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Alan H. Mattock

Professor of Civil Engineering University of Washington Seattle, Washington

**L. Johal and H. C. Chow
**

Former Graduate Students Department of Civil Engineering University of Washington Seattle, Washington

Reports results from a comprehensive investigation to study the shear transfer strength of reinforced concrete. Specific design recommendations are proposed.

Alan H. Mattock

76

If a normal tension force acts across the shear plane. subject to both single direction and cyclically reversing loading (the latter simulating earthquake conditions). Tension across the shear plane results in a reduction in shear transfer strength equal to that which would result from a reduction in the reinforcement parameter pf„ by an amount equal to the tension stress.. their use within the limits imposed by Section 11. The concurrent action of moment across the shear plane will not reduce the effectiveness of the reinforcement crossing the shear plane in resisting shear.15 of ACI 318-71 to design the reinforcement crossing the interface between the corbel and the column. 3. The shear transfer reinforcement need not be uniformly distributed over the shear plane but may be distributed so as to be more effective in resisting moment. Before this study was undertaken. In using shear-friction according to Section 11. linear interaction between shear and normal force. The ACI Building Code.e. Such a situation occurs at the interface between a corbel (or bracket) and its supporting column.15 for the design of corbels in which the shear span to depth ratio a/d is one-half or less. A future paper will extend the results of this investigation to lightweight concrete and provide a firm basis for corbel design. providing the limitations on the quantity and spacing of reinforcement in corbels specified in Section 11.n the design of precast concrete conI nections it is frequently necessary to consider the transfer of moment and normal force across a shear plane. It was found that 1. i..14 are observed. However.e. 2. Moments in the shear plane less than or equal to the flexural ultimate moment of the shear plane do not reduce the shear transfer strength.14 of ACT 318-71 is justified by the fact that they lead to generally conservative estimates of the yield strength (or ultimate strength if A comprehensive study of the shear transfer strength of reinforced concrete. 2. the following assumptions are made: 1. as well as shear. is currently in progress at the University of Washington. ACI 31871. PCI JOURNAL/July-August 1975 ҟ 77 .1 permits the use of the shear-friction provisions of Section 11. This paper reports that part of the study concerned with the effect of normal force and moment in the shear plane on single direction shear transfer strength. no interaction between moment and shear transfer. no systematic experimental study had been made to validate these assumptions. it may be provided for by providing reinforcement additional to that required for shear transfer and having a yield strength equal to the tension force. i. Tests are reported of corbel type push-off specimens and of push-off specimens with tension acting across the shear plane.

To determine the effect of mo- . This study was therefore undertaken with the following objectives: 1.14. They simply reflect the range of various parameters included in Kriz and Raths' tests for which satisfactory behavior was obtained. with consequent simplification of design procedures. This was demonstrated in the Report3 of ACI-ASCE Committee 426. and D). size and spacing varies SHEAR PLANE _la A—ҟ 0 N —A _!_ JT :iiiJ —la 'corbel" d1 CD CO CO CO All dimensions in inches N I Iҟ Iҟ Iҟ Section N N N U[ ____ 2 2•1 Fig. then the use of shear-friction concepts in corbel design could be extended beyond the arbitrary limits set out in Section 11.14. the limitations contained in Section 11. and the ranges 78 of these parameters were chosen arbitrarily when their test program was planned. the main tension reinforcement did not yield) of those corbels tested by Kriz and Raths2 which satisfy the requirements of Section 11. B. 1. Shear and Diagonal Tension.to a (varies) u u stub columnҟ 10 N vҟ closed stirrups.14 of ACI 318-71 are quite arbitrary. However. It appeared that if the assumptions listed above could be validated in a more general manner. C. Corbel type push-off specimen (Series A.

except that anchorages were provided on opposite sides of the shear plane through which a tensile force could be applied across the shear plane (see Fig. 2. on the shear which can be transferred across the shear plane. as shown in Fig. Push-off specimen for test with tension across shear plane (Series E and F). To study the influence of the arrangement of the reinforcement crossing the shear plane on the shear and moment which can be transferred accross the shear plane. 79 . 3. 2. Series E and F were standard push-off specimens. 1. 2). PC! JOURNAL/July-August 1975 Experimental Study Six series of specimens were tested. on the shear which can be transferred across a shear plane by a given quantity and arrangement of reinforcement. Series A through D were corbel type push-off specimens.71!: 7 —{ SHEAR PLANE 4 0 high strength bolt anchored in steel spiral Series E 4 #3 stirrups Series F 6 #3 stirrups 4II dimensions in inches —4#6 Section at mid—height —4 #6 ti t— ^— --. ment acting on the shear plane.14 Fig. To determine the effect of a tension force acting normal to the shear plane.

