You are on page 1of 11

# Hindawi Publishing Corporation

## Mathematical Problems in Engineering

Volume 2016, Article ID 6086497, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/6086497

Research Article
Carrier-Based PWM Method to Reduce Common-Mode
Voltage of Three-to-Five-Phase Indirect Matrix Converter

Rutian Wang,1 Xingjun Mu,1 Zhiqiang Wu,2 Lihui Zhu,1 Qiufeng Chen,3 and Xue Wang1
1
School of Electrical Engineering, Northeast Dianli University, Jilin 132012, China
2
State Grid Jilin Electric Power Supply Company, Changchun 130000, China
3
State Grid Jilin Electric Power Supply Company, Jilin 132000, China

## Academic Editor: Stefan Balint

Copyright 2016 Rutian Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

In order to reduce the common-mode voltage (CMV) for three-to-five-phase indirect matrix converter (IMC), the CMV with the
conventional modulation strategy is analyzed. A novel carrier-based PWM (CBPWM) method is proposed in this paper. The zero
vectors in the inverter stage are assigned to the rectifier stage, equivalently, which are not considered in the inverter stage. The zero
vectors are selected appropriately to ensure that the dc-link is connected to an input phase with the minimum absolute value, so that
the larger CMV can be avoided. Then, the modulation signals are derived by the duty ratios, which are used to compare with the only
one carrier signal and generate the gate pulses of switches. With the proposed method, the CMV is reduced effectively compared
with the conventional modulation strategy. This method is analyzed and researched with a simulation model established by Matlab/
Simulink. Simulation results are provided in detail to verify the feasibility and validity of the proposed method.

## 1. Introduction advantages such as zero current safer commutation and less

switching losses in the rectifier stage and less total number of
With the rapid development of the power electronic con- power switches [11].
verter, the drive system gradually gets rid of the bound of However, the CMV between the motor neutral point
the phase number. Multiphase drive system has received and the ground is caused inevitably when the SVPWM
more and more attention [15], so that the multiphase matrix strategy is applied to MC. Due to the switches operating at
converter (MC) has been widely studied [611]. The three-to- high switching frequencies, the CMV, with a high value of
five-phase direct matrix converter (DMC) was proposed in /, will produce a strong impact action on the motor
[7], and there are fifteen bidirectional switches connected in drive system. Meanwhile, it will excite stray capacitance and
series; each output phase can connect with each input phase. parasitic coupling capacitance to generate high-frequency
However, this topology requires many power switches, mul- leakage current. This leakage current will produce a strong
tistep commutation, and complicated overvoltage protection electromagnetic interference (EMI) [1315]. Meanwhile, the
circuits [12]. To avoid the above problems, a three-to-five- CMV may cause shaft voltage between the shaft and the
phase indirect matrix converter (IMC) topology, illustrated bearing seat through the distributed capacitance existing in
in Figure 1, has been researched to implement the AC-AC the gap between stator, rotor, air, and ground, so that the
power converter. The benefits of three-to-five-phase IMC are normal operation of motor devices will be affected. Therefore,
similar to those of a three-to-five-phase DMC, such as no it is particularly important to reduce the negative effects of
required large energy storage components, compact struc- CMV.
ture, bidirectional energy flow, unrestricted output frequency, At present, the research on control strategy to reduce
a controllable input power factor, and a maximum voltage CMV of the three-to-three-phase MC is relatively mature [14,
transfer ratio (VTR) of 0.7886 [7]. Moreover, it has additional 1619], which is based on the mechanism of CMV. According
2 Mathematical Problems in Engineering

p ipn

## Sap Sbp Scp SAp SBp SCp SDp SEp

iA
ia

Five-phase load
ua uA iB
Lf uB iC
ib upn
ub
uC iD
ic uD
uc iE
uE
Cf
San Sbn Scn SAn SBn SCn SDn SEn

