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@zahidtg

The following presentation is intended for educational


purposes only. There are references to information in public
domain (books, websites, standard documents, etc.) in this
material. Sincere attempt has been made to give credit to all
such references wherever possible. The original copyright
holders retain the copyright to their material. E&OE.

Thanks to Dr. Triantafyllos (Aldo) Kanakis for preparing some


of the slides and Parallel Wireless for giving me time off from
the hectic schedule to complete this presentation.

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Control Information /
Software Updates

Connectivity

Base Station Core Network /


Network Server
Sensor/Machine/Thing Backhaul
(Wired / Wireless)
Flow of data
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Machine

Machine Machine

Machine
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Machine Machine

Cloud

Machine Machine

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IoT is combining data, cloud, connectivity
analytics and technology in a way that
enables a smart environment in which
everyday objects are embedded with
network connectivity in order to improve
functionality and interaction

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Lets assume there is
one of this machine
on each floor or a
five floor building

In total, there are


five machines.
Source: 3G4G Blog

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Scenario 1 - No connectivity
Someone has to manually go on each
floor and check if there are enough
coffee beans, chocolate powder, milk
powder, etc.
He/She may have to do this say 3-4
Source: 3G4G Blog
times a day.

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Scenario 2 - Basic connectivity (M2M)
The machine has basic sensors so it can
send some kind of notification (on your
phone or email or message, etc.)
whenever the coffee beans, chocolate
powder, milk powder, etc., falls below a
certain level.
Source: 3G4G Blog
An app on phone and/or computer
may be available
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Scenario 3: Advanced connectivity (IoT)
Lets say that the coffee machine is connected
to the office system and database.
It knows which employees come when and
what is their coffee/drinks consumption pattern
This way the machine can optimize when it
needs to be topped up.
If there is a large meeting/event going on, the Source: 3G4G Blog
coffee machine can even check before the
breaks and indicate in advance that it needs
topping up
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Scenario 4: Intelligent Devices (Advanced
IoT)
Lets add intelligence to it so it can even know
about the inventory.
How much of coffee beans, chocolate powder,
milk powder, etc is in stock and when would
they need ordering again.
It can have an employee UI (User Interface) that Source: 3G4G Blog
can be used by employees to give feedback
on which coffee beans are more/less popular or
what drinks are popular.
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Scenario 4: Intelligent Devices (Advanced
IoT) continued
This info can be used by the machines to order
the supplies, taking into account the price,
availability, etc.
Build your own apps APIs are available
Can robots automate the remaining tasks of Source: 3G4G Blog
cleaning, topping it up, etc.?

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Source: 5G Americas
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There are many different type of devices that can be connected to
the Internet of Things. A device can be something big and complex, like
a car or a house. It can be something you use in everyday life, such as a
golf club, or a printer, or a pair of sneakers. It can be something very,
very small, such as a discrete sensor inside your car or house or golf club,
a single part of a much larger and more complex device.

For that matter, what the IoT calls things dont have to be actual
physical things. A thing can be a piece of data status information such
as your location or room temperature collected through separate
general purpose device, such as a thermostat, smartphone or
computer. Put another way, the physical thing itself doesnt have to be
in the IoT, although data about the thing must.

Know, though, that most IoT devices are simple sensors that monitor
something happening nearby. These simple things are either record or
transmit the information they gather across the network to some other
device or service.
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The right car gets pre-heated depending on:
Day of the week
Whether travelling alone or with the family
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Source: Philips Hue
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Control Information /
Software Updates

Connectivity

Base Station Core Network /


Network Server
Backhaul
(Wired / Wireless)
Flow of data
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Control Information /
Software Updates

Connectivity
(Wired / Wireless) Core Network /
Network Server

Flow of data
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Source: Ericsson Part 1, Part 2 22
Source: Ericsson Part 1, Part 2 23
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Source: Samsung Newsroom (April Fools 2016 Joke)
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Source: Venturebeat

