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Quantum Outline

I) Development of the Atomic Model


a. Dalton
b. J.J. Thomson
c. Rutherford
d. Bohr
e. Schrodinger

II) Energy Levels

III) Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

IV) Orbitals
a. Types of orbitals (s, p, d, f, g, h)
b. Aufbau diagram

V) Pauli Exclusion Principle

VI) Electron Configurations


a. Standard notation
b. Noble gas core notation
c. Exceptions (Cr & Cu)
Quantum Theory Review Questions
1. When an electron moves from a lower to a higher energy level, the electron _____.
A) always doubles its energy
B) absorbs a continuously variable amount of energy
C) absorbs a quantum of energy
D) moves closer to the nucleus
2. The 3p atomic orbital has the shape of _____.
A) a sphere B) a dumbbell C) a bar D) two perpendicular dumbbells E) an egg
3. What is the maximum number of orbitals in the p sublevel?
A) 2 B) 3 C) 4 D) 5 E) 6
4. Which of the following energy levels has the lowest energy?
A) 3d B) 4s C) 4p D) 4f
5. What is the next atomic orbital in the series 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p according to energy levels?
A) 2d B) 2f C) 3d D) 3f E) 4s
6. The quanta of light are called _____.
A) charms B) excitons C) muons D) photons E) solitons
7. What types of atomic orbitals are in the third principal energy level?
A) s and p only B) p and d only C) s, p, and d only D) p, d, and f only E) s, p, d, and f
8. In a neon light, when is the light given off?
A) when electrons return to their normal atomic orbital
B) when electrons absorb electrical energy
C) when protons move
D) when atoms collide
9. If three electrons are available to fill three empty 2p atomic orbitals, how will the electrons be distributed in the
three orbitals?
A) one electron in each orbital C) three in one orbital, none in the other two
B) two electrons in one orbital, one in another, none in the third D) any of the above
10. The lowest energy state of an atom is called the _____.
A) excited state B) ground state C) independent state D) dependent state
11. Who predicted that energy can behave as particles as well as waves?
A) Niels Bohr B) Albert Einstein C) Erwin Schrodinger D) Max Planck E) Louis de Broglie
12. Who predicted that all matter can behave as waves as well as particles?
A) Niels Bohr B) Albert Einstein C) Erwin Schrodinger D) Max Planck E) Louis de Broglie
13. Who developed the uncertainty principle?
A) Albert Einstein B) Niels Bohr C) Werner Heisenberg D) Erwin Schrodinger E) Louis de Broglie
14. According to the uncertainty principle, if the position of a moving particle is known, what other quantity cannot
be known?
A) mass B) temperature C) charge D) spin E) velocity ( momentum )
15. Who developed equations that described the electron as a wave and thus treated the atom as a mathematical
model?
16. Give the complete electron configurations for each of the following:
A) strontium B) tungsten C) nickel
17. A) How many electrons can occupy an f sublevel?
B) How many orbitals exist in energy level 3?
C) What is the maximum number of electrons per orbital?
D) How many unpaired electrons are there in a phosphorus atom?
Quantum Theory Review Answers

1. C 8. A
2. B 9. A
10. B
3. B 11. D
4. B 12. E
5. E 13. C
6. D 14. E
7. C 15. Schrodinger

16.(i) a) Sr: 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s2

b) W: 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p66s24f145d4

c) Ni: 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d8

All of the above contain 2 valence electrons (underlined )

17. a) 14
b) 9
c) 2, 6, 10, 14 (s, p, d, f)
d) 3
Chemical Naming and Writing Formulas Outline

I) Why Compounds Form


a. Stability
b. What happens to electrons
i. electrons are shared
ii. Electrons are gained or lost
iii. What types of elements want to gain or share(non-metals), what type wants to
lose electrons (metals)

II) Molecular Elements


a. Diatomic
b. Polyatomic

III) Binary Molecular Compounds


a. 2 non-metals
b. use of prefixes mono, di, tri etc.
c. second element listed has ide suffix
d. If you are given the name, write the formula, if you are given the formula, write the
name.
e. 10 non-systematic compounds (memorize!)

