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LI GII THI CHN I TUYN QUC GIA

TRUNG QUC NM 2012

*********

TST 1.

Ngy 1.

Bi 1.

Cho cc s phc xi , yi vi i 1, n tha mn xi yi 1 vi mi i 1, n . t

1 n 1 n
x x
n i 1 i
, y y , z xyi yxi xi yi , i 1, n
n i1 i i

n
Chng minh rng z
i 1
i
n.

Li gii.

Ta c zi x xi y yi xy x xi y yi x y vi mi i 1, n .

Do , t bt ng thc Cauchy-Schwarz, ta c:

n n n n n

z x xi y yi x y x x i y y i n x y x x yy
2 2
i i i
n x y
i 1 i 1 i 1 i 1 i 1

Hn na vi hai s phc u a bi , v c di trong a , b , c , d , ta c:

u v a c b d a 2 c 2 b2 d 2 2 ac bd
2 2 2

2 2
u v a2 c 2 b2 d2

Suy ra u v u v
2
2 2
2ac bd 2 Re uv (trong k hiu Re( x) l phn
thc ca s phc x , tng t Im( x) l phn o ca s phc x ).

2 2 2

Do , u v u v 2 Re uv . p dng vo bi ton:

L Phc L tng hp v gii thiu



n n n

xx
i 1
i
2
x xi 2 Re xxi n x n 2 Re xxi
i 1
2 2 2

i 1

n n
i 1 i 1

n x n 2 Re x Re xi Im x Im xi
2



2

n x n 2 n Re x n Im x n x n 2n x n 1 x
2 2
2 2
2



n

z n 1 x 1 y x y n 1 x x 1 y y n .
2 2 2 2 2 2
T suy ra
i 1
i

Ta c pcm.

Bi 2.

Cho tam gic ABC nhn, khng cn ngoi tip ng trn (I). Gi D , E, F ln lt l
tip im ca ng trn (I) ln cc cnh BC , CA , AB . Gi A0 l im i xng vi D
qua EF v A1 l giao im ca AA0 vi ng thng BC. Cc im B1 , C1 c xc nh
tng t. Chng minh rng A1 , B1 , C1 cng nm trn ng thng Euler ca tam gic DEF.

Li gii.

N
A
A0

E
K
P
I
F H O

A1 B Q C
D

M
Gi M , N , P ln lt l giao im ca cc phn gic gc A , B, C vi ng trn (O). Gi
R , r ln lt l bn knh ng trn ngoi tip v ni tip tam gic ABC.

Trc ht, ta s chng minh OI chnh l ng thng Euler ca tam gic DEF.

Tht vy, gi H l trc tm ca tam gic DEF v ta cn c O , I , H thng hng.

Ta thy rng MI MB, PI PB nn PM chnh l trung trc ca IB hay NI l ng cao


ca tam gic MNP. Tng t, MI cng l ng cao ca tam gic MNP, suy ra I l trc
tm ca tam gic MNP. Do hai tam gic MNP v DEF c cc cnh tng ng cng
vung gc vi IA , IB, IC nn hai tam gic ny ng dng vi nhau.

Hn na, tam gic MNP ni tip ng trn bn knh R, tam gic DEF ni tip ng
trn bn knh r nn suy ra

R R R
OM ID , ON IE , OP IF
r r r
R
Cng tng v ca cc ng thc vector, ta c OM ON OP
r

ID IE IF . Hn
na, ta cng c

OM ON OP OI , ID IE IF IH

R
nn OI IH hay O , I , H thng hng.
r

Gi K l giao im ca DH vi ( I ) . D thy H , K v A0 , D i xng vi nhau qua


ng thng EF nn DK A0 H .

T gic ABMC ni tip ng trn (O) nn theo nh l Ptolemy th

MC BC
AB MC AC MB AM BC (do MB MC )
AM AB AC

IQ BQ BC
Gi Q l chn ng phn gic gc A vi BC th .
IA BA AB AC

DH MI DH MC
Do hai tam gic MNP v DEF ng dng vi nhau nn .
DK AM A0 H AM
IQ DH
T cc ng thc trn, ta c . Theo nh l Thales o, d dng c c ba
IA A0 H
im A1 , I , H thng hng hay A1 nm trn ng thng Euler ca tam gic DEF.

Chng minh hon ton tng t vi cc im B1 , C1 .

Ta c pcm.

Bi 3.

Vi mi s nguyn dng n , ta t xn C2nn .

x i
Chng minh rng tn ti hai tp hp v hn A , B sao cho A B v i A
2012 .
x iB
i

Li gii.

Ta thy rng

xn C 2nn 2n! 2n 2! 2n(2n 1) 2 2n 1


n1 : .
xn1 C 2 n2 n ! n ! n 1!n 1! n2 n

Do vi a , b th

x a xb 2a 1
2b 1 .
4 b
xa1 xb1 a

Ta s chn k sao cho

2b 1 8 k 1 b 2 k 2 a 1 .
2 a 1

a b 2k a 4k

Chn a 4 k 2 hoc a 6 k th u c gi tr b nguyn v tng ng l b k 8 k 3


hoc b 12 k 1 .

T ta c
x 4 k 2 x8 k 2 3 k 2 8 k 1 x x
6 k 12 k1 .
x4 k1 x8 k2 3 k1 k x6 k1 x12 k2

Vi k 100, ta chn

A1 4 k 1,6 k ,12 k 1,8 k 2 3 k 1 , B1 4 k 2, 6 k 1,12 k 2,8 k 2 3k , k 100


A A0 A1 , B B0 B1

n y, ta thy rng t s gia tch ca cc gi tr xi c ch s tng ng ln lt thuc


A1 , B1 s l 1 v ch cn chn A0 , B0 thch hp.

Ta xt A0 1, 5, 252 , B0 251 , d thy

C 21C10 2 252 4 (2 252 1)


5 252
C 504
2012.
C 251
502
2 252

x i
Ta thy rng hai tp hp A , B u l cc tp v hn, ri nhau v c i A
2012 nn
x iB
i

chng tha mn bi v ta c pcm.

Nhn xt.

2 a 1
2b 1 8 k 1 , ta c th chn 2 a 1
2b 1 4 k 1
trn thay v chn b
a b 2k a k
cng ra c cc dy tng t tha mn bi.

Ngy 2.

Bi 1.

