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Chapter 2

Welding Safety

2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning


Objectives
After completing this chapter, you will
be able to:
Explain how to work safely
Identify each degree of burn and describe
how to provide first aid
List the types of protective clothing a
welder should wear
Explain the importance of proper
ventilation and respiratory protection

2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning


Objectives (contd.)
Describe how to safely lift, climb, and
handle materials
Demonstrate electrical safety

2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning


Introduction
Welding fabrication
Very large and diverse industry
Light welding fabrication
Has a number of potential safety hazards
Safety is your own responsibility
Accident consequences
Injury
Local, state, or national investigations

2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning


Burns
Classifications
First-degree burns
Skin surface is reddish, tender, and painful
Do not involve broken skin
Immediate treatment: cold water or compress
Second-degree burns
Skin is severely damaged
Result in blisters and possibly breaks
Immediate treatment: cold water or compress

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FIGURE 2-1 First-degree burnonly the FIGURE 2-2 Second-degree burnthe
skin surface (epidermis) is affected. epidermal layer is damaged, forming
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blisters or shallow breaks.
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Burns (contd.)
Third-degree burns
Skin surface appears white or charred
Immediate treatment: cold cloth or cool water
on burns of the face, hands, or feet and cover
Burns caused by light
Types of light: ultraviolet, infrared, and visible
Ultraviolet light waves: most dangerous

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FIGURE 2-3 Third-degree burnthe
epidermis, dermis, and the subcutaneous FIGURE 2-4 Portable welding
layers of tissue are destroyed. curtains.
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Eye and Ear Protection
Face and eye protection
Safety glasses with side shields or goggles
Face shield
Flash glasses
Welding helmets
Ear protection
Earmuffs
Earplugs

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Respiratory Protection
Equipment should be certified by NIOSH
Air-purifying respirators
Atmosphere-supplying respirators
Demand respirators
Positive pressure respirators
Powered air-purifying respirators
Self-contained breathing apparatuses
Supplied-air respirators
Filtering facepiece
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FIGURE 2-14 Typical respirator for contaminated environments.
The filters can be selected for specific types of contaminant.
MSA

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Ventilation
Actual welding area
Should be outside or well-ventilated
Natural ventilation is the best
Forced ventilation may be required
Forced ventilation
Required in small shops or shops with a
large number of welders
May be general or localized
Using fixed or flexible exhaust pickups

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Material Specification Data
Sheet (MSDS)
Give detailed information about hazards
resulting from product use
Provided to anyone using the products or
working in the area where they are in use
Often posted on a bulletin board
Right-to-know laws
Require specific training of employees who
handle or work in areas with hazardous
materials
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Waste Material Disposal
Welding shops generate waste
materials
Mostly scrap metal
All scrap metal can be easily recycled
Good for the environment
Source of revenue
Hazardous waste disposal
Consult local, state, and federal regulations

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Ladder Safety
Falls: major cause of injury and death
Improper ladder use is often a factor
Types of ladders
Stepladders, straight ladders, and
extension-type ladders
Ladder inspection
Inspect for wear and damage with each
use

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Ladder Safety (contd.)
Rules for ladder use
Follow all recommended practices
Do not exceed maximum weight limit
Surface should be level and solid
Never use in a wet or muddy area
Tie ladder securely in place
Climb and descend cautiously
Dont carry tools
Never use a ladder around electrical wires
Never use a ladder too short for the job
Wear well-fitted shoes
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Electrical Safety
Electric shock
Can cause injuries and even death
Proper precautions must be taken
Electrical safety systems
Standard portable tool safety systems
External grounding or double insulation

FIGURE 2-21
Typical portable
power tool
nameplate.
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Voltage Warnings
Voltage supplied
Should be same as specified on tool
nameplate
Extension cords
Conductors must be large enough to prevent
an excessive drop in voltage
Safety rules for portable electric tools
Observe safety precautions

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General Work Clothing
Should minimize burn chances
Wool is the best choice
All-cotton is a good second choice
Guidelines
Shirts: long-sleeved, collared, long enough
to tuck in, and flapped pockets
Pants: cover top of boots and without cuffs
Boots: high tops and steel toes
Caps: thick
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Special Protective Clothing
Includes:
Hand protection: all-leather, gauntlet-type
gloves
Body protection: full leather jackets and
capes
Waist and lap protection: bib or full aprons
Arm protection: full- or half-sleeves
Leg and foot protection: leather pants or
leather aprons with leggings

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Handling and Storing Cylinders
Cylinders with flammable materials:
stored separately
Securing gas cylinders
Chain or other device must be used
Storage areas
Considerations: location and temperature
Cylinders with valve protection caps
Cap is in place unless the cylinder is in use

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Handling and Storing Cylinders
(contd.)
General precautions

FIGURE 2-31 Move a leaking fuel gas cylinder out of the building or any work area.
The pressure should slowly be released after a warning of the danger is posted.
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Fire Protection
Fire: constant danger to the welder
Fire watch
Provided by anyone who knows how to
sound the alarm and use a fire extinguisher
Fire extinguishers
Type A, B, C, and D
Should be located near materials
Work by breaking the fire triangle of heat,
fuel, and oxygen
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Equipment Maintenance
Routine schedule of maintenance
Aids in detecting potential problems
Examples: leaking coolant, loose wires, poor
grounds, frayed insulation, or split hoses
Hoses
Must be used only for the gas or liquid for
which they were designed

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Work Area
Should be kept picked up and swept
clean

FIGURE 2-42 An easy-to-build electrode caddy


can be used to hold both electrodes and stubs.
Larry Jeffus

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Hand Tools
Uses
Assembly and disassembly of parts
Routine equipment maintenance
Types
Adjustable wrench, hammer, chisels, etc.
Hand tool safety
Treat properly and do not abuse
Hammer safety
Follow precautions
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Power Tools
Must be properly grounded
Prevents accidental electrical shock
Types
Grinders and grinding stones
Drills

FIGURE 2-48 Always check to be sure


that the grinding stone and the grinder
are compatible before installing a stone.
Larry Jeffus

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Metal Cutting Machines
Many types
Examples:
shears, punches,
cut-off machines,
and band saws
Shears and
punches
Frequently used
in fabrication of FIGURE 2-52 Power shear.
metal for welding Cengage Learning 2012

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Material Handling
Proper lifting, moving, and handling of
large, heavy-welded assemblies
Important to worker and weldment safety
Follow specific precautions for:
Lifting
Hoists or cranes
Hauling

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Summary
Safety in welding fabrication
Utmost importance
When done correctly, welding and
fabrication are safe
Read and follow all manufacturer literature
Perform maintenance and servicing
Perform safety checks
Keep equipment in good working order

2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning