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SOLID185

3-D 8-Node Structural Solid

MP ME ST PR PRN DS DSS <> <> <> <> PP VT EME MFS

Product Restrictions

SOLID185 is used for 3-D modeling of solid structures. It is defined by eight

nodes having three degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x,

y, and z directions. The element has plasticity, hyperelasticity, stress stiffening,

creep, large deflection, and large strain capabilities. It also has mixed formulation

capability for simulating deformations of nearly incompressible elastoplastic

materials, and fully incompressible hyperelastic materials.

Homogeneous Structural Solid (KEYOPT(3) = 0, the default) -- See

"SOLID185 Homogeneous Structural Solid Element Description".

Layered Structural Solid (KEYOPT(3) = 1) -- See "SOLID185 Layered

Structural Solid Element Description".

See SOLID185 in the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical

Applications for more details about this element.

Element Description

SOLID185 Structural Solid is suitable for modeling general 3-D solid structures. It

allows for prism and tetrahedral degenerations when used in irregular regions.

Various element technologies such as B-bar, uniformly reduced integration, and

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Element Reference

Page: 2

enhanced strains are supported.

Input Data

The geometry and node locations for this element are shown in Figure 185.1.

The element is defined by eight nodes and the orthotropic material properties.

The default element coordinate system is along global directions. You may define

an element coordinate system using ESYS, which forms the basis for orthotropic

material directions.

Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads. Pressures may be input

as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers in Figure

185.1. Positive pressures act into the element. Temperatures may be input as

element body loads at the nodes. The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF.

If all other temperatures are unspecified, they default to T(I). For any other input

temperature pattern, unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. Similar defaults

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KEYOPT(6) = 1 sets the element for using mixed formulation. For details on the

use of mixed formulation, see Applications of Mixed u-P Formulations in the

Element Reference.

You can apply an initial stress state to this element via the INISTATE

command. For more information, see "Initial State" in the Basic Analysis Guide .

As described in Coordinate Systems, you can use ESYS to orient the material

properties and strain/stress output. Use RSYS to choose output that follows the

material coordinate system or the global coordinate system. For the case of

hyperelastic materials, the output of stress and strain is always with respect to the

global Cartesian coordinate system rather than following the material/element

coordinate system.

The effects of pressure load stiffness are automatically included for this element. If

an unsymmetrical matrix is needed for pressure load stiffness effects, use

NROPT,UNSYM.

of element input. For a general description of element input, see Element Input

Input Summary

Nodes

I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P

Degrees of Freedom

UX, UY, UZ

Real Constants

None, if KEYOPT(2) = 0,

HGSTF - Hourglass Stiffness Scaling factor if KEYOPT(2) = 1 (Default is

1.0; any positive number is valid. If set to 0.0, value is automatically reset

to 1.0.)

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Element Reference

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Material Properties

EX, EY, EZ, PRXY, PRYZ, PRXZ (or NUXY, NUYZ, NUXZ), GXY, GYZ, GXZ,

ALPX, ALPY, ALPZ (or CTEX, CTEY, CTEZ or THSX, THSY, THSZ), DENS,

DAMP

Surface Loads

Pressures --

face 1 (J-I-L-K), face 2 (I-J-N-M), face 3 (J-K-O-N),

face 4 (K-L-P-O), face 5 (L-I-M-P), face 6 (M-N-O-P)

Body Loads

Temperatures --

T(I), T(J), T(K), T(L), T(M), T(N), T(O), T(P)

Body force densities --

The element values in the global X, Y, and Z directions.

Special Features

Plasticity (PLASTIC, BISO, MISO, NLISO, BKIN, MKIN, KINH, CHABOCHE,

HILL)

Hyperelasticity (AHYPER, HYPER)

Viscoelasticity (PRONY, SHIFT)

Viscoplasticity/Creep (CREEP, RATE)

Elasticity (ELASTIC, ANEL)

Other material (USER, SDAMP, SMA, CAST, EDP, GURSON)

Stress stiffening

Large deflection

Large strain

Initial stress import

Nonlinear stabilization

Automatic selection of element technology

Birth and death

Linear perturbation

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Element Reference

Page: 5

with the TB command. See the Theory Reference for

the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications for

details of the material models.

ETCONTROL for more information on selection of

element technologies.

