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Element Reference

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SOLID185
3-D 8-Node Structural Solid
MP ME ST PR PRN DS DSS <> <> <> <> PP VT EME MFS
Product Restrictions

SOLID185 Element Description


SOLID185 is used for 3-D modeling of solid structures. It is defined by eight
nodes having three degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x,
y, and z directions. The element has plasticity, hyperelasticity, stress stiffening,
creep, large deflection, and large strain capabilities. It also has mixed formulation
capability for simulating deformations of nearly incompressible elastoplastic
materials, and fully incompressible hyperelastic materials.

SOLID185 is available in two forms:


Homogeneous Structural Solid (KEYOPT(3) = 0, the default) -- See
"SOLID185 Homogeneous Structural Solid Element Description".
Layered Structural Solid (KEYOPT(3) = 1) -- See "SOLID185 Layered
Structural Solid Element Description".

See SOLID185 in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical
Applications for more details about this element.

A higher-order version of the SOLID185 element is SOLID186.

SOLID185 Homogeneous Structural Solid


Element Description
SOLID185 Structural Solid is suitable for modeling general 3-D solid structures. It
allows for prism and tetrahedral degenerations when used in irregular regions.
Various element technologies such as B-bar, uniformly reduced integration, and
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Various element technologies such as B-bar, uniformly reduced integration, and


enhanced strains are supported.

Figure 185.1 SOLID185 Homogeneous Structural Solid Geometry

SOLID185 Homogeneous Structural Solid


Input Data
The geometry and node locations for this element are shown in Figure 185.1.
The element is defined by eight nodes and the orthotropic material properties.
The default element coordinate system is along global directions. You may define
an element coordinate system using ESYS, which forms the basis for orthotropic
material directions.

Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads. Pressures may be input
as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers in Figure
185.1. Positive pressures act into the element. Temperatures may be input as
element body loads at the nodes. The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF.
If all other temperatures are unspecified, they default to T(I). For any other input
temperature pattern, unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. Similar defaults

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occurs for fluence except that zero is used instead of TUNIF.

KEYOPT(6) = 1 sets the element for using mixed formulation. For details on the
use of mixed formulation, see Applications of Mixed u-P Formulations in the
Element Reference.

You can apply an initial stress state to this element via the INISTATE
command. For more information, see "Initial State" in the Basic Analysis Guide .

As described in Coordinate Systems, you can use ESYS to orient the material
properties and strain/stress output. Use RSYS to choose output that follows the
material coordinate system or the global coordinate system. For the case of
hyperelastic materials, the output of stress and strain is always with respect to the
global Cartesian coordinate system rather than following the material/element
coordinate system.

The effects of pressure load stiffness are automatically included for this element. If
an unsymmetrical matrix is needed for pressure load stiffness effects, use
NROPT,UNSYM.

"SOLID185 Homogeneous Structural Solid Input Summary" contains a summary


of element input. For a general description of element input, see Element Input

SOLID185 Homogeneous Structural Solid


Input Summary
Nodes
I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P
Degrees of Freedom
UX, UY, UZ
Real Constants
None, if KEYOPT(2) = 0,
HGSTF - Hourglass Stiffness Scaling factor if KEYOPT(2) = 1 (Default is
1.0; any positive number is valid. If set to 0.0, value is automatically reset
to 1.0.)

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Material Properties
EX, EY, EZ, PRXY, PRYZ, PRXZ (or NUXY, NUYZ, NUXZ), GXY, GYZ, GXZ,
ALPX, ALPY, ALPZ (or CTEX, CTEY, CTEZ or THSX, THSY, THSZ), DENS,
DAMP
Surface Loads
Pressures --
face 1 (J-I-L-K), face 2 (I-J-N-M), face 3 (J-K-O-N),
face 4 (K-L-P-O), face 5 (L-I-M-P), face 6 (M-N-O-P)

