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AS/NZS 4455.

3:2008
AS/NZS 4455.3:2008

Australian/New Zealand Standard

Masonry units, pavers, flags and


segmental retaining wall units

Part 3: Segmental retaining wall units


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AS/NZS 4455.3:2008
This Joint Australian/New Zealand Standard was prepared by Joint Technical
Committee BD-026, Masonry Units, Pavers, Flags and Segmental Retaining Wall
Units. It was approved on behalf of the Council of Standards Australia on 21 May
2008 and on behalf of the Council of Standards New Zealand on 18 June 2008.
This Standard was published on 30 June 2008.

The following are represented on Committee BD-026:

Association of Consulting Engineers Australia


Australian Institute of Building Surveyors
CSIRO, Manufacturing and Materials Technology
Clay Brick and Paver Institute
Concrete Masonry Association of Australia
Engineering and Consultation Laboratories Association
Engineers Australia
Institute of Public Works Engineering Australia
National Association of Testing Authorities Australia
New Zealand Concrete Masonry Association
Stone Institute of Australasia
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University of Newcastle

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This Standard was issued in draft form for comment as DR 04315.


AS/NZS 4455.3:2008

Australian/New Zealand Standard

Masonry units, pavers, flags and


segmental retaining wall units

Part 3: Segmental retaining wall units


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Originated in Australia as AS A211934.


Final Australian edition AS 16531985.
Originated in New Zealand as NZSS 3661943.
Final New Zealand edition NZS 3116.1:1991.
Jointly revised, amalgamated and redesignated AS/NZS 4455:1997.
AS/NZS 4455:1997 revised and designated, in part, AS/NZS 4455.3:2008.

COPYRIGHT
Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand
All rights are reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or copied in any form or by
any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without the written
permission of the publisher.
Jointly published by Standards Australia, GPO Box 476, Sydney, NSW 2001 and Standards
New Zealand, Private Bag 2439, Wellington 6020

ISBN 0 7337 8802 5


AS/NZS 4455.3:2008 2

PREFACE
This Standard was prepared by the Joint Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand
Committee BD-026, Masonry Units, Pavers, Flags and Segmental Retaining Wall Units, to
supersede, in part, AS/NZS 4455:1997, Masonry units and segmental pavers.
The objective of this Standard is to provide a specification for segmental retaining wall
units, to facilitate design and purchasing.
This Standard addresses
(a) the need for a basic Standard that specifies the essential properties of dimensional
tolerance, integrity and durability, common to all units covered by the scope of the
Standard;
(b) more stringent requirements that might need to be complied with, that would best be
specified by the prospective purchaser as needed; and
(c) test methods consistent with Items (a) and (b).
This Standard is intended to provide the minimum requirements for segmental retaining
wall units covered by the scope. More stringent requirements may be imposed as
contractual requirements.
The terms normative and informative have been used in this Standard to define the
application of the appendix to which they apply. A normative appendix is an integral part
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of a Standard, whereas an informative appendix is only for information and guidance.


3 AS/NZS 4455.3:2008

CONTENTS

Page

SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL


1.1 SCOPE ........................................................................................................................ 4
1.2 APPLICATION ........................................................................................................... 4
1.3 NORMATIVE REFERENCES .................................................................................... 4
1.4 DEFINITIONS ............................................................................................................ 5
1.5 NOTATION ................................................................................................................ 6

SECTION 2 PRODUCT REQUIREMENTS


2.1 GENERAL .................................................................................................................. 7
2.2 DIMENSIONAL DEVIATIONS FROM WORK SIZE ............................................... 7
2.3 INTEGRITY................................................................................................................ 8
2.4 DURABILITY............................................................................................................. 9

APPENDICES
A DEMONSTRATION OF COMPLIANCE FOR STRENGTH ................................... 11
B MEANS FOR DEMONSTRATING COMPLIANCE WITH THIS STANDARD ..... 12
C DETERMINATION OF CHARACTERISTIC VALUE ............................................ 14
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D PURCHASING GUIDELINES.................................................................................. 16
E TESTING FOR ADDITIONAL PROPERTIES......................................................... 17

BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................................... 18
AS/NZS 4455.3:2008 4

STANDARDS AUSTRALIA/STANDARDS NEW ZEALAND

Australian/New Zealand Standard


Masonry units, pavers, flags and segmental retaining wall units

Part 3: Segmental retaining wall units

SECT ION 1 SCOPE AND GENERA L

1.1 SCOPE
This Standard specifies requirements for units for use in segmental retaining walls,
including units for walls built in accordance with AS 4678.
NOTE: Masonry units for retaining walls that are designed in accordance with AS 3700 or
NZS 4230 and constructed with mortared joints are covered by AS/NZS 4455.1.
Segmental retaining wall units covered by this Standard include those made of the
following materials:
(a) Concrete.
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(b) Dimension stone (cut or dressed).


