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# TK5102

## Advanced Transport Phenomena

Transports in Laminar Regimes:
Simple Problems

## I Dewa Gede Arsa Putrawan

Chemical Engineering ITB

Outcomes

## Students can explain transport properties including the

effects of temperature and pressure on transport properties.
Students can explain the mechanisms of momentum, heat,
and mass transfers.
Students can explain the basic concepts underlying
momentum, heat, and mass transfer.
Students can apply microscopic balances to solve simple
problems in transport phenomena.
Students can estimate property profiles for simple problems.
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Basic Concepts

Entity

## Entity Unit Dimension

Momentum kg m s-1 M L T-1
Heat J M L2 T-2
Mass kg M

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Entity concentration
(quantity per volume)
Entity Concentration
Momentum v
Heat Cp T
Mass or c

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Transport Mechanisms

## Diffusive : transport by intermolecular

forces (without bulk movement) =
molecular transport

## Convective : transport by bulk

movement of fluid

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Flux

## Measurement of transfer rate

Flow rate of entity per surface area
(quantity per time per area)
Total flux consists of diffusive flux and
convective flux

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Diffusive Flux

## Flow rate of entity per surface area

perpendicular to transport direction
Diffusivity times concentration gradient
Symbols (Cartesian coordinate)
Momentum : xy
Heat : qx
Mass : Jx or Nx
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Diffusive Flux

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## z Velocity (vx) Gradient

y

x
y

yx
zx

xx

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Newtons Law
x v1
vx Y
y
v2

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Fouriers Law
x T1
Y
y
T2

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Ficks Law
x A,1
Y
y A,2

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Analogy

Property Diffusivity
Momentum =/
Heat k = k / ( Cp)
Mass DAB DAB
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Dimensionless Numbers

## Lewis number (Le) = / DAB = Sc / Pr

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Transport Properties

## Viscosity, thermal conductivity, and mass

diffusivity
Theory of gas kinetic (for simple gas)
Empirical (or semi) correlations or diagrams for
complex gas, liquids, and solids
Empirical mixing rules for mixtures
Experimental data is the best

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Viscosity
Depends on temperature
Liquid : T
Gas : T
Viscosity of water and air (cP)
T (C) Water Air (1 atm)
0 1.7870 0.0172
20 1.0019 0.0181
40 0.6539 0.0191
60 0.4665 0.0200
80 0.3548 0.0209
100 0.2821 0.0217
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Viscosity

## H2 0.008 273 K Glass 1015 Melt

O2 0.019 273 K

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Thermal conductivity of gases
(T = [K]; k = [W/(m K)])

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## Thermal conductivity of liquids

(T = [K]; k = [W/(m K)])

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Thermal conductivity of solids
(T = [K]; k = [W/(m K)])

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## Mass diffusivity for binary gases

(T = [K], DAB = [m2/s])

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Mass diffusivity for binary liquids
(T = [K], DAB = [m2/s])

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Homework I

## Richard G. Griskey [2002]

1. Problem 1.1
2. Problem 1.7
3. Problem 1.9
4. Problem 1.12
5. Problem 1.15
6. Problem 1.19
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Analogy

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Convective Flux

## Flow rate of entity per flow area

Concentration times velocity

Entity Concentration
Momentum ( v) v
Heat ( Cp T) v
Mass v or c v
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Rate Equation

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Methodology
Problem analysis
Microscopic balances
Newtons law
Boundary conditions
Profiles of transfer flux, transfer rate, and other
variables
Values of average, maximum, etc.

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Simple Cases on Momentum Transfer

## 13 August 2011 TK5102 DGA/29

Momentum Generation

## Forces acting on fluid

Generation (same direction to fluid flow)
Consumption (opposite direction to fluid flow)
Gravity
F=mg
Pressure
F=PA

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Boundary Conditions

## No slip at solid-fluid interfaces

Continuity on flux and velocity at a liquid-
liquid interfacial plane
Zero flux at a liquid-gas interfacial plane

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## Flow of a falling film

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Flow of a falling film

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## Flow of a falling film:

Momentum entering
Molecular

Convective

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Flow of a falling film:
Momentum leaving
Molecular