A ef = 0.00 6. Therefore. as shown in Fig.00 51.00 60.) a Ultimate Load Vu (kips) Observe Failure Mode Al A2 A3 A4 Uniformly distributed over shear plane 3975 4130 4200 3895 395 410 415 385 0 2.8. Specimen No. the specimens were cracked along the shear plane by applying line loads to their front and rear faces. 1 #4 bar closed stirrup. Measurements were made of slip along the shear plane and separation across it using 0.5 in. Data concerning corbel type push-off specimens.66 50. All specimens were made from sand and gravel concrete with 3/4 in.70 39.00 6.50 60. when zero eccentricity or a very large eccentricity was used. cylinders Split cylinder tensile strength measured on 6 x 12 in.50 53. cylinders Reinforcement in Series A. maximum size aggregate and a design strength of 4000 psi at the time of test. mounted on the specimen as shown in Fig. Typical arrangements for test are shown in Fig.00 Shear Flexure (1) (2) (3) Measured on 6 x 12 in. Corbel type push-off tests The specimens were tested using a Baldwin hydraulic testing machine to apply a load V at distance a from the shear plane. The fixed upper roller served to define the point of application of the load and the lower free rollers prevented the testing machine from restraining horizontal movement of the "corbel" relative to the remainder of the specimen.40 in.Table 1. Mast4 pointed out the need to consider the case of a crack existing in the shear plane before shear acts. This resulted in a shear V and a moment Va acting in the shear plane simultaneously.66 in. The "corbel" part of the specimen was made to project above the top of the "stub column" in order that the load V could be applied in line with the shear plane in certain of the tests.00 40. f = 53. Arrangement of Shear Transfer Reinforcement Compressive Strength fc (psi) Concrete Tensile Strength (psi) fct (2) Eccentricity of Applied Load (in.50 Shear Flexure Cl C2 C3 C4 Concentrated at top of shear plane (d . 3 #3 bar closed stirrups.50 Shear Shear Shear Flexure 3920 4090 385 400 0 5.50 Shear Shear Flexure Flexure B1 B2 Distributed in upper part of shear plane 3890 4125 380 410 0 5.0 ksi . A vf = 0. 3. 1. The 2-in. 2 2.00 41.25 31. These loads were applied . 3. B & C. thick steel bearing plate resting on the top face of the "corbel" was anchored to the corbel by an embedded screw anchor at the side of the corbel remote from the point of application of the load. Reinforcement in Series D. prior to test.e. respectively. The specimen was stood on the lower platten of the testing machine and was loaded through the 80 system of rollers shown. i.000I-in. a = 0.00 52. fy = 53.) D1 D2 3980 3915 3805 4210 395 385 375 420 0 5.00 7.00 51..00 36. dial gages.0 ksi Data concerning the specimens of Series A through D are shown in Table 1 and data concerning the specimens of Series E and F are shown in Tables 2 and 3.50 5.