Input filter
n
Rectifier stage Inverter stage

## Figure 1: The topology of three-to-five-phase IMC.

to the amplitude-frequency characteristic of CMV, the low- ( {a, b, c}; {p, n}), and those of the inverter stage
pass filter with much smaller cut-off frequency than the are denoted by using ( {A, B, C, D, E}).
switching frequency is applied in [16], so that the CMV is
reduced. The high value of / is suppressed in [17] by 2.2. The Basic Principle of Conventional Modulation Strategy.
improving the topology of matrix converter, and the output For the rectifier stage, suppose the three input voltages are
voltage is not mutation. Instead of zero vectors, a pair of described by
opposing active vectors is chosen in [18] to reduce CMV. The
two smaller line voltages are selected in [14] to synthesize a = im cos (i )
the dc-link voltage. The CMV and switching losses of IMC 2
are both reduced, but the maximum VTR is limited to 0.5. b = im cos (i ) (1)
Using three active vectors to synthesize the desired output 3
voltage vector is proposed in [19]. Although the CMV of IMC 2
c = im cos (i + ),
is reduced, the maximum VTR is only 0.577. 3
However, the research on CMV of the multiphase MC
is relatively few. The zero vectors in the inverter stage are where im and i are the amplitude and angular frequency
reselected based on SVPWM strategy in [20]. But it requires of the input phase voltage, respectively. One period of input
a complex sector combination and lookup tables. phase voltages is divided into twelve segments, as shown in
In view of the above problems, a carrier-based PWM Figure 2.
(CBPWM) method is proposed in this paper to reduce the In each segment, to obtain the maximum dc-link voltage
CMV of three-to-five-phase IMC. This method focuses on the pn , only two larger and positive line voltages are selected to
reasonable distribution of the zero vectors in both stages, so synthesize pn [21]. Taking the input voltages in segment 1
that the value of CMV is reduced. And the switching losses of as an example, then, the voltages ab and ac are selected, as
the inverter stage are decreased. shown in Figure 2(b). Thus, the average value of the dc-link
voltage pn can be expressed as
2. Topology and Modulation Principles of pn = ab + ac , (2)
Three-to-Five-Phase IMC
where and are duty ratios of voltages ab and ac ,
2.1. Topology of Three-to-Five-Phase IMC. The topology of respectively, and satisfy the following constraints:
three-to-five-phase IMC is shown in Figure 1. It consists of
a rectifier stage with six bidirectional switches and a five- + = 1 0 1 0 1. (3)
leg inverter stage with ten unidirectional switches. a , b ,
and c and a , b , and c are three-phase input voltages and The local-averaged input currents are expressed as
input currents, respectively; A , B , C , D , and E and A ,
B , C , D , and E are five-phase output voltages and currents a +
respectively. pn and pn are the dc-link voltage and current, [ ] [ ]
[ b] = [ ]
[ ] pn , (4)
respectively. f and f are inductor and capacitor of input
filter. The switches of the rectifier stage are denoted by using [c ] [ ]
Mathematical Problems in Engineering 3

u ua ub uc
u uac ubc uba uca ucb uab

0 i t i t
0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
(a) Input three-phase voltages (b) Input three line voltages

## Figure 2: Segment partition for input voltages.

U12 U28
01100 III 11100

U14 IV
U30 U8 II U24
11110 01000
01110 U4 U20 11000
U
01101 U13 10100 29
00100 U10 11101 I UL
V U26
01010 11010
U6 U15 U22 U9 U16 U25
00110 01111 10110 01001 10000 11001 UM
00101 U21 10101
U5
VI 00010
01011 U18 10010 11011 X Uref
U2 U11 U27
00111 10001
10111 U1 0000 U17
U7 U23 1 IX
VII
U0a v
00011 VIII
U3 U19 10011 U0b UM UL
(a) Distribution of output voltage space vector (b) Generation of output reference voltage

## Figure 3: Distribution and Generation of output voltage space vector.

where pn is the local-averaged dc-link current of pn . Com- According to the above analysis, the switching states in
bining (2), (3), and (4) with the condition of unit input power each segment and the corresponding duty ratios are shown
factor, the duty ratios are obtained by in Table 1.
For the five-leg inverter stage, assume the expected output
= = b voltages are described by
s a
(5)
A = om cos (o )
= = c,
s a 2
B = om cos (o )
where s is the sampling period. and are action times 5
of voltages ab and ac . 4
Combining (2) and (5), the average value of the dc-link C = om cos (o ) (8)
5
voltage is
6
2
3im D = om cos (o )
pn = . (6) 5
2a
8
Thus, pn varies in each input segment. The respective E = om cos (o ),
5
minimum and maximum values of the average dc-link
voltage are where om and o are the amplitude and angular frequency
of the output phase voltage, respectively.
pn min = 1.5im
The distribution of output voltage space vector is shown
(7) in Figure 3(a), which includes thirty active vectors and two
pn max = 3im . zero vectors (U0 (00000) and U31 (11111), not shown in
4 Mathematical Problems in Engineering