Convektive

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## Flow of a falling film:

Forces acting on fluid
Gravitation

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Flow of a falling film:
Momentum balance

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## Flow of a falling film:

Momentum flux profile

BC 1 : xz = 0 at x = 0

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Flow of a falling film:
Velocity profile

BC 2 : vz = 0 at x =

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## Flow of a falling film:

Velocity profile
Maximum velocity

Average velocity

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Flow of a falling film:
Velocity profile
Volumetric velocity

Shear force

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## Flow Through A Circular Tube

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Flow Through A Circular Tube:
Momentum entering
Molecular

Convective

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## Flow Through A Circular Tube:

Momentum leaving
Molecular

Convective

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Flow Through A Circular Tube:
Forces acting on fluid
Gravitation

Pressure

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## Flow Through A Circular Tube:

Forces acting on fluid
Gravitation and pressure drop

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Flow Through A Circular Tube:
Momentum balance

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## Flow Through A Circular Tube:

Momentum flux profile

BC 1 : dvz/dx = 0 = rz at r = 0

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Flow Through A Circular Tube:
Velocity profile

BC 2 : vz = 0 at r = R

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## Flow Through A Circular Tube:

Velocity profile
Maximum velocity

Average velocity

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Average Velocity

r d dr dA = r dr d
r d
d

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## Flow Through A Circular Tube:

Velocity profile
Volumetric velocity

Shear force

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Cannon-Fenske Viscometer
From analysis of flow in a circular tube

## = at + b/t (note: b/t at)

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Homework I (continue)

## R. Byron Bird et al [2002]

7. Problem 2B.6
8. Problem 2B.7

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Simple Cases of Heat Transfer

## 13 August 2011 TK5102 DGA/55

Boundary Conditions

Temperature at a surface
Heat flux at a surface
Continuity of temperature and of the heat flux at
solid-solid interfaces
Newton's law of cooling at solid-fluid interfaces
q = h (Tsolid Tfluid) for cooling solid
q = h (Tfluid Tsolid) for heating solid

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Heat Generation

Electrical sources
Viscous dissipation
Chemical reactions

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Heat conduction
with an electrical
source

Production rate
of heat per
volume of wire
= Se = I2/ke

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Heat conduction with an electrical source

surface at r

## Rate of thermal energy out across cylindrical

surface at r + r

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## Rate of production of thermal energy by

electrical dissipation

Heat balance

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Heat conduction with an electrical source

BC 1 : dT/dr = 0 at r = 0 (qr = 0 at r = 0)

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## Heat conduction with an electrical source

BC 2 : T = To at r = R

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Heat conduction with an electrical source

Maximum temperature

Average temperature

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## Heat flow at the surface

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Heat conduction
with a viscous heat source

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Heat conduction
with a viscous heat source
Heat balance

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Heat conduction
with a viscous heat source
Solution

Boundary conditions
T = To at x = 0
T = Tb at x = b

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Heat conduction
with a viscous heat source
Solution
= + 0.5 Br (1 )
= (T To)/(Tb To), = x/b
Br (Brinkman number) = V2 / k(Tb To)
Brinkman number
Importance of viscous heating relative to heat
flow
There is maximum temperature if Br > 2
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Composite walls

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Composite walls

Flux
q = U (Ta - Tb)
Heat transfer rate
Q = U A (Ta - Tb)
Overall heat transfer coefficient

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Composite cylinders

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Composite cylinders

## Heat transfer rate

Q = (2raL) Ua (Ta Tb) = (2rbL) Ub (Ta Tb)
Overall heat transfer coefficient

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Heat conduction with chemical heat source

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## Thermal energy out by conduction at z + z

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Heat conduction with chemical heat source

## Thermal energy produced

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## Heat conduction with chemical heat source

Heat balance

Fouriers law

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Differential equations for three zones

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Boundary conditions

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Dimensionless differential equations

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## Dimensionless temperature distribution

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Dimensionless temperature distribution

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Temperature distribution

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Homework II

## R. Byron Bird et al [2002]

1. Problem 10A.3
2. Problem 10A.4
3. Problem 10A.7
4. Problem 10B.14

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## 13 August 2011 TK5102 DGA/84

