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Sprinkler rates


plant or crop
predominate soil type
average field slope, %
area to be irrigated, square ft
runtime or irrigation duration per day, hr vary to meet irrigation needs
peak consumptive use or ET (in/day) from Table 1
system efficiency use 0.7 for sprinkler
effective root depth, in. from Table 2

AVAILABLE WATER CAPACITY from Soils 5 or Table 3

layer thickness AW AWC
in in/in in
TOTAL 0 0.0 total thickness cannot exceed effective root depth


% depletion to initiate irrigation use 50 for sprinkler
net application, in 0.0 available water times % depletion
required application, in. net application / system efficiency
min. irrig. freq, days net application / ET
required application rate, in/hr to replace depleted water in runtime above
required application rate, gpm
required application rate, gph
maximum application rate, in/hr from Table 4 (to prevent runoff and erosion)
maximum application rate, gpm
maximum application rate, gph

min. system capacity, gpm to equal ET (if irrigation system is run continuously)

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Sprinkler rates

fective root depth

s run continuously)

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reference: Landscape Irrigation Design by E. W. Rochester 12/3/1999

Area To Be Irrigated:
length, ft. 120
width, ft. 170

Sprinkler Head Specifications (from manufacturer):

Pattern, degrees 360 180 90
Flow Rate, gpm
Pressure, psi
Design Throw Radius, ft.

Sprinkler Head Layout s for square or t for triangular

Design Wind Speed, mph 0-3 mph, 4-7 mph, 8-12 mph
ks from Table 1, this sheet

Calculated Spacing, Scalc 0.0 feet

Calculated L for triangular feet

Recommended Spacing, length #DIV/0! feet

Recommended Spacing, width feet

Pattern, degrees 360 180 90 degrees

Number of Sprinkler Heads #DIV/0! #DIV/0! 4 each
Area Irrigated / Sprinkler Head #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! ft2
Precipitation Rate #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! inches/hour

Total Irrigated Area, ft2 #DIV/0!

Total Flow to Irrigated Area, gpm #DIV/0!

base plant
predominate soil type
type of micro-irrigation (P or L)
peak consumptive use or ET (in/day)
canopy diameter, feet
canopy width, feet
plant spacing, feet
wetted area reduction ratio 1.00
wetted area, ft2
irrigation efficiency
plant water usage, gal/day
emitter flow rate, gph
effective root depth, inches
calculated number of emitters per plant
planned number of emitters per plant
allowed % depletion after irrigation


layer thickness AW AWC
in in/in in
TOTAL 0 0.0

irrigation interval, days

volume to apply, inches per irigation interval
volume to apply, gal per irrigation interval
irrigation run time per irrigation interval, hours
planned irigation run time per application, hours
required applications per irrigation interval
application rate per plant, inch/hour
application rate per plant, gpm
application rate per plant, gph

emitter brand, series, model
base plant
emitters per plant
emitter flow rate, gph
irrigation run time, hours
irrigation interval, days
Table 1

Peak Daily and Total Seasonal Consumptive Water Use 11/11/1998

of Selected Plants in Michigan
Adapted from: Irrigation Principles and Practices, third edition;
by O. W. Israelsen and V. E. Hansen; Wiley and Sons, Inc., NY
by M. Vitosh and Landscape Irrigation Design by E. W. Rochester;
ASAE, St. Joseph, Mi.

Agricultural Crops Peak Daily Total Season

Use, inches/day Use, Inches
alfalfa 0.22 26
pasture 0.22 24
small grains 0.18 14
sugar beets 0.20 20
field beans 0.18 12
corn 0.25 20
potatoes 0.20 18
field peas 0.18 9
tomatoes 0.17 17
tree fruit 0.18 20

Landscape Plants Peak Daily Total Season

Use, inches/day Use, Inches
turfgrass 0.25 25
groundcover, annual flower beds,
evergreens, perennials, shrubs <
4 ft., vines and fruit-bearing trees 0.25 25
mature shade trees 0.20 20
ornametal plants, native shrubs, and
shrubs > 4 ft. 0.18 18
established native plants 0.10 10

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Table 2

Effective Rooting Depths (irrigation depth) 11/11/1998

From: Chapter 12 of the Michigan Irrigation Guide by M. L. Vitosh
and Landscape Irrigation Design by E. W. Rochester; ASAE, St. Joseph, Mi.

Plant root depth

alfalfa 36 to 72
cabbage 18 to 24
carrot 18 to 24
corn 30 to 48
cucumber 18 to 24
field bean 12 to 24
lettuce 6 to 12
onion 12 to 18
pasture 18 to 36
peas 12 to 24
potato 18 to 24
small grain 24 to 36
soybean 18 to 24
strawberry 6 to 12
sugar beet 24 to 36
tomato 12 to 24
perennial grass 6 to 12
groundcover 12 to 24
low shrubs 12 to 24
shrubs and trees, 3 - 5 ft. tall 24 to 36
shrubs and trees, 5 - 10 ft. tall 36 to 60
shrubs and trees, 10 - 20 ft. tall 48 to 60
shrubs and trees, > 20 ft. tall > 72

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Table 3

General Range of Available Moisture-Holding Capacities 11/11/1998

and Average Design Values for Normal Soil Conditions.
Reference: USDA, NRCS, Engineering Field Manual

Available Water
Soil Texture Range Average
in./in. in./in.
Very coarse-textured sands and
fine sands 0.04-0.08 0.06
Coarse-textured loamy sands
and loamy fine sands 0.06-0.10 0.08
Moderately coarse-textured
sandy loams and fine sandy loams 0.10-0.15 0.13
Medium textured very fine sandy loams,
loam and silt loams 0.13-0.19 0.16
Moderately fine-textured sandy clay loams,
clay loams, and silty clay loams 0.15-0.21 0.18
Fine-textured sandy clays, silty clays,
and clay 0.13-0.21 0.17

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Table 4

Suggested Maximum Water Application Rates for Sprinklers for Average 11/11/1998
Soil, Slope, and Cultural Conditions
reference: Soil and Water Engineering by Schwab, et al., 4th edition, Wiley & Sons, Inc

Maximum Water Application Rate, in/hr

Soil Texture and Profile Conditions 0% slope 10% slope
w/cover bare w/cover bare
A. light sandy loams uniform in texture to 5 ft. 1.3 0.8 0.7 0.4
B. light sandy loams over more compact subsoils 1.0 0.6 0.5 0.3
C. silt loams uniform in texture to 5 ft. 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.2
D. silt loams over more compact subsoil 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.1
E. heavy-textured clays or clay loams 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1

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