Body Loads
Temperatures --
T(I), T(J), T(K), T(L), T(M), T(N), T(O), T(P)
Body force densities --
The element values in the global X, Y, and Z directions.
Special Features
Plasticity (PLASTIC, BISO, MISO, NLISO, BKIN, MKIN, KINH, CHABOCHE,
HILL)
Hyperelasticity (AHYPER, HYPER)
Viscoelasticity (PRONY, SHIFT)
Viscoplasticity/Creep (CREEP, RATE)
Elasticity (ELASTIC, ANEL)
Other material (USER, SDAMP, SMA, CAST, EDP, GURSON)
Stress stiffening
Large deflection
Large strain
Initial stress import
Nonlinear stabilization
Automatic selection of element technology
Birth and death
Linear perturbation
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Note: Items in parentheses refer to data tables associated


with the TB command. See the Theory Reference for
the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications for
details of the material models.

Note: See Automatic Selection of Element Technologies and


ETCONTROL for more information on selection of
element technologies.
KEYOPT(2)
Element technology:
0 --
Full integration with method (default)
1 --
Uniform reduced integration with hourglass control
2 --
Enhanced strain formulation
3 --
Simplified enhanced strain formulation
KEYOPT(3)
Layer construction:
0 --
Structural Solid (default) -- nonlayered
1 --
Layered Solid (not applicable to SOLID185 Structural Solid)
KEYOPT(6)
Element formulation:
0 --
Use pure displacement formulation (default)
1 --
Use mixed formulation

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SOLID185 Homogeneous Structural Solid


Element Technology

SOLID185 uses the method (also known as the selective reduced integration
method), the uniform reduced integration method, or the enhanced strain
formulation method, as follows:

method (selective reduced integration)


Helps to prevent volumetric mesh locking in nearly incompressible cases.
This option replaces volumetric strain at the Gauss integration point with
the average volumetric strain of the elements. This method cannot,
however, prevent any shear locking in bending dominated problems. In
such situations, use the enhanced strain formulation of this element. If it
is not clear if the deformation is bending dominated, enhanced strain
formulation is recommended. For more information, see the Theory
Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications .
Uniform reduced integration
Also helps to prevent volumetric mesh locking in nearly incompressible
cases. Because it has only one integration point, this option is more
efficient than the method (selective reduced integration) option.
However, the artificial energy introduced to control the hourglass effect
may affect solution accuracy adversely.
When using this option, check the solution accuracy by comparing the
total energy (SENE label in ETABLE) and the artificial energy (AENE label
in ETABLE) introduced by hourglass control. If the ratio of artificial
energy to total energy is less than 5%, the solution is generally
acceptable. If the ratio exceeds five percent, refine the mesh. You can also
monitor the total energy and artificial energy by issuing the OUTPR,
VENG command in the solution phase.
For more information about uniform reduced integration, see the Theory
Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications .
Enhanced strain formulation
Prevents shear locking in bending-dominated problems and volumetric
locking in nearly incompressible cases. The formulation introduces 13
internal DOFs (inaccessible to ANSYS users). If mixed u-P formulation is
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employed with enhanced strain formulation, only 9 DOFs for overcoming


shear-locking are used. All internal DOFs are introduced automatically at
the element level and condensed out.
Because of the extra internal DOFs and static condensation, this option is
less efficient than either the method (selective reduced integration)
option or the uniform reduced integration option.
For more information about enhanced strain formulation, see the Theory
Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications .
Simplified enhanced strain formulation
Prevents shear locking in bending-dominated problems. This is a special
case of the enhanced strain formulation and always introduces 9 internal
DOFs (inaccessible to ANSYS users). Because there are no internal DOFs to
handle volumetric locking, this formulation should not be used when the
material is nearly incompressible, except when the Mixed u-P formulation
is also used. When used with the Mixed u-P formulation, the simplified
enhanced strain formulation gives the same results as the enhanced strain
formulation. All internal DOFs are introduced automatically at the element
level and condensed out.
Because of the extra internal DOFs and static condensation, this option is
less efficient than either the method (selective reduced integration)
option or the uniform reduced integration option, but is more efficient
than the enhanced strain formulation due to using fewer internal DOFs.
For more information about the simplified enhanced strain formulation,
see the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical
Applications.

