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CIVL1012 Environmental Engineering and1 Fluid Mechanics

DATE: May 5, 2010 (Wednesday) JIME: 9:30am- !2:30pm ( 3 hours)

Sections A and B carry 50 marks each. Use a separate answer book for each section.

Use ofElectronic Calculators:

Only approved calculators as announced by the Examinations Secretary can be used in this
examination. It is candidates' responsibility to ensue that their calculator operates
satisfactorily, and candidates must record the name and type of the calculator used on the
front page of the examination script.

Section A (Environmental Engineering)

Answer ANY (and NO more than) 25 out ofth~ following 30 questions.
Each question carries two marks.

1. Living organisms in nature store food in ~ells in the form of polysaccharides, of which
starch is the most abundant in plants and klycogen in animals. Polysaccharides have the
chemical formula of (C6Hw0s)n, where n !is the number of repeated units. Based on this
chemical formula, what is the closest estimate of theoretical oxygen demand for each
gram of starch: (a) 1.0 g, (b) 1.5 g, (c) 2.0 g, or (d) 2.5 g.

2. A 1000-MW coal-fired power plant in Hong Kong has an efficiency of33.3% with 15% of
the waste heat being released to the atmosphere as stack heat and the other 85% taken away
in the cooling water. If the cooling water ~s allowed a rise in temperature by 8.0C, what
flow rate would be required, in m 3/s: (a) 40. 8, (b) 50.8, (c) 60.8, or (d) 80.8.

3. The same 1000-MW coal-fired power plant, without air pollution control, would generate
216 t/d of sulphur emissions. Assuming 8i5% efficiency of the sulphur emission control
system, how many cubic kilometres of clecfu air volume will be required daily for dilution
in order to meet the air quality objective of 80 sulphur dioxide: (a) 8.1, (b) 81, (c)
810, or (d) 8100. (Atomic weight: S 32, 0 1:6).

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4. A typical coal burned in power plant has an energy content of about 24 kJ/g and an
average carbon content of about 62%. The emission standards limit sulfur emission to
260g of so2 per million kJ of heat input to the plant (130g of s per10 6kJ), and restrict
particulate emissions to 13 g/106kJ. Suppose the average plant burns fuel with 2% Sand
10% ash. About 70% of the ash is released to the air and 30% settles as bottom ash.
Assuming an energy conversion efficiency of 33.3%, how efficient must the sulfur
emission control system be to meet the S emission limitations: (a) 90%, (b) 85%, (c)
80% or (d) 75%?
5. For the above question, how efficient must the particulate control system be to meet the
particulate emission limite (a) 99.5%, (b) 99%, (c) 95% or (d) 90%?
6. Suppose the exhaust gas from an automobile contains 1.0 percent by volume of carbon
monoxide (CO). The concentration of CO at 25C, 1 atm is: (a) 11,900 mg!L, (b) 14,400
mg!L, (c) 11,400 mg!L, or (d) 8,000 mg!L.
7. The pH of an industrial wastewater is 9. The hydroxide ion concentration is: (a) 5 x 1o-s
mol/L, (b) 1 x 1o-9 mol/L, (c) 4 x 1o-8 mol/L, (d) 1 x 1o-s mol/L.
8. Solubility of oxygen in water depends on a number of environmental parameters,
including altitude, salinity and temperature. To you best estimate, what is the saturated
dissolved oxygen level in seawater at 5C: (a) 5 mg/L, (b) 10 mg/L, (c) 15 mg!L, or (d)
9. Calcium (Ca2l, magnesium (Mg2+) and aluminum (Ael are among the most common
cations found in groundwater. Which of the following waters has the highest degree of
hardness as expressed by CaC03 equivalent? Water (a) containing 100 mg/1 of Ca2+, or
(b) containing 50 mg/1 ofCa2+ and 50 mg/1 ofMg2+, or (c) containing 35 mg/1 ofCa2+, 35
mg/1 ofMg2+ and 35 mg/1 of Al3+, or (d) containing 50 mg/1 ofMg2+ and 50 mg/1 of Al3+.
(Atomic weights are: Ca 40; Mg 24.3; and Al27.)
10. Cryptosporidium was on the headline of newspapers all over the world in 1998, two
years before the 2000 Summer Olympic Games. It was found in Sydney's water supply
during July-September of that year, causing a serious concern worldwide.
Cryptosporidium is a: (a) virus, (b) bacterium, (c) protozoan, or (d) helminth.
11. Eutrophication is a nutrient enrichment process of natural waters. Which one of the
following statements is false: Eutrophication may result in (a) increased growth of algae,
(b) increased water turbidity, (c) increased fish production, or (d) decreased dissolved
oxygen during night time on the water surface
12. In marine waters, organic nitrogen (Org-N) from sewage disposal would normally go
through the transformation of (a) Org-N ~ Ammonia-N ~Nitrite~ Nitrate, (b) Org-N
~ Ammonia-N ~Nitrite~ N 2, (c) Org-N ~Nitrite~ Ammonia-N ~Nitrate, or (d)
Org-N ~ Ammonia-N ~ N2 ~Nitrate.
13. Assuming that algae has a common chemical composition as Cl06H2630uoNr6P, suppose
a natural water sample containing 0.10 mg/L of N and 0.04 mg/L of P and adequate
amounts of the other nutrients, which of the following statement is true: The limiting
nutrient in this water is: (a) N, (b) P, (c) is unsure because the pH is unknown, or (d) is
unsure because the temperature is unknown.

