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The term communication has been derived from the Latin word Communis which means
Communication is the process of passing information and ideas from one person to another. It
is the exchange of written or verbal information.
The presence of minimum of two minds is essential for communication.
In fact, communication means to convey a message by one person to another so that another
person may understand, follow and implement the message.

Communication is thus a process by which we assign and convey meaning in an attempt to

create shared understanding.

This process requires a vast repertoire of skills in intrapersonal and interpersonal processing,
listening, observing, speaking, questioning, analyzing, and evaluating. It is through
communication that collaboration and cooperation occur.

For example, if the chairman of an enterprise delivers his speech in English in the annual
general meeting of the enterprise and there is no person who can understand English, it
cannot be called. Therefore, it is necessary for communication that the receivers of the
message must understand the message with the same meaning as the sender of the message
wants to communicate.
Communication has been defined as transfer of information from one person to another,
whether or not it elicits confidence of becomes exchange of interactions but the information
transferred must be understandable to the receiver,
Types of communication and tips to maintain effective communication at individual
Most people prefer to get information face-to-face, especially from their immediate
The Benefits (face-to-face)
Opens two-way communication
Allows for immediate response to questions, misinterpretations, feedback, etc.
Takes advantage of voice and body language
Challenges of face-to-face:
Use in-person communication when you have to share information that will affect the
Use for performance evaluations and feedback
Use when the information being communicated needs immediate attention
Be prepared to answer questions directly and immediately