(c) Fired clay (with or without shale).
NOTE: Dimension stone has a wide variety of characteristics that are not fully covered by the
requirements of this Standard. Test methods different from those specified in this Standard may
be required for dimension stone.
Means for demonstrating compliance with the requirements for strength are given in
Appendix A.
NOTES:
1 Guidance on means for demonstrating compliance with this Standard is given in Appendix B.
2 Guidance on determination of characteristic value is given in Appendix C.
3 Guidance on the content of a purchasing agreement is given in Appendix D.
4 Guidance on optional testing is given in Appendix E.

1.2 APPLICATION
Testing to Section 2, which references AS/NZS 4456.3, AS/NZS 4456.4 and
AS/NZS 4456.10, is required for compliance with this Standard.

1.3 NORMATIVE REFERENCES


The following documents are indispensable to the application of this Standard:
NOTE: Documents referenced for informative purposes are listed in the Bibliography.
AS
3942 Quality controlVariables chartsGuide
4678 Earth-retaining structures
AS/NZS
4456 Masonry units, segmental pavers and flagsMethods of test
4456.2 Method 2: Assessment of mean and standard deviation
4456.3 Method 3: Determining dimensions

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AS/NZS
4456.4 Method 4: Determining compressive strength of masonry units
4456.10 Method 10: Determining resistance to salt attack
NZS
3116 Concrete segmental paving
4230 Design of reinforced concrete masonry structures

1.4 DEFINITIONS
For the purpose of this Standard, the definitions below apply.
1.4.1 Characteristic value
The value that is exceeded by at least 95% of the units in the lot.
1.4.2 Compressive strength
See unconfined compressive strength.
1.4.3 Dimensional deviation
The deviation from work size of units when determined in accordance with AS/NZS 4456.3.
1.4.4 Hollow segmental retaining wall unit
Unit with cores greater than 10% of the gross volume.
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1.4.5 Lot
A group of units of a single type with specific characteristics and dimensions presented for
sampling at the same time.
1.4.6 Salt attack resistance
Resistance to attack by the action of soluble salts determined by the action of sodium
sulphate or sodium chloride in accordance with AS/NZS 4456.10.
1.4.7 Shall
Indicates that a statement is mandatory.
1.4.8 Should
Indicates a recommendation.
1.4.9 Solid segmental retaining wall unit
Unit that may contain recesses or cores not greater than 10% of the gross volume.
1.4.10 Standard deviation
The unbiased standard deviation determined in accordance with AS/NZS 4456.2.
1.4.11 Unconfined compressive strength
The failure stress in compression converted by the application of an aspect ratio factor to
account for platen restraint, determined in accordance with AS/NZS 4456.4.
1.4.12 Work size
The size of a unit specified for its manufacture, from which deviations are measured.

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AS/NZS 4455.3:2008 6

1.5 NOTATION
The following notation is used in this Standard:
n = number of specimens in the test sample
s = unbiased standard deviation determined in accordance with AS/NZS 4456.2
f uc = characteristic unconfined compressive strength
Wc = width of hollow unit section supported at one end only
Ws = width of hollow unit section supported at both ends
Wh = edge distance of core holes in hollow units
Wk = width of key
lc = length of sections supported at one end only
ls = length of sections supported at both ends
d = diameter of core holes in hollow units
hk = height of key
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SEC T I O N 2 P R O D U CT RE Q U IRE M E N T S

2.1 GENERAL
Dimensional deviation, integrity and durability of retaining wall units shall comply with the
requirements of this Section.
Compliance with the requirements for strength shall be determined in accordance with
Appendix A.
NOTE: Additional means for demonstrating compliance with this Standard are given in
Appendix B.
The suppliers of segmental retaining wall units shall make available the relevant work sizes
necessary to specify and construct a retaining wall using the units.