Table 1: The switching state and corresponding duty ratio in each Suppose the output voltage is in sector I (v = o , 0
segment. v /5), from (11), the sum of the duty ratios of the active
vectors must be satisfied
Segment ON Modulated switches and duty ratios
switch + + + 1. (12)
1, 12 ap bn b /a cn c /a
From (11) and (12), the following inequality can be
2, 3 cn bp b /c ap a /c
obtained:
4, 5 bp an a /b cn c /b
6, 7 an cp c /a bp b /a 2 sin (2/5) om cos (o /10)
1. (13)
8, 9 cp bn b /c an a /c pn
10, 11 bn ap a /b cp c /b
On the left of (13), when the numerator takes the maxi-
mum value and the denominator takes the minimum value,
(13) should also be established. That is,
Figure 3(a)). Each vector is represented by the set (A , B , C ,
D , and E ), where ( = A, B, C, D, E) is defined as 2 sin (2/5) om
1. (14)
pn min
{1, the upper switch of leg is ON state
= { (9) From (7) and (14), the voltage transfer ratio (VTR) of the
0, the lower switch of leg is ON state.
{ three-to-five-phase IMC is calculated as

## There are six adjacent vectors in each sector that can om

VTR = 0.7886. (15)
be used to synthesize the reference output voltage vector. im
However, in order to obtain the maximum output reference
voltage, only two adjacent maximum vectors U and U , To obtain the sinusoidal input and output waveforms, the
and two medium vectors U and U, and zero vector U0 switching pattern should produce an effective combination of
are selected [22], as shown in Figure 3(b). the rectifier and inverter switching states. The input voltages
The reference output voltage vector Uref can be described in segment 1 and output voltages in sector I are taken as
by an example; the duty ratios of switching states within one
sampling period are obtained by (5) and (11):
Uref = U + U + U + U = ;
(10)
+ 0 U0 , =

where = ;

1 inv =
= = sin ( v )
s sin (4/5) + 5
0v = 0v
(16)
= = = ;
s
=
1 inv
= = sin (v ) (11)
s sin (4/5) + = ;
=
= =
s
0v = 0v .
0v
0v = = 1 ( + + + ) ,
s According to Figure 3(b), for the first half of the switching
period, the vectors of the five-leg inverter stage are switched
where inv is the modulation index of the five-leg inverter by U0a U U U U U0b , and in
stage, inv = om /pn . v is the angle between the vector reverse for the second half for the symmetrical scheme. The
Uref and the vector U . = 0.4. = 0.8 cos(/5). , , switching sequence of the two stages is shown in Figure 4.
, and and , , , and are action times The selection principle of zero vectors, U0a and U0b , is to
and duty ratios of corresponding vector. is the ratio of the ensure the least switching number in each sampling period.
medium and maximum vector in the same direction. In order U0a , U0b {U0 , U31 }. According to (16), the action time of
to ensure the output voltage is sinusoidal waveform, the value each switching state is 01 = 0.250v s , 1 = 0.5s ,
of should be equal to 1/(2 cos(/5)). 2 = 0.5 s , 3 = 0.5 s , 4 = 0.5s , 02 =
Mathematical Problems in Engineering 5

## uab uac uab

Motor
ua A
a iA
ub B
iB
Sap b C
O
uc iC N
Rectifier

c D
iD
Sbn E
iE
Scn
ZNO uNO
SAp
iNO
SBp
Figure 5: Generation of CMV and leakage current.
Inverter