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Source: Forbes/BCG

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MTC (Machine Type IoE (Internet of
Communication) Everything)
Device Mote (Remote)
D2D (Device-to- IDoT (Identity of Things)
device) IIoT (Industrial IoT)
IoST (Internet of Small TaaS (Things as a
Things) Service)
LPWA (Low Power
Wide Area)
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Light Positioning
Proximity GPS / GLONASS /
Microphones (inc. GALILIEO
ultrasound reciver) Wi-Fi
Camera (front & Cellular (A-GPS)
back) NFC
Gyroscope Pressure
Accelerometer Temperature
Magnetometer Gesture
Barometer Fingerprint
Humidity Heartbeat monitor

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Source: Nick Hunn


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Wired
Wireless
Near Field (NFC)
Short range (Bluetooth, Zigbee, WiFi)
Cellular (2G, 3G, 4G)
LPWA - Low Power Wide Area
Licensed spectrum (NB-IoT)
Unlicensed spectrum (Sigfox, LoRa, etc.)
Satellite
Serial bus

USB

Ethernet
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Near Field Communication
NFC is very short range communication protocol
Point-to-point communication
Needs both devices within field to communicate
Contactless payments (apple pay, android pay, paypal etc)
Ticket validations (Oyster)
File sharing
Multiplayer gaming
Most smartphones are NFC ready
Short range communications
Transmission at the ISM band
Low transmission power
Low penetration properties (walls, doors, windows etc)
High transmission rate
High availability
Smartphones
Laptops
Car entertainment units
IoT devices
Low cost
Supports few nodes in a PAN
Bluetooth 4.0 is not a Bluetooth revision
Completely new technology
Shorter range
Lower transmission power
Poorer penetration properties
Faster discovery and connection setup speed
Lower throughput
Lower cost
Energy saving for wearable devices
Available for IoT applications
Source: Qualcomm 40
Wider range communications (compared to Bluetooth)
Transmission at the ISM band
Low transmission power (higher than Bluetooth)
High transmission rate
Some penetration properties (better than Bluetooth)
Slower market acceptance
Smaller availability
Supports many nodes (WLAN)
Low cost
Short range communications
Transmission at the ISM band
Low transmission power
Very good penetration properties (walls, doors, windows etc)
High transmission rate
Highest availability
Smartphones
Computers
Car entertainment units
IoT devices
Smart home devices
Control units
Very low cost
Supports many nodes (WLAN)
A Wi-Fi family technology HaLow
Sub 1GHz operating frequency
Longer range for same transmit power as Wi-Fi
Better penetration properties than Wi-Fi
Target applications
Smart Homes
Connected cars
Healthcare
Remote industry operation
Retail
Agriculture
Smart Cities
Supports multiple nodes (WLAN)
Source: Radio Electronics 44
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Source: Ericsson Mobility Report, June 2016
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Source: A Survey of Longer-Range IoT Wireless Protocols by Bryon Moyer 49
Source: CW/Sigfox
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Source: A Survey of Longer-Range IoT Wireless Protocols by Bryon Moyer 52
Source: CW/Sigfox 53
Low cost modules $2 - $3
Subscription prices as low as 1 per year in large volumes
(over 50K)
Aiming for very low-bandwidth applications that favour low
volumes of messages per device, typically uplink-heavy
(device to cloud)
12 bytes per message, and at the same time no more than 140
messages per device per day
Sigfox devices can work up to 20 years off two AA batteries

