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# EC3104 - Control Engineering

Quiz II

Linear algebra
1. Find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of A, A2 , A1 and A + 4I.
 
2 1
A=
1 2

## 2. Find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the following matrices:

(a)  
cos sin
A=
sin cos

(b)
2 0 2
B= 0 0 2
2 2 1

(c)
1 1 0 0
0 2 1 0
C=
0

0 3 1
0 0 0 4
3. Find the eigenvalues for the matrix  
2 1
A= .
0 2
Show that for matrix A, the algebraic multiplicity and geometric multiplicity of its eigenvalue is
not the same.
4. Find the eigenvalues of matrices A, B and A + B.
   
3 0 1 1
A= B=
1 1 0 3

## Are the eigenvalues of A + B equal to sum of eigenvalues of A and eigenvalues of B?

5. Find the eigenvalues of matrices A, B, AB and BA.
   
1 0 1 2
A= B=
1 1 0 1

## (a) Are the eigenvalues of AB equal to eigenvalues of A times eigenvalues of B?

(b) Are the eigenvalues of AB equal to the eigenvalues of BA?

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6. The eigenvalues of A equal the eigenvalues of AT . This is because det(A I) equals det(AT I).
That is true because . Show by an example that the eigenvectors of A and AT are not the
same.
7. Let X1 and X2 be the eigenvectors corresponding to distinct eigenvalues of the symmetric matrix
A (A = AT ). Show that X1 is orthogonal to X2 (X1T X2 = X2T X1 = 0).
8. Show that inverse A1 exists if and only if none of the eigenvalues 1 , 2 . . . n is zero, and then
A1 has the eigenvalues 1/1 , 1/2 . . . 1/n .
9. Let 1 , 2 . . . n be the eigenvalues of matrix A. Show that the eigenvalues of eA are given by e1 ,
e2 . . . en .
10. Find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of matrix

0 1 0
A= 0 0 1 .
6 11 6

## Find the eigenvectors X1 , X2 and X3 corresponding to the distinct eigenvalues 1 , 2 and 3 of

matrix A. Create the 3 3 matrix P = [X1 X2 X3 ], and show that

1 0 0
AP = P 0 2 0 .
0 0 3

## 11. Diagonalize the following matrices and find the eigenvector of A = P 1 AP .

7.3 0.2 3.7 5 10 10
(1) 11.5 1.0 5.5 (3) 10 5 20
17.7 1.8 9.3 5 5 10

7 0 3  
2 8 1
(2) 1 1 (4)
5 2
2 0 2
12. Given the following state space model

x1 0 1 0 x1 0
x2 = 0 0 1 x2 + 0 u
x3 6 11 6 x3 6

and
  x1
y= 1 0 0 x2 .
x3
Transform the above state model using x = P z.
13. Find the matrix P such that following state space equation is transformed into diagonal canonical
form:
x1 a1 1 0 x1 0
x2 = a2 0 1 x2 + 0 u.
x3 a3 0 0 x2 1

## 14. Obtain a state transition matrix (t) of the following system,

      
x1 0 1 x1 0
= + u.
x2 2 3 x2 1

If u(t) is a step input function, find the state response of the system.

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15. Find the transfer function of the following state space model,
        
x1 1 1 x1 0   x1
= + u and y= 1 1 .
x2 0 1 x2 1 x2

16. For the following set of differential equations, write down the canonical state space model:

(i)
d3 y(t) d2 y(t) dy
2 + 3 +5 + 2y(t) = u(t),
dt3 dt2 dt
(ii)
t
d3 y(t) d2 y(t)
Z
dy
3
+5 +3 + y( )d = u(t).
dt dt2 dt 0

## 17. Find f(A)=A10 , where  

0 1
A= .
2 3

Stability
18. Stability of time delayed dynamical system as covered in class.

Chapter 6
19. Write down the definition of reachability.

## 20. Draw the block diagram of a system in reachable canonical form.

21. Astrom and Murray, Example 6.3 Consider a simple two-dimensional system of the form,
   
dx 0
= x+ u
dt 1

Find the transformation that converts the system into reachable canonical form.
22. Astrom and Murray, Exercise 6.4 (Integral feedback for rejecting constant disturbances) Consider
a linear system of the form,
dx
= Ax + Bu + F d,
dt
and
y = Cx,
where u is a scalar and d is a disturbance that enters the system through a disturbance vector
F Rn . Assume that the matrix A is invertible and the zero frequency gain CA1 B is nonzero.
Show that integral feedback can be used to compensate for a constant disturbance by giving zero
steady-state output error even when d 6= 0.

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23. (Exercise 6.7)(Reachability matrix for reachable canonical form) Consider a system in reach- able
canonical form. Show that the inverse of the reachability matrix is given by

1 a1 a2 . . . an
0 1 a1 . . . an1
..

1
..
Wr = 0 0 1
. . .
. . ..
.. . . .
0 0 0 ... 1

## 24. (Exercise 6.8)(Non-maintainable equilibria)Consider the normalized model of a pendulum on a cart

d2 x d2
= u, = + u.
dt2 dt2
where x is cart position and is pendulum angle. Can the angle = 0 for 0 6= 0 be maintained?
25. Astrom and Murray, Exercise 6.10 (Cayley-Hamilton theorem) Let A Rnn be a matrix with
characteristic polynomial,

## (s) = det(sI A) = sn + a1 sn1 + + an1 s + an .

Assume that the matrix A can be diagonalized and show that it satisfies,

(A) = An + a1 An 1 + + an1 A + an I = 0,

Use the result to show that Ak , k n, can be rewritten in terms of powers of A of order less than
n.

Chapter 7
26. Write down the definition of observability.

## 27. Draw the block diagram of a system in observable canonical form.

28. Show that the inverse of the observability matrix has a form given by

1 0 0 ... 0
a1 1 0 ... 0

Wo1 = a2 a1 1 ... 0 .

.. .. .. .. .
. . . . ..
an1 an2 an3 ... 1

29. (Example 7.1)Consider the two-compartment model in which drug with concentration c0 is injected
in compartment 1 at a volume flow rate of u and that the concentration in compartment 2 is the
output. Let c1 and c2 be the concentrations of the drug in the compartments, V1 and V2 be the
volumes of the compartments and q be the outflow rate. Introducing the variables k0 = q0 /V1 , k1 =
q/V1 , k2 = q/V2 and b0 = c0 /V1 , the system can described by the linear system and its model is,
     
dC k0 k1 k1 b0
= C+ u,
dt k2 k2 0

and,  
y= 1 0 C.

## 30. (Example 7.2)Consider the compartment model characterized by the matrices

4
   
k0 k1 k1 b0  
A= , B= , C= 1 0 .
k2 k2 0

## (a) Find the condition for observability of the system.

(b) Let the desired characteristic polynomial for the observer be s2 + p1 s + p2 = 0. Obtain the
observer gain (L) so that the desired characteristic polynomial is achieved.

## 31. (Exercise 7.1)Consider a system under a coordinate transformation z = T x, where T Rnn is

an invertible matrix. Show that the observability matrix for the transformed system is given by
W0 = W0 T 1 and hence observability is independent of the choice of coordinates.
32. (Exercise 7.3) Show that if a system is observable, then there exists a change of coordinates z = T x
that puts the transformed system into observable canonical form.
33. (Exercise 7.4)(Bicycle dynamics) The linearized model for a bicycle is given in equation (3.5), which
has the form

d2 Dv0 d mv02 h
J 2
= mgh +
dt b dt b
where is the tilt of the bicycle and is the steering angle. Give conditions under which the
system is observable and explain any special situations where it loses observability.