Cho trc hai ng trn 1 , 2 . Gi S l tp hp tt c cc tam gic ABC tha mn


1 , 2 ln lt l ng trn ngoi tip v ng trn bng tip gc A ca tam gic
ABC. Gi s 2 tip xc vi cc ng thng BC , CA , AB ln lt ti D , E, F.

Chng minh rng nu tp S khc rng th trng tm ca tam gic DEF c nh.
Li gii.

O
D C
B E
B'
C'
A'
F

Gi I , ra ln lt l tm v bn knh ca ng trn 2 .

Xt php nghch o tm I vi phng tch ra2 , d thy cc yu t I , ra c nh nn


php bin hnh ny l duy nht.

Gi s A , B , C ln lt l trung im ca on DE, EF , FD th theo h thc lng


trong tam gic vung, ta c IA IA r 2 ; suy ra bin A thnh A.

Tng t vi cc nh B, C.

Do , bin A , B , C ln lt thnh A , B, C v n cng s bin ng trn ngoi


tip tam gic A B C thnh ng trn ngoi tip tam gic ABC .

Suy ra bin ng trn Euler ca tam gic DEF thnh 1 nn ng trn Euler ny
c nh. (*)

Gi K , G , H ln lt l tm ng trn Euler, trng tm v trc tm ca tam gic DEF.

1 1 KI 3
R rng K l trung im IH nn KI HI v GI HI nn .
2 3 GI 2

Do K c nh nn suy ra G cng c nh. Ta c pcm.


Bi 2.

Vi mi s nguyn dng n, ta k hiu (n) l s phn t ca tp hp tt c cc c


nguyn dng ca n . Mt s nguyn dng n c gi l s tt nu m n vi
mi m n .

Chng minh rng vi mi s nguyn dng k cho trc, lun tn ti hu hn s tt


khng chia ht cho k.

Li gii.

Gi G l tp hp tt c cc s tt nu trong bi, d thy G khc rng.

Trc ht, ta s chng minh hai b sau:

B 1.

Gi s p1 p2 p3 ... l cc s nguyn t c xp th t tng dn. Nu xt , r l



r
cc s nguyn dng vi a G tha mn iu kin p | a th n pi a .
r
i 1
Chng minh.

K hiu vp a l s m ln nht ca p trong khai trin a thnh tha s nguyn t.

Gi s rng kt lun trn sai th tn ti 1 i r m vpi a , khi , ta c

a
b
pi pr a v b a , mu thun do a G.
p pr
i

B c chng minh.

B 2.

Vi mi s nguyn t pt , tn ti mt s nguyn dng M m vi mi a G , nu


a M th pt | a .

Chng minh.

3
Xt s nguyn dng tha mn 2 pt v t M p1 p2 p3 ...pt1 .
Vi mi a G , gi s a M v a, pt 1 .

Theo b 1 th tt c cc c ca a u thuc tp hp p1 , p2 , p3 ,..., pt 1 , suy ra tn ti


mt gi tr 1 i t 1 m v pi a 3 .

a
Tuy nhin, ta li c pi 2 pt nn b pt a .
pi

Do 2 1 1 nn ta c b a , mu thun.

B c chng minh.

B 3.

Vi mi s nguyn t pt v l s nguyn dng, tn ti mt s nguyn dng M m


vi mi a G , nu a M th pt | a .

Chng minh.

Xt mt s nguyn t tha mn pr pt , theo b 2 th tn ti s nguyn dng M m


vi mi a G, nu a M th v pr a 1 .

a 1 2
Nu v pt a th b pt a , nhng do 1 hay b a ,
pr 1 1 1
li mu thun.

B c chng minh.

Tr li bi ton,

Gi s c nguyn t ln nht ca k l pt , xt mt s nguyn dng tha mn


2 k .

t
Suy ra vi mi s nguyn t p m p | k v v p k a th k n pi .
i 1

Theo b 3, tn ti mt s nguyn dng M m vi mi a G , a M th n | a hay ni


cch khc l k | a.

Vy tp hp cc s tt khng chia ht cho k l hu hn. Ta c pcm.


Bi 3.

Xt n v hm s f : tha mn

f x y f y f x ny vi mi x , y .

Hy tm tt c cc hm s f tha mn iu kin trn.

Li gii.

Xt cc trng hp ca n :

- Vi n 0 , ta c f x y f y f x , x , y .

Nu y f y 0, y f y y l mt hm s tha mn bi.

Nu tn ti y0 m f y0 y0 0 th khi f x y f y f x l hm s tun

hon vi chu k dng dng nh nht phi chia ht y f ( y ) .

Gi T 0 l chu k nguyn dng nh nht ca hm s trong trng hp ny.

Do f x T f ( x), x , do tnh nh nht ca T nn T y f ( y) hay tn ti hm s

g( x) sao cho f x x g xT vi mi x.

f x T x T f x x
Ta c g x T 1 g x 1 .
T T

x x
Suy ra, tn ti hm s h x : 0,1, 2,..., T 1 tha mn g x h x T .
T T

Do , ta c f x g xT x , x vi g x c xc nh nh trn, tha mn bi.

- Nu n 0 , t f 0 a th trong ng thc cho, cho x y 0 , ta c f 0 0.

Tip tc cho x a , y 0, ta c f 2a a.

Ta li thay x 0, y a th a f 2 a a na f 0 a 0 .
Trong ng thc cho, thay x 0 th f y f y ny (*).

Trong (*), cho y x f x th


f x f x f x f x n x f x f nx x f x n x f x ,

m f nx x f x f nx nx nn nx nf x f nx nx nf x f nx , x .

Gi s f x f y th f y nx f y x f x f x y f y f x ny x y

hay f x l n nh trn .

Vi mi s nguyn m, t k m m 1 f m 1 m f m .

Trong ng thc cho, thay x 0, y m , ta c f m 1 f m 1 n m 1 .

Cng trong ng thc cho, tip tc thay x k m , y m , ta c

f m 1 f m 1 f k m m f m f k m nm

Suy ra f k m n , hn na do f x n nh nn f m l mt cp s cng v

f 0 0. Do , tn ti hng s c sao cho f m mc. Thay vo ng thc cho, ta c

cx ny f x ny f x y f y c x y f y c x y cy n c c 1 .