Source: Rethink Research


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Agriculture and environment: weather Manufacturing and supply chain: devices that
monitoring; irrigation control; soil condition; monitor waste and fuel consumption,
security; monitoring the health of livestock; inventory, maintenance variables, etc.
measuring river water. Retail and leisure: supply chain
Automotive: vehicle tracking; fleet communication, inventory management,
management shopping devices and communication.
Consumer electronics: personal tracking Utilities: energy theft monitoring, feedback for
devices; health products with monitoring of consumers and repair crews, public safety,
sensor statuses such as location, blood waste, leakage and financial control
pressure and glucose levels; home Smart city and public transport: technologies
automation/domotics. for public transport, including ticketing and
Emergency services and security: alarms; passenger information systems; parking space
CCTV; fire detection and protection; access management and payment; charging and
control systems; road tolls, traffic volume monitoring;
Healthcare: devices enabling first responder connected road signs, traffic lights and law-
connectivity or clinical trials monitoring. enforcement cameras; CCTV, street lighting,
Intelligent buildings: heating; ventilation; air waste collection, public alarms and
conditioning; lighting; security. intercoms; tourist information services; static
advertising and billboards.
Manufacturing and supply chain: devices that
monitor waste and fuel consumption,
inventory, maintenance variables, etc. Source: Wikipedia

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Uses cellular and Sigfox where available
Monthly service plans between $7 - $10
Sigfox can help reduce the costs further

Source: http://www.whistle.com/
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Source: A Survey of Longer-Range IoT Wireless Protocols by Bryon Moyer 58
LoRa refer to a wireless modulation allowing a low power
high radio budget communication.
LoRaWAN refer to a network protocol using LoRa chips for
the communication. It relies on basestation able to
monitor 8 frequencies with multiple spread factors (virtually
~42 channels).
It is possible to use LoRa modulation in point to point or star
networks without using LoRaWAN.
It could be possible to have LoRaWAN like network with
other radio link, but wouldnt be really practical.
Source: Alexandre Bouillot, Quora
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Milton Keynes is to deploy its own low
power wide area (LoRa) network with
gateways installed at four locations to
provide coverage across central areas
of the city.

Source: Smart Cities World


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Sigfox provides the LoRa provides chips
network that can be used to
build the network
Device chip costs $2 Base station chip costs
and connectivity $1 / $20, no need to pay
year roughly for connectivity
More suitable for wider Coverage depends on
coverage areas the private network
coverage area

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Source: EE Times

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Source: EE Times

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Source: Ericsson
Mobility report, June
2014

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Source: European Commission
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Source: European Commission
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Provided a 4 year notice of 2G switch off
2.3 million customers still on 2G at time of
switch off
San Franciscos bus systems relied on 2G
network to show the next bus times but
they failed to upgrade their equipment
by deadline so all timings were wrong.
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Won the deal to supply connectivity for the UKs Smart Meter
Implementation Programme in two of the projects three regions.
The operator will provide service in the Central and Southern
regions for the programme, which will see the deployment of 53
million connected gas and electricity meters across the UK by
2020.
The deal is valued at 1.5bn over a 15-year lifespan
O2 will use 2G (GSM & GPRS) to provide connectivity. They will
also use RF mesh to reach premises with poor cellular
connectivity

Source: Telecoms.com, Critical articles: Guardian, Nick Hunn

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Source: European Commission
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Displays (size & resolution)
Processor
Number of Radios in use simultaneously
Amount of data being transferred
GPS & Location services
Data storage

IoT devices try and minimise all of the above to save


power consumption

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Source: European Commission
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Source: 3GPP 83
Release-12
MTC introduces category 0 UE to reduce device complexity
Power Saving Mode (PSM) reduces power consumption when UE
does not need to send or receive data
Release-13
Introduces new categories with complexity reduction and
coverage enhancements
extended Discontinuous Reception (eDRX) optimizes battery life
for device-terminated applications
network architecture and protocol enhancements for IoT are
introduced
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Source: Qualcomm 85
Source: LTE and 5G
Technologies Enabling
the Internet of Things -
5G Americas Report
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Source: Nick Hunn

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Source: Nokia 89
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Automated Vehicles eCall (in combination
(GNSS GPS, GLONASS, with cellular)
etc.) Communications with
Location Based Services Aircrafts, Ships, etc. out
Pay as you drive of cellular range
Insurance Fleet management and
Tracking of shipping control
containers Oil Platforms monitoring
Weather and Pollution
monitoring
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By 2023, there are estimated to be 5.8 million satellite
M2M and IoT connections globally - NSR
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Source of Satellite presentations: techUK
Satellite Applications & Services
Conference