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14. For a wastewater having a BOD 5 of 1801 mg/L, a total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) of 30
mg/L, and a reaction rate k equal to 0.22Vday, what of the following statement is false:
This wastewater has (a) an ultimate carbonaceous oxygen demand of 270 mg!L, (b) an
ultimate nitrogenous oxygen demand of iJ.37 mg/L, (c) a remaining BOD of 227 mg/L
after 5 days, or (d) a COD of258 mg/L. I
15. For a wastewater having a BOD 5 of200 mg/L and an ultimate BOD of 300 mg/L, what is
its first order reaction rate constant (in base of natural log): (a) 0.14 dai 1, (b) 0.17 dai 1,
1 1
(c) 0.20 dai , or (d) 0.22 dai . j
16. Which of the following statement is false? Disinfection by-products are (a) resulting
from chlorination, (b) carcinogenic, (c) d~e to the presence of residual organic matter in
water, or (d) not removable by reverse osmosis.
17. Coagulation is a process in which chemi~als
are added to promote the size increase of
colloidal particles/floes in water. Which one of the following has little effect on
coagulation: (a) dissolved oxygen, (b) pH,'(c) multi-valent salts, or (d) polyelectrolytes.
18. The purpose of water treatment systems is to bring raw water up to drinking water quality.
Which one of the following statements is jfalse: A typical water treatment plant in Hong
Kong may include the following treatment processes: (a) flocculation, (b) sedimentation,
(c) filtration, or (d) desalination.
19. A reverse osmosis plant treats daily 5000 tbns offeedwater containing 1500 mg/L of salt,
and yields 3000 tons of product wate~ with 75 mg/L of salt. What is the salt
concentration in the rejected brine: (a) 3600 mg/L, (b) 2600 mg/L, (c) 1600 mg/L or (d)
600 mg/L?
20. Rotating biological contactor (RBC) is aj(a) physical treatment process, (b) biological
treatment process, (c) chemical treatment process,
or (d) sludge disposal process.
21. Chlorination is the most cost-effectiv~ and most commonly used treatment for
disinfection. Which of the following statement is false: (a) chlorine dissolves in water
forming hypochlorous acid (HOCl), whidh is very effective against bacteria, but less
effective against protozoan cysts and I virus, (b) HO Cl may dissociate to form
hypochlorite (OCr) independent of pH, (c) HOCl may react with residual N is the water
forming less effective chloramines, or :(d) chlorination may produce a variety of
byproducts which are harmful to human health.

22. About half of the domestic wastewater in ~ong Kong is collected and centrally processed
at the Stonecutters Island using the so-called enhanced primary treatment method. Which
of the following statement is false: The wastewater at Stonecutters Island is treated (a) by
using ferric chloride as coagulant to enhaAce the sedimentation of suspended solids, (b)
without using aeration to promote bio~egradation, (c) after pH and temperature
adjustments, (d) only to remove suspended solids.
23. The Air Pollution Index, also known as Pollution Standards Index, is reported each day
by the media in Hong Kong. Which of the I
following parameters is irrelevant to the
calculation of Air Pollution Index: (a) carbon monoxide, (b) ozone, (c) carbon dioxide,
or (d) sulfur dioxide?
24. The most abundant gases/vapors in the atmosphere are nitrogen, oxygen and water.
Which one of the following gases is so mm!ute that it is not even listed in the top ten: (a)
argon, (b) neon, (c) methane, or (d) carbon bonoxide.