KEYOPT(2)

Element technology:

0 --

Full integration with method (default)

1 --

Uniform reduced integration with hourglass control

2 --

Enhanced strain formulation

3 --

Simplified enhanced strain formulation

KEYOPT(3)

Layer construction:

0 --

Structural Solid (default) -- nonlayered

1 --

Layered Solid (not applicable to SOLID185 Structural Solid)

KEYOPT(6)

Element formulation:

0 --

Use pure displacement formulation (default)

1 --

Use mixed formulation

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Element Technology

SOLID185 uses the method (also known as the selective reduced integration

method), the uniform reduced integration method, or the enhanced strain

formulation method, as follows:

Helps to prevent volumetric mesh locking in nearly incompressible cases.

This option replaces volumetric strain at the Gauss integration point with

the average volumetric strain of the elements. This method cannot,

however, prevent any shear locking in bending dominated problems. In

such situations, use the enhanced strain formulation of this element. If it

is not clear if the deformation is bending dominated, enhanced strain

formulation is recommended. For more information, see the Theory

Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications .

Uniform reduced integration

Also helps to prevent volumetric mesh locking in nearly incompressible

cases. Because it has only one integration point, this option is more

efficient than the method (selective reduced integration) option.

However, the artificial energy introduced to control the hourglass effect

may affect solution accuracy adversely.

When using this option, check the solution accuracy by comparing the

total energy (SENE label in ETABLE) and the artificial energy (AENE label

in ETABLE) introduced by hourglass control. If the ratio of artificial

energy to total energy is less than 5%, the solution is generally

acceptable. If the ratio exceeds five percent, refine the mesh. You can also

monitor the total energy and artificial energy by issuing the OUTPR,

VENG command in the solution phase.

For more information about uniform reduced integration, see the Theory

Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications .

Enhanced strain formulation

Prevents shear locking in bending-dominated problems and volumetric

locking in nearly incompressible cases. The formulation introduces 13

internal DOFs (inaccessible to ANSYS users). If mixed u-P formulation is

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Element Reference

Page: 7

shear-locking are used. All internal DOFs are introduced automatically at

the element level and condensed out.

Because of the extra internal DOFs and static condensation, this option is

less efficient than either the method (selective reduced integration)

option or the uniform reduced integration option.

For more information about enhanced strain formulation, see the Theory

Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications .

Simplified enhanced strain formulation

Prevents shear locking in bending-dominated problems. This is a special

case of the enhanced strain formulation and always introduces 9 internal

DOFs (inaccessible to ANSYS users). Because there are no internal DOFs to

handle volumetric locking, this formulation should not be used when the

material is nearly incompressible, except when the Mixed u-P formulation

is also used. When used with the Mixed u-P formulation, the simplified

enhanced strain formulation gives the same results as the enhanced strain

formulation. All internal DOFs are introduced automatically at the element

level and condensed out.

Because of the extra internal DOFs and static condensation, this option is

less efficient than either the method (selective reduced integration)

option or the uniform reduced integration option, but is more efficient

than the enhanced strain formulation due to using fewer internal DOFs.

For more information about the simplified enhanced strain formulation,

see the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical

Applications.

Output Data

The solution output associated with the element is in two forms:

Nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution

Additional element output as shown in Table 185.1: SOLID185

Homogeneous Structural Solid Element Output Definitions

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Several items are illustrated in Figure 185.2. See Element Table for Variables

Identified By Sequence Number in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and

Sequence Number Table in this document for more information.

A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the

Component Name method (ETABLE, ESOL). The O column indicates the

availability of the items in the file Jobname.OUT. The R column indicates the

availability of the items in the results file.

number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally

available, and - indicates that the item is not available.

Definitions

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Name Definition O R

EL Element Number - Y

NODES Nodes - I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P - Y

MAT Material number - Y

VOLU: Volume - Y

XC, YC, ZC Location where results are reported Y 3

PRES Pressures P1 at nodes J, I, L, K; P2 at I, J, N, M; - Y

P3 at J, K, O, N; P4 at K, L, P, O; P5 at L, I, M, P;

P6 at M, N, O, P

TEMP Temperatures T(I), T(J), T(K), T(L), T(M), T(N), T - Y

(O), T(P)