Hn na, ta thy rng c nn c c 1 0 nn vi n 0 hoc n dng nhng khng

biu din c di dng trn th khng tn ti hm s f x .


x x
Vy vi n 0 th f x x hoc f x g xT x vi g x h x T trong
T T

h x l hm s h x : 0,1, 2,..., T 1 .

Vi n 0 tha mn tn ti s c c c 1 n th ta c f x cx , x hoc

f x c 1 x , x .

Vi n 0 hoc n 0 nhng khng tn ti c sao cho c c 1 n th khng tn ti


hm s tha mn bi.
TST 2.

Bi 1.

Cho mt th n G . Gi mt tp hp gm t nh l t clique nu chng i mt k


nhau. Mt nh c ni vi tt c cc nh trong th th gi l nh trung tm.
3 1
Cho 2 s nguyn n, k tha mn n k n . Mt th G tha mn ng thi cc
2 2
iu kin sau:

1 G khng cha k 1 clique .

2 Nu ta thm vo G mt cnh bt k s thu c mt k 1 clique .

Tm s nh trung tm nh nht ca G .

Li gii.

1
Ta thy rng iu kin n k n c th vit li thnh k 1 n 2 k 1 .
2

nh ngha N ( X ) l tp hp cc nh k vi tt c cc nh thuc X (quy c mt nh


bt k cng k vi chnh n).

Ta s chng minh rng vi cc s n, k tha mn iu kin trn th G c t nht 2k n


nh trung tm. chng minh iu ny, ta dng cch xy dng tp cc nh trung
tm ca G nh sau:

V n k 1 nn tn ti 2 nh u, v khng k nhau.

t T u, v , S l mt k 1 clique k vi c u v v ( c ngha l u, v c cnh ni


vi tt c cc nh ca S ) v U G \T S .

D thy rng S k 1 2 k n U .

Do tn ti cc phn hoch T , S ,U , T S N S v S 2 k n U , trong S l


tp khng rng ) (*). Ta c hai trng hp sau

- Trng hp 1.

Nu U th G N S do S cha cc im trung tm v S 2 k n . Kt lun


ng trong trng hp ny.
- Trng hp 2.

Nu U th tn ti nh u U .

Nu S N u th chn S S , U U \u ,T T u .

R rng S 2 k n U v T S N S nn ta quay tr li (*). Ngc li s tn ti


nh v S sao cho u, v khng k nhau. Theo iu kin (2) cho, tn ti k 1 clique
k vi u, v v to thnh t cc tp hp U0 U \u , T0 T , S0 S \v .

Li theo iu kin (1) th T0 S k .

T y suy ra k 1 U 0 T0 S0 k U o S S0
hay S0 S U 0 1 2 k n U U 0 1 0 .

Do vy S0 khng rng, ta t U U \u U0 , T T u S \S0 U0 , S S0 ri tr


li (*). V sau mi bc nh vy th U gim ngt nn n mt lc no , ta s c
U . Theo trng hp 1, kt lun ng.

Vy s nh trung tm nh nht l 2k n .

Bi 2.

Chng minh rng tn ti s thc dng C tha mn tnh cht:

Vi mi n 2 v tp hp X l tp con ca tp 1, 2, 3,...,n tha mn X 2 , tn ti


cc s x , y , z , w thuc X (khng nht thit phn bit) tha mn

X
0 xy zw C4 vi .
n
Li gii.
n2
t C1 2
vi C1 l s thc dng s c xc nh sau.
X
Chia on 0; n thnh cc min, mi min c di v min cui cng c th c
2 2
n X 2X
di nh hn . Tng s cc min khng vt qu 1 1 .
C1n C1n
Do c tt c X phn t thuc v tp hp X nn theo nguyn l Dirichlet, tn ti mt
nC1
min I 0; n sao cho trong c cha phn t thuc tp hp X .
2X

x x2
Xt tp hp M x| x 1 , x1 , x2 X I .
2

C1n C1n C 2n2


Ta thy rng M 1 1 2 . D thy rng cc phn t thuc tp M l cc
4 X 2 X
8 X
s nguyn dng hoc l cc s thp phn c phn thp phn l 0, 5 nn c nhiu nht
n2
l 2 I I 4 I 4C1 2
s khc nhau trong chng.
X

C12
n y, ta chn C1 sao cho 4C1 C1 32 . Khi , theo nguyn l Dirichlet, tn
8
x y1 x2 y2
ti cc s x1 , y1 , x2 , y2 X I sao cho 1 .
2 2

Tip theo, ta s nh gi x1 y2 x2 y1 .

x1 y1 x2 y 2
2 2
2 n4
Ta c x1 y1 x2 y2 2 I 2C12 4
.
4 4 X

Chn hng s C 2C12 th ta lun chn c x1 y1 x2 y2 C4 .

Suy ra tn ti 4 s nguyn dng tha mn bi nn ta c pcm.

Bi 3.

Cho a1 , a2 vi a1 a2 l cc s nguyn cho trc. Vi n 3, s an l s nguyn dng


nh nht ln hn an 1 v an c th c biu din mt cch duy nht di dng tng
ca ai a j m 1 i j n 1 .

Chng minh rng nu tn ti hu hn cc s chn trong dy an th dy an 1 an


tun hon, ngha l tn ti s nguyn dng T m an 1T an T an 1 an , n .
Li gii.

Cch 1.

Xt an l s l vi n N . Vi n ln, ta thy rng an ak al vi k l vi k N ,


iu ny c ngha l :

(1) k N al an N l n N .

(2) Nu k l khi c hai s ny ln th al i ak i d , i 1, 2,3,..., N khi


al N 1 ak N 1 d .

(3) Vi n ln th ta c an 1 an aN . Xt

f : N N : x1 , x2 , x3 ,..., xN 0, x2 x1 , x3 x1 , xN x1 .

Nu f an , an1 ,..., an N 1 b1 , b2 ,..., bN th bi N 1 aN , i 1, 2,3,..., N .

Theo nguyn l Dirichlet th tn ti s nguyn dng n, T sao cho

f anT , anT 1 ,..., anT N1 f an , an1 ,..., anN1 , y ta gia s n ln.

iu ny c ngha l anT i ani d , i 0,1, 2,..., N 1 .

Theo (2) th anT N an N d .

T suy ra amT am d , m n m n, am 1T amT am1 am .

Ta c pcm.

Cch 2.

Do dy s cho ch cha hu hn s chn nn ta c th gi s chng l

ai1 ai2 ai3 ... aim .