SOLID185 Homogeneous Structural Solid


Output Data
The solution output associated with the element is in two forms:
Nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution
Additional element output as shown in Table 185.1: SOLID185
Homogeneous Structural Solid Element Output Definitions

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Several items are illustrated in Figure 185.2. See Element Table for Variables
Identified By Sequence Number in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and
Sequence Number Table in this document for more information.

Figure 185.2 SOLID185 Homogeneous Structural Solid Stress Output

Stress directions shown are for global directions.

The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation:

A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the
Component Name method (ETABLE, ESOL). The O column indicates the
availability of the items in the file Jobname.OUT. The R column indicates the
availability of the items in the results file.

In either the O or R columns, Y indicates that the item is always available, a


number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally
available, and - indicates that the item is not available.

Table 185.1 SOLID185 Homogeneous Structural Solid Element Output


Definitions

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Name Definition O R
EL Element Number - Y
NODES Nodes - I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P - Y
MAT Material number - Y
VOLU: Volume - Y
XC, YC, ZC Location where results are reported Y 3
PRES Pressures P1 at nodes J, I, L, K; P2 at I, J, N, M; - Y
P3 at J, K, O, N; P4 at K, L, P, O; P5 at L, I, M, P;
P6 at M, N, O, P
TEMP Temperatures T(I), T(J), T(K), T(L), T(M), T(N), T - Y
(O), T(P)
S:X, Y, Z, XY, YZ, Stresses Y Y
XZ
S:1, 2, 3 Principal stresses - Y
S:INT Stress intensity - Y
S:EQV Equivalent stress - Y
EPEL:X, Y, Z, XY, Elastic strains Y Y
YZ, XZ
EPEL:EQV Equivalent elastic strains [6] - Y
EPTH:X, Y, Z, Thermal strains 2 2
XY, YZ, XZ
EPTH:EQV Equivalent thermal strains [6] 2 2
EPPL:X, Y, Z, XY, Plastic strains [7] 1 1
YZ, XZ
EPPL:EQV Equivalent plastic strains [6] 1 1
EPCR:X, Y, Z, Creep strains 1 1

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XY, YZ, XZ
EPCR:EQV Equivalent creep strains [6] 1 1
EPTO:X, Y, Z, Total mechanical strains (EPEL + EPPL + EPCR) Y -
XY, YZ, XZ
EPTO:EQV Total equivalent mechanical strains (EPEL + Y -
EPPL + EPCR)
NL:EPEQ Accumulated equivalent plastic strain 1 1
NL:CREQ Accumulated equivalent creep strain 1 1
NL:SRAT Plastic yielding (1 = actively yielding, 0 = not 1 1
yielding)
NL:HPRES Hydrostatic pressure 1 1
SEND:ELASTIC, Strain energy densities - 1
PLASTIC, CREEP
LOCI:X, Y, Z Integration point locations - 4
SVAR:1, 2, ... , N State variables - 5

1. Nonlinear solution, output only if the element has a nonlinear material


2. Output only if element has a thermal load
3. Available only at centroid as a *GET item
4. Available only if OUTRES,LOCI is used
5. Available only if the USERMAT subroutine and TB,STATE are used
6. The equivalent strains use an effective Poisson's ratio: for elastic and
thermal this value is set by the user (MP,PRXY); for plastic and creep
this value is set at 0.5.
7. For the shape memory alloy material model, transformation strains are
reported as plasticity strain EPPL.

Table 185.2: SOLID185 Homogeneous Structural Solid Item and Sequence


Numbers lists output available via ETABLE using the Sequence Number method.
See Element Table for Variables Identified By Sequence Number in the Basic
Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table in this document for
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more information. The following notation is used in Table 185.2: SOLID185


Homogeneous Structural Solid Item and Sequence Numbers:
Name
output quantity as defined in the Table 185.1: SOLID185 Homogeneous
Structural Solid Element Output Definitions
Item
predetermined Item label for ETABLE command
I,J,...,P
sequence number for data at nodes I, J, ..., P