SCp

SDp
are represented by the dashed line in Figure 5. Then, the
SEp equations can be obtained by KVL:
t01 t1 t2 t3 t4 t02 t5 t6 t7 t8 t03 t8 t7 t6 t5 t02 t4 t3 t2 t1 t01
AO NO = A + A /
Ts
BO NO = B + B /
Figure 4: The switching sequence of conventional modulation
strategy. CO NO = C + C / (17)
DO NO = D + D /
0.250v s , 5 = 0.5s , 6 = 0.5 s , 7 = 0.5 s , EO NO = E + E /,
8 = 0.5s , and 03 = 0.50v s . From Figure 4, the zero
dc-link current commutation is achieved in the rectifier stage where AO , BO , CO , DO , and EO are voltages between
[21]. output phases and the ground. and are the equivalent
resistance and inductance of the AC motor. Under the
2.3. Sector Transition Problem. The principle of the transition condition of sinusoidal and symmetrical output waveforms,
from one segment to the other adjacent segment is to ensure the sum of output currents is equal to zero A +B +C +D +E =
the least switching number. 0. From (17), The CMV NO can be expressed as
In the rectifier stage, The states of six switches in rectifier
stage are represented by the set (ap , an , bp , bn , cp , and AO + BO + CO + DO + EO
cn ), and = 1 denotes that the switch is ON state, NO = . (18)
5
and = 0 denotes that the switch is OFF state, where
{a, b, c}; {p, n}. The switching sequence in segment According to the above analysis, it can be seen that the
1 is ab (100100) ac (100001) ab (100100). In case of CMV is generated inevitably between the motor neutral point
transit to segment 2, the switching sequence is ac (100001) and the ground, when the motor is driven by five-phase
bc (001001) ac (100001). So, during the transition, the converter. Different peak value of CMV is generated due to
switch switches only once. From Figure 2(b), in case of transit the different switching combinations, when the conventional
from segment 2 to segment 3, the switch state remains modulation strategies in [11, 22] are applied. According to
unchanged. It is similar in other segments. the basic principle of the conventional modulation strategy,
In the inverter stage, the switching sequence in sector taking the input voltage in segment 1 and the reference
I is U31 (11111) U29 (11101) U25 (11001) output voltage vector in sector I as an example, when the dc-
U24 (11000) U16 (10000) U0 (00000) U16 (10000) link voltage is ab and the vector U25 (11001) is used in the
U24 (11000) U25 (11001) U29 (11101) U31 (11111). In five-leg inverter stage, the output phases A, B, and E
case of the transit to the sector II, the switching sequence is are connected to p pole of dc-side (input phase a); C
U31 (11111) U29 (11101) U28 (11100) U24 (11000) and D are connected to n pole of dc-side (input phase
U8 (01000) U0 (00000) U8 (01000) U24 (11000) b). Combining (18), The CMV generated at this time is
U28 (11100) U29 (11101) U31 (11111). The switching calculated by NO = (3a + 2b )/5, the value range of which
sequence in other sectors is similar to that described above. is [3im /10, 33im /10]. Thus, the peak value of CMV is
33/10 times of the amplitude of input phase voltage. Other
3. CMV Analysis in Three-to-Five-Phase IMC cases are similar to the above. The distribution of CMV at
each switching combination is shown in Table 2. Similarly, the
The principle of CMV when a five-phase AC motor is driven same method can be used to analyze the CMV of other sector
by the three-to-five-phase IMC is shown in Figure 5. NO combinations.
is the leakage impedance between the load neutral point From Table 2, the peak value of CMV is the amplitude of
and the ground. The paths of CMV and leakage current input phase voltage when the zero vector U31 is used in the
6 Mathematical Problems in Engineering

## Table 2: Distribution and variation of the CMV.

dc Vector NO Ranges Peak value of NO
U0 (00000) b [3im /2, 0] 3im /2
U16 (10000) (a + 4b )/5 [33im /10, 3im /10] 33im /10
U24 (11000) (2a + 3b )/5 [3im /10, 3im /5] 3im /5
ab
U25 (11001) (3a + 2b )/5 [3im /10, 33im /10] 33im /10
U29 (11101) (4a + b )/5 [33im /10, 13im /5] 13im /5
U31 (11111) a [3im /2, im ] im
U0 (00000) c [3im /2, 0] 3im /2
U16 (10000) (a + 4c )/5 [33im /10, 3im /10] 33im /10
U24 (11000) (2a + 3c )/5 [3im /10, 3im /5] 3im /5
ac
U25 (11001) (3a + 2c )/5 [3im /10, 33im /10] 33im /10
U29 (11101) (4a + c )/5 [33im /10, 13im /5] 13im /5
U31 (11111) a [3im /2, im ] im