IV) Binary Ionic Compounds


a. metals and non-metals
b. no prefixes!
c. Use charges to determine correct number of each type of ion
i. example: Ca2+ Cl- means CaCl2
ii. example: Al3+ O2- means Al2O3

V) Multiple Ion Charges


a. Stock System Fe2+ is iron (II) Fe3+ is iron (III)
b. Classical system (not responsible for)

VI) Polyatomic Ions


a. Why they occur?
b. Naming & writing formulas

VII) Hydrated Compounds


a. water is trapped in the ionic crystal lattice
b. compounds are ionic
c. write the names when the formulas are given
d. write the formulas when the names are given

VIII) Molecular & Ionic Compounds properties


a. properties of ionic compounds
b. properties of molecular compounds

IX) Acids
a. Properties
b. definition
c. three rules for naming
i. hydrogen _____ide gives hydro _____ic acid
ii. hydrogen _____ate gives _________ic acid
iii. hydrogen _____ite gives _________ous acid
Review Naming Chemical Compounds
The following are a good mix of naming and formula writing problems to help you get
some practice. I will expect that you know how to name both ionic and covalent
compounds in your work.

Name the following chemical compounds:


1) NaBr ______________________________________________
2) Ca(CH3COOH)2______________________________________________
3) P2O5 ______________________________________________
4) Ti(SO4)2 ______________________________________________
5) FePO4 ______________________________________________
6) K3N ______________________________________________
7) SO2 ______________________________________________

8) CuOH ______________________________________________
9) Zn(NO2)2 ______________________________________________
10) V2S5 ______________________________________________

Write the formulas for the following chemical compounds:


11) silicon dioxide ______________________________________________

12) nickel (III) sulfide _____________________________________________

13) manganese (II) phosphate _____________________________________

14) silver acetate ______________________________________________

15) diboron tetrabromide __________________________________________

16) magnesium sulfate heptahydrate ________________________________

17) potassium carbonate __________________________________________

18) ammonium oxide ____________________________________________

19) tin (IV) selenide ______________________________________________

20) carbon tetrachloride __________________________________________


Answers Naming Chemical Compounds
Name the following chemical compounds:
1) NaBr sodium bromide

2) Ca(C2H3O2)2 calcium acetate

3) P2O5 diphosphorus pentoxide

4) Ti(SO4)2 titanium(IV) sulfate

5) FePO4 iron(III) phosphate

6) K3N potassium nitride

7) SO2 sulfur dioxide

8) CuOH copper(I) hydroxide

9) Zn(NO2)2 zinc nitrite

10) V2S5 vanadium(IV) sulfide

Write the formulas for the following chemical compounds:


11) silicon dioxide SiO2

12) nickel (III) sulfide Ni2S3

13) manganese (II) phosphate Mn3(PO4)2

14) silver acetate AgC2H3O2

15) diboron tetrabromide B2Br4

16) magnesium sulfate heptahydrate MgSO4.7H2O


17) potassium carbonate K2CO3

18) ammonium oxide (NH4)2O

19) tin (IV) selenide SnSe2

20) carbon tetrachloride CCl4


Bonding Outline
I) Lewis Diagrams
a. Stable Octets (Noble gas arrangement)
b. Atoms share electrons to get a stable octet
c. Lewis explained bonding using pairs of electrons
d. Valence Shell
i. # valence electrons = Group #
ii. Electrons can be in one of four places
e. Lone pairs and bonding electrons
II) Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory
a. VSEPR
b. Method for predicting shapes
c. Developed by R. J. Gillespie at McMaster
d. Electron pairs repel each other
e. Two bonds, no lone pairslinear
f. Three bonds, no lone pairstrigonal planar
g. Four bonds, no lone pairstetrahedral
h. Three bonds, 1 lone pairpyramidal
i. Two bonds, 2 lone pairsV-shape
j. Treat double and triple bonds like single bonds for VSEPR ie. A double bond
counts as one bond. A triple bond counts as one bond.
III) Polarity
a. Electronegativity
b. Bond polaritydepends upon difference in electronegativity
c. Molecular polaritydepends upon bond polarity and shape.
IV) Intermolecular Forces
a. Van der Waals
i. Dipole-Dipole
ii. London Dispersion
iii. Hydrogen Bonding
Lewis Structures, VSEPR, Polarity, IM Forces
For each of the following molecules, draw the Lewis structure, indicate the molecular shapes and
bond angles, indicate the molecular polarity (if any), and identify the intermolecular forces in
each compound.