Table 185.2 SOLID185 Homogeneous Structural Solid Item and


Sequence Numbers
ETABLE and ESOL Command Input
Output Quantity Name
Item I J K L M N O P
P1 SMISC 2 1 4 3 - - - -
P2 SMISC 5 6 - - 8 7 - -
P3 SMISC - 9 10 - - 12 11 -
P4 SMISC - - 13 14 - - 16 15
P5 SMISC 18 - - 17 19 - - 20
P6 SMISC - - - - 21 22 23 24

SOLID185 Homogeneous Structural Solid


Assumptions and Restrictions
Zero-volume elements are not allowed.
Elements may be numbered either as shown in Figure 185.1 or may
have the planes IJKL and MNOP interchanged. The element may not be
twisted such that the element has two separate volumes (which occurs

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most frequently when the elements are not numbered properly).


All elements must have eight nodes. You can form a prism-shaped
element by defining duplicate K and L and duplicate O and P node
numbers. (See Triangle, Prism, and Tetrahedral Elements.) A
tetrahedron shape is also available.
For the degenerated shape elements where the or enhanced strain
formulations are specified, degenerated shape functions and a
conventional integration scheme are used.
If you use the mixed formulation (KEYOPT(6) = 1), the damped
eigensolver is not supported. You must use the sparse solver (default).
For modal cyclic symmetry analyses, ANSYS recommends using enhanced
strain formulation.
Stress stiffening is always included in geometrically nonlinear analyses
(NLGEOM,ON). Prestress effects can be activated by the PSTRES
command.

This element has a layered option (KEYOPT(3) = 1). See "SOLID185 Layered
Structural Solid Assumptions and Restrictions" for additional information.

SOLID185 Homogeneous Structural Solid


Product Restrictions
None.

SOLID185 Layered Structural Solid


Element Description
Use SOLID185 Layered Solid to model layered thick shells or solids. The layered
section definition is given by ANSYS section (SECxxx) commands. A prism
degeneration option is also available.

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Figure 185.3 SOLID185 Layered Structural Solid Geometry

xo = Element x-axis if ESYS is not supplied.

x = Element x-axis if ESYS is supplied.

SOLID185 Layered Structural Solid Input


Data
The geometry and node locations for this element are shown in Figure 185.3.
The element is defined by eight nodes. A prism-shaped element may be formed
by defining the same node numbers for nodes K and L, and O and P.

In addition to the nodes, the element input data includes the anisotropic material
properties. Anisotropic material directions correspond to the layer coordinate
directions which are based on the element coordinate system. The element
coordinate system follows the shell convention where the z axis is normal to the
surface of the shell. The nodal ordering must follow the convention that I-J-K-L
and M-N-O-P element faces represent the bottom and top shell surfaces,
respectively. You can change the orientation within the plane of the layers via the
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ESYS command in the same way that you would for shell elements (as described
in Coordinate Systems). To achieve the correct nodal ordering for a volume
mapped (hexahedron) mesh, you can use the VEORIENT command to specify
the desired volume orientation before executing the VMESH command.
Alternatively, you can use the EORIENT command after automatic meshing to
reorient the elements to be in line with the orientation of another element, or to
be as parallel as possible to a defined ESYS axis.

Layered Section Definition Using Section Commands

You can associate SOLID185 Layered Solid with a shell section (SECTYPE). The
layered composite specifications (including layer thickness, material, orientation,
and number of integration points through the thickness of the layer) are specified
via shell section (SECxxx) commands. You can use the shell section commands
even with a single-layered element. ANSYS obtains the actual layer thicknesses
used for element calculations by scaling the input layer thickness so that they are
consistent with the thickness between the nodes. A section can be partially
defined using data from a FiberSIM .xml file.

You can designate the number of integration points (1, 3, 5, 7, or 9) located


through the thickness of each layer. Two points are located on the top and
bottom surfaces respectively and the remaining points are distributed equal
distance between the two points. The element requires at least two points
through the entire thickness. When no shell section definition is provided, the
element is treated as single-layered and uses two integration points through the
thickness.

SOLID185 Layered Solid does not support real constant input for defining layer
sections.

Other Input

The default orientation for this element has the S1 (shell surface coordinate) axis
aligned with the first parametric direction of the element at the center of the
element and is shown as x o in Figure 185.3.