in.in. cylinders. U denotes specimens initially untracked. Measured on 6 x 12 . cylinders. Data concerning Series F push-off specimens with tension across shear plane.3 51. U denotes specimens initially uncracked. (6 #3 bar closed stirrups).7 787 806 812 0 -200 -400 787 606 412 988 839 804 FlU F4U F6U 4035 4175 4245 420 354 389 52. Specimen No.8 552 514 532 0 -200 -400 552 314 132 1089 946 607 Shear transfer reinforcement area A 5f = 0.1 51. (1) (2) (3) (4) C denotes specimens initially cracked.8 52. Table 3. Tension negative.Table 2. cylinders.1 52. Split cylinder tensile strength measured on 6 x 12 .in. (4 #3 bar closed stirrups). Compression positive.5 52.0 820 836 801 0 -200 -400 820 636 401 1369 1143 1066 Shear transfer reinforcement area A vf = 1.7 50. 2 in all Series E specimens. PCI JOURNAL/July-August 1975ҟ 81 . -ension negative.in. Specimen Concrete (2) Compressive Strength f (psi) Concrete (3) Tensile Strength (Psi) fct Stirrup Yield Point f (ksi) Reinforcement Parameter ofy(psi) Normal Stress aNx ( psi ) ( pf + o ) y Nx (psi) v u = Vu A cr (psi) F1C` 1) F4C F6C 4220 3890 4150 350 336 380 50.88 in. cylinders. 2 in all Series F specimens. Compression positive.2 51.32 in.3 50.9 0 -100 -163 -200 -300 -400 ElU E4U E6U 4060 3860 4120 372 392 335 52.7 49. Split cylinder tensile strength measured on 6 x 12 . (1) (2) (3) (4) C denotes specimens initially cracked. Concrete (2) Compressive Strength f (psi) 3855 4220 3960 3820 4020 3985 concrete Tensile Strength fct (psi) Yield Point f (ksi) Reinforcement Parameter Pfy (Psi) 543 546 552 529 548 533 Normal(4> Stress ° Nx (Psi) (p y f + o Nx ) v U (psi) 543 446 389 329 248 133 V = Au cr (psi) 881 929 714 673 527 369 ElC (1} E2C E3C E4C E5C E6C 359 397 343 362 383 373 51.2 53. Data concerning Series E push-off specimens with tension across shear plane. Measured on 6 x 12 .1 50.

In some cases a flexural crack linked up with the crack in the shear plane. the ultimate slip increased as the distribution of the reinforcement changed from uniform distribution over the shear plane to concentration at the upper end of the shear plane. The specimens were subject to an incrementally increasing load to failure.Fig. The width of crack produced was about 0. 3. Arrangements for test of corbel type push-off specimen. minor compression spalling occurred adjacent to the crack in the shear plane. These have been reported in detail elsewhere. Failure was regarded as having occurred when the load could not be increased further and slip increased rapidly. and the growth of any cracks was marked on the specimen. By concentrating the reinforcem"nt. Both slip and separation occurred at all levels of loading.e. shear only in the shear plane). Behavior—No additional cracking occurred during the testing of the specimens loaded along the shear plane (i. as compared with the case of uniformly distributed reinforcement. in the specimens loaded with zero or intermediate eccentricity. In the case of the specimens loaded with an intermediate eccentricity (i. 82 a = 0). The dilation of the specimen across the shear plane was measured during the cracking operation.. then only that part of the crack crossed by the reinforcement is fully effective in resisting slip. At each increment of load readings were taken of slip and separation. but they did not link up with the crack in the shear plane. At failure.. Both flexural cracks and independent diagonal tension cracks formed in the "stub column" of those specimens loaded at an eccentricity sufficiently large to cause a flexural failure.e. Failure became less sudden as the eccentricity of the applied load increased and the failure mode changed from shear to flexure. In flexural failures extensive compression spalling occurred in the concrete adjacent to the lower end of the shear plane and the shear plane crack opened wide at the top of the shear plane.e. diagonal tension cracks occurred in the "stub column" during test. it was not possible to obtain data relating to the falling branch of the load-slip and loadseparation curves. The flexural cracks started in the top face of the stub column and propagated downward and towards the shear plane. using dial gages mounted in a reference frame. Due to the nature of the instrumentation used. This may be . in the region of the reinforcement crossing the crack. through steel wedges with the specimen in a horizontal position. It was found that for zero eccentricit y of load (i.01 in. It appears that when a crack in a shear plane is subject to shear only. the average shear stress is increased in that part of the shear plane fully effective in resisting slip. insufficient to cause a flexural failure).

