You are on page 1of 7

9/8/2017 IEB Wireframe


The female external sex organs are called the vulva; the clitoris plays an important role in sexual arousal
and orgasm.

The vagina leads to the internal sex organs, including the uterus, oviducts, and ovaries.

The male external sex organs are the penis and the scrotum; the glans of the penis is an important site of
sexual arousal.

Internal sexual structures include the testes, vasa deferentia, seminal vesicles, and prostate gland.

The fertilizing sperm determines the sex of the individual. Specialized genes on the Y chromosome
initiate the process of male sexual differentiation in the embryo.

Hormones initiate the changes that occur during puberty: The reproductive system matures, secondary sex
characteristics develop, and the bodies of males and females become more distinctive.

The menstrual cycle consists of four phases: menses, the estrogenic phase, ovulation, and the
progestational phase.

The ovaries gradually cease to function as women approach age 50 and enter menopause. The pattern of
male sexual responses changes with age, and testosterone production gradually decreases.

Sexual activity is based on stimulus and response. Stimulation may be physical or psychological.

Vasocongestion and muscle tension are the primary physiological mechanisms of sexual arousal.

The sexual response cycle has four stages: excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.

Physical and psychological problems can both interfere with sexual functioning.

A treatment for sexual dysfunction first addresses any underlying medical conditions and then looks at
psychosocial problems.

Some gender characteristics are determined biologically, and others are defined by society. Children learn
traits and behaviours traditionally deemed appropriate for one sex or the other.

The ability to respond sexually is present at birth. Sexual behaviours emerging in childhood include self-
exploration, perhaps leading to masturbation.

Although puberty defines biological adulthood, people take five to ten more years to reach social maturity.

Sexual fantasies and dreams and nocturnal emissions characterize adolescent sexuality.

A person's sexual orientation can be heterosexual, gay or lesbian, or bisexual. Possible influences include
genetics, hormonal factors, and early childhood experiences.

Human sexual behaviours include celibacy, erotic fantasy, masturbation, touching, cunnilingus, fellatio,
anal intercourse, and coitus.

To evaluate whether an atypical sexual behaviour is problematic, experts consider the issues of consent
between partners and whether the behaviour results in physical or psychological harm.

Page 483 1/7
9/8/2017 IEB Wireframe

Responsible sexuality includes open, honest communication; agreed-on sexual activities; sexual privacy;
the use of contraception; safer sex practices; sober sex; and the taking of responsibility for consequences.

Barrier methods of contraception physically prevent sperm from reaching the egg; hormonal methods are
designed to prevent ovulation, fertilization, or implantation; and surgical methods permanently block the
movement of sperm or eggs to the site of conception.

The choice of contraceptive method depends on effectiveness, convenience, cost, reversibility, side effects
and risk factors, and protection against STIs. Measures of effectiveness include failure rate and
continuation rate.

Hormonal methods of contraception include a combination of estrogen and progestins or progesterone

alone. Hormones may be delivered via pills, patch, vaginal ring, implants, or injections.

Hormonal methods of contraception prevent ovulation, inhibit the movement of sperm, and affect the
uterine lining so that implantation is prevented.

The most commonly used emergency contraceptives are two-dose regimens of oral contraceptives and
Plan B, which is now available without a prescription to women 18 and older.

How IUDs work is not clearly understood; they may cause biochemical changes in the uterus, affect
movement of sperm and eggs, or interfere with the implantation of the egg in the uterus.

Male condoms are simple to use, immediately reversible, and provide STI protection; female condoms are
available but are more difficult to use.

The diaphragm, Lea's Shield, cervical cap, and contraceptive sponge cover the cervix and block sperm
from entering; all are used with or contain spermicide.

Vaginal spermicides come in the form of foams, creams, jellies, suppositories, and film.

Abortion is legal in Canada, and the procedure can be either surgical or medical.

Psychological effects may be experienced by some women who undergo abortion; having a supportive
friend, partner, or family is important to help with these challenges. Professional counselling may also be



Bogle, K. 2008. Hooking Up: Sex, Dating and Relationships on Campus. New York: New York University
Press. An examination of the hookup culture on university and college campuses today.

