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# 2.

Lecture 15

Lecture 15

## Chapter 4 - Real Fluid Eects ( =

 0)
Potential Flow Theory Drag = 0.

## Observed experiment (real uid << 1 but = 0) Drag = 0.

In particular the total drag measured on a body is regarded as the sum of two components:
the pressure or form drag, and the skin friction or viscous drag.

## Total Drag = Pressure Drag + Skin Friction Drag

Prole Drag or Form Drag or Viscous Drag
Drag Force due to Pressure Drag Force due to Viscous Stresses

pnds tds
S S

where n and t are the normal and tangential unit vectors on the body surface respectively.
The pressure and the viscous stresses on the body surface are p and respectively.

The form drag is evaluated by integrating the pressure along the surface of the body. For
blu bodies that create large wakes the form drag is total drag.

The skin friction drag is evaluated by integrating the viscous stresses on and along the
body boundary. For streamlined bodies that do not create appreciable wakes, friction drag
is dominant.

## 4.1 Form Drag

4.1.1 Form Drag on a Blu Body
Consider a sphere of diameter d:
D (Drag)

U
d

If no DBC apply then we have seen from Dimensional Analysis that the drag coecient
is a function of the Reynolds number only:

CD = CD (Re )
The drag coecient CD is dened with respect to the bodys projected area S:
D D
CD = 1 =
U 2 S 1
U 2 d2 /4
2 2
Projected area

## The Reynolds number Re is dened with respect to the bodys diameter d:

Ud
Re =

The following graph shows the dependence of CD on Re as measured from numerous ex
periments on spheres.

CD

0.5

0.25

Re
3x105

## i) Blu Body Form Drag

For a blu body (examples: sphere, cylinder, at plate, etc.) there is appreciable ow
separation and a wake is formed downstream of the body. The pressure within the
wake is signicantly smaller than that upstream of the body. Therefore the integral
of the pressure along the body boundary (= form drag) does not evaluate to zero as
predicted by P-Flow.

Flow separation

## Assume: pressure in the wake p (pressure at innity)

pressure on the upstream boundary of the body ps (stagnation pressure)
Then:
1 2
D= CD (Projected/frontal area)(ps p ) = CD S U
2
Friction Coecient Bernoulli
S
to be determined

## ii) CD = CD (Re ) Regime Dependence

In general, for typical blu bodies such as spheres, it is found that CD = CD (Re )
has a form similar to that shown in Figure (1). This means that CD has a regime
dependence on Re .

## Laminar regime: Re no separation < Re < Re critical

= ( 3 105 )
for a smooth sphere with smooth inow

## Laminar boundary layer

Separation pt

Wide wake
No Stagnation pt Wake Early separation
Drag
Stagnation pt
Width ~ Diameter Large CD =O(1)

Separation pt
Laminar boundary layer

Separation pt

## No Stagnation pt Wake Narrow wake

Width ~ Diameter/2 Delayed separation
Stagnation pt
Separation pt
Smaller CD

## Turbulent boundary layer

D/L
iii) Cylinder The drag coecient for a cylinder is dened as:
CD = 1
2
U 2 d

D
U

L d

CD

1.2

0.6

Re
3x105

## iv) Bodies with Fixed Separation Points

For bodies with xed separation points, the drag coecient is roughly constant, i.e.,
does not depend on Re . For example, for a at plate or disc CD 1.2

Separation pt

Separation pt

## 4.1.2 Boundary Layers

L

v 
 2 
+ v v = ... + v
UT t UL

1
Re
L

For most ows of interest to us ReL >> 1, i.e., viscosity can be ignored if U, L govern
the problem, thus potential ow can be assumed. In the context of potential ow theory,
drag = 0! Potential ow (no ij ) allows slip at boundary, but in reality, the no-slip condi
tion applies on the boundaries. Otherwise, if =  0 and a free-slip KBC is imposed then
y at the boundary.
u

Prandtl: There is a length scale (boundary layer thickness << L) over which
velocity goes from zero on the wall to the potential ow velocity U outside the boundary
layer.

U
u=U

U <<L
y
L x

u=0

Estimate : Inside the boundary layer, viscous eects are of the same order as the
inertial eects.

2U U U U2 2 1
2 U 2 2 = << 1 As ReL ,
y x L UL L L UL ReL

Generally: ReL >> 1, L << 1, thus potential ow is good outside a very thin bound
ary layer (i.e., provided no separation - a real uid eect). For Reynolds number not
>> 1(Re O(1)), then thick boundary layer ( O(L)) and Prandtls boundary layer
idea not useful. If separation occurs, then boundary layer idea is not valid.

6
4.1.3 Boundary Layers and Flow Separation

## Example for ow past a circle.

Outside the boundary layer P-Flow is valid. Let capital U denote the potential ow

tangential velocity on the circle and let x denote the distance along the circle surface (i.e.,

x = body coordinate).

From the steady inviscid x-momentum equation (steady Euler) along the body boundary
(y = 0, V = 0), we obtain :
dU 1 dp
U = (1)
dx dx

## Note 2: From Equation (1) for ow past a at plate dxdp

= 0 along the plate.

dU 1 dp
P Flow solution on body y=0 :U =
dx dx

## y U = U max boundary layer : u,

x
U0

U =0 U =0

dU dU
>0 <0
dx dx
dp dp
<0 >0
dx dx

dU dU
dx
>0 Acceleration dx
<0 Deceleration

dp dp
dx
<0 Favorable pressure gradient dx
>0 Adverse pressure gradient

X2 X3
X4
X1
X5

X2 > X1
X=X1 y
y

P
P
p
p

u
u v
v U1 U2 > U1

P>p Flow is being
pushed to attach

X3 > X2 X4 > X3
y y

P
P
p

u u
U3 U2 u v U4 U3
= 0, = 0
3 > 0 y 4 = 0
X4 is defined as the point of
separation

X5 > X4
y

u
U5 U4

Flow reversal

## A better way to think about separation is in terms of diusion of vorticity.

=0 outside B.L.
y y

P P

2 (y) 4 = 0 (y)
1 3
removed from fluid
added to fluid
by diffusion

## Think of vorticity as heat; (y) is equivalent to a temperature distribution. Note:



DV  D
= ... + 2 V and = ... + 2


Dt Dt