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25. A convective kerosene heater is tested in a well-mixed 27m3 chamber having an air
exchange rate of 0.39 air exchanges per hour. After one hour of operation, the NO
concentration reached 4.7 ppm. Treating NO as a conservative pollutant, what is the NO
source strength of the heater (in mg/hr): (a) 210 mg-NO!hr, (b) 200 mg-NO/hr, (c) 190
mg-NO/hr or (d) 180 mg-NO/hr.
26. Methane is a greenhouse gas which trap heat emitted from the earth. Which of the
following statement is false: (a) each methane molecule traps about the same amount of
IR radiation from the earth surface as each carbon dioxide molecule, (b) livestock
farming contributes a substantial amount of anthropogenic methane, (c) rice production
may contributes a substantial amount of anthropogenic methane, or (d) the three landfill
sites in Hong Kong have designs to prevent methane being emitted to the atmosphere.
27. Electrostatic precipitators use very high negative voltage normally in the range of (a)
1000-5,000 V, (b) 10,000-50,000 V, (c) 100,000-500,000 V or (d) higher than 500,000
28. NOx is a crucial air pollutant resulting mainly from the combustion of fossil fuel. Which
of the following statements about NOx is false? The formation ofNOx may be affected
by (a) theN content in fossil fuel, (b) the combustion temperature, (c) the air-fuel ratio,
or (d) the size of the combustion chamber.
29. Sulfur dioxide is an air pollutant produced mostly by the power plants. Which of the
following statement regarding sulfur dioxide is false: (a) a major culprit of acid rain, (b)
can be effectively removed by electrostatic precipitator, (c) can be effectively removed
by scrubbing, (d) is often converted to gypsum (CaS04) by treating with Ca(OH)2 on site.
30. Hong Kong has three landfill sites for the disposal of municipal solid wastes. Which of
the following statement is incorrect: In order to protect the surrounding environment, (a)
alllandfill sites are lined with thick plastic sheets at the bottom to protect leachate
contamination of groundwater, (b) some biogas collected from some sites are sold to
Towngas for profit, (c) some metals are recovered on site, (d) disposed municipal wastes
are covered by soil daily.

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Section B (Fluid Mechanics)

Answer TWO questions out of THREE.

Each question carries 25 marks.

Density of air = 1.2 kg/m3

Density of water = 1000 kg/m3
Kinematic viscosity of water= 10"6 m2/s
Acceleration due to gravity, g = 9.81 m/s 2

1. Give short/numerical answers to the followings:

(a) Name one instrument for the measur~ment
of fluctuating flow velocity inside a
wind tunnel and one instrument for the measurement of discharge of water in an
open channel. (5 marks)
(b) Air flows through a circular duct of diameter 0.4 m. A venture meter with throat
diameter at 0.2 m is used to measure itk flow rate and the pressure drop is measured
by a U-tube manometer using wat~r as the manometer fluid. Calculate the
discharge of air (in m3/s) when the manometer reads 30 mm of water. Assume a
discharge coefficient at unity. (5 marks)
(c) The flow induced by a typhoon can be in
odeled as a free vortex with a core or "eye"
of a forced vortex flow. If the eye o~ the typhoon has a radius of 0.8 km and the
maximum wind speed at the edge oftl:Ie eye is 120 m/s, what is the wind speed at 4
km from the centre of the typhoon. ! ( 5 marks)

(d) A 1:25 model is used to study the flow over a spillway. If the discharge over the
model spillway is measured to be 0.006 m3/s, what will be the prototype discharge?
. I . . . (5 marks)
(e) Water 1s pumped through a 15-km long honzontal p1pe at a dtscharge of0.12 m3/s.
The diameter of the pipe is 0.6 m a.Jdd the friction factor is 0.022. What is the
required pumping power? (5 marks)

2. (a) It is required to build a bridge pier of Ldth 2.5 m in a river with water flowing at
0.5 m/s. Describe how you can design the appropriate streamlined shape of the pier
nose. Give numerical values of the elements in your design. (10 marks)

(b) A liquid of density p and viscosity J.l flhws along a pipe of diameter D. An orifice
plate, with an orifice of diameter d, is ihserted to measure the discharge (volumetric
rate flow) ofthe liquid. The dischargeiQ is related to the pressure drop across the
orifice, 11p. This flow problem can be reduced into a non-dimensional form with
three Pi groups. One Pi group should involve 11p and one other Pi group should
involve J.l.

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(i) What are the three Pi groups? (7 marks)
(ii) What is the physical meaning ofthe Pi group involving f.l? (4 marks)
(ii)) If viscous effects are not important and using the same orifice plate, how will
b..p change when the discharge is doubled? (4 marks)

3. (a) Water flows under gravity from Reservoir A to Reservoir B through a pipe of
length 800 m. The diameter of the pipe is 0.3 m and the friction factor is 0.026.
The water level in Reservoir A is always higher than that in Reservoir B by 20 m.
Calculate the discharge through the pipe. Neglect all minor losses.
(6 marks)

(b) After some years, the pipe in (a) ages and the friction factor increases to 0.035.
Calculate the percentage drop in discharge. (4 marks)

(c) In an attempt to restore the discharge in (b) to the original value in (a), a second pipe,
400 m long and of the same 0.3 m diameter, is joined at the middle of the original
pipe and run parallel to it from there to Reservoir B. Calculate the total discharge
from Reservoir A to Reservoir B through the combined pipe system. Can it reach the
original value in (a)? Take the friction factor of the new pipe at 0.026. (15 marks)

[ Head loss equation: h = jl ]
f d 2g


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