1) carbon tetrafluoride

2) BF3

3) NF3

4) H2CS

5) CH2F2

6) O2

7) PF3

8) H2S
Lewis Structures, VSEPR, Polarity, IM Forces - Answers
1) carbon tetrafluoride

Tetrahedral
~1090
Nonpolar
London dispersion forces

2) BF3

Trigonal planar
1200
Nonpolar
London dispersion forces

3) NF3

Pyramidal
~1070
Polar
Dipole dipole forces
London dispersion forces

4) H2CS
Trigonal planar
1200
Polar
Dipole dipole forces
London dispersion forces

5) carbonate ion
5) CH2F2

Tetrahedral
~1090
Polar
Dipole dipole forces
London dispersion forces

7) nitrate ion

6) O2
London dispersion forces

7) PF3 Pyramidal
~1070
Polar
Dipole dipole forces
London dispersion forces

8) H2S
Bent or v-shape
~1050
Polar
Dipole dipole forces
London dispersion forces
Factor-Label Technique

1. Determine the relationship between the known and the unknown


units.
2. Create two ratios from this relationship.
3. Set the given quantity (to be converted) equal to itself.
4. Multiply the right hand side of the equation by whichever ratio
cancels out the old units and leaves you with the new units.

Steps for Solving Stoichiometry Problems

1. Obtain a balanced chemical equation and determine the known and


unknown.
2. Convert the starting units to moles
3. Convert moles of the known to moles of the unknown using the mole
ratio (which is obtained from the coefficients in the equation)
4. Convert moles of the newly-found quantity to the desired units.
5. Write a concluding statement.
Stoichiometry Review

1) Calculate the number of moles of Al O that are produced when 0.60 mol of Fe is produced
in the following reaction:
2Al(s) + 3FeO(s) 3Fe(s) + Al O (s)

2) How many moles of H PO are produced when 71.0 g P O reacts completely to form
H3PO4?

3) The equation below shows the decomposition of lead nitrate. How many grams of oxygen are
produced when 11.5 g NO is formed?

4) How many liters of O are needed to react completely with 45.0 L of H S at STP?
2H S(g) + 3O (g) 2SO (g) + 2H O(g)

5) FeBr2 + 2 KCl FeCl2 + 2 KBr


a) What is my theoretical yield of iron (II) chloride if I start with 34 grams of iron (II)
bromide?
b) What is my percent yield of iron (II) chloride if my actual yield is 4 grams?

6) What is my actual yield of uranium hexabromide if I start with 100 grams of uranium and get
a percent yield of 83%?
U + 3 Br2 UBr6

7) A 500-g sample of Al (SO ) is reacted with 450 g of Ca(OH) . A total of 596 g of CaSO
is produced. What is the limiting reagent in this reaction, and how many moles of excess
reagent are unreacted?
Al (SO ) (aq) + 3Ca(OH) (aq) 2Al(OH) (s) + 3CaSO (s)
Stoichiometry Answers:

1) 0.20mol
2) 1.00mol
3) 2.00g
4) 67.5L O2
5) a) 20. grams of FeCl2 b) 20%
6) 301.4 grams; 250g
7) Al2(SO4)3 is the limiting reagent. There is an excess of 1.69mol of Ca(OH)2.
Solutions Outline

I) The Nature of Solutions


a. Homogeneous mixtures
b. Solute/solvent
i. Defining Solute/Solvent
ii. Solute/solvent combinations
II) The Dissolving Process
a. Dissociation
b. Hydration/Solvation
III) Factors Affecting Rates of Dissolving
a. Stirring
b. Particle Size
c. Temperature
IV) Solubility & Saturated Solutions
a. Why Solutions become saturated (collisions between solute particles)
b. Dissolving & Crystallizing
c. Equilibrium
d. Miscible & immiscible liquids
V) Factors Affecting Solubility
a. Temperature
i. Effect on solids
ii. Effect on Gases
b. Pressure
i. Effect on Gases
VI) Supersaturated Solutions
a. How & why they form
b. How you can make one crystallize
VII) Molarity
a. Definition
b. C=n/V
c. C1V1=C2V2
VIII) Solubility Table
IX) Reactions in Solution
a. Molecular Equations
b. Total ionic Equations
c. Net Ionic Equations
d. Precipitation Reactions
Solutions Review