S:X, Y, Z, XY, YZ, Stresses Y Y

XZ

S:1, 2, 3 Principal stresses - Y

S:INT Stress intensity - Y

S:EQV Equivalent stress - Y

EPEL:X, Y, Z, XY, Elastic strains Y Y

YZ, XZ

EPEL:EQV Equivalent elastic strains [6] - Y

EPTH:X, Y, Z, Thermal strains 2 2

XY, YZ, XZ

EPTH:EQV Equivalent thermal strains [6] 2 2

EPPL:X, Y, Z, XY, Plastic strains [7] 1 1

YZ, XZ

EPPL:EQV Equivalent plastic strains [6] 1 1

EPCR:X, Y, Z, Creep strains 1 1

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XY, YZ, XZ

EPCR:EQV Equivalent creep strains [6] 1 1

EPTO:X, Y, Z, Total mechanical strains (EPEL + EPPL + EPCR) Y -

XY, YZ, XZ

EPTO:EQV Total equivalent mechanical strains (EPEL + Y -

EPPL + EPCR)

NL:EPEQ Accumulated equivalent plastic strain 1 1

NL:CREQ Accumulated equivalent creep strain 1 1

NL:SRAT Plastic yielding (1 = actively yielding, 0 = not 1 1

yielding)

NL:HPRES Hydrostatic pressure 1 1

SEND:ELASTIC, Strain energy densities - 1

PLASTIC, CREEP

LOCI:X, Y, Z Integration point locations - 4

SVAR:1, 2, ... , N State variables - 5

2. Output only if element has a thermal load

3. Available only at centroid as a *GET item

4. Available only if OUTRES,LOCI is used

5. Available only if the USERMAT subroutine and TB,STATE are used

6. The equivalent strains use an effective Poisson's ratio: for elastic and

thermal this value is set by the user (MP,PRXY); for plastic and creep

this value is set at 0.5.

7. For the shape memory alloy material model, transformation strains are

reported as plasticity strain EPPL.

Numbers lists output available via ETABLE using the Sequence Number method.

See Element Table for Variables Identified By Sequence Number in the Basic

Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table in this document for

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Page: 11

Homogeneous Structural Solid Item and Sequence Numbers:

Name

output quantity as defined in the Table 185.1: SOLID185 Homogeneous

Structural Solid Element Output Definitions

Item

predetermined Item label for ETABLE command

I,J,...,P

sequence number for data at nodes I, J, ..., P

Sequence Numbers

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input

Output Quantity Name

Item I J K L M N O P

P1 SMISC 2 1 4 3 - - - -

P2 SMISC 5 6 - - 8 7 - -

P3 SMISC - 9 10 - - 12 11 -

P4 SMISC - - 13 14 - - 16 15

P5 SMISC 18 - - 17 19 - - 20

P6 SMISC - - - - 21 22 23 24

Assumptions and Restrictions

Zero-volume elements are not allowed.

Elements may be numbered either as shown in Figure 185.1 or may

have the planes IJKL and MNOP interchanged. The element may not be

twisted such that the element has two separate volumes (which occurs

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All elements must have eight nodes. You can form a prism-shaped

element by defining duplicate K and L and duplicate O and P node

numbers. (See Triangle, Prism, and Tetrahedral Elements.) A

tetrahedron shape is also available.

For the degenerated shape elements where the or enhanced strain

formulations are specified, degenerated shape functions and a

conventional integration scheme are used.

If you use the mixed formulation (KEYOPT(6) = 1), the damped

eigensolver is not supported. You must use the sparse solver (default).

For modal cyclic symmetry analyses, ANSYS recommends using enhanced

strain formulation.

Stress stiffening is always included in geometrically nonlinear analyses

(NLGEOM,ON). Prestress effects can be activated by the PSTRES

command.

This element has a layered option (KEYOPT(3) = 1). See "SOLID185 Layered

Structural Solid Assumptions and Restrictions" for additional information.

Product Restrictions

None.

Element Description

Use SOLID185 Layered Solid to model layered thick shells or solids. The layered

section definition is given by ANSYS section (SECxxx) commands. A prism

degeneration option is also available.

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Data

The geometry and node locations for this element are shown in Figure 185.3.

The element is defined by eight nodes. A prism-shaped element may be formed

by defining the same node numbers for nodes K and L, and O and P.