Khi , tn ti mt s N sao cho vi mi r N th ar l s l, tuy nhin ar ai a j nn


hai s ai , a j khc tnh chn l.

iu ny c ngha l ar 1 ar aim vi mi r N .
Vi n N xt tp hp

Sn an an1 , an an2 ,..., an ank vi k l s nguyn dng ln nht tha mn iu


kin an ank aim .

Khi , r rng ta c k aim v t an an j b chn nn tn ti hu hn tp hp Sn .

Cc tp hp Sn c th xc nh c cc gi tr is tha mn an1 ais a j nn Sn c


xc nh duy nht xc gi tr an1 an v xc nh duy nht tp hp Sn1 .

Do c hu hn tp hp Sn nn dy Sn nu trn l dy lp hay dy an1 an cng l


dy lp vi cc gi tr n N ln.

Ta c pcm.

Ngy 2.

Bi 1.

Cho n 2 l s t nhin.

Chng minh rng tn ti hu hn cc b n s nguyn dng a1 , a2 ,..., an tha mn


ng thi cc iu kin sau:

(i) a1 a2 a3 ... an .

(ii) a1 , a2 , a3 ,..., an 1 .

n
(iii) a1 ai , ai1 vi quy c an1 a1 .
i 1

Li gii.

t di ai , ai1 , i 1, 2, 3,..., n trong an1 a1 . Theo gi thit, ta thy rng,

a1 d1 a2 , a2 d2 a3 ,..., an1 di1 an , i 1, 2, 3 .


a vo dy cho, ta c

d1 d2 ... dn a1 d1 a2 d1 d2 a2 ... d1 d2 ... dn1 an

T y suy ra dn an , nhng do dn an , a1 nn dn an hay ng thc phi xy ra.

Do , ta c ai ai1 di , i 1, n .

Tip theo, ta s chng minh rng tn ti v s dy s tha mn bi.

Ta thy rng vi dy s tha mn bi, tn ti hu hn cc s nguyn dng ri sao


ri
cho ai a , i 1, n . Do a1 , a2 ,..., an 1 nn a2 , a3 ,..., an 1 v an | a1 .
ri 1 i 1

Ta s chng minh bi ton bng quy np

- Vi n 2, do a2 | a1 nn ta c th vit a2 m , a1 km vi k , m . Hn na, do
a1 , a2 1 nn m 1 m a1 a1 , a2 a2 , a1 2 nn vi n 2 , tn ti ng mt dy
tha mn bi.

- Gi s bi ton ng vi n 1 , ta s chng minh rng tn ti hu hn dy s tha


mn trong trng hp n phn t.

Ta c hai trng hp:

p
+ Nu a2 khng chia ht cho an , t a2 an vi p , q v p , q 1, q 1 .
q

r1 p r1
Do a1 a2 , an | a1 nn suy ra l s nguyn dng. Vi mi a2 , tn ti hu
r1 1 q r1 1
hn cc gi tr r1 v cng do c hu hn cc dy n 1 tha mn nn t suy ra trong
trng hp ny, s b n phn t l hu hn.

+ Nu a2 chia ht cho an th theo nguyn l quy np, tn ti hu hn dy a2 , a3 ,..., an v


n
do cch xc nh a1 ai , ai1 , ta thy rng tn ti hu hn dy s tha mn bi.
i 1

Do , theo nguyn l quy np, bi ton c chng minh.


Bi 2.

Cho hai s nguyn dng m, n 1 v cc s thc dng r , s tha mn r s . Vi mi


aij 0 l cc s thc khng ng thi bng 0, hy tm gi tr ln nht ca biu thc

1
r r
n
j1

m s s
a
i 1 ij


f 1
s s
m
j1

n s r
a
i 1 ij

Li gii.

t biu thc cn tm gi tr nh nht l f (m, n, r , s ). Ta s chng minh rng

1 1

max f (m, n, r , s ) min(m, n) r s .

r
t bij aijr ,1 i m,1 j n v t k , ta cn chng minh rng
s

1 k
n m
k
1 m n
b k
ij min(m, n) k k
bij (*)
i 1 j 1
j 1 i 1

Ta s chng minh mnh sau


n
Nu c1 c2 ... cn 0 v x1 , x2 ,..., xn 0, k 1 v nu t S xi th
i 1

n n

k
ci xik k cn S k k ci (**)
i 1 i 1

Tht vy, nu cn 0 th bt ng thc (*) ng do t k


ci xik xi k ci , i 1, n , ta c th
n n
suy ra k
ci xik S k ci .
i 1 i 1

t di k ci , i 1, n , ta vit li bt ng thc (**) di dng


k k
n n
xi S
d i
k 1
d n
k 1
di .

i 1 di dn i 1

1
2
t g ( x ) k x k 1, x 0 th g l hm li v g ( x ) (k 1) x k 2 x k 1 k 0 vi mi s
S xi
thc dng x. Hn na, , i nn theo bt ng thc Karamata th bt ng thc
dn di
(**) ng. B c chng minh.
n
Tr li bi ton, t Si bij , theo b trn, trong v tri ca bt ng thc (*), ta
j 1

c th thay cc s bij bi cc s bij sao cho vi mi 1 i m, tn ti duy nht mt gi tr


j m 1 j n sao cho bij Si v bij 0 vi cc gi tr khc ng thi khng nh hng
n gi tr v tri ca bt ng thc (*).
Suy ra tn ti mt phn hoch P A1 , A2 ,..., Al ca tp hp 1, 2,3,..., n sao cho

n m n m l
k
b
j 1
k
i 1
ij
j 1
k
bijk k
i 1 j 1
S
i A j
i
k
.

Hn na, theo bt ng thc v trung bnh ly tha, ta c

k
l
k
1
1 l 1
1 m
k
S
j 1
k
iA j
i l k k

j 1
k

iA j
Si l k k
S
i 1
i .

Ta cng c l n v l m nn l min(m, n). Bt ng thc (*) ng.

ng thc xy ra khi aij 1 nu i j v aij 0 nu i j. Ta c pcm.

Bi 3.

Cho mt s nguyn dng n 2, mt hm s f : 1, 2, 3,..., n gi l tt, nu vi


mi s nguyn dng k tha 1 k n 1 th tn ti mt s nguyn j k tha mn vi

mi s nguyn m th f m j k f m k f mmod n 1

Tm s cc hm s tt.
Li gii.

gii quyt bi ton, ta chng minh cc nhn xt sau:

Nhn xt 1.