Halbreich, U. 2003. New advances in premenstrual syndromes (PMS/PMDD). Psychoneuroendocrinology

[Special Issue] 28(3 Suppl.). An entire issue devoted to all aspects of PMS and PMDD, including symptoms,
treatments, and possible causes.

Kelly, G. F. 2011. Sexuality Today, 10th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. An accessible approach that highlights
cross-cultural examples, popular topics and issues, and case studies featuring university- and college-age

Marcus, E. 2005. Is It a Choice? Answers to 300 of the Most Frequently Asked Questions About Gay and
Lesbian People, 3rd ed. San Francisco: Harper. Candid and informative information on coming out, family roles,
and politics. 2/7
9/8/2017 IEB Wireframe

Meston, C., and D. Buss. 2009. Why Women Have Sex. New York: Times Books. A fascinating, readable, yet
scholarly book about all aspects of female sexuality, especially sexual desire.

Omoto, A. M., and H. S. Kurtzman, eds. 2006. Sexual Orientation and Mental Health: Examining Identity and
Development in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual People. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
Topics in mental health as well as sexual behaviour, work satisfaction, and the well-being of children of same-
sex couples.

Strong, B., et al. 2008. Human Sexuality: Diversity in Contemporary America, 6th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.
A comprehensive introduction to human sexuality.

Page 484

Taverner, W. J. 2009. Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in Human Sexuality, 11th ed. New
York: McGraw-Hill. Pro and con position statements on sexuality issues relating to biology, behaviour, and legal
and social issues.


The Internet addresses listed here were accurate at the time of publication.

Center for Young Women's Health. Includes information about many topics, such as menstruation, gynecological
exams, eating disorders, body piercing, and sexual health.

Children Now. Provides advice for parents about talking with children about difficult issues, including sex,
relationships, and STIs.

International Planned Parenthood Federation. Provides information from a global service provider and a
leading advocate of sexual and reproductive health and rights for all.

The Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction. Provides information from one of the oldest
and most respected institutions doing research on sexuality.

Public Health Agency of Canada. Includes information about different methods of birth control.

Sexuality and U. Provides credible and up-to-date information and education on sexual health.

Sex Information and Education Council of Canada. Fosters professional education and public knowledge about
sexuality and sexual health.

Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States. Provides information on many aspects of
sexuality including an extensive library and numerous publications. 3/7
9/8/2017 IEB Wireframe

World Association for Sexual Health. Works to promote sexual health for all.

See also the listings for Chapters 10, 12, and 13.


Advance provision of emergency contraception for pregnancy prevention (full review). 2007. Cochrane
Database of Systematic Reviews (2): CD005497.

Agot, K. E., et al. 2004. Risk of HIV-1 in rural Kenya: A comparison of circumcised and uncircumcised men.
Epidemiology 15(2): 157163.

Al-Sahab, B. et al. 2010. Age at menarche in Canada: results from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children
& Youth. BMC Public Health 10: 736,

Anawalt, B. D. 2007. Update on the development of male hormonal contraceptives. Current Opinion in
Investigational Drugs 8(4): 318323.

Ashok, P. W., et al. 2005. Patient preference in a randomized study comparing medical and surgical abortion at
1013 weeks gestation. Contraception 71(2): 143148.

Beckman, L. J., et al. 2006. Women's acceptance of the diaphragm: The role of relationship factors. Journal of
Sex Research 43(4): 297306.

Page 485

Beksinska, M. E., et al. 2007. Bone mineral density in adolescents using norethisterone enanthate, depot-
medroxyprogesterone acetate or combined oral contraceptives for contraception. Contraception 75(6): 438443.

Bogaert, A. F. 2006. Biological versus nonbiological older brothers and men's sexual orientation. Proceedings of
the National Academy of Sciences 103(28): 1077110774.