Ultimate strength—In Figs.fy = 583 psiҟB a C 0ҟ psi fc = 4000 - - 0ҟ 2ҟ 3ҟ 4ҟ 5ҟ 6ҟ iҟ 7ҟ 8ҟ 9ҟ 10 Eccentricity of Load. This is probably due to the fact that the length of the crack subject to compression and therefore active in resisting shear will not change appreciably going from small to large eccentricity. B.B2 \ BIҟ ҟ C2 ҟ B2 pC3 N Q >O CI _ - D a) N a. 4 and 5 the measured ultimate strengths are compared with the calculated strengths which correspond to shear failure and flexure failure. In the specimens having the reinforcement concentrated near the top of the shear plane there is little variation in ultimate slip with eccentricity of load.). with p = 1.o o^ҟ V(flex. although its location will change.) Series C - 0 . Variation of ultimate shear with eccentricity of applied load (Series A. except for A4 in which a flexural failure occurred at a load only about half that sustained in shear. This trend in behavior may also be due to an increase in the effective average shear stress.4 for ® Ai ` A2 `^V(flex. In this case the moment acting in the shear plane results in only part of the shear plane being subject to compression and the average shear stress in that part of the crack across which compression acts will therefore be greater than when the whole length of the crack is active in resisting shear. aҟ (in. while for large eccentricities that part of the crack lying in the flexural compression zone of the "corbel" will be subject to compression. 4. and C).).) Fig. The calculated shear strength V. that part of the crack crossed by the reinforcement will be subject to compression. p.66 in2 Series A. but the length of crack involved is probably similar in both these cases. In the case of specimens with uniformly distributed reinforcement the ultimate slip increased as the eccentricity of the load increased. o ^^` V„(Calc. PCI JOURNAL/July-August 1975ҟ 83 .u (calc.15 of ACI 318-71.) ҟ A3 \ Shear Frictionҟ 50ҟ C4 0 E H5 V(flex. For zero or small eccentricity. is obtained using the shear-friction provision of Section 11.) Series A OA 4\ - 0.the reason for the increase in slip.

) /DI —AIҟ BIҟ /CIҟ OA2 •D2 C2 B2 ^ A—C3 C4 OA3 oA4 y 0.) Fig.4ҟ 1.6 — 0. 1.2 M1 C. 6.0ҟ 1. Interaction of shear and moment transferred across a crack.4 0. 5.ҟ 60 50ҟ U) n ' 40 y 30 20 VU (calc.fy = 353 psiҟ fc = 4000 psi t 'L E n 10 V a 4 0 b ( tS U Eccentricity of Load.6 0.6ҟ 1. Variation of ultimate shear with eccentricity of applied load (Series D).8ҟ 1. Shear Friction Avf = 0.2ҟ 0.2ҟ M„(test)/ M„(caIc. aҟ (in.2 1 Shear Transfer.40in? Series D P. 84 .).8 N 0.4 1.) Fig.Moment Interaction Diagram 1 appropriate for designҟ 0ҟ 0.4ҟ 0.

The interaction of shear and moment in all the specimens tested is shown in Fig. but did not occur in Specimen C4 where the flexural reinforcement ratio was 1.a crack in monolithic concrete. C2. B1.. being taken as 1.2 of ACI 318-71. resulting in a reinforcement stress considerably greater than the yield stress. will depend on 85 PCI JOURNAL/July-August 1975ҟ . This is the trend to be expected. In this case the effective flexural reinforcement ratio is very low and consequently the upper reinforcement was strained into the strain hardening range. This is probably due to the local increase in shear stress in the latter case due to the reinforced part only of the shear plane effectively resisting shear. B2. It can be seen that if the calculated strength is taken to be the lesser of V.15 to be used for the design of corbels providing a/d is less than 0. providing the applied moment is less than or equal to the flexural capacity of the cracked section.). and becomes progressively less conservative as pfy increases. The calculated shear corresponding to flexural failure V (flex. C3.0 since the material strengths and specimen dimensions are known accurately. The results obtained indicate that the shear transfer strength according to shearfriction theory and the flexural ultimate strength can be developed simultaneously across a crack in monolithic concrete. indicates that a small decrease in shear strength resulted when the distribution of the reinforcement was changed from uniformly distributed to concentrated at one end of the shear plane. The test eccentricities for Specimens A2. this arbitrary limit on a/d is unnecessary.). (tale. The shearfriction equation is most conservative for low values of pf.) and V (flex.. and 02 were deliberately chosen to check whether the shear transfer strength according to shear-friction theory could be developed simultaneously with the calculated flexural ultimate strength. i. is obtained by dividing the calculated ultimate moment capacity by the eccentricity of loading. provided the corbel is designed for shear according to the shear friction provisions of Section 11. The ultimate moment capacity was calculated using the assumptions set out in Section 10.3 per:ent.0 in this case also.. _ calculated according to the"shear-friction theory. then in all cases the actual strength exceeds the calculated strength. as compared to that of Specimen Cl (583 psi).15 and for flexure using the assumptions of Section 10. and C1 which were all reinforced with three #3 bar stirrups. that. 6. the calculated capacity for all three specimens. The greater conservatism of Specimen Dl than CI. is due to the lower reinforcement parameter of Specimen Dl (353 psi). This occurred to a lesser extent in Specimen D2 where the flexural reinforcement ratio was 0. although both have their reinforcement concentrated near the top of the shear plane.14 of ACI 318-71 allows the shear-friction provisions of Section 11. Section 11. The results obtained in this study indicate that at least for the case of vertical load only. and setting 4) = 1. the most severe interaction situation. The value of a/d at which flexure will begin to control and reduce the shear transfer strength below. It appears that the ultimate shear which can be transferred across a crack is not significantly affected by the presence of moment in the crack.8 percent. The flexural capacity of Specimens A3 and A4 is considerably greater than the calculated capacity because the calculation assumes that the maximum stress that can be developed in the reinforcement is the yield stress.e. It should be noted however. that the shear capacity was still greater than. A comparison of the strengths of Specimens Al.2.5.

01 in. those specimens indicated in Tables 2 and 3 were cracked along the shear plane by applying line loads to their front and rear faces. The shear load was then increased continuously until failure occurred. Both slip and separation occurred from the commencement of shear loading. The tensile force across the shear plane was applied before the specimen was subjected to shear loading.Fig. Prior to test. acting through short distribution beams as may be seen in Fig. A crack width of approximately 0. additional separations of up to 0. tension across the shear plane was produced by pulling on the pairs of high strength bolts anchored in the specimen on opposite sides of the shear plane. 7. The dilation of the specimen across the shear plane was measured during the cracking operation. Behavior of initially cracked specimens —When the tension force across the shear plane was applied.0012 in. . 5 No diagonal tension cracks occurred in the Series E initially cracked specimens. but a few occurred in the more heavily reinforced initially cracked specimens of Series F. The slip and separation were measured by linear differential transformers attached to reference points 86 embedded in the concrete on opposite sides of the shear plane. and by compression spalling of the concrete adjacent to the shear plane. the distribution of the reinforcement over the shear plane. the magnitude of the separation increasing with increase in the applied stress. These measurements have been reported in detail elsewhere. was produced. were measured. (Separation is caused by the over-riding of roughness on the crack faces. using dial gages mounted in a reference frame. Simultaneously. Both the shear V and the tensile force were measured using SR4 gage load cells. Failure was regarded as having occurred when the shear load could not be increased further and slip increased rapidly. Push-off tests with tension across the shear plane The specimens were tested using a Baldwin hydraulic testing machine to apply a load V concentric with the shear plane as shown in Fig. and was maintained constant during the test. This produced shear without moment in the shear plane. Both the linear differential transformers and the load cells were monitored continuously during the tests using a Sanborn strip chart recorder. 2. The loads were applied through steel wedges with the specimen in a horizontaI position. The tension force was provided by a pair of 20kip capacity rams. 7. Arrangement for test of push off specimen with tension acting across shear plane. Failure of this type of specimen was characterized by a rapid increase in slip and separation.

was recorded in these cases. These cracks were first observed at shear stresses of from 330 to 700 psi. PCI JOURNAL/July-August 1975ҟ 87 .4000 psi Modified push-off tests. The inclination of the diagonal tension cracks to the shear plane varied from about 10 to 40 deg.This will be accompanied by very high local compression stresses at the points of contact of the crack faces. ^^ҟ Q q 1400 ҟ 1200 1000 800600 400 Wnn q q a Series E 8 F.001 in. 8. An additional "separation" of about 0. the shear stress at cracking decreasing as the tensile stress across the shear plane is increased. s qA ®q q Previous pus -off tests. fy = 50 ksi fc . Failure was quite brittle and was characterized by the extension of one la0o Specimens initially cracked 1600ҟ . When shear was applied to the ini- tially uncracked specimens no slip or separation was recorded until short diagonal tension cracks commenced to form across the shear plane.) Behavior of initially uncracked spe3imens—When the largest tensile stress (400 psi) was applied to the initially uncracked specimens E6U and F6U fine cracks occurred near the shear plane and roughly parallel to it. the inclination decreasing as the tension stress across the shear plane increased. which must be the cause of the compression spalling observed adjacent to the crack at failure. tests Push-offҟ with tension across the shear plane. Urtx V Vu (psi Symbol • 0 0ҟ q • A Q Qfy varies 540 psi 800 psi varies 0 Tension (varies) Tension (varies) Compression (varies) 800 400ҟ 1000 1200 1400 600ҟ 200ҟ 0ҟ (psi) ( P fy + o)ҟ Fig. Comparison of shear transfer strength of initially cracked specimens tested in this program with that of "push-off" and "modified push-off" specimens tested previously. this study.

The reduction in "slip" at ultimate in an initially uncracked specimen as the tensile stress across the shear plane increases. 9. . and by compression spalling of the concrete.1800 Specimens initially uncracked 1600 fc _ 4000 psi . `^\ 1200 Modified push-off tests. •ҟ 800 13ҟ •ҟ Symbol q Nx 0 Tension (varies) Tension (varies) efy variesҟ 540 psi 600 q • A Q 400 800 psiҟ 200 Compressionҟ varies (varies) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 (pfy + 6Nx)ҟ (psi) Fig. particularly near the ends of the shear plane. Comparison of shear transfer strength of initially uncracked specimens tested in this program with that of "push-off" and "modified push-off" specimens tested previously. The slip at ultimate load tended to decrease as the tensile stress acting across the shear plane increased. (and hence between the inclined concrete struts and the shear plane). (psi) Vu 1000 Previous push-off tests. In the case of the initially uncracked specimen. as the tension across the shear plane increases. A q O Push-off tests with tensionҟ q q across the shear plane. is consistent with the reduction in the angle between the diagonal tension cracks and the shear plane. due to rotation and compression of the inclined concrete struts formed by the diagonal tension cracking. the "slip" is not a true slip 88 but rather the component parallel to the shear plane of the relative motion of the two halves of the specimen.50 ksi qq 1400 Series E 8 F. of the larger diagonal tension cracks roughly parallel to the shear plane. this study. linking up with other diagonal tension cracks. The slip which occurred at all levels of load in the initially cracked specimens was greater than that which occurred in companion initially uncracked specimens. fy .

pfy 800 psi 1400 1200 / vu = (?fy + O Nx)?( e fy 0 o. less slip became necessary to over-ride the minor roughness of the crack faces and cause failure. 9fy ^= 540 psi A . are plotted against (pff + o z ). 8 and 9. In making these plots.Series F. fy 01= 50 ksi • .+ 0.4)ҟ Vu •/ • ' / 800 600 400 200 Aҟ Aҟ 800psi • Shear Friction •ҟ (pfy + a-Nx)r V„ = but 1 0. with the strength predicted by current ACI Code and PCI Handbook equations. the shear transfer strengths obtained in the tests of initial- ly cracked and initially uncracked pushoff specimens. 10.5) /'/ Nx (psi) but t 0.corresponds to a compressive stress across the shear plane and a negative value of cr corresponds to a tensile stress across the shear plane. In both the initially cracked concrete 89 PCI JOURNAL/July-August 1975ҟ .25 f nor 1200 psi/ / 1000 ®/ (}J = 1.2ff nor 800 psi (r = 1. Also plotted in these figures are shear transfer strength data obtained previously in simple push-off tests 6 and in modified pushoff tests7 in which compression acted across the shear plane simultaneously with the shear.4) 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 0 (pfy + aNx) (psi) Fig. Ultimate strength—The ultimate shear transfer strength of the specimens is shown in Tables 2 and 3. Comparison of shear transfer strength of initially cracked concrete having a tension stress across shear plane. respectively. in the form of nominal shear stresses at failure of the specimens. it may be that because of the increasing initial separation of the crack faces as the tension across the shear plane increased. In the case of the initially cracked specimens.Series E.1800 Specimens initially cracked fc' se 4000 1600 _ҟpsi . a positive value of o. In Figs.

or a-N„. In Fig. 10.0 in both cases.1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 00 Iҟ Iҟ Iҟ I ҟ I Specimens initially cracked. 11.push-off tests with tension acrossҟ Oq q the shear plane.II and the initially uncracked concrete. the shear transfer strength of the initially cracked push-off specimens with tension across the shear plane are plotted against the parameter 90 (pff + o-). This indicates that it is appropriate to combine the normal stress crN5 with the reinforcement parameter when calculating shear transfer strength. both equations yield conservative estimates of shear transfer strength.pull-off tests.8(pf/_f4OOOPsi 0 O/ q / .)ҟ Fig. f 4000psi 0 .modified push-off tests. q .3fe fc= 2500psi 600 400 N v u = 33. /^ 0. fc = 5100psiҟ q v„ = 400 + but I. Also plotted in this figure are lines corresponding to the shearfriction provisions of Section 11. the grouping of the data points in these figures indicates that the change in shear transfer strength which occurs when (pt + o) is varied is the same whether this parameter is changed by varying pf. f' 4000psi • .9 of the PCI Design Handbook” (dash line). 1 ° and Birkeland.0. for vu (psi) O /•• for /K q .push-off tests.O.1. (Note that the capacity reduction factor di was taken as 1.ii ii ff= 2500 psi ii O .3f. since the material properties were accurately known for these specimens. Comparison of shear transfer strength of initially cracked concrete with and without direct stress across shear plane with strength predicted by equations proposed by Mattock 9 .) It can be seen that for this sand and gravel concrete.15 of ACI 318-71 (solid line) and the design equation contained in Section 6.3f0 q 0.5 (pfy + aN) 200 Recommended minimum (Pfy t o-Nx ) = 200psi 0 200 400ҟ1000 1200 1400 600 800 NX (psi) (9fy + o. /^^n0. fc = 4000psi A . For the situation in which a tension .

(3) the case of shear alone acting in the where A $ is the total area of steel crossshear plane. In Fig. either of these relationtotal amount of reinforcement needed ships could be used to design the reinto carry a shear V. acting across the shear tion factor 4)) would lead to more ecoplane. transfer strengths of initially cracked that is sand and gravel concrete.. gravel concrete...force N. ultimate strength of the cracked section Alternate simple expressions for will not reduce the shear which can be shear transfer strength. both with V.3 f . = V.= (4)Pfv +arx)µ nating these disadvantages.)JL or v 24 = 33. forcement required for shear transfer. and Hence are compared with measured shear çbA8f2.85 for shear).. = A . servative for small values of pfy and the following conclusions are drawn of artificially limiting the maximum ul.. Birkeland's parabola bewhere A„j is the area of reinforcement ing slightly more conservative than required to carry the shear V..On the basis of the study reported here. + N. the shear-friction equation for design: vu./p. --- PCI JOURNAL/July-August 1975 91 . stress acting across the shear-plane. = 400 + 0. (4) and without direct stress acting across A.. and A t is the area these relationships (suitably modified of reinforcement required to carry the by the inclusion of the capacity reductension force N. (2) but not less than 0. (11-30)].concerning shear transfer in sand and timate shear transfer stress to 800 psi.. and a tension N.5.carry the tension across the shear plane forcement required to resist the shear should simply be added to the shear re[according to Eq. The PCI equation is an attempt to 1..—+the shear plane. or It can be seen that both expressions A . aimed at elimi. in Section 11. it also has the disadvantages of being rather con. While the shear-friction equation has Conclusions for Design the advantage of simplicity. These alternate design equations have previously been validated only for = 4A 8f„ — N. across a crack may be obtained by sim. nomical shear transfer designs than are The test results shown in Fig. accord. and the inforcement./ p7 and by Mattock:°"° v. f + A tɁ applicable to this general combina(5) are tion of stress. = (4)A8fr /A — N u/A.. N. but ment less than or equal to the flexural has the disadvantage of complexity.transferred across the crack... The simultaneous action of a moremedy the second disadvantage... have been proposed previously by Birkeland :'1 (6) (7) (1) becomes: v.15 of ACI 318-71 that the In design.and then the reinforcement required to ply adding together the area of rein....8 pf2. Use of either of ing to shear-friction. area of reinforcement required to resist the tension force N.Mattock's straight line.. 11 they are exing the shear plane and 0 is the catended to the case of shear and direct pacity reduction factor (0. 10 currently yielded by the shear-friction theref )re validate the assumption made provisions of ACI 318-71. acts across a shear plane area A.