Hm s f l hm ton nh v c chu k dng nh nht l n.

Tht vy, xt m v gi s tn ti s nguyn dng k sao cho 1 k n 1 v


f m k f m th khi , f m j( k ) f m k f m 0(mod n 1) , iu ny v l
do f : 1, 2, 3,..., n .

Do , f m , f m 1 ,..., f m n 1 i mt khc nhau v

f ( m), f ( m 1),..., f ( m n) 1, 2,..., n .


Suy ra f l hm ton nh. Tng t, thay m bi m 1, ta c

f ( m 1), f ( m 2),..., f ( m n) 1, 2,..., n .


D thy rng t y, ta c f ( m) f ( m n) hay f ( m) tun hon vi chu k dng nh
nht l n .

n y, do f l hm tun hon ta c th gi s 0 j( k ) n 1 vi mi 1 k n 1.

Nhn xt 2.

Ta lun c j(u) j( v) vi mi 1 u v n 1.

Tht vy, gi s ngc li rng tn ti cc s u, v sao cho 1 u v n 1 v j(u) j(v).

Khi , ta c f ( m u) f (m) f m j(u) f m j( v) f ( m v) f (m) mod n 1 .

Suy ra f ( m u) f ( m v)(mod n 1) m 1 f ( m u), f ( m v) n nn ta phi c

f ( m u) f ( m v) ,

v l do 1 u v n 1.

Nhn xt 3.
Vi mi 1 k n 1 th tn ti j k 0 trong j k l hm hp ln ca j .

Cng bng phn chng, ta gi s tn ti k vi 1 k n 1 m j k 0 vi mi .



D dng thy rng f m j ( k ) f (m k ) f (m)(mod n 1) .

T j( k ), j( 2) ( k ),..., j ( n) ( k ) 1, 2,..., n 1 , theo nguyn l Dirichlet, ta thy rng tn ti

hai s u, v m 1 u v n v j ( u) ( k ) j ( v ) ( k ). Khi , ta c

f ( m k ) uf (m) f m j (u ) ( k ) f m j ( v ) ( k ) f ( m k ) vf ( m)(mod n 1)

Suy ra (n 1)|(v u) f ( m) vi mi m .

Tuy nhin, iu ny v l do 1 v u n 1 v tn ti s m sao cho f ( m) 1.

Nhn xt 4.

Tn ti hm s f khi v ch khi n 1 l s nguyn t.

Tht vy, ta thy rng vi mi k m 1 k n 1 th tn ti s k nh nht sao cho


j( k ) k 0 . Khi , f m j ( ) ( k ) f ( m k ) f ( m)(mod n 1) vi mi 1 k .

Suy ra


f ( m) f m j( k ) ( m) f ( m k ) k f ( m) k 1 f ( m) f (m k )(mod n 1) .

n1
Do , k 1 f ( m) k 1
n
f ( m k ) ... f ( m nk ) f ( m)(mod n 1) hay

k 1
n
1(mod n 1) vi mi k m 1 k n 1 (*).

R rng 1 k n vi u v , u v (nu u v th

f ( m u) u 1 f (m) v 1 f (m) f ( m v)(mod n 1) , dn n u v , mu thun.

Hn na, k n v nu khng th k n dn n

f ( m k ) k 1 f ( m) 0 (mod n 1) , mu thun.
T suy ra rng 1 , 2 ,..., n1 1, 2,..., n 1 v t (*), ta thy rng an 1(mod n 1)
vi mi 2 a n , suy ra n 1 l s nguyn t.

Nhn xt 5.

Nu n 1 l s nguyn t th hm s n (n) tha mn bi.

Tht vy,

Theo nhn xt 4, tn ti nh nht m 1 n v j( ) (1) 0 , suy ra

f ( m 1) 1 f ( m)(mod n 1) vi mi m .

Do f ( m) 1 f (0)(mod n 1) v t f l mt ton nh, 1 phi l mt cn


m

nguyn thy ca g modun p n 1.

T suy ra mi hm s f tha mn bi u c dng f ( m) g m f (0)(mod n 1) ,


trong , cc hm u phi tha mn j( k ) l bc ca g k 1 (do 1 k n 1, g k 0 nn
bc ny tn ti).

Ta c tt c p 1 (n) cch chn hm g v n cch chn f (0) 1, 2,..., n nn


c tt c n (n) hm s tha bi.

Bi ton c gii quyt hon ton.

TST 3.

Ngy 1.

Bi 1.

Cho tam gic ABC nhn c A 60 0 , trc tm H . Gi M , N ln lt l cc im


thuc cc cnh AB, AC sao cho HMB HNC 60 0 . Gi O l tm ng trn ngoi
tip tam gic HMN . Gi s D l im nm cng pha vi A so vi BC sao cho tam gic
DBC u.

Chng minh rng H , O , D thng hng.


Li gii.

D
A
N

M
O
H

B C

Cch 1.
Gi T l trc tm ca tam gic HMN, ng thng HM , CA ct nhau ti P ; ng
thng HN , BA ct nhau ti Q. D thy cc im N , M , P , Q cng thuc mt ng trn.

Do THM OHN nn PQH OHN NMH THM 90 hay

HO PQ . (1)

Gi R l im i xng vi C qua ng thng HP, ta c HC HR.

Ta c HPC HCP BAC 60 90 BAC 30 nn CHR 60 .

Suy ra HCR l tam gic u.

Hn na, do HPC HQB v HCP HBQ nn PHC QHB( g.g ) .

Suy ra PHR QHB( g.g) v QHP BHR( g.g ) .



Xt (UV , XY ) to bi hai vector UV v XY (chiu dng l ngc chiu kim ng h).

Do PHR 150 nn ta c ( PQ, RB) ( HP, HR) 150 , BCD v RCH l cc tam gic
u nn BRC v DHC ng dng.

Do , ( RB, HD) (CR, CH ) 60 nn

( PQ, HD ) ( PQ, RB) ( RB, HD ) 150 60 90 hay DH PQ . (2)

T (1) v (2), ta thy rng cc im H , O , D thng hng, ta c pcm.


P D
D
Q A
A N
N
M O
T O
M
H
H

B C

B C
R

Cch 2.

