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CA 506

Advanced Instrumentation

Week # 01: Oct 22,, 2010


Introduction

Engr. AHMED ALI 1


ADVANCED
To raise new questions, new possibilities, to regard
old problems from a new angle, requires creative
imagination and marks real advance in science.
[[Albert Einstein]]

INSTRUMENTATION
Instrumentation is the branch of engineering that
deals with measurement and control.
control

Engr. AHMED ALI 2


BASIC TERMINOLOGIES
SENSOR
TRANSDUCER
INSTRUMENT
PHYSICAL QUANTITY

Engr. AHMED ALI 3


SENSOR
A sensor is a device that converts a physical
phenomenon into an electrical signal. As such,
sensors representt partt off the
th interface
i t f between
b t the
th
physical world and the world of electrical devices,
such as computers.
computers The other part of this interface
is represented by actuators, which convert
electrical signals
g into physical
p y pphenomena.

Engr. AHMED ALI 4


TRANSDUCERS
Transducers are electric or electronic devices that
transform energy from one manifestation into
another.
th Most
M t people,
l when
h they
th think
thi k off
transducers, think specifically of devices that
perform this transformation in order to gather or
transfer information, but really, anything that
converts energy
gy can be considered a transducer

Engr. AHMED ALI 5


TYPES OF TRANSDUCERS
Electromagnetic:
Antenna - converts electromagnetic waves into electric current and
vice versa.
Cathode ray tube (CRT) - converts electrical signals into visual form
Fluorescent lamp, light bulb - converts electrical power into visible
light
g
Magnetic cartridge - converts motion into electrical form
Photodetector or Photoresistor (LDR) - converts changes in light levels
into resistance changes
Tape head - converts changing magnetic fields into electrical form
Hall effect sensor - converts a magnetic field level into electrical form
only
only.

Engr. AHMED ALI 6


TYPES OF TRANSDUCERS
Electrochemical:
pH probes
Electro-galvanic fuel cell
Electromechanical (output devices are generically called actuators):
Electroactive polymers
Galvanometer
l
MEMS
Rotary motor, linear motor
Vibration powered generator
Potentiometer when used for measuring position
Load cell converts force to mV/V electrical signal using strain gauge
Accelerometer
Strain gauge
String
S i Potentiometer
P i
Air flow sensor 7
Engr. AHMED ALI
TYPES OF TRANSDUCERS
Electroacoustic:
Geophone - convert a ground movement (displacement) into voltage
Gramophone
p pick-up
p p
Hydrophone - converts changes in water pressure into an electrical
form
Loudspeaker,
Loudspeaker earphone - converts changes in electrical signals into
acoustic form
Microphone - converts changes in air pressure into an electrical signal
Piezoelectric crystal - converts pressure changes into electrical form
Tactile transducer

Engr. AHMED ALI 8


TYPES OF TRANSDUCERS
Photoelectric:
Laser
L diode,
di d light-emitting
li ht itti diode
di d - convertt electrical
l t i l power into
i t forms
f
of light
Photodiode, photoresistor, phototransistor, photomultiplier tube -
convertst changing
h i lightli ht levels
l l into
i t electrical
l t i l form
f
Thermoelectric:
RTD Resistance Temperature Detector
Thermocouple
Thermistor (includes PTC resistor and NTC resistor)
Radioacoustic:
Geiger-Mller tube used for measuring radioactivity.
Receiver (radio)

Engr. AHMED ALI 9


INSTRUMENT
Instrument is defined as a sensor bases system
used for measuring any input (usually physical
quantity)
tit ) andd transforming
t f i it into
i t any recognizable
i bl
form of output. Output could either be humanly
recognizable or for any other system.
system

Engr. AHMED ALI 10


PHYSICAL QUANTITY
A physical quantity is a physical property that can
b quantified.
be ifi d This
Thi means iti can be
b measuredd and/or
d/
calculated and expressed in numbers. The value of a
physical quantity Q is expressed as the product of a
numerical value {Q} and a physical unit [Q].
Q = {Q} x [Q]
A Physical Quantity is a measure of some
quantifiable aspect of the modeled world, such as
'the earth's diameter' (a constant length)

Engr. AHMED ALI 11


INDUSTRIAL SENSORS AND
INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS
Scientific and engineering sensors and instrument
systems of a spectacular variety of size, weight,
cost,, complexity
p y and technology
gy are used in the
modern industry. However, a close look would
reveal that all of them are composed of a set of
typical
typ ca functional
u ct o a eelements
e e ts co connected
ected in a
specified way to provide signal in a form
necessary. The various tasks involved in the
automation systems.
systems Figure below shows the
configuration of a typical sensor system.

Engr. AHMED ALI 12


In Fig 2.1 a sensor system is shown
d
decomposedd into
i three
h off its
i major
j functional
f i l
components, along with the medium in which
the measurement takes place.
p

Engr. AHMED ALI 13


1. The physical medium
The physical medium refers to the object where a
physical phenomenon is taking place and we are
interested in the measurement of some physical
p y
variable associated with the phenomenon.

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2. The sensing element
The sensing element is affected by the
phenomenon in the physical medium either
through
g direct or pphysical
y contact or through
g
indirect interaction of the phenomenon in the
medium with some component of the sensing
e e e t.
element.

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3. The signal-conditioning element
The signal-conditioning element serves the
function of altering the nature of the signal
generated byy the sensingg element. Since the
g
method of converting the nature of the signal
generated in the sensor to another suitable signal
form
o (usua
(usually
y eelectrical)
ect ca ) depe
depends
ds esse
essentially
t a y oon tthee
sensor, individual signal conditioning modules are
characteristic of a group of sensing elements.

Engr. AHMED ALI 16


4. The signal processing element
The signal processing element is used to process
the signal generated by the first stage for a variety
of ppurposes
p such as,, filteringg ((to remove noise),
),
diagnostics, linearisation.

Engr. AHMED ALI 17


5. Thee target
ge signal-handling
sg d g
element
The target signal-handling element may perform a
variety of functions depending on the target
application.
pp It mayy therefore contain data/signal
g
display modules, recording or/storage modules, or
simply a feedback to a process control system.
Examples
a p es include
c ude a te
temperature
pe atu e cchart
a t recorder,
eco de , aan
instrumentation tape recorder, a digital display or
an Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) followed
by an interface to a process control computer.
computer

Engr. AHMED ALI 18


Modern sensors often have the additional capability
of digital communication using serial, parallel or
network communication pprotocols. Such sensors
are called smart and contain embedded digital
electronic processing systems.

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