2.2 DIMENSIONAL DEVIATIONS FROM WORK SIZE


2.2.1 Performance requirement
Segmental retaining wall units shall be manufactured to tolerances that enable the units to
be assembled into the wall to give a functional and aesthetically acceptable surface.
2.2.2 Methods
The dimensions of individual units shall be measured in accordance with AS/NZS 4456.3.
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2.2.3 Deemed to satisfy


Measurement of dimensional deviations for segmental retaining wall units shall be carried
out in accordance with the AS/NZS 4456.3 test method for determination of measurements
for individual units.
Unless otherwise declared by the supplier or agreed between the supplier and the purchaser,
all retaining wall units shall comply with the DW4 category, as shown in Table 2.1.
The height of segmental retaining wall units shall be such that when 5 units are stacked on
top of each other on a flat surface, the slope of the top surface shall be not greater than
1 in 50.
Where the intended character of the segmental retaining wall is to give an overall irregular
or rough surface, the dimensional deviations shall not apply to the width of the unit if the
average width is not less than 90% of the work size, determined for any plane parallel to its
bed.
NOTES:
1 Typical irregular-face units are split face, profiled, textured or rock-face
2 Where the surfaces of the retaining wall units are intended to tightly interlock with other
surfaces, the tolerances may be reduced accordingly to ensure that the intended action can be
achieved.

TABLE 2.1
DIMENSIONAL DEVIATIONS OF SEGMENTAL RETAINING WALL UNITS
Category Work size dimensions, mm
DW4 Standard deviation of not more than 2 mm and a difference between the mean
and the work size of not more than 3 mm

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AS/NZS 4455.3:2008 8

2.3 INTEGRITY
2.3.1 Performance requirement
Segmental retaining wall units shall have sufficient integrity to be handled, transported to
the purchaser and laid and to perform their required function in the finished retaining wall.
2.3.2 Method
Where the characteristic unconfined compressive strength ( f uc ) of segmental retaining wall
units is specified to control integrity, it shall be determined in accordance with
AS/NZS 4456.4.
Demonstrating compliance for unconfined compressive strength shall be in accordance with
Appendix A.
2.3.3 Deemed to satisfy
2.3.3.1 Solid segmental retaining wall units
For solid segmental retaining wall units, the requirement for integrity is deemed to be
satisfied if the characteristic unconfined compressive strength is at least 5 MPa for walls up
to 1.5 m in height, and 10 MPa for walls greater than 1.5 m and up to 10 m in height.
2.3.3.2 Hollow segmental retaining wall units
For hollow segmental retaining wall units, the requirement for integrity is deemed to be
satisfied if the strengths and average measurements of each part of five random-sampled
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units (measured at the same positions on each unit) are not less than the values given in
Table 2.2.

TABLE 2.2
MINIMUM PROPERTIES OF HOLLOW UNITS
Minimum average width (W)
Identification of section
Wall height 1.5 m Wall height >1.5 m and <10 m
Characteristic unconfined
10 MPa 12 MPa
compressive strength
Width of sections supported at 0.3lc 0.5lc
one end only (W c)
Width of sections supported at 0.15l s 0.3l s
both ends (W s)
Edge distance of core holes (Wh ) 0.3d 0.5d
NOTE: Symbols used in the above Table are defined in Clause1.5 and illustrated in Figure 2.1.

2.3.3.3 Width of keys


For keys, the requirement for integrity is deemed to be satisfied if the average measurement
of each part of five random-sampled units (measured at the same position on each unit) are
not less than the values given in Table 2.3.

TABLE 2.3
MINIMUM PROPERTIES OF KEYS
Minimum average width (W)
Identification of section
Wall height 1.5 m Wall height >1.5 m and <10 m
Keys (Wk ) 2.0h k 3.0h k
NOTE: Symbols used in the above Table are defined in Clause1.5 and illustrated in Figure 2.2.

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c s

Wc Ws Wh

FIGURE 2.1 PROPORTIONS OF UNITS


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FIGURE 2.2 KEYS

2.4 DURABILITY
2.4.1 Performance requirement
Segmental retaining wall units shall have sufficient durability to perform their required
function in the finished structure without deteriorating under the action of the
environmental conditions of intended use.
2.4.2 Method
Units shall be categorized as
(a) exposure grade; or
(b) general purpose grade;
in accordance with Table 2.4 and declared by the supplier.
Where the salt attack resistance of the segmental retaining wall unit is to be determined by
test, it shall be determined in accordance with AS/NZS 4456.10.
NOTE: In locations where resistance to freeze-thaw or to chemical attack is required, additional
specifications may be needed.