Xt mt phng phc c O l tm, trong mt phng , gi s ta v cc im ln lt l

H 1 N e 2 i M e2 i .

5
Khi , | NH | 2sin | MH | 2sin v HCA HBA ( ) .
6


sin
CH ( ) i
3
Do e 6
nn ta c:
N H 5
sin( )
6

2
sin (
3
)i
( ) i
3 ( ) i 3 sin e
C e 6
2 sin e 2
1 1 (1)
5
sin( ) cos( )
6 3

Tng t, ta tnh c

2
sin (
3
)i
( ) i
3 ( )i 3 sin e
Be 6
2 sin e 2
1 1 . (2)
5
sin( ) cos( )
6 3

Do BCD l tam gic u nn D B 2C v D 2 B C .

Vi iu kin H , O , D thng hng nn suy ra D D hay B C B C .

T (1) v (2), ta c
2 4
( )i ( )i
3 sin e 3
3 sin e 3
B C 1 ,

cos( ) cos( )
3 3
2 4
( )i ( ) i
3 sin e 3
3 sin e 3
B C 1 .

cos( ) cos( )
3 3

Ta ch cn chng minh rng


2 4 4 2
( )i ( )i ( ) i ( )i
sin e 3
sin e 3
sin e 3
sin e 3
.

Tuy nhin, so snh hai v, ta thy ng thc hin nhin ng. Ta c pcm.

Bi 2.

Xt s nguyn dng k 2. Chng minh rng tn ti k s nguyn dng a1 , a2 , a3 ,..., an


i mt khc nhau sao cho tn ti cc s nguyn khng m b1 , b2 , b3 ,..., bk v
k k
c1 , c 2 , c 3 ,...., c k tha mn ai bi 2ai , i 1, 2, 3,..., k v nu bici bi th ta cng c
i 1 i 1

k k
k bici bi .
i 1 i 1

Li gii.

Trc ht, ta s gii mt bi ton tng qut hn l

Xt s nguyn dng k 2. Chng minh rng tn ti n s nguyn dng a1 , a2 , a3 ,..., an


tha mn cc iu kin:

(i) 2ai ai1 , i 1, 2, 3,..., n 1 .

k k k k
(ii) Vi mi bi ai , 2 ai , nu bici bi th ta cng c k bici bi .
i 1 i 1 i 1 i 1

C nh s nguyn dng k 2, ta s chng minh bi ton bng quy np theo n.


- Vi n 1 , ta chn c1 0, a1 k th vi mi b1 m a1 b1 2 a1 th d thy rng lun c

b1c1 1 k a1 b1 v kb1c1 k a1 b1 .

Bi ton ng vi n 1.

Gi s rng tn ti n s nguyn dng x1 x2 x3 ... xn v tha mn cc iu kin


(i), (ii).

Khi , chng minh bi ton vn ng trong trng hp n 1 , ta s xy dng mt


b c n 1 phn t tha bi bng cch chn thm mt s nguyn dng xn1 sao
2x
n
x
cho xn1 2 xn v n1 k n .
2 xn x1

t ai txi , i 1, 2, 3,..., n 1 trong t l mt s nguyn dng ln sao cho hai


iu kin sau y c tha mn ng thi:

a1n1 2n a2 a3 ...an1 v

k 2 n1 ann11 a1a2 ...an .

Tip theo, ta s chng b s a1 , a2 , a3 ,..., an1 ny tha mn hai iu kin (i) v (ii).

Xt cc s s nguyn dng bi ai , 2 ai vi i 1, 2, 3,..., n 1 v cc s nguyn khng m


n 1 n1
c1 , c 2 , c 3 ,..., cn1 sao cho bici bi .
i 1 i 1

n1 n 1
Ta s chng minh rng khi , ta cng c k bici bi .
i 1 i 1

Ta xt cc trng hp sau:
n1 n1 n1
- Xt ci n th k bici kbnn1 k 2n1 ann11bn1 a1a2 ...anbn1 bi , tha iu kin (ii).
i 1 i 1 i 1

n1 n 1 n1
- Xt c
i 1
i
n 2 th bi 2n a2 a3 ...an1b1 a1n1b1 b1n2 bici , iu ny mu thun
i 1 i 1

vi cch chn cc b s ny nn trng hp ny khng th xy ra.


n1
- Xt c
i 1
i
n 1 , ta xt ba trng hp nh sau:
+ Nu cn1 2 th ta c

n1

b ci
i
b b
n1
a a
n1
x x
n1
i 1
n1 1 n1 1 n1 1 1 , mu thun vi cch chn b s.
n1
b b 2 a 2 a n
2 x 2 x n

b
i 1
i
n n n n

Do , trng hp ny cng khng th xy ra.


n1 n

bi i c
b ci
i
bi n1 n 1
+ Nu cn1 1 th i 1
n1
i 1
n
v xi , 2 xi , i 1, 2, 3,..., n nn ta c k bici bi
t
b
i 1
i b
i 1
i
i 1 i 1

theo nguyn l quy np.


n1

b ci
i
b b a a
n
x x
n

+ Nu cn1 0 th i 1
n1 n n1 n n1 n k , tha iu kin (ii).
n1
bn b1 2 an 2a1 2 xn 2 x1
b
i 1
i

T y suy ra, trong mi trng hp, lun tn ti b n 1 s tha mn.

Theo nguyn l quy np, bi ton c chng minh.

Bi 3.

Tm gi tr nh nht c th c ca c sao cho vi mi a thc monic c bc 2012

P x x 2012 a2011x 2011 a2010 x2010 ... a1x a0 ,

ta c th xy dng c a thc Q x t bng cch nhn 1 vo mt s h s ca a

thc P x nu trn sao cho vi mi nghim phc z ca a thc Q x ny th ta lun c

bt ng thc sau Im z c Re z .

Li gii.


Ta s chng minh rng c cot .
4022
Xt a thc P ( x) x 2012 x . Bng cch thay i h s ca P( x ) theo quy tc nu
(nhn 1 vo mt s h s), ta c th thu c 4 a thc sau P( x ) , P( x) ,
Q ( x) x 2012 x v Q ( x) .

Ch rng P( x ) v P( x) c cng tp nghim, mt nghim trong s chng l


1006 1006
z1 cos i sin .
2011 2011

Hn na, Q ( x ) v Q ( x) cng c cng tp nghim, tt c cc nghim ny u tri du


vi nghim ca a thc P( x ) , iu ny c c l do Q( x) P x .