The default first surface direction S1 can be reoriented in the element reference

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plane (as shown in Figure 185.3) via the ESYS command. You can further rotate
S1 by angle THETA (in degrees) for each layer via the SECDATA command to
create layer-wise coordinate systems. See Coordinate Systems for details.

Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads. Pressures may be input
as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers in Figure
185.3. Positive pressures act into the element.

If you specify no element body load for defining temperatures--that is, if you
define temperatures with commands other than BFE--SOLID185 Layered Solid
adopts an element-wise temperature pattern and requires only eight
temperatures for the eight element corner nodes. The node I temperature T(I)
defaults to TUNIF. If all other temperatures are unspecified, they default to T(I).
`For any other input temperature pattern, unspecified nodal temperatures default
to TUNIF. ANSYS computes all layer interface temperatures by interpolating nodal
temperatures.

Alternatively, you can input temperatures as element body loads at the corners of
the outside faces of the element and at the corners of the interfaces between
layers. In such a case, the element uses a layer-wise pattern. Temperatures T1,
T2, T3, T4 are used for the bottom of layer 1, temperatures T5, T6, T7, T8 are
used for interface corners between layers 1 and 2, and so on between successive
layers, ending with temperatures at the top layer NLayer. If you input exactly
NLayer+1 temperatures, one temperature is used for the four bottom corners of
each layer, and the last temperature is used for the four top corner temperatures
of the top layer. The first corner temperature T1 defaults to TUNIF. If all other
corner temperatures are unspecified, they default to T1. For any other input
pattern, unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF.

KEYOPT(6) = 1 sets the element for using mixed formulation. For details on the
use of mixed formulation, see Applications of Mixed u-P Formulations in the
Element Reference.

You can apply an initial stress state to this element via the INISTATE
command. For more information, see "Initial State" in the Basic Analysis Guide .

The effects of pressure load stiffness are automatically included for this element. If
an unsymmetrical matrix is needed for pressure load stiffness effects, use
NROPT,UNSYM.
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NROPT,UNSYM.

The following table summarizes the element input. Element Input provides a
general description of element input.

SOLID185 Layered Structural Solid Input


Summary
Nodes
I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P
Degrees of Freedom
UX, UY, UZ
Real Constants
None
Material Properties
EX, EY, EZ, PRXY, PRYZ, PRXZ (or NUXY, NUYZ, NUXZ),
ALPX, ALPY, ALPZ (or CTEX, CTEY, CTEZ or THSX, THSY, THSZ),
DENS, GXY, GYZ, GXZ, DAMP
Surface Loads
Pressures --
face 1 (J-I-L-K), face 2 (I-J-N-M), face 3 (J-K-O-N),
face 4 (K-L-P-O), face 5 (L-I-M-P), face 6 (M-N-O-P)

Body Loads
Temperatures --
T1, T2, T3, T4 at bottom of layer 1; T5, T6, T7, T8 between layers
1-2; similarly for between successive layers, ending with
temperatures at top of layer NLayer (4 * (NLayer + 1) maximum)
Body force densities --
The element values in the global X, Y, and Z directions.
Special Features
Plasticity (PLASTIC, BISO, MISO, NLISO, BKIN, MKIN, KINH, CHABOCHE,
HILL)
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HILL)
Hyperelasticity (AHYPER, HYPER, BB, CDM)
Viscoelasticity (PRONY, SHIFT)
Viscoplasticity/Creep (CREEP, RATE)
Creep
Stress stiffening
Large deflection
Large strain
Initial state
Automatic selection of element technology
Birth and death
Linear perturbation
See the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and
Mechanical Applications for details about material models.
See Automatic Selection of Element Technologies and
ETCONTROL for more information about selecting element
technologies.
KEYOPT(2)
Element technology:
2 --
Enhanced strain formulation
3 --
Simplified enhanced strain formulation (default)
KEYOPT(3)
Layer construction:
0 --
Structural Solid (not applicable to SOLID185 Layered Solid)
1 --
Layered Solid
KEYOPT(6)

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Element formulation:
0 --
Use pure displacement formulation (default)
1 --
Use mixed formulation
KEYOPT(8)
Layer data storage:
0 --
Store data for bottom of bottom layer and top of top layer (default)
1 --
Store top and bottom data for all layers. (The volume of data may
be considerable.)