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AS/NZS 4455.3:2008 10

TABLE 2.4
SALT ATTACK RESISTANCE GRADE
Salt attack resistance
Requirement/Description
grade
Exposure (a) Suppliers experience, according to which it is possible to demonstrate
that the product has a history of surviving under saline environmental
conditions similar to those existing at the site considered
or
(b) <0.4 g mass loss in 40 cycles in AS/NZS 4456.10, Method B, for
materials other than sandstone or porous limestone
or
(c) <1% mass loss in 15 cycles in AS/NZS 4456.10, Method A, for
sandstone or porous limestone
General purpose (a) Suppliers experience, according to which it is possible to demonstrate
that the product has a history of surviving under non-saline
environmental conditions similar to those existing at the site
considered. Products that fit this category are not expected to meet the
mass loss criterion for exposure category when tested in accordance
with AS/NZS 4456.10
or
(b) <0.4g mass loss in 15 cycles in AS/NZS 4456.10, Method B for
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materials other than sandstone or porous limestone


or
(c) 1% mass loss in 15 cycles in AS/NZS 4456.10, Method A, for
sandstone or porous limestone
NOTE: Tables 1 and 1A of NZS 3116 set out the requirements for compliance with NZS 3116 and
the deemed to satisfy requirements of this Section.

2.4.3 Deemed to satisfy


Segmental retaining wall units classified in accordance with Table 2.4 are deemed to satisfy
the durability requirements of this Clause (2.4).

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APPENDIX A
DEMONSTRATION OF COMPLIANCE FOR STRENGTH
(Normative)

A1 GENERAL
Demonstration of compliance with the strength requirements of this Standard shall be in
accordance with Paragraphs A2 and A3.
NOTE: Appendix B gives guidance on additional means for demonstrating compliance with the
Standard.
Where a sample taken from a lot fails to conform to the specified requirements, that lot may
be sorted, resampled at random and retested.
Where a lot does not meet a required performance level, that lot may be reclassified.
NOTE: These procedures allow for the assessment of compliance for a nominated characteristic
value without the need for evaluating the characteristic value of the lot.

A2 SINGLE LOT
Where compliance with a specified characteristic value is required for a single lot, the lot is
deemed to be in compliance if the mean value of a sample, drawn at random from the lot
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and calculated in accordance with AS 4456.2, is greater than the specified characteristic
value +1.2 s.
The unbiased standard deviation (s) shall be
(a) based on a history of test results from more than 30 specimens; or
(b) taken as 0.15 times the sample mean.

A3 LOTS TAKEN DURING CONTINUOUS MANUFACTURE


Where compliance with a specified characteristic value is required for lots taken during
manufacture and provided the manufacturing process has been controlled in accordance
with the appropriate requirements of AS 3942 with continuous sampling and testing during
manufacture, an individual lot is deemed to be in compliance, provided the mean of the
sample drawn from that lot does not fall below the control level. The control level shall be
set at a value greater than the following:
2s
Specified characteristic value + 1.65 s
n
The unbiased standard deviation (s) shall be determined from the 30 most recent specimens
tested. Each sample shall consist of specimens drawn at regular intervals during production
or randomly sampled from the lot. The number of specimens in each sample (n) shall be
sufficient to reliably represent the lot from which they are drawn. Samples shall consist of
at least 5 specimens.

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APPENDIX B
MEANS FOR DEMONSTRATING COMPLIANCE WITH THIS STANDARD
(Informative)

B1 SCOPE
This Appendix sets out the following different means by which compliance with this
Standard can be demonstrated by the manufacturer or supplier:
(a) Evaluation by means of statistical sampling.
(b) The use of a product certification scheme.
(c) Assurance using the acceptability of the suppliers quality system.
(d) Other such means proposed by the manufacturer or supplier and acceptable to the
customer.

