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1st Quarter SY 2017-2018

Experiment 1: Drying of Solids Using UOP8MkII Computer-Controlled Tray Dryer

Combalicer, Mark Eugene A.1

Student, School of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Mapa University, Manila, 1002, Philippine

0.61 m/s) interact. In the beginning of the drying

Results and Discussion process, the solid temperature constantly

The Armfield UOP8-MKII tray drier records the fluctuates upon contact with the drying air,
change in the total weight of the sample (weight which has an increasing relative humidity as it
of the dry solid and water) as a function of time. passes the solid and leaves the dryer.
The temperature of the air used as the drying Additionally, the inlet temperature of the air is
medium, and the ambient temperature of the air higher than the outlet temperature as evaporation
above the trays were recorded, with average of the unbound moisture proceeds. Hence, the
values 50oC and 20oC, respectively. Drying of outlet temperature (T2) is equal to the wet bulb
the sample proceeded up to 22 minutes, with a temperature of the inlet temperature(T1) of the
total of 270 data points. The initial weights of drying air, since according to Geankoplis (2003),
the dry and wet sand were based on the the wet bulb temperature is the steady-state
measurements recorded using the analytical temperature that is attained when a water is
balance. contacted to a continuous stream of gas under
adiabatic conditions. The ambient temperature
A plot of the calculated moisture content versus of the air remained constant to 20oC since the
time produced unnecessary peaks after amount of water present in the solid is small.
preliminary analysis of the data due to the
accuracy of the equipment used. Exponential Table 1: Free moisture content data.
Smoothing in Microsoft Excel is used in order to Time (s) Free Moisture (g H2O/g sand)
produce a smoother amd clearer curve and 0 0.260298
eliminate certain moisture content data points 20 0.258634
that will produce a curve with the expected 40 0.25697
trend. 60 0.251424
80 0.250314
The data gathered before drying was indicated in 100 0.24865
the table 3 and 4 in the Appendix. Based on the 120 0.247541
experimental data, as the drying process 140 0.241994
proceeds, the moisture content decreases along 160 0.24144
with the drying rate. Construction of a drying 180 0.239221
200 0.237557
curve for solid materials typically involve
220 0.238112
determination of the two drying zones, and how
260 0.236448
the drying media (wet sand) and the drying
280 0.237557
medium (hot air with an average inlet velocity of 300 0.237557

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1st Quarter SY 2017-2018

320 0.238112
340 0.237003
380 0.237003
420 0.237003
Table 2: Drying rate data
Using equation (1), the free moisture content
dX/dt ((g H2O/g Rate (g
was determined for a given time with interval of
Time (s) sand)/min) H2O/in2-h)
20 seconds.
40 -0.00637 0.045006
60 -0.00998 0.046971
80 -0.01254 0.04429
100 -0.01459 0.041219
120 -0.01622 0.038169
140 -0.01759 0.035489
160 -0.01882 0.033217
180 -0.01987 0.031172
200 -0.0208 0.029381
220 -0.02168 0.027834
260 -0.02245 0.024393
280 -0.02317 0.023371
300 -0.02385 0.022453
320 -0.02446 0.021592
340 -0.02504 0.0208
380 -0.02574 0.01913
420 -0.0261 0.017555

Figure 1: Free moisture content vs time graph

The graph of free moisture content vs time was

shown in figure 1. The logarithmic curve that
was fitted to the graph was indicated in equation
(2) which is:

y=0.009 ln ( x )+ 0.2859

From the table 1 and figure 1, it can be observed

that as the time of drying increases, the moisture
content decreases. It indicates that depending on
the mass of the material and area exposed, the
time needed to completely dry the sand will
vary. Thus, the smaller the surface area exposed
and the higher the mass of the sand, the longer
the drying time. The water is being removed
Figure 2: Drying rate vs free moisture content
from the sand as it undergoes drying process.

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1st Quarter SY 2017-2018

From the figure 1, the generated equation was drying is observed. The drying process for the
used to calculate the drying rate at a given time solid proceeded until equilibrium content is
shown in table 2. It can be observed from figure reached.
2 that as the free moisture content increases, the
drying rate also increases. The drying rate will It is recommended to do data smoothing to the
decrease at a certain point. It can be seen clearly raw experimental data obtained from computer
in the graph the falling rate period but the controlled tray dryer since it sometimes
constant rate period was not visible. The produces inaccurate measurements.
generated plot was different from the typical
drying rate curve, this indicates that there were
errors that affected the result of the drying. Appendix:

Sample computations:

Conclusion: 1) Dry sand mass:

The objectives of the experiment were met, = tray with sand mass - empty tray mass
wherein a drying curve and a rate of drying
curve were produced for the drying of cement- = 1529.9 g 965 g
grade sand using the computer-controlled tray
= 564.9 g
dryer. The drying curve emphasized the drying
zones, namely, the constant rate period and the 2) Free moisture content at 20 seconds:
two falling rate periods, whereas the rate of
drying curve demonstrated the behavior of the = Mass of water/ mass of sand eq (1)
drying rate with respect to the moisture amount
= (1676.9-1529.9)/564.9
being removed. For every solid being dried, the
constant rate period removes greater amount of = 0.26022 g H20 / g sand
moisture than the falling rate period.
Additionally, the process is also faster since the
amount of moisture being removed is
3) Free Moisture Content vs Time Logarithmic
continually being supplied from the interior of
curve equation:
the solid, hence, the rate of evaporation from the
surface is similar to the rate of evaporation as in y=0.009 ln ( x )+ 0.2859 eq(2)
any liquid surface. The solid is completely wet
in the beginning, until the critical moisture
=0.009ln (x)+0.285 9 eq (3)
content is reached where the surface of the solid dt
becomes dry and the falling rate period begins. At 40.2 seconds or 0.67 min,
Within this period, the drying rate falls rapidly,
and the process gradually continues with only a dX
=0.009ln (x)+0.285 9
small amount of water being removed. This is dt
also the point where the second mechanism of

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1st Quarter SY 2017-2018

g H2O 20 146.1
= g sand 40 145.2
0.2895 60 142.0
min 80 141.4
100 140.5
g H2 O
120 139.8
dX g sand 140 136.7
=0. 00637
dt min 160 136.4
180 135.1
4) Drying rate: 200 134.2
220 134.5
Ls dX 260 133.6
R= ( )( )
A dt 280 134.2
300 134.2
g H 2O 320 134.5

564.9 g sand
2 (
g sand
)( 60 min
1h )

g H2O
0 . 056178

Table of raw and experimental data: Geankoplis, C. (2003). Principles of Transport

Processes an Separation Processes, 4, 51-53
New Jersey, USA: Pearson Education.

Table 3: Data before drying Parikh, D.M. (2014). Solids Drying: Basics and
Applications. Retrieved 10/18/16 from the
Mass of empty tray (g) 965 Chemical Engineering database:
Mass of tray with sand (g) 1529.9
Mass of tray with sand + water (g) 1676.9
Area of Tray (in2) 120 basics-and-applications/
TDrying Air (C) 50
Richardson, J. F., Harker, J. H. and Backhurst,
Inlet Air Velocity (m/s) 1.45
Humidity (%) 23 J.R. (2002). Coulson and

Richardson's Chemical Engineering: Particle

Technology and Separation Processes, 2, 5.
USA: Butterworth-Heinemann. Retrieved
Table 4: Data after drying (mass of water, 20 10/17/16 from www.
seconds interval)
Time (secs) Mass of Water (g)
0 147.0

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