SOLID185 Layered Structural Solid Element


Technology

SOLID185 Layered Solid uses the enhanced strain formulation method, as


follows:
Enhanced strain formulation
Prevents shear locking in bending-dominated problems and volumetric
locking in nearly incompressible cases. The formulation introduces 13
internal DOFs (inaccessible to ANSYS users). If mixed u-P formulation is
employed with enhanced strain formulation, only nine DOFs for
overcoming shear-locking are used. All internal DOFs are introduced
automatically at the element level and condensed out.
For more information about enhanced strain formulation, see the Theory
Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications .
Simplified enhanced strain formulation
Prevents shear locking in bending-dominated problems. This is a special
case of the enhanced strain formulation and always introduces 9 internal
DOFs (inaccessible to ANSYS users). Because there are no internal DOFs to
handle volumetric locking, this formulation should not be used when the

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material is nearly incompressible, except when the Mixed u-P formulation


is also used. When used with the Mixed u-P formulation, the simplified
enhanced strain formulation gives the same results as the enhanced strain
formulation. All internal DOFs are introduced automatically at the element
level and condensed out.
This option is more efficient than the enhanced strain formulation
because it uses fewer internal DOFs.
For more information about the simplified enhanced strain formulation,
see the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical
Applications.

SOLID185 Layered Structural Solid Output


Data
The solution output associated with the element is in two forms:
Nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution
Additional element output as shown in Table 185.3: SOLID185 Layered
Structural Solid Element Output Definitions

Several items are illustrated in Figure 185.4. See Filling the Element Table for
Variables Identified By Sequence Number in the Basic Analysis Guide and The
Item and Sequence Number Table in this document for more information.

Figure 185.4 SOLID185 Layered Structural Solid Stress Output

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Stress directions shown are for global directions.

The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation:

A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the
Component Name method (ETABLE, ESOL). The O column indicates the
availability of the items in the file Jobname.OUT. The R column indicates the
availability of the items in the results file.

In either the O or R columns, Y indicates that the item is always available, a


number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally
available, and - indicates that the item is not available.

Table 185.3 SOLID185 Layered Structural Solid Element Output


Definitions
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Definitions
Name Definition O R
EL Element Number - Y
NODES Nodes - I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P - Y
MAT Material number - Y
VOLU: Volume - Y
XC, YC, ZC Location where results are reported Y 3
PRES Pressures P1 at nodes J, I, L, K; P2 at I, J, N, M; - Y
P3 at J, K, O, N; P4 at K, L, P, O; P5 at L, I, M,
P; P6 at M, N, O, P
TEMP T1, T2, T3, T4 at bottom of layer 1; T5, T6, T7, T8 - Y
between layers 1-2; similarly for between
successive layers, ending with temperatures at top
of layer NL (4 * (NL + 1) maximum)
S:X, Y, Z, XY, Stresses Y Y
YZ, XZ
S:1, 2, 3 Principal stresses - Y
S:INT Stress intensity - Y
S:EQV Equivalent stress - Y
EPEL:X, Y, Z, Elastic strains Y Y
XY, YZ, XZ
EPEL:EQV Equivalent elastic strains [6] - Y
EPTH:X, Y, Z, Thermal strains 2 2
XY, YZ, XZ
EPTH:EQV Equivalent thermal strains [6] 2 2
EPPL:X, Y, Z, Plastic strains [7] 1 1
XY, YZ, XZ

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EPPL:EQV Equivalent plastic strains [6] 1 1