five-leg inverter stage. Then, the dc-link is connected to an uac uab ubb uab uac
input phase with the maximum absolute value. The CMV, the
peak value of which is equal to im , is generated.
Sap
Sbn
Rectifier
4. The CBPWM Method with CMV Reduction
Scn
By analyzing the switching sequence in Figure 4, the zero Sbp
vectors in the inverter stage are assigned to the rectifier stage, (a) Switching sequence of the rectifier stage
equivalently, which are not considered in the inverter stage. SAp
Thus, the dc-link voltage is synthesized by two larger line SBp
Inverter

## voltages and a zero voltage, which can be selected according

SCp
to the absolute value of the input phase voltage. When the
SDp
input voltage is in segments 1, 2, 7, and 8, the zero voltage bb
SEp
is selected; the voltage aa is used in segments 3, 4, 9, and 10; t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6 t7 t8 t0 t8 t7 t6 t5 t4 t3 t2 t1
and in segments 5, 6, 11, and 12, cc is used. The input voltage
Ts
in segment 1 and the reference output voltage vector in sector (b) Switching sequence of the inverter stage
I are taken as an example; the switching sequence is shown in u2 T2
Figures 6(a) and 6(b). urE2 TE2
u1 T1
In terms of the change rate of CMV, the CMV is changed uc t
0
urE1 TE1
16 times within one sampling period by using the improved
modulation strategy. While it is 22 times and 18 times when Ts
using two zero vectors and one zero vector, respectively, (c) Triangular carrier signal uc and modulation signals
under conventional modulation strategies. S1
According to (16), the action time of each switching state S2
in Figure 6 is 1 = 0.5s , 2 = 0.5 s , 3 = 0.5 s , (d) Generation of gate pulses for rectifier stage
SE1
4 = 0.5s , 5 = 0.5s , 6 = 0.5 s , 7 =
0.5 s , 8 = 0.5s , and 0 = 0.50v s . SE2
In the rectifier stage, when the switching states are SE
switched, the active vectors are used in the inverter stage. (e) Generation of gate pulses for inverter stage
Thus, the commutation mode should be applied appropriately
to ensure the safe commutation of switches in the rectifier Figure 6: The switching sequence and generation of gate pulses by
stage. using the improved modulation strategy.
According to the above analysis and Table 2, the peak
value of CMV is not more than 13im /5, so that it can symmetrical triangular carrier signal is applied in this paper,
be reduced to 13/5 of the amplitude of the input phase which is described as
voltage.
4
The modulation strategy is realized by complex divi- c = 1, 0 s , (19)
s 2
sion and combination of sectors, which is similar to the
SVPWM strategy. In order to simplify the process, only one where c is the instantaneous value of the carrier signal.
Mathematical Problems in Engineering 7

4.1. Rectifier Stage Control. Figure 6(d) shows the principle two modulation signals, rE1 and rE2 , respectively, with the
to generate gate pulses for the rectifier stage. The two symmetrical triangular signal c . Then, the pulse E for switch
modulation signals 1 and 2 in Figure 6(c) are used to Ep is shown in Figure 6(e). It is obtained by XOR function:
generate the gate pulses for rectifier stage. The two pulses
1 and 2 in Figure 6(d) are obtained by comparing two E = E1 E2 + E1 E2 . (24)
modulation signals to the carrier signal. The gate pulses for
switches ap , bp , bn , and cn are calculated by The switching sequence for output phase E is obtained
by (24) and Figure 6(e).
ap = 2 From Figures 6(b) and 6(c), the durations E1 and E2 can
be derived as
bp = 2 s
(20) E1 = ( + )
bn = 1 2

cn = 1 . E2 = [( + + + ) + ( + ) (25)