B2 STATISTICAL SAMPLING
Statistical sampling is a procedure which enables decisions to be made about the quality of
batches of items after inspecting or testing only a portion of those items. This procedure
will only be valid if the sampling plan has been determined on a statistical basis and the
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following requirements are met:


(a) The sample needs to be drawn randomly from a population of product of known
history. The history needs to enable verification that the product was made from
known materials at essentially the same time, by essentially the same processes and
under essentially the same system of control.
(b) For each different situation, a suitable sampling plan needs to be defined. A sampling
plan for one manufacturer of given capability and product throughput may not be
relevant to another manufacturer producing the same items.
In order for statistical sampling to be meaningful to the customer, the manufacturer or
supplier needs to demonstrate how the above conditions have been satisfied. Sampling and
the establishment of a sampling plan should be carried out in accordance with AS 1199.1,
guidance to which is given in AS 1199.0.

B3 PRODUCT CERTIFICATION
The purpose of product certification is to provide independent assurance of the claim by the
manufacturer that products comply with the stated Standard.
The certification scheme should meet the criteria described in HB 18.28 (SANZ HB18.28)
in that, as well as full type testing from independently sampled production and subsequent
verification of conformance, it requires the manufacturer to maintain effective quality
planning to control production.
The certification scheme serves to indicate that the products consistently conform to the
requirements of the Standard.

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B4 SUPPLIERS QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM


Where the manufacturer or supplier can demonstrate an audited quality management system
complying with the requirements of the appropriate or stipulated Australian or international
Standard for a suppliers quality management system or systems, this may provide the
necessary confidence that the specified requirements will be met. The quality assurance
requirements need to be agreed between the customer and supplier and should include a
quality or inspection and test plan to ensure product conformity.
Information on establishing a quality management system is set out in AS/NZS ISO 9001
and AS/NZS ISO 9004.

B5 OTHER MEANS OF ASSESSMENT


If the above methods are considered inappropriate, determination of compliance with the
requirements of this Standard may be assessed from the results of testing coupled with the
manufacturers guarantee of product conformance.
Irrespective of acceptable quality levels (AQLs) or test frequencies, the responsibility
remains with the manufacturer or supplier to supply products that conform to the full
requirements of the Standard.
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APPENDIX C
DETERMINATION OF CHARACTERISTIC VALUE
(Informative)

C1 SCOPE
This Appendix sets out the method for evaluating the characteristic value (when required)
of a group of test results.

C2 EVALUATION OF CHARACTERISTIC VALUE


The characteristic value for the property being evaluated is calculated as follows:
(a) If n < 10, f = k k f spl . . . C2(1)

(b) If n 10, f = k k f ksp . . . C2(2)

where
n = number of test results in the set used to evaluate f
f = characteristic value for the type of unit represented by the set of
specimens
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kk = a characteristic value factor derived from Table C1, in which the


coefficient of variation (V) is determined in accordance with
Paragraph C3
fspl = least of the individual results in the set
f ksp = lower 5 percentile value for the set of test results, measured or assessed
from a relative cumulative frequency distribution of that test data
The lower 5 percentile value for a given set of test results is found as follows:
Rank the test results fsp(1)f sp(i)fsp(n)
n + 10
then f ksp = f sp . . . C2(3)
20
For example, if n = 25, then fksp = f sp(1.75), which is obtained by interpolating between
fsp(1) and fsp(2).

C3 COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION
For the purpose of calculating the characteristic value factor (kk), the value of the
coefficient of variation (V) is assessed as follows:
(a) Where n < 30:
V = a value estimated for that particular type of unit or obtained from a sufficiently
large supplementary body of data (containing not less than 30 relevant test
results) that is representative of that type of unit.
Unless otherwise substantiated by analysis of actual test data, the value
estimated for V should not be less than 0.15 for strength of segmental retaining
wall units
(b) Where n 30:
V = the coefficient of variation of the set of test results being evaluated
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TABLE C1
CHARACTERISTIC STRENGTH FACTOR
Characteristic value factor (kk )
Number of
test results Coefficient of variation (V)
(n)
0 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50
1 1.00 0.72 0.52 0.37 0.27 0.19
2 1.00 0.77 0.59 0.46 0.35 0.27
5 1.00 0.84 0.71 0.60 0.51 0.43
10 1.00 0.91 0.82 0.74 0.67 0.61
20 1.00 0.94 0.87 0.81 0.75 0.69
50 1.00 0.96 0.92 0.88 0.84 0.80
100 1.00 0.97 0.94 0.92 0.89 0.86
200 1.00 0.98 0.96 0.94 0.92 0.90
500 1.00 0.99 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.94
1000 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
NOTES:
1 Linear interpolation may be used.
2 k k estimates the lower 5 percentile value of the population with a confidence of 0.75.
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APPENDIX D
PURCHASING GUIDELINES
(Informative)

D1 SCOPE
This Appendix offers guidance for, but does not purport to fulfil all of the requirements of,
a purchasing agreement for segmental retaining wall units. It gives recommendations on
contractual matters that are outside the scope of the Standard proper but are intended to
ensure compliance with it.

