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The Science of Tajweed
• Tajweed is one of the most prominent sciences of Qur’an. • It is the science governed by:
– deep rooted static rules – derived from the oral recitation of the Qur’an by the Prophet Muhammad after hearing the revelation from the angle Gabriel.
Importance of Tajweed
• Preserves the meaning of the revealed words of Allah in sound and expression • Protects it from any alteration • Retains the unique method of recitation.
Description of Tajweed
• It is a saying or an act of reciting Qur'an in accordance with the established rules of Nutq, pronunciation and intonations, such as tafkheem (valorization), Ghunnah (chanting), and Iqlaab (transposition). • It deals with:
– Accent – Phonetics – Rhythm
Principles in the Science of Tajweed :
• 1. Its definition.
– Linguistic definition: Betterment; Improvement. – Applied definition: Articulating every letter from its articulation point and giving the letter its rights and dues of characteristics. – Rights of the letters:
• its required characteristics that never leave it
• 2. Its founder:
– Practical point of view: The messenger of Allah – Scientific point of view: scholars of Qur’anic sciences, such as Abu ‘Ubaid Al Q - asim bin Sallaam
• 3. Its precept.
– Knowledge: fardh kifayaah – Application: fardh ‘ain
– The dues of the letters:
• its presented characteristics that are present in it some of the time, and not present at other times. i.e. the madd, idgham 5
• Understanding the meaning. i. saying ‘Bismillahi ar-Rahmanirahim. and Allah loves the recitation with such a voice. saying ‘A’outho billahi minash-shaitanirrajeem.’ The recitation from the beginning of sura(s) should comments with basmallah.e. This means interacting and reacting to every verse according to what is proper for it. i. surrender. Preserve the recitation of the Qur’an from mistakes • Guarantee the reader of the Qur’an integrity of pronunciation • Tajweed is an important element in reciting the Quran with a nice and touchy way 7 • The knowledge of Tajweed is contingent on four matters: – Knowledge of the articulation points of the letters – Knowledge of the characteristics of the letters – Knowledge of what rules change in the letters due to the order of letters – Exercising the tongue and a lot of repetition 8 Manners for Reading the Qur’an • Understanding of the origin of the words This is an indication to the greatness of the words being read. Glorified is He. 11 • Al Jali (The Obviuos) – Letters – Words – Taskheel • • Al Khafi (The Hidden) – Normal people would know – Specialist would know 12 . and experience humility.Why Tajweed? • • • • No rules revealed? The mixture between Arabs and non Arabs.’ • 9 10 Types of Mistakes (Lahn) • The ornament of the Qur’anic recitation is a good melodic. The Qur’an should be recited with a voice which helps the person to comprehend. It should be recited in Arabic style by strictly observing the rules of the science of Tajweed and by avoiding any playing around with the duration of syllables. • Individualization This means that the reader feels that every message in the Qur’an is meant especially for him personally. Preserving the Arabic Tongue!.e. The Ethics of Reciting and Listening To the Qur’an • The recitation should always start with ta’awwudh. and the bounty of Allah. to His creation when He addressed His creation with these words.
Kha. Za. Wa. Saa. Tha. Da. 17 18 . Na Dha . Ha. Haa. Daa. Dhaa. Qa. Ma. Ja. ‘A. La. Sha. Ra. Ba. Ya Fa. Taa. Gha.Taskheel • Fatha • Tanween Fath • Tanween Dham • Kasra • Tanween Kasr • Dhamma Tanween 13 14 Other Important Tashkeel • Shadda • Mad Alif – Examples: Mad • Sokon • Mad Waw – Examples: • Mad Yaa: – Examples: 15 16 The Sun and the Moon Letters Applied for letters after “AL” • Sun Letters: – Ta. Ka. Sa. The Sun and the Moon Letters Applied for letters after “AL” • Moon Letters – A.