## The gate pulses for other switches are an = 0 and cp = s

] .
0. The switching sequence for the rectifier stage, shown in 2
Figure 6(a), is obtained by (20) and Figure 6(d). Combining (19) and (25), two modulation signals are
From Figures 6(a) and 6(c), the durations 1 and 2 can obtained by
be derived as
E D
rE1 = 2 1
1 = ( + + + ) s pn
2
(21) (26)
D E D
2 = ( + + + ) s . rE2 = 2( A ) 1.
2 pn pn
Combining (19) and (21), two modulation signals are The two modulation signals of other phases are similar
obtained by to (22) as well as in other sectors. Generally, the double
A D modulation signals to generate gate pulse for the upper switch
1 = 2 1 of phase ( {A, B, C, D, E}) in the inverter stage are
pn
given by
(22)
D min
2 = 2 A 1. r1 = 2 1
pn pn
In other segments, the two modulation signals are similar (27)
min min
to (22). In different input segments, they can be written as r2 = 2 ( max ) 1,
pn pn
max min
r1 = 2 1 where r1 and r2 are two modulation signals of phase
pn
(23) and is output voltage of phase .
max min In the inverter stage, the gate pulse of the lower switch of
r2 = 2 1,
pn each phase has a complementary relationship with that of the
upper switch. However, in the different sectors, the switches
where r1 and r2 are two modulation signals for the which keep ON state or OFF state continuously are different.
rectifier stage. max = max(A , B , C , D , E ) and min = Thus, the different modulation signals are needed, as shown
min(A , B , C , D , E ). in Table 3.

4.2. Inverter Stage Control. In Figure 6(b), because the zero 5. Simulation Results
vectors are not considered in the inverter stage, the switches
Ap and Dn keep ON state, while An and Dp keep OFF In order to verify the feasibility of the proposed CBPWM
state within each sampling period in sector I, so that the method, the simulation model of three-to-five-phase IMC
switches of phases B, C, and E are modulated. In order is established based on Matlab/Simulink. The parameters of
to generate the gate pulse for the upper switch of each phase, the simulation model are shown in Table 4. The simulation
two modulation signals are needed. Figure 6(e) shows the results are shown in Figures 7 and 8.
principle to generate the gate pulse for switch E when the Figure 7 contains the simulation waveforms of the input
CBPWM method is used in the inverter stage. The two voltage a and input current a , output line-to-line voltage
modulation signals, rE1 and rE2 , are used to generate the AB , FFT analysis of AB , and five-phase output current. From
gate pulse for the upper switch of phase E, which is shown in Figure 7(a), the input current a becomes almost sinusoidal
Figure 6(c). The pulses E1 and E2 are obtained by comparing waveform due to the LC filter. However, the LC filter causes
8 Mathematical Problems in Engineering

## Sector ON state switches OFF state switches Modulation signals

I Ap , Dn An , Dp B1 , B2 , C1 , C2 , E1 , E2
II Bp , Dn Bn , Dp A1 , A2 , C1 , C2 , E1 , E2
III Bp , En Bn , Ep A1 , A2 , C1 , C2 , D1 , D2
IV Cp , En Cn , Ep A1 , A2 , B1 , B2 , D1 , D2
V Cp , An Cn , Ap B1 , B2 , D1 , D2 , E1 , E2
VI Dp , An Dn , Ap B1 , B2 , C1 , C2 , E1 , E2
VII Dp , Bn Dn , Bp A1 , A2 , C1 , C2 , E1 , E2
VIII Ep , Bn En , Bp A1 , A2 , C1 , C2 , D1 , D2
IX Ep , Cn En , Cp A1 , A2 , B1 , B2 , D1 , D2
X Ap , Cn An , Cp B1 , B2 , D1 , D2 , E1 , E2

400 600
ua
Voltage, (V); current, (A)

400
200

## Voltage, uAB (V)

200
5ia
0 0

200
200
400

400 600
0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10
Time (s) Time (s)
(a) Input voltage and current of phase a (b) Output adjacent line-to-line voltage AB
15
100 iA iB iC iD iE
Fundamental (25 Hz) = 273.9 V
THD = 113.96% 10
Mag (% of fundamental)

Current, io (A)