Suy ra lun tn ti mt nghim ca Q ( x ) l z2 z1 nn ta phi c

| Im z1 | | Im z 2 |
c min , cot .
| Re z1 | | Re z2 | 4022


Tip theo, ta s chng minh rng c cot tha mn bi. Xt mt a thc monic
4022
bc 2012 c h s thc vit di dng tng qut l:

P ( x) x 2012 a2011 x 2011 a2010 x 2010 a1 x a0

Bng cch thay i cc h s ny thch hp, ta thu c

R ( x ) b2012 x 2012 b2011 x 2011 b2010 x 2010 b1 x b0 ,

a , j 0,1(mod 4)
j
trong , b2012 1 v vi j 1, 2, , 2011 th bj .
a , j 2,3(mod 4)
j

Ta s chng minh rng tt c cc nghim z ca a thc R( x ) u tha mn


| Im z | c | Re z | .

Gi s ngc li rng tn ti a thc R( x ) c nghim z0 m | Im z0 | c | Re z0 | . D thy



rng khi z0 0 , gi s rng argument ca s phc ny nh hn , trng
4022
hp cn li ch cn xt s phc lin hp vi n. Ta c hai trng hp sau:

- Nu z0 nm trong gc phn t th nht, t ( z0 , i ) , trong k hiu ( z0 , i)


l gc hp bi z0 v i theo ngc chiu kim ng h.
Vi cc s 0 j 2012 m j 0, 2 mod 4 th (b j z0j ,1) j 2012 2012 ; cn
vi j 1, 3 mod 4 th (b j z0j , i) j 2011 hay (b1 z0 , i) . Do , vi mi b j z0j c
1
argument nm trong [2 2012 , 2 ) [0, ] vi ln ca min ny l
2

1 1
2012 2011
2 2

hay b j z0j , 0 j 2012 khng cha 0, mu thun.

- Nu z0 nm trong gc phn t th hai, t (i, z0 ) vi j 0, 2 mod 4 , th



(1, b j z0j ) j 2012 vi j 1, 3(mod 4) th (i, b j z0j ) j 2011 nn vi mi
2

b j z0j c gc nm trong [0, +2011 ] th ln ca min ny l 2011 v b j z0j ,
2 2
0 j 2012 khng cha 0, cng mu thun.


Tm li, gi tr nh nht cn tm ca c l cot .
4022

Ngy 2.

Bi 1.

Cho s nguyn dng n 4 v xt cc tp hp A , B 1, 2, 3,..., n tha mn iu kin

Vi mi a A , b B th ab 1 l s chnh phng. Chng minh rng

min A , B log 2 n .

Li gii.

Trc ht, ta s chng minh b sau:

Vi hai tp hp A , B tha bi, nu a , a l hai s nguyn dng thuc tp hp A v


a a , b , b l hai s nguyn dng thuc tp hp B v b b th ta lun c ab 4 ab.

Chng minh.

Ta thy rng v a ab b 0 nn ab 1 ab 1 ab 1a b 1 . T y suy ra


ab 1ab 1 ab 1ab 1 .

Theo gi thit th c hai v u l cc s chnh phng ln hn 0 nn ta cng phi c

ab 1ab 1 ab 1ab 1 1 hay


2
ab 1ab 1 ab 1ab 1 1 .

Khai trin bt ng thc ny, ta c

ab a b ab ab 2 ab 1ab 1 1 ab ab 2 ab ab

Do a a v b b nn ab ab ab ; t bt ng thc trn th ab 2 ab ab hay


ab 4ab .

B c chng minh.

Tr li bi ton, t A {a1 , a2 , , am }, B {b1 , b2 , , bn } trong

a1 a2 am v b1 b2 bn

Khng mt tnh tng qut, ta c th gi s m n .

V a1b1 1 l cc s chnh phng ln hn 1 nn a1b1 1, 2 .

Nu a1b1 3 th ta c th gi s a1 1, b1 3 .

Do cc s a1b2 1, a2 b1 1 cng u l cc s chnh phng v a1 a2 , b1 b2 nn d dng


thy rng a2 5, b2 8 hay a2 b2 5 8 4 2 .

Do , t a1b1 4 , ta cng c a2b2 42

p dng b chng minh trn, ta c

ak 1bk 1 4ak bk , k 1, 2, , m 1 .

Nu a1b1 4 th n 2 ambm 4am1bm 1 4 m1 a1b1 4 m .

Nu a2b2 42 th n 2 ambm 4am1bm1 4m 2 a2b2 4m .

T suy ra m log 2 n , y chnh l iu phi chng minh.


Bi 2.

Tm tt c cc s nguyn dng k 3 tha mn tnh cht:

Tn ti cc s nguyn dng m, n sao cho

1 m k ,1 n k v m , k n, k 1, m n k , ng thi k |m 1n 1 .

Li gii.

Trc ht, ta thy rng nu tn ti s nguyn t p sao cho p 2 | k th ta c th chn


k p 1
m n k 1 v d dng thy rng m n 2 k 2 k ,
p p
( p 1)2 k 2
m 1n 1 l s nguyn nn tha mn iu kin bi.
p2

Xt s k khng c c nguyn t no c ly tha ln hn 1.

Nu s k c hai c nguyn t p1 q1 3. nn ( p1 2)( p2 2) 4, p1 p2 | k .

t k p1 p2 pr trong p1 , p2 , , pr i mt khc nhau r 2 .

Trong hai s ( p1 1) p2 p3 pr 1 v ( p1 2) p2 p3 pr 1 c t nh mt s nguyn t cng


nhau vi p1 v nu ngc li th p1 chia ht hiu ca chng l p2 p3 pr , mu
thun.

Xt s nguyn dng m m 1 m k , (m, k ) 1 .

Tng t, ta cng c ( p2 1) p1 p3 pr 1 v ( p2 2) p1 p3 pr 1 l c nguy nt ca n


vi 1 n k (n, k ) 1 .

Do , p1 p2 pr | (m 1)(n 1) hay

m n ( p1 2) p2 p3 pr 1 ( p2 2) p1 p3 pr 1

k (( p1 2)( p2 2) 4) p3 pr 2 k .

tha mn iu kin bi.

Nu k ch c hai c nguyn t l p1 , p2 th ( p1 2)( p2 2) 4, p1 p2 | k .

