Profile contact ratio. 257 S in international engineering SAP-point. 278 Pitch line. 320 Cartesian coordinate system. 277 boundary N-circle construction. see Plane of action (PA) analytical criterion. 57–58 Natural kind of surfaces plane of action in. 157–159 Pair of rotation. 61 Pitch-line plane. 205 Conformal parallel-axis gearing Plane of action in parallel-axis gearing. 297 Paths of contact. 313 transformation. see Start-of-active-profile community. 306 about coordinate axis. 36 312. 254 Normal plane (Nln-plane). Operating base pitch. Positive-gearing. 159. 44–52 R features. 19. 317 preamble.. 24 Position vector. 204. 160 PA. 22–25. 147 Plane of action (PA). 174. 18 essence of. 152 for. 183. 114–117 Orthogonal crossed-axis gear pairs. see also 203. 147 . 49 Pinion-to-plane-of-action. Novikov gearing. 190 helical gearing. 259 Scalar multiplication. 147 Negation. 278 Scalar product. 59 representation. Orientation-preserving 311–312. 25 Novikov. 217. 27 kinematics of. 21 Novikov hobs. Mikhail L. 18. 200 N by-gears. 279 O Screw motion. 27 P Spatial gear pairs. 256 Rolling motion kinematics and geometry.330 Index N Parallel-axis gearing. 239 over cylinder. 114 transformations. 61 Pinion-to-rack gearing. 258 point (SAP-point) research work. 23. see Transverse contact of teeth flanks for. 251–253 contact ratio contact strength of known designs of gearing. 186. 152 pitch-line plane. 117–118 Shishkov’s equation of contact. 311 analytical description of operators. 19 Point of culmination. 145 Pitch point. 20 N bf-gears. 187 Nbf -mesh of conformal gear pair. 200 matrix representation of Dupin’s indicatrix equation. 315 tooth profiles. 35. 239. 49 basic rack. 240–246 Rack-shaped planing tool. 239–240 over plane. 314 Orientation-reversing Second-order analysis. 145. 146 Negative-gearing. 247–251 Reference plane. 146 Nby -mesh of conformal gear pair. 313 Opposite transformation. 320 Dupin’s Indicatrix.

28 292. 153–156 specific sliding. see also Gear tooth flank U Cartesian coordinate system. 67 vector diagrams of external. 293 Transverse contact ratio. 39 (SAP-point). 68 vector diagrams of generalized parallel-axis conformal gearing. 291 Transverse pressure angle. 187 United Stated patent office. 185. 75. 160 Torque diagrams. 285–286 contact for Novikov gearing. 70. 285–286 gearing with. 79 Wildhaber–Novikov gearing pinion addendum profile. 184 fundamental properties. 193 Triple scalar product. objects of invention. 9 277–278 Tooth flank geometry in conformal gear pair. 290. contact ratio in gear pair. 287 condition of contact. 11 vectors fundamental properties. 168–169 Spherical gear pairs. 278 conditions for. 68 rack- t ype.Index 331 plane of action apex. 289. 40 second fundamental form. 70. 71 Tooth ratio. conformal Tangent plane. gearing. 29–35 first fundamental form. Subtraction. 185 for Novikov gearing. 180. 146 Tooth profile sliding in conformal type. 269–276 Cartesian reference system. 80 (W–N gearing). 181 mathematical operations over sliding velocity vector. 183 Unit normal vector. 81 boundary N-circle. 146 gearing. 71 Specific sliding. 69 vector diagrams of internal. 8. 39. 78. 183 mathematical operations over. 290 permissible instant relative motions magnitudes of first order. 35–39 gear tooth flank. 156–157 sliding of tooth profile. 10 position vector. 148–153 boundary N-circle. 39–41 293–294 equality of base pitches. 56 Transmitting rotation smoothly. 257 . 280 sliding in right-angle high-conformal Vector calculus. 27 Surface forms. 281 T Two pseudo paths of contact. 82 W angular parameter. 278–281 Toothed gearing. 186 V linear velocity vector. 145 Start-of-active-profile point Total contact ratio. 287 condition of conjugacy. 78 Tangent vectors. 285–286 Teeth flanks. sliding in high-conformal 278–281 gearing. 80 root causes for loose term. 182 vectors. 256 tooth profiles. 277 gear pair. 179 product. 281 Triple vector product. 288 in geometrically accurate magnitudes of second order. 277–278 plane of action. 27–28 Gauss characteristic equation. 182. 247–251 Vector(s) operator of rotation. 251–253 gear-to-plane-of-action. 277 condition of contact.

332 Index Wildhaber. see also Involute working profiles. 14 65. 15 convex grinding wheels. 3 contact point. 13. 256 Zero-gearing. 145 . 253. 11 Wildhaber gearing. 16 Z features. 254. 11. 269–276 purpose of invention. 17 Wildhaber’s helical gearing. 259–260 pitch point. 256 rack-shaped planing tool. 255 gearing Willis theorem. Dr. 254 United Stated patent office. tooth profiles. 18 infeasibility. 12. 253. Ernest.