f = area of shear-friction reinforcement. would lead to economies.) 5. kips V(flex) = M. sq in.10 are equally applicable to the general case of both shear and direct stress acting across a shear plane..-kips = ultimate tensile force acting N. yields conservative results for the case when a normal stress UN. in. in. A. and a tension N^.ҟ in. contained in Section 11. providing (p f5 -{.O'Nx) is substituted for pf^ in the equation. respectively. should be replaced by a requirement that both the flexural and shear capacity of corbels shall be checked according to Sections 10. = area of reinforcement necesA sary to resist tension force N. sq in. Appendix—Notation A. cylinders. The equation proposed in Section 6.) 7. The results obtained validate the assumption made in these provisions that the total amount of reinforcement needed to carry a shear V..9 of the PCI Design Handbook for use when p f. d = distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of tension reinforcement. in.u = ultimate shear strength. (cr is positive when compression and negative when tension. psi A.15 of ACI 318-71. It is appropriate to add the normal stress °N' to the reinforcement parameter pfy when calculating shear transfer strength in both initially cracked and initially untracked reinforced concrete. The arbitrary limitation of a/d to less than 0.2 and 11. a = eccentricity of applied load with respect to shear plane. sq in.. both with and without a tension stress acting across the shear plane. sq = total area of reinforcement crossing shear plane when both shear and tension act.. instead of the shear "friction equation.1. psi = ultimate moment of resistance..15 of ACI 318-71 yield a conservative estimate of the shear transfer strength of reinforced concrete. and the area of reinforcement required to resist the tension force N. psi f1t = splitting tensile strength of concrete.. then in order to be fully effective the shear transfer reinforcement should be located in the flexural tension zone. Use of these equations in design (suitably modified by the inclusion of the capacity reduction factor (P). acts across the plane. The alternate shear transfer design Eq. 6. kips uu = nominal ultimate shear stress. (11-30)]. = area of shear plane. 4..5 when shear-friction is used in corbel design. (6) and (7) proposed by Birke92 land" and Mattock 9. = compressive strength of concrete measured on 6 x 12-in. t = coefficient of friction used in shear-friction calculations . The shear friction provisions of Section 11. 3. If both moment and shear are to be transferred across a crack. psi fy = yield point stress of reinforcement.14 of ACI 318-71. exceeds 600 psi.. (ONE is positive when compression and negative when tension. cylinders.G /a V.2. across a crack may be obtained by simply adding together the area of reinforcement required to resist the shear [calculated using Eq.. measured on 6 x 12 in. across shear plane simultaneously with V.

1091-1187. "Connections in Precast Concrete Structures —Strength of Corbels. 1975. "Shear Transfer in Concrete Having Reinforcement at an Angle to the Shear Plane. Class Notes for Course. ACI-ASCE Committee 426. ASCE. Seattle. pp. 119-128. 94. 1971. 17-42. A. A. 1485-1504.. 2." Journal of the Structural Division. 10. and Raths. V. through its PCI Graduate Fellowship program. Birkeland. Department of Civil Engineering.. when both shear and tension act e Arf /A cr when shear only acts = externally applied normal stress acting across shear plane. GK33842X. N. A. PCI Design Handbook. A.. W. F." University of British Columbia.. pp.. 5575. Journal of the ST6. Acknowledgment This study was carried out in the Structural Research Laboratory of the University of Washington. ST6. 17. March-April 1972. Discussion of the paper. M.P p 6 = A. H. Detroit.. H. October 1974. Cowan.. R. 4. "Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318-71). A. ACI Journal. C. University of Washington. Chicago.. V..." American Concrete Institute Publication SP-42.. H. It was jointly supported by the National Science Foundation. Washington. References 1. Prestressed Concrete Institute. ASCE. Shear in Reinforced Concrete. 9. "Shear Transfer in Reinforced Concrete. B. June 1968. L. and Hawkins. No." PCI JOURNAL. "The Shear Strength of Reinforced Concrete Members. I. "Effect of Moment and Tension Across the Shear Plane on Single Direction Shear Transfer Strength in Monolithic Concrete. Discussion of this paper is invited. "Auxiliary Reinforcement in Concrete Connections. V. J. 5. 0. through grant No. as per Section 9. 16-61. Spring 1968. "Precast and Prestressed Concrete. pp.g /A. February 1965. pp. "Research on Shear Transfer in Reinforced Concrete. Kriz. and by the Prestressed Concrete Institute.." (Chapters 1 to 4). H. 11. V. 2. "Modified Shear-Friction Theory for Bracket Design. 99. 421-423. 71. No." American Concrete Institute." PCI JOURNAL. 1.. June 1973. Mattock. 6.." by B. Mattock." Report SM 74-3.. and Mattock. tension negative) = capacity reduction factor. H. pp. No. Hermansen and J. V.2 of ACI 31871 Structural Division. 10. 2. February 1969. Mattock. 1971. 1974. 8. V. 7. Mattock. Mast. H. Hofbeck. 8. 3. Ibrahim. August 1974. No. H. psi (compression positive. No. pp. A. R. pp. Please forward your discussion to PCI Headquarters by December 1." ACI Journal. PCI JOURNAL/July-August 1975 ҟ 93 . 66.

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