In addition to the nodes, the element input data includes the anisotropic material

properties. Anisotropic material directions correspond to the layer coordinate

directions which are based on the element coordinate system. The element

coordinate system follows the shell convention where the z axis is normal to the

surface of the shell. The nodal ordering must follow the convention that I-J-K-L

and M-N-O-P element faces represent the bottom and top shell surfaces,

respectively. You can change the orientation within the plane of the layers via the

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ESYS command in the same way that you would for shell elements (as described

in Coordinate Systems). To achieve the correct nodal ordering for a volume

mapped (hexahedron) mesh, you can use the VEORIENT command to specify

the desired volume orientation before executing the VMESH command.

Alternatively, you can use the EORIENT command after automatic meshing to

reorient the elements to be in line with the orientation of another element, or to

be as parallel as possible to a defined ESYS axis.

You can associate SOLID185 Layered Solid with a shell section (SECTYPE). The

layered composite specifications (including layer thickness, material, orientation,

and number of integration points through the thickness of the layer) are specified

via shell section (SECxxx) commands. You can use the shell section commands

even with a single-layered element. ANSYS obtains the actual layer thicknesses

used for element calculations by scaling the input layer thickness so that they are

consistent with the thickness between the nodes. A section can be partially

defined using data from a FiberSIM .xml file.

through the thickness of each layer. Two points are located on the top and

bottom surfaces respectively and the remaining points are distributed equal

distance between the two points. The element requires at least two points

through the entire thickness. When no shell section definition is provided, the

element is treated as single-layered and uses two integration points through the

thickness.

SOLID185 Layered Solid does not support real constant input for defining layer

sections.

Other Input

The default orientation for this element has the S1 (shell surface coordinate) axis

aligned with the first parametric direction of the element at the center of the

element and is shown as x o in Figure 185.3.

The default first surface direction S1 can be reoriented in the element reference

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Element Reference

Page: 15

plane (as shown in Figure 185.3) via the ESYS command. You can further rotate

S1 by angle THETA (in degrees) for each layer via the SECDATA command to

create layer-wise coordinate systems. See Coordinate Systems for details.

Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads. Pressures may be input

as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers in Figure

185.3. Positive pressures act into the element.

If you specify no element body load for defining temperatures--that is, if you

define temperatures with commands other than BFE--SOLID185 Layered Solid

adopts an element-wise temperature pattern and requires only eight

temperatures for the eight element corner nodes. The node I temperature T(I)

defaults to TUNIF. If all other temperatures are unspecified, they default to T(I).

`For any other input temperature pattern, unspecified nodal temperatures default

to TUNIF. ANSYS computes all layer interface temperatures by interpolating nodal

temperatures.

Alternatively, you can input temperatures as element body loads at the corners of

the outside faces of the element and at the corners of the interfaces between

layers. In such a case, the element uses a layer-wise pattern. Temperatures T1,

T2, T3, T4 are used for the bottom of layer 1, temperatures T5, T6, T7, T8 are

used for interface corners between layers 1 and 2, and so on between successive

layers, ending with temperatures at the top layer NLayer. If you input exactly

NLayer+1 temperatures, one temperature is used for the four bottom corners of

each layer, and the last temperature is used for the four top corner temperatures

of the top layer. The first corner temperature T1 defaults to TUNIF. If all other

corner temperatures are unspecified, they default to T1. For any other input

pattern, unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF.

KEYOPT(6) = 1 sets the element for using mixed formulation. For details on the

use of mixed formulation, see Applications of Mixed u-P Formulations in the

Element Reference.

You can apply an initial stress state to this element via the INISTATE

command. For more information, see "Initial State" in the Basic Analysis Guide .

The effects of pressure load stiffness are automatically included for this element. If

an unsymmetrical matrix is needed for pressure load stiffness effects, use

NROPT,UNSYM.

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NROPT,UNSYM.

The following table summarizes the element input. Element Input provides a

general description of element input.

Summary

Nodes

I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P

Degrees of Freedom

UX, UY, UZ

Real Constants

None

Material Properties

EX, EY, EZ, PRXY, PRYZ, PRXZ (or NUXY, NUYZ, NUXZ),

ALPX, ALPY, ALPZ (or CTEX, CTEY, CTEZ or THSX, THSY, THSZ),

DENS, GXY, GYZ, GXZ, DAMP

Surface Loads

Pressures --

face 1 (J-I-L-K), face 2 (I-J-N-M), face 3 (J-K-O-N),

face 4 (K-L-P-O), face 5 (L-I-M-P), face 6 (M-N-O-P)

Body Loads

Temperatures --

T1, T2, T3, T4 at bottom of layer 1; T5, T6, T7, T8 between layers

1-2; similarly for between successive layers, ending with

temperatures at top of layer NLayer (4 * (NLayer + 1) maximum)

Body force densities --

The element values in the global X, Y, and Z directions.