Brohet, R. M., et al. 2007. Oral contraceptives and breast cancer risk in the international BRCA 1/2 carrier
cohort study: A report from EMBRACE, GENEPSO, GEO-HEBON, and the IBCCS Collaborating Group.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 25(25): 38313836.

Burkman, R. T. 2007. Transdermal hormonal contraception: Benefits and risks. American Journal of Obstetrics
and Gynecology 197(2): 134.e1134.e6.

Canadian Institutes for Health Information. 2014. Number of Induced Abortions Reported in Canada in 2010, by
Province/Territory of Hospital or Clinic,
portal/pdf/internet/TA_10_ALLDATATABLES20120417_EN (retrieved July 22, 2015).

Chamley, L. W., and G. N. Clarke. 2007. Antisperm antibodies and conception. Seminars in Immunopathology
29(2): 169184.

Coffee, A. L., et al. 2007. Long-term assessment of symptomatology and satisfaction of an extended oral
contraceptive regimen. Contraception 75(6): 444449.

Consumer Reports On Health. 2009. Healthy Sex: His and Hers,
(retrieved July 22, 2015). 4/7
9/8/2017 IEB Wireframe

Curtis, K. M., et al. 2007. Neoplasia with use of intrauterine devices. Contraception 75(6 Suppl.): S60S69.

Dailar, Cynthia. 2006. Guttmacher Policy Review,

(retrieved July 22, 2015).

Elliot, S.L. 2011. Hot topics in erectile dysfunction. BC Medical Journal 53(9): 480486.

Fazio, L., and G. Brock. 2004. Erectile dysfunction: management update. Canadian Medical Association
Journal 170(9): 14291437.

Frye, C. A. 2006. An overview of oral contraceptives: Mechanism of action and clinical use. Neurology 66(6
Suppl.): S29S36.

Gades, N. M., et al. 2005. Association between smoking and erectile dysfunction: A population-based study.
American Journal of Epidemiology 161(4): 346351.

Gilliam, M., et al. 2007. Factors associated with willingness to use the contraceptive vaginal ring. Contraception
76(1): 3034.

Gordon, L., et al. 2007. Clinical inquiries. What hormonal contraception is most effective for obese women?
Journal of Family Practice 56(6): 471473.

Harris, M. A., J. C. Prior, and M. Koehoorn. 2008. Age at menarche in the Canadian population: Secular trends
and relationship to adulthood BMI. Journal of Adolescent Health 43(6): 548554.

Health Canada. 2006. It's Your Health: Seniors and AgingSexual Activity, (retrieved April 21,

Hershberger, S. L., and N. L. Segal. 2004. The cognitive, behavioral, and personality profiles of male
monozygotic triplet set discordant for sexual orientation. Archives of Sexual Behavior 33(5): 497514.

Hijazi, R. A., and G. R. Cunningham. 2004. Andropause: Is androgen replacement therapy indicated for the
aging male? Annual Review of Medicine 56: 117137.

Hutcheson, J. C. 2004. Male neonatal circumcision: Indications, controversies and complications. Urologic
Clinics of North America 31(3): 461471.

Isley, M. M., and A. Edelman. 2007. Contraceptive implants: An overview and update. Obstetrics and
Gynecology Clinics of North America 34(1): 7390.

Jick, S., et al. 2007. Further results on the risk of nonfatal venous thromboembolism in users of the contraceptive
transdermal patch compared to users of oral contraceptives containing norgestimate and 35 micrograms of
ethinyl estradiol. Contraception 76(1): 47.

Page 486

Kalmuss, D., and C. Tatum. 2007. Patterns of men's use of sexual and reproductive health services. Perspectives
on Sexual and Reproductive Health 39(2): 7481.

Laumann, E. O., et al. 2005. Sexual problems among women and men aged 4080 y: Prevalence and correlates
identified in the Global Study of Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors. International Journal of Impotence Research
17(1): 3957.

Lee, J. M., et al. 2007. Weight status in young girls and the onset of puberty. Pediatrics 119(3): 624630. 5/7
9/8/2017 IEB Wireframe

Lewis, B. H., et al. 2006. Medical implications of the male biological clock. Journal of the American Medical
Association 296(19): 23692371.