Ficks Law
(binary mixtures and constant c)
Flux relative to mixture (first law)
JA* = DABcA = c DABxA

## Flux relative to stationary coordinate (second law)

NA = c DABxA + xA (NA + NB)

## Relations between NA and NB need to know to

solve microscopic balances in mass transfer !
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Boundary Conditions

Concentration at a surface
Mass flux at a surface
At solid-fluid interfaces, flux at solid surface may follows
an analogy of Newtons cooling law
q = kc (cA,solid cA,liquid) for solid-to-fluid
q = kc (cliquid cA,solid) for liquid-to-solid

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Diffusion through a stagnant gas film

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Mass balance

## Vapor B is stationary (NBz = 0)

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Diffusion through a stagnant gas film
Mass balance

Boundary conditions

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## Diffusion through a stagnant gas film

Profile of concentration A

Profile of concentration B

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Diffusion through a stagnant gas film
Average concentration

## Flux (evaporation rate)

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Determination of diffusivity
The diffusivity of the gas pair O2-CC14 is being determined
by observing the steady-state evaporation of carbon
tetrachloride into a tube containing oxygen. The distance
between the CC14 liquid level and the top of the tube is z2
z1 = 17.1 cm. The total pressure on the system is 755 mm Hg,
and the temperature is 0 C. The vapor pressure of CC14 at
that temperature is 33.0 mm Hg. The cross-sectional area of
the diffusion tube is 0.82 cm2. It is found that 0.0208 cm3 of
CCI4 evaporate in a 10-hour period after steady state has been
attained. What is the diffusivity of the gas pair O2-CC14 ?

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Determination of diffusivity

## Molar flux of CCl4

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Determination of diffusivity

Diffusivity

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Diffusion with heterogeneous reaction

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Mass balance

## One mole B diffuses back for every two moles A

(NBz = -NA/2)

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Diffusion with heterogeneous reaction
(instantaneous reaction)
Mass balance

Boundary conditions

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## Diffusion with heterogeneous reaction

(instantaneous reaction)
Concentration profile

Flux

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Diffusion with heterogeneous reaction
(reaction rate NAz=k1cxA|z=)

Mass balance

Boundary conditions

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## Diffusion with heterogeneous reaction

(reaction rate NAz=k1cxA|z=)
Concentration profile

Flux

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Diffusion & reaction inside porous catalyst

RA = - k a cA

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## Diffusion & reaction inside porous catalyst

r
..(1)
r+r
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Diffusion & reaction inside porous catalyst

## NA = - DA dcA/dr, DA = effective diffusivity

Equation (1) becomes

Boundary condition
cA = cAs at r = R
dcA/dr = 0 at r = 0 (symmetrical)
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## Diffusion & reaction inside porous catalyst

Concentration profile

## Molar flow at surface r = R

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Diffusion & reaction inside porous catalyst

## Effectiveness factor : Was/WA0

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Homework III

## CO2 is being absorbed from a gas in a small experimental wetted-wall

tower as shown in the figure. The absorbing fluid is water, which is
moving down the tower with an average velocity of 17.7 cm/s. CO2 is
only slightly soluble in water, so that the viscosity of the water is
unaffected. Furthermore, the diffusion of CO2 takes place so slowly in
the liquid film that CO2 will not penetrate very far into the film (the
penetration distance will be small in comparison with the film
thickness). What is the absorption rate in g-moles/hr, if the liquid-
phase diffusivity of the CO2-water system is 1.5 x 10-5 cm2/s, and if the
solubility (saturation concentration) of CO2 in water is 0.04 g-mole per
liter (these are at the experimental temperature). The dimensions of the
tower are given in the figure.

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A solid sphere of naphthalene (A) with a radius of 2.5 mm is
surrounded by still air (B) at 300 K and 1 atm. Take the surface
temperature of naphthalene is 300 K and its vapor pressure at this
temperature as 0.104 mmHg. The diffusivity of naphthalene vapor in air
at 318 K is 6.92 10-6 m2/s. On assuming ideal gas behavior, determine
the rate at which naphthalene evaporates

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