Special Features

Plasticity (PLASTIC, BISO, MISO, NLISO, BKIN, MKIN, KINH, CHABOCHE,

HILL)

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HILL)

Hyperelasticity (AHYPER, HYPER, BB, CDM)

Viscoelasticity (PRONY, SHIFT)

Viscoplasticity/Creep (CREEP, RATE)

Creep

Stress stiffening

Large deflection

Large strain

Initial state

Automatic selection of element technology

Birth and death

Linear perturbation

See the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and

Mechanical Applications for details about material models.

See Automatic Selection of Element Technologies and

ETCONTROL for more information about selecting element

technologies.

KEYOPT(2)

Element technology:

2 --

Enhanced strain formulation

3 --

Simplified enhanced strain formulation (default)

KEYOPT(3)

Layer construction:

0 --

Structural Solid (not applicable to SOLID185 Layered Solid)

1 --

Layered Solid

KEYOPT(6)

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Element formulation:

0 --

Use pure displacement formulation (default)

1 --

Use mixed formulation

KEYOPT(8)

Layer data storage:

0 --

Store data for bottom of bottom layer and top of top layer (default)

1 --

Store top and bottom data for all layers. (The volume of data may

be considerable.)

Technology

follows:

Enhanced strain formulation

Prevents shear locking in bending-dominated problems and volumetric

locking in nearly incompressible cases. The formulation introduces 13

internal DOFs (inaccessible to ANSYS users). If mixed u-P formulation is

employed with enhanced strain formulation, only nine DOFs for

overcoming shear-locking are used. All internal DOFs are introduced

automatically at the element level and condensed out.

For more information about enhanced strain formulation, see the Theory

Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications .

Simplified enhanced strain formulation

Prevents shear locking in bending-dominated problems. This is a special

case of the enhanced strain formulation and always introduces 9 internal

DOFs (inaccessible to ANSYS users). Because there are no internal DOFs to

handle volumetric locking, this formulation should not be used when the

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Element Reference

Page: 19

is also used. When used with the Mixed u-P formulation, the simplified

enhanced strain formulation gives the same results as the enhanced strain

formulation. All internal DOFs are introduced automatically at the element

level and condensed out.

This option is more efficient than the enhanced strain formulation

because it uses fewer internal DOFs.

For more information about the simplified enhanced strain formulation,

see the Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical

Applications.

Data

The solution output associated with the element is in two forms:

Nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution

Additional element output as shown in Table 185.3: SOLID185 Layered

Structural Solid Element Output Definitions

Several items are illustrated in Figure 185.4. See Filling the Element Table for

Variables Identified By Sequence Number in the Basic Analysis Guide and The

Item and Sequence Number Table in this document for more information.

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A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the

Component Name method (ETABLE, ESOL). The O column indicates the

availability of the items in the file Jobname.OUT. The R column indicates the

availability of the items in the results file.

number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally

available, and - indicates that the item is not available.

Definitions

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Page: 21

Definitions

Name Definition O R

EL Element Number - Y

NODES Nodes - I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P - Y

MAT Material number - Y

VOLU: Volume - Y

XC, YC, ZC Location where results are reported Y 3

PRES Pressures P1 at nodes J, I, L, K; P2 at I, J, N, M; - Y

P3 at J, K, O, N; P4 at K, L, P, O; P5 at L, I, M,

P; P6 at M, N, O, P

TEMP T1, T2, T3, T4 at bottom of layer 1; T5, T6, T7, T8 - Y

between layers 1-2; similarly for between

successive layers, ending with temperatures at top

of layer NL (4 * (NL + 1) maximum)

S:X, Y, Z, XY, Stresses Y Y

YZ, XZ

S:1, 2, 3 Principal stresses - Y

S:INT Stress intensity - Y

S:EQV Equivalent stress - Y

EPEL:X, Y, Z, Elastic strains Y Y

XY, YZ, XZ

EPEL:EQV Equivalent elastic strains [6] - Y

EPTH:X, Y, Z, Thermal strains 2 2

XY, YZ, XZ

EPTH:EQV Equivalent thermal strains [6] 2 2

EPPL:X, Y, Z, Plastic strains [7] 1 1

XY, YZ, XZ

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EPCR:X, Y, Z, Creep strains 1 1