Lurie, G., et al. 2007. Association of estrogen and progestin potency of oral contraceptives with ovarian
carcinoma risk. Obstetrics and Gynecology 109(3): 597607.

Macaluso, M., et al. 2007. Efficacy of the male latex condom and of the female polyurethane condom as barriers
to semen during intercourse: A randomized clinical trial. American Journal of Epidemiology 166(1): 8896.

MacIsaac, L., and E. Espey. 2007. Intrauterine contraception: The pendulum swings back. Obstetrics and
Gynecology Clinics of North America 34(1): 91111.

Margolis, K. L., et al. 2007. A prospective study of oral contraceptive use and risk of myocardial infarction
among Swedish women. Fertility and Sterility 88(2): 310316.

Meirik, O., and T. M. Farley. 2007. Risk of cancer and the oral contraceptive pill. British Medical Journal
335(7621): 621622.

Moreau, C., et al. 2007. Oral contraceptive tolerance: Does the type of pill matter? Obstetrics and Gynecology
109(6): 12771285.

National Institutes of Health. 2007. Decrease in Breast Cancer Rates Related to Reduction in Use of Hormone
Replacement Therapy, (retrieved July 21, 2015).

Nettleman, M. D., et al. 2007. Reasons for unprotected intercourse: Analysis of the PRAMS survey.
Contraception 75(5): 361366.

Padian, N. S., et al. 2007. Diaphragm and lubricant gel for prevention of HIV acquisition in southern African
women: A randomized controlled trial. Lancet 370(9583): 251261.

Prine, L. 2007. Emergency contraception, myths and facts. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North
American 34(1): 127136.

Rates of circumcision slashed in past 30 years. 2006. The Gazette. March 23: A13, (retrieved July 21, 2015).

Rossouw, J. E., et al. 2007. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of cardiovascular disease by age and
years since menopause. Journal of the American Medical Association 297(13): 14651477.

Roumen, F. J. 2007. The contraceptive vaginal ring compared with the combined oral contraceptive pill: A
comprehensive review of randomized controlled trials. Contraception 75(6): 420429.

Sanderson, C. A., and D. J. Yopyk. 2007. Improving condom use intentions and behavior by changing perceived
partner norms: An evaluation of condom promotion videos for college students. Health Psychology 26(4): 481

Shtarkshall, R. A., et al. 2007. Sex education and sexual socialization: Roles for educators and parents.
Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 39(2): 116119.Swica, Y. 2007. The transdermal patch and the
vaginal ring: Two novel methods of combined hormonal contraception. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of
North America 34(1): 3142.

Sulak, P. J., et al. 2006. Impact of an adolescent sex education program that was implemented by an academic
medical center. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 195(1): 7884.

Unicef Statistics and Monitoring Section. 2014. Female genital mutilation/cutting: a statistical overview and
exploration of the dynamics of change, 6/7
9/8/2017 IEB Wireframe
FGMC_Lo_res_Final_26.pdf (retrieved July 21, 2015).

Page 487

Wang, L., et al. 2004. Stress and dysmenorrhoea: A population based prospective study. Occupational and
Environmental Medicine 61(12): 10211026.

WebMD. 2007. Acne vulgaris, (retrieved July 21, 2015).

Westhoff, C., et al. 2007. Initiation of oral contraceptives using a quick start compared with a conventional start:
A randomized controlled trial. Obstetrics and Gynecology 109(6): 12701276.

Witte, S. S., et al. 2006. Promoting female condom use to heterosexual couples: Findings from a randomized
clinical trial. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 38(3): 148154.

World Health Organization. 2007. WHO and UNAIDS Announce Recommendations from Expert Consultation on
Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention, (retrieved
July 22, 2015).

Zurawin, R. K., and L. Ayensu-Coker. 2007. Innovations in contraception: A review. Clinical Obstetrics and
Gynecology 50(2): 425439. 7/7