EPCR:X, Y, Z, Creep strains 1 1
XY, YZ, XZ
EPCR:EQV Equivalent creep strains [6] 1 1
EPTO:X, Y, Z, Total mechanical strains (EPEL + EPPL + EPCR) Y -
XY, YZ, XZ
EPTO:EQV Total equivalent mechanical strains (EPEL + EPPL Y -
+ EPCR)
NL:EPEQ Accumulated equivalent plastic strain 1 1
NL:CREQ Accumulated equivalent creep strain 1 1
NL:SRAT Plastic yielding (1 = actively yielding, 0 = not 1 1
yielding)
NL:HPRES Hydrostatic pressure 1 1
SEND: Strain energy densities - 1
ELASTIC,
PLASTIC,
CREEP
LOCI:X, Y, Z Integration point locations - 4
SVAR:1, 2, ... State variables - 5
,N
ILSXZ SXZ interlaminar shear stress - 9
ILSYZ SYZ interlaminar shear stress - 9
ILSUM Magnitude of the interlaminar shear stress vector - 8
,
9
ILANG Angle of interlaminar shear stress vector - 9
(measured from the element x-axis toward the
element y-axis in degrees)
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1. Nonlinear solution, output only if the element has a nonlinear material


2. Output only if element has a thermal load
3. Available only at centroid as a *GET item
4. Available only if OUTRES,LOCI is used
5. Available only if the USERMAT subroutine and TB,STATE are used
6. The equivalent strains use an effective Poisson's ratio: for elastic and
thermal this value is set by the user (MP,PRXY); for plastic and creep
this value is set at 0.5.
7. For the shape memory alloy material model, transformation strains are
reported as plasticity strain EPPL.

8. The components are combined as and the


largest value of il is output as the maximum interlaminar shear stress.
9. Available only if a valid shell section (SECTYPE,,SHELL) is defined for
the element.

Table 185.4: SOLID185 Layered Structural Solid Item and Sequence Numbers
lists output available via ETABLE using the Sequence Number method. See
Element Table for Variables Identified By Sequence Number in the Basic Analysis
Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table in this document for more
information. The following notation is used in Table 185.4: SOLID185 Layered
Structural Solid Item and Sequence Numbers:
Name
output quantity as defined in Table 185.3: SOLID185 Layered Structural
Solid Element Output Definitions
Item
predetermined Item label for ETABLE command
I,J,...,P
sequence number for data at nodes I, J, ..., P

Table 185.4 SOLID185 Layered Structural Solid Item and Sequence


Numbers

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ETABLE and ESOL Command Input


Output Quantity Name
Item I J K L M N O P
P1 SMISC 2 1 4 3 - - - -
P2 SMISC 5 6 - - 8 7 - -
P3 SMISC - 9 10 - - 12 11 -
P4 SMISC - - 13 14 - - 16 15
P5 SMISC 18 - - 17 19 - - 20
P6 SMISC - - - - 21 22 23 24

Output Quantity ETABLE and ESOL Command Input


Name
Item Bottom of Top of Layer NL
Layer i
ILSXZ SMISC 8 * (i - 1) + 41 8 * (NL - 1) + 42
ILSYZ SMISC 8 * (i - 1) + 43 8 * (NL - 1) + 44
ILSUM SMISC 8 * (i - 1) + 45 8 * (NL - 1) + 46
ILANG SMISC 8 * (i - 1) + 47 8 * (NL - 1) + 48

SOLID185 Layered Structural Solid


Assumptions and Restrictions
Zero-volume elements are not allowed.
Elements may be numbered either as shown in Figure 185.3 or may
have the planes IJKL and MNOP interchanged. The element may not be
twisted such that the element has two separate volumes (which occurs
most frequently when the elements are not numbered properly).
All elements must have eight nodes. You can form a prism-shaped
element by defining duplicate K and L and duplicate O and P node

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Element Reference
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numbers. (See Triangle, Prism, and Tetrahedral Elements.)


If you use the mixed formulation (KEYOPT(6) = 1), the damped
eigensolver is not supported. You must use the sparse solver (default).
Stress stiffening is always included in geometrically nonlinear analyses
(NLGEOM,ON). It is ignored in geometrically linear analyses (NLGEOM
OFF) when specified by SSTIF,ON. Prestress effects can be activated via
the PSTRES command.
If the material of a layer is hyperelastic, the layer orientation angle has no
effect.

SOLID185 Layered Structural Solid


Product Restrictions
There are no product-specific restrictions for this element.

Release 13.0 - 2010 SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved.

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and its subsidiaries and affiliates