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Lecture 15

Lecture 15

0)

Potential Flow Theory Drag = 0.

In particular the total drag measured on a body is regarded as the sum of two components:

the pressure or form drag, and the skin friction or viscous drag.

Prole Drag or Form Drag or Viscous Drag

Drag Force due to Pressure Drag Force due to Viscous Stresses

pnds tds

S S

where n and t are the normal and tangential unit vectors on the body surface respectively.

The pressure and the viscous stresses on the body surface are p and respectively.

The form drag is evaluated by integrating the pressure along the surface of the body. For

blu bodies that create large wakes the form drag is total drag.

The skin friction drag is evaluated by integrating the viscous stresses on and along the

body boundary. For streamlined bodies that do not create appreciable wakes, friction drag

is dominant.

4.1.1 Form Drag on a Blu Body

Consider a sphere of diameter d:

D (Drag)

U

d

If no DBC apply then we have seen from Dimensional Analysis that the drag coecient

is a function of the Reynolds number only:

CD = CD (Re )

The drag coecient CD is dened with respect to the bodys projected area S:

D D

CD = 1 =

U 2 S 1

U 2 d2 /4

2 2

Projected area

Ud

Re =

The following graph shows the dependence of CD on Re as measured from numerous ex

periments on spheres.

CD

0.5

0.25

Re

3x105

For a blu body (examples: sphere, cylinder, at plate, etc.) there is appreciable ow

separation and a wake is formed downstream of the body. The pressure within the

wake is signicantly smaller than that upstream of the body. Therefore the integral

of the pressure along the body boundary (= form drag) does not evaluate to zero as

predicted by P-Flow.

Flow separation

pressure on the upstream boundary of the body ps (stagnation pressure)

Then:

1 2

D= CD (Projected/frontal area)(ps p ) = CD S U

2

Friction Coecient Bernoulli

S

to be determined

In general, for typical blu bodies such as spheres, it is found that CD = CD (Re )

has a form similar to that shown in Figure (1). This means that CD has a regime

dependence on Re .

= ( 3 105 )

for a smooth sphere with smooth inow

Separation pt

Wide wake

No Stagnation pt Wake Early separation

Drag

Stagnation pt

Width ~ Diameter Large CD =O(1)

Separation pt

Laminar boundary layer

Separation pt

Width ~ Diameter/2 Delayed separation

Stagnation pt

Separation pt

Smaller CD

D/L

iii) Cylinder The drag coecient for a cylinder is dened as:

CD = 1

2

U 2 d

D

U

L d

CD

1.2

0.6

Re

3x105

For bodies with xed separation points, the drag coecient is roughly constant, i.e.,

does not depend on Re . For example, for a at plate or disc CD 1.2

Separation pt

Separation pt

L

v

2

+ v v = ... + v

UT t UL

1

Re

L

For most ows of interest to us ReL >> 1, i.e., viscosity can be ignored if U, L govern

the problem, thus potential ow can be assumed. In the context of potential ow theory,

drag = 0! Potential ow (no ij ) allows slip at boundary, but in reality, the no-slip condi

tion applies on the boundaries. Otherwise, if = 0 and a free-slip KBC is imposed then

y at the boundary.

u

Prandtl: There is a length scale (boundary layer thickness << L) over which

velocity goes from zero on the wall to the potential ow velocity U outside the boundary

layer.

U

u=U

U <<L

y

L x

u=0

Estimate : Inside the boundary layer, viscous eects are of the same order as the

inertial eects.

2U U U U2 2 1

2 U 2 2 = << 1 As ReL ,

y x L UL L L UL ReL

Generally: ReL >> 1, L << 1, thus potential ow is good outside a very thin bound

ary layer (i.e., provided no separation - a real uid eect). For Reynolds number not

>> 1(Re O(1)), then thick boundary layer ( O(L)) and Prandtls boundary layer

idea not useful. If separation occurs, then boundary layer idea is not valid.

6

4.1.3 Boundary Layers and Flow Separation

Outside the boundary layer P-Flow is valid. Let capital U denote the potential ow

tangential velocity on the circle and let x denote the distance along the circle surface (i.e.,

x = body coordinate).

From the steady inviscid x-momentum equation (steady Euler) along the body boundary

(y = 0, V = 0), we obtain :

dU 1 dp

U = (1)

dx dx

= 0 along the plate.

dU 1 dp

P Flow solution on body y=0 :U =

dx dx

x

U0

U =0 U =0

dU dU

>0 <0

dx dx

dp dp

<0 >0

dx dx

dU dU

dx

>0 Acceleration dx

<0 Deceleration

dp dp

dx

<0 Favorable pressure gradient dx

>0 Adverse pressure gradient

X2 X3

X4

X1

X5

X2 > X1

X=X1 y

y

P

P

p

p

u

u v

v U1 U2 > U1

P>p Flow is being

pushed to attach

X3 > X2 X4 > X3

y y

P

P

p

u u

U3 U2 u v U4 U3

= 0, = 0

3 > 0 y 4 = 0

X4 is defined as the point of

separation

X5 > X4

y

u

U5 U4

Flow reversal

=0 outside B.L.

y y

P P

2 (y) 4 = 0 (y)

1 3

removed from fluid

added to fluid

by diffusion

DV D

= ... + 2 V and = ... + 2

Dt Dt

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