0
50
5

10

0 15
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10
Harmonic order Time (s)
(c) FFT analysis of AB (d) Output five-phase current

400 400

200 200
Voltage, uNO (V)

## Voltage, uNO (V)

0 0

200 200

400 400
0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10
Time (s) Time (s)
(a) The CMV of conventional modulation strategy (b) The CMV of the proposed CBPWM method

## Figure 8: Waveforms of CMV.

Mathematical Problems in Engineering 9

Table 4: The simulation parameters for the simulation model. [2] E. Levi, R. Bojoi, F. Profumo, H. A. Toliyat, and S. Williamson,
Multiphase induction motor drivesa technology status
Parameters Value review, IET Electric Power Applications, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 489
Input voltage (line-to-line 516, 2007.
2203 V
RMS) [3] P. W. Wheeler, Multiphase induction motor drives, in Pro-
Input frequency 50 Hz ceedings of the IET Chennai 3rd International Conference on
Sustainable Energy and Intelligent Systems (SEISCON 12), p. 1,
f = 0.2 , f = 0.2 mH, Tiruchengode, India, December 2012.
Input filter
f = 30 F
[4] M. Jones, S. N. Vukosavic, D. Dujic, and E. Levi, A synchronous
Switching frequency 10 kHz (s = 1 104 s) current control scheme for multiphase induction motor drives,
Output frequency 25 Hz IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 860
868, 2009.
Voltage transfer ratio VTR = 0.75
[5] R. Karampuri, J. Prieto, F. Barrero, and S. Jain, Extension of the
Five-phase R-L load = 20 , = 30 mH DTC technique to multiphase induction motor drives using any
odd number of phases, in Proceedings of the IEEE Vehicle Power
and Propulsion Conference (VPPC 14), pp. 16, 2014.
the displacement angle between the input voltage and cur- [6] J. Szczepanik and T. Sienko, New control strategy for multi-
rent at the power supply. From Figures 7(b) and 7(c), the phase matrix converter, in Proceedings of the 19th International
output line-to-line voltage does not contain the low-order Conference on Systems Engineering (ICSEng 08), pp. 121126,
harmonic, and the output currents are sinusoidal waveforms IEEE, Las Vegas, Nev, USA, August 2008.
in Figure 7(d). It can be confirmed that the sinusoidal output [7] S. K. M. Ahmed, A. Iqbali, H. Abu-Rub, and M. R. Khan, Space
voltages and input currents are obtained by using proposed vector PWM technique for a novel three-to-five phase matrix
CBPWM method. converter, in Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE Energy Conversion
Figure 8 shows the CMV waveforms with the conven- Congress and Exposition (ECCE 10), pp. 18751880, Atlanta, Ga,
tional modulation strategies, proposed in [11, 22], and the USA, September 2010.
proposed CBPWM method, respectively. Obviously, the peak [8] S. M. Ahmed, A. Iqbal, and H. Abu-Rub, Generalized duty-
value of CMV in Figure 8(a) is 311 V which is equal to the ratio-based pulsewidth modulation technique for a three-to-
amplitude of input phase voltage. And the peak value of CMV k, phase matrix converter, IEEE Transactions on Industrial
Electronics, vol. 58, no. 9, pp. 39253937, 2011.
in Figure 8(b) is equal to about 224 V, which is 72% (about
13/5) of the amplitude of input phase voltage. In other [9] S. M. Ahmed, A. Iqbal, H. Abu-Rub, J. Rodriguez, C. A. Rojas,
and M. Saleh, Simple carrier-based PWM technique for a
words, by using the proposed CBPWM method, the CMV is
three-to-nine-phase direct ACAC converter, IEEE Transac-
reduced by 28%. It is consistent with the theoretic analysis tions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 58, no. 11, pp. 50145023, 2011.
above.
[10] A. Iqbal, K. Rahman, R. Alammari, and H. Abu-Rub, Space
vector PWM for a three-phase to six-phase direct AC/AC
6. Conclusion converter, in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference
on Industrial Technology, pp. 11791184, Seville, Spain, March
In this paper, a CBPWM method to reduce CMV of three- 2015.
to-five-phase IMC is proposed. To ensure the dc-link is [11] T. D. Nguyen and H. Lee, Development of a three-to-five-
connected to an input phase with the minimum absolute phase indirect matrix converter with carrier-based PWM based
value, the zero vectors are selected and arranged reasonably. on space-vector modulation analysis, IEEE Transactions on
Thus, the peak value of CMV can be reduced effectively, Industrial Electronics, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 1324, 2016.
which is 13/5 times of the amplitude of input phase voltage. [12] T. D. Nguyen and H.-H. Lee, Dual three-phase indirect matrix
The method is implemented by using only one symmetrical converter with carrier-based PWM method, IEEE Transactions
triangular carrier signal, which is simple and avoids the on Power Electronics, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 569581, 2014.
complexity of sector combination and lookup tables. Due [13] H. Q. Zhang, X. S. Wang, and D. G. Xu, Suppression
to the zero vector is assigned to the rectifier stage, the of common-mode voltage for matrix converter based on
switching times as well as the switching losses are reduced. SVPWM, Electric Machines and Control, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 242
The correctness of the theoretical analysis is verified by 246, 2006.
simulation. [14] T. D. Nguyen and H.-H. Lee, Modulation strategies to reduce
common-mode voltage for indirect matrix converters, IEEE
Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 129140,
Competing Interests 2012.
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests [15] Y. Fan, P. W. Wheeler, and J. C. Clare, Common-mode voltage
regarding the publication of this paper. in matrix converters, in Proceedings of the 4th IET Conference
on Power Electronics, Machines and Drives, pp. 500504, 2008.
References [16] T. Kume, K. Yamada, T. Higuchi et al., Integrated filters and
their combined effects in matrix converter, IEEE Transactions
[1] G. K. Singh, Multi-phase induction machine drive researcha on Industry Applications, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 571581, 2007.
survey, Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 139 [17] K. K. Mohapatra and N. Mohan, Open-end winding induc-
147, 2002. tion motor driven with matrix converter for common-mode
10 Mathematical Problems in Engineering