1. What volume of concentrated sulphuric acid (17.6M) is needed to make 500.mL of 0.250M
solution? (7.1mL)

2. What is the molarity of a solution in which 50.0g NaNO3 is dissolved to form 750. mL
solution? (0.784M)

3. What mass of CaCl2 is required to make 500. mL of 0.100M solution? (5.5g)

4. What volume of concentrated ammonia (14.8M) is required to make 450.mL of 0.150M


solution? (4.56mL)

5. To create a dilute solution 47.5mL of 4.00M KI are diluted to a volume of 250mL. What is
the concentration of this new dilute solution? (0.76M)

6. Aluminum sulphate and barium nitrate undergo a chemical reaction. How many millilitres of
0.280M barium nitrate are required to react fully with 25.0mL of 0.350M aluminium
sulphate? (93.8mL)

7. What volume of 0.496M HCl is required to react fully with 20.0mL of 0.890M sodium
hydroxide? (35.9mL)

8. In the reaction of silver nitrate with calcium bromide, 35.0mL of 0.128M calcium bromide is
used. If the concentration of silver nitrate used is 0.415M what volume of silver nitrate is
required? (0.0216L)
Gas Laws

I) Properties of Gases
a. Easily compressible
b. Factors that affect gas pressure
i. Amount of gas (moles)
ii. Volume
iii. Temperature (in Kelvins)

II) Boyles Law


a. 1 1 = 2 2

III) Charless Law



a. 1 = 2
1 2

IV) Gay-Lussacs Law



a. 1 = 2
1 2

V) Combined Gas Law



a. 1 1 = 2 2
1 2

VI) Daltons Law of Partial Pressures


a. = 1 + 2 + 3 +

VII) Ideal Gas Law


a. =
b. R = 8.314 (LkPa)/(Kmol)
Gas Laws Review

1. Using kinetic theory, explain why a tire is more likely to blow out during a trip in the
summer than during one in the winter.
2. Use kinetic theory to explain why on a cold autumn morning a campers air mattress may
appear to be somewhat flatter than when it was blown up the afternoon before. Assume
no leaks.
3. The volume of a gas at 155.0 kPa changes from 22.0 L to 10.0 L. What is the new
pressure if the temperature remains constant? (341 kPa)
4. Exactly 10.0 L of O2 at 250C is heated to 100.00C. What is the new volume if the pressure
is kept constant? (13L)
5. A gas at a pressure of 501 kPa and a temperature of 250C occupies a volume of 5.2 L.
When the gas is heated to 100.00C the volume increases to 7.00 L. What is the new
pressure? (470kPa)
6. A sample of O2 with an initial temperature of 50.00C and a volume of 105 L is cooled to
250C. The new pressure is 105.4 kPa and the new volume is 55.0 L. What was the initial
pressure of the sample? (60.kPa)
7. A sample of argon gas is at a pressure of 1.24 x 104 kPa and a temperature of 240C in a
rigid 25-L tank. How many moles of argon does this tank contain? (1.3 x 102 mol)
8. A 35.0-L tank contains 7.00 mol of compressed air. If the pressure inside the tank is
500.0 kPa, what is the temperature of the compressed gas? (301 K)
9. How many grams of helium does a 25.0-L balloon contain at 102.0 kPa and 240C? (4.1g)
10. Calculate the volume that 2.25 mol of O2(g) will occupy at STP. (50.4L)
11. A sample of water vapor occupies a volume of 10.5 L at 200.0C and 100.0 kPa. What
volume will the water vapor occupy when it is cooled to 270C if the pressure remains
constant? (6.7L)
12. What is the volume occupied by 0.355 mole of nitrogen gas at STP? (7.95L)
13. What is the volume of a container that holds 25.0 g of carbon dioxide gas at STP?
(12.7L)
Sample Review Test Questions
1. What is the next atomic orbital to be filled in the series 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p?