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Source: Satellite Applications Catapult 99
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Source 102
Source: Bigbelly
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Source: gridComm 104
Source: IBM 105
Source: Lion
Tracking
Collars 106
Source: Illegal Amazonian logging traced by
Cargo Tracck and Gemaltos M2M modules
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Source: Onfarm 108
Enguage offers an electronic
system that notifies authorities
when a fire extinguisher is blocked,
missing from its designated
location or when its pressure falls
below safe operating levels. Alerts
can be sent directly through an
instant email, phone call or pager
notification to proper agencies
and supervisors.
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Source: TechHive 110
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Source: https://findlapa.com/ Source: https://www.thetileapp.com/
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Source: Libelium
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Sector Use Case Top Requirements
Industry High Volume (e.g. mining) Range, Coverage, Reliability, Cost

Agriculture Dynamic (e.g. animal tracking) Battery, Range, Coverage,


Reliability, Cost
Static (e.g. irrigation of fields) Battery, Range, Coverage,
Reliability, Cost
Utilities Powered (e. g. Electricity) Indoor, SLA, Reliability

Not Powered (e.g. Water/Gas) Indoor, SLA, Reliability

Logstics Management & Tracking (e.g. Easy Install., Mobility, Coverage,


Fleet) Cost
Basic Monitoring (e.g. shipment Battery, Easy Install., Mobility,
conditions, warehouse) Coverage, Cost
Smart Cities Dynamic Systems (e.g. Traffic SLA, Coverage, Reliability
Management)
Basic Sensoring (e.g. air pollution) SLA, Coverage, Reliability
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Sector Use Case Top Requirements
Payments TPV Indoor, Interoperability, SLA,
Reliability
Fraud Detection Indoor, Interoperability, SLA,
Reliability
Wearables (incl. e-Health) Continuous Tracking (e.g. Indoor, Battery, Mobility, SLA,
Diabetes) Coverage, Reliability
Spot Tracking (e.g. steps tracking) Battery, Easy Install., Mobility

Security High Volume (e.g. video) Indoor, Throughput, Security, SLA,


Reliability
Low Volume (e.g. presence Indoor, Security, SLA, Reliability
detection)
Connected Cars Integrated solution (e.g. traffic Easy Install., Mobility, Coverage,
management) Cost
Basic Monitoring (e.g. location) Easy Install., Mobility, Coverage,
Cost
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Sector Use Case Top Requirements
Buildings (incl. Home) Complex Solution (e.g. energy Indoor, Security, SLA, Reliability
management)
Basic Solution (e.g. presence/ air Indoor, Security, SLA, Reliability
pollution)
IoT Complex Systems Autonomous Car or Drones Battery, Security, Range, SLA,
Ecosystems Coverage, Reliability

Source: LTE and 5G Technologies Enabling the Internet of Things - 5G


Americas Report
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@TomRebbeck @MachinaResearch
@mulloom2 @VodafoneIoT
@mazlan_abbas @TelefonicaIoT
@JamesMonighan @Inteliot
@ioticlabs @DT_M2M
@arkessa @Cisco_IoT
@TechThings_IOT @WeightlessSIG
@RWW @LoRaAlliance
@NetOfEverything @sigfox
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Cisco VNI Whitepaper, Feb 2016
LTE and 5G Technologies Enabling the Internet of Things - 5G
Americas Report, Dec 2016
Ericsson Mobility Report June 2014, June 2015, Latest
CW - 'Radio Systems for Mission-Critical IoT Communications'
CW - 'Boring but lucrative, the real Internet of Things
CW - IoT Security: Will the Internet of Things be Secure Enough to
Run Your Life?
CW - 'Don't panic about IoT Security, new technology will sort it
out'
CW - 'Connected vehicles - the ultimate IoT sensor?
Postscapes IoT examples
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