Control Engineering IIT Madras

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Control Engineering IIT Madras

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Quiz II

IIT Madras

Linear algebra

1. Find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of A, A2 , A1 and A + 4I.

2 1

A=

1 2

(a)

cos sin

A=

sin cos

(b)

2 0 2

B= 0 0 2

2 2 1

(c)

1 1 0 0

0 2 1 0

C=

0

0 3 1

0 0 0 4

3. Find the eigenvalues for the matrix

2 1

A= .

0 2

Show that for matrix A, the algebraic multiplicity and geometric multiplicity of its eigenvalue is

not the same.

4. Find the eigenvalues of matrices A, B and A + B.

3 0 1 1

A= B=

1 1 0 3

5. Find the eigenvalues of matrices A, B, AB and BA.

1 0 1 2

A= B=

1 1 0 1

(b) Are the eigenvalues of AB equal to the eigenvalues of BA?

1

6. The eigenvalues of A equal the eigenvalues of AT . This is because det(A I) equals det(AT I).

That is true because . Show by an example that the eigenvectors of A and AT are not the

same.

7. Let X1 and X2 be the eigenvectors corresponding to distinct eigenvalues of the symmetric matrix

A (A = AT ). Show that X1 is orthogonal to X2 (X1T X2 = X2T X1 = 0).

8. Show that inverse A1 exists if and only if none of the eigenvalues 1 , 2 . . . n is zero, and then

A1 has the eigenvalues 1/1 , 1/2 . . . 1/n .

9. Let 1 , 2 . . . n be the eigenvalues of matrix A. Show that the eigenvalues of eA are given by e1 ,

e2 . . . en .

10. Find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of matrix

0 1 0

A= 0 0 1 .

6 11 6

matrix A. Create the 3 3 matrix P = [X1 X2 X3 ], and show that

1 0 0

AP = P 0 2 0 .

0 0 3

7.3 0.2 3.7 5 10 10

(1) 11.5 1.0 5.5 (3) 10 5 20

17.7 1.8 9.3 5 5 10

7 0 3

2 8 1

(2) 1 1 (4)

5 2

2 0 2

12. Given the following state space model

x1 0 1 0 x1 0

x2 = 0 0 1 x2 + 0 u

x3 6 11 6 x3 6

and

x1

y= 1 0 0 x2 .

x3

Transform the above state model using x = P z.

13. Find the matrix P such that following state space equation is transformed into diagonal canonical

form:

x1 a1 1 0 x1 0

x2 = a2 0 1 x2 + 0 u.

x3 a3 0 0 x2 1

x1 0 1 x1 0

= + u.

x2 2 3 x2 1

If u(t) is a step input function, find the state response of the system.

2

15. Find the transfer function of the following state space model,

x1 1 1 x1 0 x1

= + u and y= 1 1 .

x2 0 1 x2 1 x2

16. For the following set of differential equations, write down the canonical state space model:

(i)

d3 y(t) d2 y(t) dy

2 + 3 +5 + 2y(t) = u(t),

dt3 dt2 dt

(ii)

t

d3 y(t) d2 y(t)

Z

dy

3

+5 +3 + y( )d = u(t).

dt dt2 dt 0

0 1

A= .

2 3

Stability

18. Stability of time delayed dynamical system as covered in class.

Chapter 6

19. Write down the definition of reachability.

21. Astrom and Murray, Example 6.3 Consider a simple two-dimensional system of the form,

dx 0

= x+ u

dt 1

Find the transformation that converts the system into reachable canonical form.

22. Astrom and Murray, Exercise 6.4 (Integral feedback for rejecting constant disturbances) Consider

a linear system of the form,

dx

= Ax + Bu + F d,

dt

and

y = Cx,

where u is a scalar and d is a disturbance that enters the system through a disturbance vector

F Rn . Assume that the matrix A is invertible and the zero frequency gain CA1 B is nonzero.

Show that integral feedback can be used to compensate for a constant disturbance by giving zero

steady-state output error even when d 6= 0.

3

23. (Exercise 6.7)(Reachability matrix for reachable canonical form) Consider a system in reach- able

canonical form. Show that the inverse of the reachability matrix is given by

1 a1 a2 . . . an

0 1 a1 . . . an1

..

1

..

Wr = 0 0 1

. . .

. . ..

.. . . .

0 0 0 ... 1

d2 x d2

= u, = + u.

dt2 dt2

where x is cart position and is pendulum angle. Can the angle = 0 for 0 6= 0 be maintained?

25. Astrom and Murray, Exercise 6.10 (Cayley-Hamilton theorem) Let A Rnn be a matrix with

characteristic polynomial,

Assume that the matrix A can be diagonalized and show that it satisfies,

(A) = An + a1 An 1 + + an1 A + an I = 0,

Use the result to show that Ak , k n, can be rewritten in terms of powers of A of order less than

n.

Chapter 7

26. Write down the definition of observability.

28. Show that the inverse of the observability matrix has a form given by

1 0 0 ... 0

a1 1 0 ... 0

Wo1 = a2 a1 1 ... 0 .

.. .. .. .. .

. . . . ..

an1 an2 an3 ... 1

29. (Example 7.1)Consider the two-compartment model in which drug with concentration c0 is injected

in compartment 1 at a volume flow rate of u and that the concentration in compartment 2 is the

output. Let c1 and c2 be the concentrations of the drug in the compartments, V1 and V2 be the

volumes of the compartments and q be the outflow rate. Introducing the variables k0 = q0 /V1 , k1 =

q/V1 , k2 = q/V2 and b0 = c0 /V1 , the system can described by the linear system and its model is,

dC k0 k1 k1 b0

= C+ u,

dt k2 k2 0

and,

y= 1 0 C.

4

k0 k1 k1 b0

A= , B= , C= 1 0 .

k2 k2 0

(b) Let the desired characteristic polynomial for the observer be s2 + p1 s + p2 = 0. Obtain the

observer gain (L) so that the desired characteristic polynomial is achieved.

an invertible matrix. Show that the observability matrix for the transformed system is given by

W0 = W0 T 1 and hence observability is independent of the choice of coordinates.

32. (Exercise 7.3) Show that if a system is observable, then there exists a change of coordinates z = T x

that puts the transformed system into observable canonical form.

33. (Exercise 7.4)(Bicycle dynamics) The linearized model for a bicycle is given in equation (3.5), which

has the form

d2 Dv0 d mv02 h

J 2

= mgh +

dt b dt b

where is the tilt of the bicycle and is the steering angle. Give conditions under which the

system is observable and explain any special situations where it loses observability.

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