2. Which of the following electron configurations could represent a transition metal?


a) 1s22s22p63s2
b) 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d5
c) 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p4
d) 1s22s22p63s23p6

3. Write electron configurations for each of the following:


a) Ca
b) Ti
c) Ne

4. Classify each of the following as an element, compound, heterogeneous mixture or


solution.
a) ocean water b) copper
c) dry ice (solid CO2) d) hamburger
e) milk f) table salt
g) vegetable soup h) vitamin C (ascorbic acid)

5. Give the names or formulae for each of the following:


a) calcium hydroxide b) Cu(CH3COO)2(s)
c) dichlorine heptoxide d) MnO2(s)
e) ethanol f) CH4(g)
g) chromium (III) sulphate h) H3PO4(aq)
i) ammonium dichromate j) P4Br7

6. Write the balanced equations for each of the following:


a) Chlorine gas reacts with a solution of aqueous sodium iodide.
b) Calcium oxide is added to a solution of hydrochloric acid.
c) Butane (C4H10(g)) is burned in a lighter.
d) Mg( s ) O2( g )
e) Mercury (II) oxide

7. How many grams of sodium hydroxide are required to completely neutralize 25.0g of
sulphuric acid?

8. a) Convert: 1.2 1023 molecules of CO2 to mass


b) 0.354 mol of ammonia to mass
c) 50.0g of sucrose to moles

9. Which of the following elements can form diatomic molecules held together by triple
covalent bonds?
a) hydrogen b) carbon c) oxygen d) fluorine e) nitrogen
10. According to VSEPR theory, what is the shape of the methane molecule?

11. Draw VSEPR structures for the following:


a) HBr
b) NH3
c) SCl2

12. What is the concentration of a solution made by dissolving 10.0g CaCl2 to make 1.2 L of
solution?

13. Which of the following compounds is not polar?


a) HCl
b) CO2
c) H2O

14. Find the final volume when a 100.0 mL of a 5.00 mol/L solution of ammonium
phosphate is diluted to a larger volume by adding more water. The new concentration is
3.00 mol/L.

15. Predict the products and write the total and net ionic equation for the following:
KCl aq AgNO3 aq

16. The volume of a gas is 0.80L at 101.3kPa and 0 C. What volume will it occupy at
101.3kPa and 24 C?

17. A 1.09g sample of H2 is contained in a 2.00L container at 20.0 C. What is the pressure
in this container?
Sample Review Test Questions- Answers

1. 4s

2. B

3. a) 1s22s22p63s23p64s2 or [Ar]4s2
b) 1s22s22p63s23p63d24s2 or [Ar]3d24s2
c) 1s22s22p6 or [He]2s22p6

4. a) solution (possibly heterogeneous depending on sample)


b) element
c) compound
d) heterogeneous
e) heterogeneous
f) compound
g) heterogeneous
h) compound

5. a) Ca(OH)2 b) copper (II) acetate


c) Cl2O7 d) manganese (IV) oxide
e) C2H5OH f) methane
g) Cr2(SO4)3 h) phosphoric acid
i) (NH4)2Cr2O7 j) tetraphosphorus heptabromide

6. a) Cl2(g) + 2 NaI(aq) 2 NaCl(aq) + I2(g)


b) CaO(s) + 2 HCl(aq) CaCl2(aq) + H2O(l)
c) 2 C4H10(g) + 13 O2(g) 8 CO2(g) + 10 H2O(g)
d) 2 Mg( s ) O2( g ) 2 MgO (s)
e) 2 HgO(s) 2 Hg(l) + O2(g)

7. 20.39g

8. a) 8.8g
b) 6.03g
c) 0.146 mol

9. E

10. Tetrahedral

11. a) b) c)

12. 0.075M
13. B

14. 167mL

15. AgNO3 (aq) + KCl (aq) AgCl (s) + KNO3 (aq)


Ag+ (aq) + NO3- (aq) + K+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) AgCl (s) + K+ (aq) + NO3 - (aq)
Ag+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) AgCl (s)

16. 0.87L

17. 657 kPa