Idgham )MERGING OF THE LETTER( IQLAB (ALTERATION OF THE LETTER) • Change to Mem • Then conceal Mem with Baa • With Some Ghunna • Perfect Idgham • Imperfect Idgham 23 24 . 19 20 The Noun Sakina (Consonantal ‘Na’) and Tanween (Nunnation) • Four Rules –1 –2 –3 –4 Ithhar Idgham Ikhfa Iqlab 1.’ Ghunna (Chanting) • • • • Nasal Voice of 2 beats Comes from the nasal.The‘ La ’Of the Name Allah – The ‘la’ mushaddadah (stressed) of the name Allah. A’. The same rule applies to the ‘la’ of ‘Allahumma.Ithhar (MANIFESTATION OF THE LETTER) • The pronunciation of a consonantal ‘na’ or tanween should be manifested if it is followed by one of these six letters: A. if preceded by any letter carrying a short vowel – either fatha or dhammah – should be recited with a broad sound. Kha. – The letter‘ la ’of the name Allah should be recited with a thin sound when preceded by any letter carrying the short vowel kasrah. 21 22 2. Haa. Ha. Also used whenever we have Mem or Non with Shaddah. Used in many situations covered later. Gha.
There are two types of Qalqalah. (Madd) Prolongation • Madd literally means vowel prolonging.IKHFA’A (CONCEALING OF THE LETTER SOUND) • It literally means concealment • It is a state between full Iz’har and full merging • Here the actual sound consonantal ‘na’ or tanween is concealed.’Ba‘ . Ya and Wa. 25 The Ma Sakina (Consonantal ‘Ma’) • 1 Ikhfa Al Shafawi: – Whenever a consonantal ‘ma’ is followed by another word beginning with ‘ba’ • 2 Idgham Shafawi: • ma’ should be merged with ghunnah with the second ‘ma’. when: – The Alif is Saakinah and the preceding constant carries fat’hah. – Special attention should be given to the ‘Fa’ and ‘Wa’ • Whenever on of the letters ‘Qa‘ .Ithhar Shafawi – it should be clearly pronounced. – The Wa is Saakinah and the preceding constant carried dhammah. 26 Qalqalah (Shaking) • 3. letter of Qalqalah is in the middle of the word. which are Alif. – Minor Qalqalah – Major Qalqalah 27 28 • Minor Qalqalah (Shortened Qalqalah). . the letter is shaken or echoed . 29 30 • Major Qalqalah (Lengthy Qalqalah).’Ja’ and‘ Da’ carries the sign of sukoun (silence). Technically it means an extension to the duration of Harf al-Madd (letter of prolongation). but their lowered nasal sound with a maximum duration of two harakah (beats) is added to the pronunciation of the next letter of Ikhfa’a • All letters except …. when the letter of Qalqalah is at the end of the word. – The Ya is Saakinah and the preceding constant carried kasrah.’Taa‘ ..
• Number of beats: – 2 – 4 – 6 33 34 Prolongation due To Shaddah • When there is a shaddah sign over the letter following Madd. – End of verse where • If u are stopping on a word that has a long vowel at the end of it. • 6 Beats Alphabetical Madd • 29 Sura begin with one to five letters out of fourteen letters of the Arabic Alphabet (twenty-eight letters in total).Madd Aslee (Original Prolongation) • When u have a long vowel letter not FOLLOWED by: – Hamza – Letter with Sokon – Letter with Shaddah Madd before Hamzah • Detached Prolongation (Madd Monfasel) – The long vowel letter followed by a Hamza in the SECOND word – It requires two words – 4-5 Beats • It is only 2 beats • Normal Prolongation 31 32 Madd before Hamzah • Attached Prolongation (Madd Mottasel) – The long vowel letter followed by a Hamza in the SAME word – It requires ONLY ONE word – 4-5 Beats Prolongation due to Sokon • When the long vowel letter is followed by a Sokon. • Those letters should be pronounced separately and in succession • 3 Categories 35 36 .
Ra. Each letter is pronounced as a two etter word ends in . Sa. Haa.First Category • The letter Alif. and Taa. 39 .l a long vowel Alif • 2 Beats 37 38 Third Category • The letters Ma. and Noon. Each letter is pronounced as two consonants with a vowel in between. This letter is pronounced as in the normal way (Alif) without Madd. Ka. Qa. Ya. ‘A. La. Saa. Second Category • The letters Ha.