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ENERGY (OIL & GAS)

Oil and natural gas are naturally occurring chemicals that are made up of just
two elements -- carbon and hydrogen. The class of chemicals based on carbon
and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons. The simplest hydrocarbon, methane, is
made up of one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms.

Currently, over 95 percent of natural gas used in the United States moves from
well to market entirely via pipeline.

Natural gas pipeline networks are generally broken into three distinct
systems:

Gathering systems carry natural gas from individual wells for bulk
processing at a treatment facility,
Transmission systems carry the processed natural gas, often over long
distances, from the producing region to local distribution systems
around the country.
Local distribution systems deliver natural gas into our homes, businesses
and power plants.

Natural gas pipelines are generally smaller in diameter than petroleum


pipelines. Pipelines in the gathering and distribution systems range from 6" to
16" in diameter, with certain segments as narrow as 1/2". The pipes making up
the interstate transmission system range in diameter from 16" to 48".

The Oil and Gas industry is dealing with social and behavioural changes.
Urbanization, the growth of digital communication and social media, talent
shifts and a host of other factors need to be addressed by the industry in
terms of where and how they do business. The oil and gas industry wants to
improve its public image and reduce scepticism, and monitoring social and
behavioural changes will be an important step in this process.

In addition to the external factors that complicate business, oil and gas
companies also continue to face internal challenges. Talent shortages, rising
costs, and capital constraints are some of the chief concerns. Simultaneously,
there are global trends that are impacting where and how the business will
grow or decline.