XY, YZ, XZ

EPCR:EQV Equivalent creep strains [6] 1 1

EPTO:X, Y, Z, Total mechanical strains (EPEL + EPPL + EPCR) Y -

XY, YZ, XZ

EPTO:EQV Total equivalent mechanical strains (EPEL + EPPL Y -

+ EPCR)

NL:EPEQ Accumulated equivalent plastic strain 1 1

NL:CREQ Accumulated equivalent creep strain 1 1

NL:SRAT Plastic yielding (1 = actively yielding, 0 = not 1 1

yielding)

NL:HPRES Hydrostatic pressure 1 1

SEND: Strain energy densities - 1

ELASTIC,

PLASTIC,

CREEP

LOCI:X, Y, Z Integration point locations - 4

SVAR:1, 2, ... State variables - 5

,N

ILSXZ SXZ interlaminar shear stress - 9

ILSYZ SYZ interlaminar shear stress - 9

ILSUM Magnitude of the interlaminar shear stress vector - 8

,

9

ILANG Angle of interlaminar shear stress vector - 9

(measured from the element x-axis toward the

element y-axis in degrees)

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2. Output only if element has a thermal load

3. Available only at centroid as a *GET item

4. Available only if OUTRES,LOCI is used

5. Available only if the USERMAT subroutine and TB,STATE are used

6. The equivalent strains use an effective Poisson's ratio: for elastic and

thermal this value is set by the user (MP,PRXY); for plastic and creep

this value is set at 0.5.

7. For the shape memory alloy material model, transformation strains are

reported as plasticity strain EPPL.

largest value of il is output as the maximum interlaminar shear stress.

9. Available only if a valid shell section (SECTYPE,,SHELL) is defined for

the element.

Table 185.4: SOLID185 Layered Structural Solid Item and Sequence Numbers

lists output available via ETABLE using the Sequence Number method. See

Element Table for Variables Identified By Sequence Number in the Basic Analysis

Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table in this document for more

information. The following notation is used in Table 185.4: SOLID185 Layered

Structural Solid Item and Sequence Numbers:

Name

output quantity as defined in Table 185.3: SOLID185 Layered Structural

Solid Element Output Definitions

Item

predetermined Item label for ETABLE command

I,J,...,P

sequence number for data at nodes I, J, ..., P

Numbers

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Output Quantity Name

Item I J K L M N O P

P1 SMISC 2 1 4 3 - - - -

P2 SMISC 5 6 - - 8 7 - -

P3 SMISC - 9 10 - - 12 11 -

P4 SMISC - - 13 14 - - 16 15

P5 SMISC 18 - - 17 19 - - 20

P6 SMISC - - - - 21 22 23 24

Name

Item Bottom of Top of Layer NL

Layer i

ILSXZ SMISC 8 * (i - 1) + 41 8 * (NL - 1) + 42

ILSYZ SMISC 8 * (i - 1) + 43 8 * (NL - 1) + 44

ILSUM SMISC 8 * (i - 1) + 45 8 * (NL - 1) + 46

ILANG SMISC 8 * (i - 1) + 47 8 * (NL - 1) + 48

Assumptions and Restrictions

Zero-volume elements are not allowed.

Elements may be numbered either as shown in Figure 185.3 or may

have the planes IJKL and MNOP interchanged. The element may not be

twisted such that the element has two separate volumes (which occurs

most frequently when the elements are not numbered properly).

All elements must have eight nodes. You can form a prism-shaped

element by defining duplicate K and L and duplicate O and P node

and its subsidiaries and affiliates

Element Reference

Page: 25

If you use the mixed formulation (KEYOPT(6) = 1), the damped

eigensolver is not supported. You must use the sparse solver (default).

Stress stiffening is always included in geometrically nonlinear analyses

(NLGEOM,ON). It is ignored in geometrically linear analyses (NLGEOM

OFF) when specified by SSTIF,ON. Prestress effects can be activated via

the PSTRES command.

If the material of a layer is hyperelastic, the layer orientation angle has no

effect.

Product Restrictions

There are no product-specific restrictions for this element.

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