## elimination, in Proceedings of the International Conference on

Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems (PEDES 06), pp.
16, New Delhi, India, December 2006.
[18] H. H. Lee, H. M. Nguyen, and E. H. Jung, A study on reduction
of common-mode voltage in matrix converter with unity
input power factor and sinusoidal input/output waveforms, in
Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of IEEE in Industrial
Electronics Society (IECON 05), pp. 12101216, Raleigh, NC,
USA, November 2005.
[19] T. D. Nguyen and H.-H. Lee, A new SVM method for an indi-
rect matrix converter with common-mode voltage reduction,
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, vol. 10, no. 1, pp.
6172, 2014.
[20] H. Liu, H. Yu, and L. Sun, Modulation strategy to reduce
common-mode voltage for three-to-five phase indirect matrix
converter, in Intelligent Computing for Sustainable Energy and
Environment, K. Li, S. Li, D. Li, and Q. Niu, Eds., vol. 355 of
Communications in Computer and Information Science, pp. 28
36, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2013.
[21] L. Wei and T. A. Lipo, A novel matrix converter topology with
simple commutation, in Proceedings of the 36th IEEE Industry
Applications Society Conference (IAS 01), vol. 3, pp. 17491754,
Chicago, Ill, USA, 2001.
[22] S. M. Dabour, A. E.-W. Hassan, and E. M. Rashad, Analysis and
implementation of space vector modulated five-phase matrix
converter, International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy
Systems, vol. 63, no. 8, pp. 740746, 2014.
Advances in Advances in Journal of Journal of
Operations Research
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Decision Sciences
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Applied Mathematics
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Algebra
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Probability and Statistics
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014

## The Scientific International Journal of

World Journal
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Differential Equations
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014

## Submit your manuscripts at

http://www.hindawi.com

## International Journal of Advances in

Combinatorics
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Mathematical Physics
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014

## Journal of Journal of Mathematical Problems Abstract and Discrete Dynamics in

Complex Analysis
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Mathematics
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
in Engineering
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Applied Analysis
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Nature and Society
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014

International
Journal of Journal of
Mathematics and
Mathematical
Discrete Mathematics
Sciences

## Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Volume 2014

Function Spaces
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Stochastic Analysis
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Optimization
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014