D thy rng k 3 th c th 15, 30 hoc c dng p, 2 p trong p l s nguyn t.


Khi , cc s c dng k p, 2 p, 30 s khng tha mn bi.

Vi k 15 , ta c th chn m 11, n 13 .

Do , vi k 3 th tt c cc s cn tm l cc s cc s t nhin tr 30 v cc s c
dng p , 2 p vi p l s nguyn t.

Bi 3.

Trong mt hnh vung c to bi 2012 2012 vung c cha nhng con b, trong
mt vung c nhiu nht 1 con b. Vo mt thi im no , nhng con b ny bay
ln ri li u xung li vo cc vung, mi vung cng c nhiu nht mt con b.
i vi mi con b, c th xem on thng c hng ni tm ca vung lc u v
tm ca lc sau m n u ln to thnh mt vector.

Vi mt s lng b ban u, xt tt c nhng trng hp c th xy ra vi cc v tr


u tin v cui cng ca nhng con b, hy tm di ln nht ca tng cc vector.

Li gii.

Xt mt phng cha hnh vung cho l mt phng ta Oxy vi O l tm ca


hnh vung ln.

Gi tp hp cc tm ca tt c cc vung nh l S, tp hp nhng im m nhng con


b dng li lc u l M1 S , tp hp nhng im m nhng con b ri xung lc sau
l M 2 S .

B qua trng hp mt con b cng mt ni lc u v lc sau. Xt php t tng


ng t M1 n M 2 l f .

n gin, vi mt im x S , ta k hiu x l vector c im u l O , im cui l


x. Ta c tng cc vector c tnh bng V f ( v ) v u v .
vM1 uM 2 uM1

D thy rng M1 , M 2 S , M1 M 2 ; ng thi, do ta cn tm gi tr ln nht ca di


ca vector V nu trn nn ch cn xt trng hp M1 M 2 (bi v nu M1 , M2 c
giao khc rng th phn giao ca chng s cho cc vector c di bng 0).
Do cch chn M1 , M2 hu hn nn s tn ti mt cp ( M1 , M2 ) no m V t gi tr
ln nht v hin nhin gi tr V khc 0. Qua O k ng thng l vung gc vi V.

Ta s chng minh cc b sau:

B 1.

Nu V t gi tr cc i th ng thng l khng i qua bt k im no ca S v


M1 , M2 nm hai pha khc nhau so vi l.

Chng minh.

u tin ta thy rng M1 M2 S v nu khng th do S 2012 2 l s chn nn c t


nht hai im a , b khng c trong M1 M 2 , c th gi s gc to bi a b v V khng
qu 900 th V (a b) V (nu gc ln hn 900 th xt b a ). Suy ra nu thm a

vo M 2 , thm b vo M1 (hoc ngc li) th V tng ln, mu thun do V t gi tr


cc i.

Hn na, M 2 M1 v nu khng th trong M1 , M2 u c cha t nht mt cp im


i xng, c th l a , b S sao cho a , a M1 ; b , b M 2 .

C th gi s a b v V hp thnh gc khng qu 900 th

u v V 2( a b) V .
u( M2 \{ b})a v( M1\{ a })b

iu ny cng mu thun vi tnh ln nht ca V hay M1 , M2 l tp hp cc im i


xng vi nhau.

Ta cng c l khng i qua bt k im no thuc S v nu khng th do l i qua O nn


nu l i qua mt im a M1 th n cng i qua a M 2 . Khi , ta i ch, thay a
vo M 2 , thay a vo M1 th tng vector l V 4a , ch rng gc hp bi a v V l
900 nn V 4a V , mu thun.

Cui cng, ta cng phi c M 2 l tp hp cc im nm v mt pha so vi l , gi s


y l pha c cha im cui ca vector V v M1 nm v pha ngc li v nu khng
th v pha c im cui ca vector V , tn ti hai im a , b ln lt thuc M1 , M2 th
gc hp bi a b v V nh hn 900 ; tng t, ta li thay a vo M 2 , b vo M1 th s c

V 2(b a) V , mu thun vi tnh ln nht ca V .

B 2.

1 1
t Sk ( x , y ) S x k y k .
2 2

Xt l l mt ng thng qua O nhng khng qua bt k im no ca Sk . Gi nhng


im thuc Sk nm v mt pha no ca l l Ak , pha cn li l Bk .

Khi , gi tr ln nht ca Vk u v
uAk B
v t c khi l vung gc vi Vk .
k

Chng minh.

Cc im ca Sk nm vo pha trong hnh vung ln v d dng thy rng cc im


ny lp thnh 4 nh ca hnh vung vi cnh c di 2k l

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
A k , k , B k , k , C k ,k , D k ,k .
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Do tnh i xng, ng thng l ct on AD v gc nghing khng m, nh vy giao
im gia l v AD nm gia im th t v t 1 ca Sk tnh t trn xung. Ta c



Vk 2 k 2 2 k 1 j 2 k t 2 k 1 i t j t 2 k 1 i 2 k t j


2 2 k 1 k t i 2 k t 3k 2 3k 1 j
2

trong i , j l cc vector n v. t ( k t)2 u,0 u k 2 th

1
Vk 2 k 1 u u2 2 3k 2 3k 1 u 3k 2 3k 1
2 2 2

4
u2 2 k 2 2 k 1u 3k 2 3k 1
2

Cc biu thc trn c lin quan n hm s bc hai ca u


1
vi trc i xng l u k 2 k nn d thy rng khi
2
1 2
u0, V t gi tr ln nht hay Vk t gi tr ln
4 k
nht; lc ny, ta cng c t k v l vung gc vi Vk .

Tr li bi ton ban u,

Do tnh i xng, ta ch cn xt trng hp gc nghing khng m nh hn 900 ; gi


M1 , M2 l nhng tp hp im nm v hai pha ca l.

t M 2 Sk Ak , M1 Sk Bk , V k u v
uAk B
v th
k

1006 1006 1006


V Vk Vk V
k1 k1
max
Vk
k1 max

Xt mt ng thng l l ng thng i qua O, song song vi cc cnh ca hnh


vung th M 2 nm na phn trn, M1 nm na phn di v tt c cc gi tr Vk
u t cc i.

Suy ra V max
2 1006 3 .

Vy gi tr ln nht cn tm l 2 10063 . Bi ton c gii quyt hon ton.