Dos and Donts for face-to-face

Dos for face to face interaction
FACE TO FACE INTERACTION give people your undivided attention -- listen,
really listen, give full attention
FACE TO FACE give people honest, direct and comprehensive information
FACE TO FACE treat peoples ideas and concerns as critical and serious -
DONT tell people what, tell them why, how, and the larger picture
DONT make the conversation one-way. Invite responses -- discuss and debate
DONT answer the phone or take a call when someone is in your office
DONT wait too long to ask for (or to give) feedback, gather information
DONT hold back bad news. Treat people as intelligent adults, they want to hear the
The primary reason for meetings are to share or brainstorm information or to develop action
steps toward accomplishing a goal
Types of Meetings
Executive Briefing Staff Meeting
Informational Team-building
Meeting with a Sponsor (e.g. Site Informal
Making Meetings Work
1. Make an agenda and stick to it. Send it out before the meeting, if possible
2. Be clear about the reasons for and goals of the meeting
3. Have a facilitator -- either a professional or ask someone at the meeting to step into this
4. Watch the time -- do not overrun -- keep the agenda flowing
5. Add humor, allow for laughter, have fun it makes for a much more productive meeting
6. Allow for conflict but deal with it immediately
7. Maintain control of the meeting at all times. Dont get off track
8. Eliminate attendees behaviors that are disruptive
9. Allow for questions, be prepared to answer them
10. Wrap the meeting up with what was accomplished and action items
Causes for failure of meeting
Poor Preparation Strong personalities
Ignored agenda Lack of leadership
Poor time management Lack of humor and fun
Lack of participation No/poor closing
Written communication is the most common form of business communication. It is essential
for small business owners and managers to develop effective written communication skills
and to encourage the same in all employees.
Benefits of written communication
Creates a permanent record
Allows you to store information for future reference
Easily distributed
All recipients receive the same information
Necessary for legal and binding documentation
The Challenges of written communication
DOs and DONTs of written communication
Dos of written communication
realize it is not read as soon as it is received
make sure that there is enough time to prepare and send, and for the recipient to
receive and digest
assess writing skills, if poor -- get help
outline key points before producing a draft
always draft a written piece and then reduce all unnecessary language -- be brief
proof-read very carefully before any document is distributed
dont use this form of communication if writing is full of errors -- this reflects poorly
on the writer
Dont use if communication is time sensitive. if immediate feedback is necessary --
use email
in written communication most confusion & frustration are caused by failing to be
Make it clear, brief and concise, the problem with communication is the illusion that
it has been accomplished
Email is now the dominant method of communicating in business. It is quick, inexpensive,
flexible and convenient
Benefits of email
Can be sent and received any time
Very time effective, can be sent and received within seconds
Cost effective - no paper, no stamps, no costs
Allows for direct access to others
Messages can be saved and stored
Convenient for communicating with people in different places and different time
Easier to communicate with people who understand written English but dont speak it
Excellent mechanism for follow-up or action items after a meeting
Challenges of email
Not everyone has an email account or access to email at all times
Email etiquette -- no standards -- people make up own styles, can be very confusing
Email is not confidential -- emails can be obtained from central network even if
deleted from personal computers
Email is too often used to distribute inappropriate material, such as racial and gender
Email is too often used to avoid confrontation and can be easily misinterpreted
Email is often sent out without re-reading, proof-reading and other standards applied
to written communications. We press the send button too soon
Emails can be forwarded and sent to others without the authors approval or
Emails are often casual and informal -- this can create a potential hazard
Senders often assume that email is read immediately which can create problems
Dos and Donts of email
Dos of email:
always begin your email with a salutation and the persons name -- a date is a good
idea as well
always close the email with a closing sentence and your name
in the subject line write a brief and clear reference to your topic
consider the order of the recipients -- be sensitive to organizational hierarchy
limit the number of attachments
consider the purpose of the email -- why is it being written in the first place?
consider alternatives -- phone, voice mail, note, etc. can be more appropriate
Dont of email
Dont send the entire email when replying. only send the part that is essential
Dont be too blunt -- email is the coldest form of communications. watch the tone. be
friendly but polite
dont write an email longer than two screens -- it probably wont be read
Dont use caps for emphasis in the body of the email. it looks and sounds angry
Dont use an automatic signature with every email. use only in your initial email, not
when replying to a message
The biggest difference in the quality of your email messages is made by individual
Telephone and Voicemail
Most employees have access to a phone (and voicemail)
Using a telephone can be spontaneous and often friendly
Benefits of telephone/voicemail
Immediate access to audience
Communication is direct and timely
Takes advantage of tone of voice and language
Allows for immediate response to questions, feedback, etc.
Challenges of telephone/voicemail
Too spontaneous, might not be ready to have a conversation
Not prepared when a call is received but take it anyway
Cant reach party in time to relay information
Not everyone has voicemail
Tips for telephone & voicemail
Let your voicemail speak for you (dont have someone else record your message)
Record a daily greeting - let callers know when you are available
When leaving a voicemail message tell the person what you want and how they
should reply to you
Leave your name and phone number at the beginning of the voicemail message not at
the end
Before placing a call write down key points you want to cover
Give undivided attention when speaking on the phone
Try to return calls immediately, if someone is calling -- it must be important to them
Avoid calling when angry, be friendly and helpful
The colossal misunderstanding of our times is the assumption that insight will work with
people who are unmotivated to change. Communication does not depend on syntax, or
eloquence, or rhetoric, or articulation; but on the emotional context in which the message is
being heard. People can only hear you when they are moving toward you, and they are not
likely to when your words are pursuing them. Even the choicest words lose their power when
they are used to overpower. Attitudes are the real figures of speech.
When people talk, listen completely. Most people never listen
The problem with communication... is the illusion that is has been accomplished.
The right to be heard does not automatically include the right to be taken seriously.
"Communication works for those who work at it." John Powell
Fact about Communication
55% of what people perceive of others comes from body language and facial
38% comes from tone of voice
7% is based on the actual words people use
A persons competence and a persons effectiveness are based on their ability to
communicate effectively
Competence isnt the problem -How you Communicate is main problem
The biggest difference in the quality of your email messages is made by you
The only thing worse than a bad meeting is a great presentation that could have been
sent as a memo
The average employee receives about 190 communications a day by paper, voicemail,
email, phone, etc.