D2 ORDERING
In ordering units to this Standard, the purchaser should quote the work size or the relevant
manufacturers product identification, any other property requirements and the number of
this Australian/New Zealand Standard, i.e., AS/NZS 4455.3.

D3 IDENTIFICATION
The manufacturer should record the product identification on delivery dockets.
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D4 VERIFICATION
D4.1 Quality records
Manufacturers of units complying with this Standard should carry out regular testing of
their product as part of their quality system. It is recommended that the purchaser, instead
of being put to the expense of sampling and testing individual deliveries of units, take
advantage of the manufacturers quality system.
The manufacturers should be prepared to
(a) supply on request relevant data on unit properties from quality records; or
(b) make such records available for inspection by an independent inspector, acceptable to
both the purchaser and manufacturer.
D4.2 Additional verification testing
Where additional verification is required by a purchaser, sampling and subsequent testing of
the lot in accordance with this Standard should be carried out by a laboratory experienced
in carrying out the appropriate test.
NOTE: Laboratories accredited by National Association of Testing Authorities (NATA),
Australia or IANZ, New Zealand are acceptable for this purpose.
It is recommended that the cost of units required for testing and the cost of sampling and
testing should be borne
(a) by the purchaser, if the units conform to limits specified by the purchaser in his or her
order or when particular limits have not been specified; or
(b) by the supplier, if the units do not conform to limits specified in the contract.
If the sample taken from the lot fails to conform to the specified requirements, the lot may
be sorted, resampled at random and retested at the expense of the supplier.
In respect of Item (b), the lot would be liable to rejection.

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APPENDIX E
TESTING FOR ADDITIONAL PROPERTIES
(Informative)
If the following properties given in this Appendix are specified, they should be determined
in accordance with the methods set out:
(a) Determining potential to effloresce ...................................................AS/NZS 4456.6.
(b) Determining core percentage and material thickness ..........................AS/NZS 4456.7.
(c) Determining moisture content, dry density and ambient density .........AS/NZS 4456.8.
(d) Determining coefficient of expansion .............................................. AS/NZS 4456.11.
(e) Determining coefficients of contraction........................................... AS/NZS 4456.12.
(f) Determining pitting due to lime particles......................................... AS/NZS 4456.13.
(g) Determining water absorption properties ......................................... AS/NZS 4456.14.
(h) Determining lateral modulus of rupture ........................................... AS/NZS 4456.15.
(i) Determining permeability to water .................................................. AS/NZS 4456.16.
(j) Determining initial rate of absorption (suction) ............................... AS/NZS 4456.17.
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BIBLIOGRAPHY

AS
1199 Sampling procedures for inspection by attributes
1199.0 Part 0: Introduction to the ISO 2859 attribute sampling system
1199.1 Part 1: Sampling schemes indexed by acceptance quality limit (AQL) for lot-
by-lot inspection
3700 Masonry structures
AS/NZS
4455 Masonry units, pavers, flags and segmental retaining wall units
4455.1 Part 1: Masonry units
4456 Masonry units, segmental pavers and flagsMethods of test
4456.6 Method 6: Determining potential to effloresce
4456.7 Method 7: Determining core percentage and material thickness
4456.8 Method 8: Determining moisture content, dry density and ambient density
4456.11 Method 11: Determining coefficient of expansion
4456.12 Method 12: Determining coefficients of contraction
4456.13 Method 13: Determining pitting due to lime particles
4456.14 Method 14: Determining water absorption properties
4456.15 Method 15: Determining lateral modulus of rupture
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4456.16 Method 16: Determining permeability to water


4456.17 Method 17: Determining initial rate of absorption (suction)
ISO 9001 Quality management systemsRequirements
ISO 9004 Quality management systemsGuidelines for performance improvements
HB 18 Conformity assessment
HB 18.28 Guide 28: Guidance on a third-party certification system for products

COPYRIGHT
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19

NOTES
AS/NZS 4455.3:2008
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AS/NZS 4455.3:2008
20

NOTES
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