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The Superwoman: Theories of Gender and Genius in Edwardian Britain

Author(s): Lucy Delap

Source: The Historical Journal, Vol. 47, No. 1 (Mar., 2004), pp. 101-126
Published by: Cambridge University Press
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Accessed: 15-09-2017 17:07 UTC

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The HistoricalJournal, 47, I (2004), pp. 101-126 ( 2004 Cambridge University Press
DOI: Io.Io17/Sooi8246Xo3003534 Printed in the United Kingdom




King's College, Cambridge

A B STRACT. This article examines the development of the idea of the '
Edwardian feminists and contextualizes it within the aristocratic political tho
idea of the 'genius' and the 'superman' in order to shed light on why, for so
idealfeminist agent was to be an elite, discerning, remotefigure. I argue that
an 'introspective turn', marked by an interest in character, will, and person
emancipation. The focus of political change was firmly located within wome
widespread, even though only a minority chose the language of the 'superwom
to the 'superwoman' indicates the impact of Nietzschean and egoist ideas u
The 'superwoman' was used to position feminism as a movement not just for
social regeneration, and represents a characteristically Edwardian belief in
individual' to promote social change.

The term 'feminism' first gained wide currency in Britai

period, and is frequently characterized as signifying a com
inclusion, and liberal politics.' It was, however, thoroughly
and recognized as significantly more radical than the mor
ing around 'suffragism'. 'Feminism' came to represe
'advanced' section of the women's movement, and provid
logical designation for Edwardian thinkers.2 This article e

* I am very grateful to Deborah Thom, Sarah Tasker, Peter Man

readers, for their helpful comments and suggestions concerning this arti
' Germaine Greer in The female eunuch, for example, remarked from the
'the faith that the suffragettes had in the existing political system and t
in them'. Germaine Greer, The female eunuch (London, 1993), p. 14. H
Edwardian suffrage-feminism as dominated by the liberal agenda of Mi
were too preoccupied with campaigning for the vote to spend much time
the new society, or on doing more than expose particular abuses and
programme thatJ. S. Mill had laid down half a century before.' Brian Ha
violence and the suffragettes, 1904-1914', in Michael Bentley and Joh
kingdom: stability and change in modern Britain (Oxford, 1982), pp. 80-I22.
2 Nancy Cott, The grounding ofmodemrnfeminism (New Haven, 1987), pp.
The feminists: women's emancipation movements in Europe, America and Australa
p. 39, n. I.

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to 'feminism', one sim

'progressive': the 'supe
before the First World
Greig, proposed in 19
'amovement to make
claim, and one that r
and 'superwoman', as w
opaque to us, despite
literature. Uses of th
historians. This is per
connotes an elitist,
Historians have tended to see the fascination with the idea of genius and
'superwoman' found in the Edwardian women's movement as an aberration,
clearly at odds with the feminist keystone of equality, and only of interest to
isolated and marginal groups. Some have assumed that Edwardian feminists'
interest in genius was motivated only by anti-feminist arguments that there were
no female geniuses; feminists, it is argued, actually had little interest in imagining
'higher types' of women. Another interpretation is to see the feminist fascination
with genius as itself an equality strategy. The historian Flavia Alaya argues:
'feminists seemed obliged to justify the social and political equality of women ... by
proving the capacity of women to be exceptional'.4 If some women were excep-
tional, then all deserved political rights and social freedoms. While this may have
been a strategy for some Edwardian women, it gains explanatory force through
posing feminist concerns of the period in terms that are comprehensible and
attractive to us a century later. The idea of equality is one we can all subscribe to.
However, this attempt to reconcile elitism with egalitarianism misses an import-
ant dimension. I argue that the Edwardian belief in progress arising from ex-
ceptionality should not be read as an equality claim; the 'exceptional' individual
herself was key to some feminists' hopes for social change.
This article will examine the idea of a 'superwoman' both as a concept in its
own right and through the related concepts of the genius and the superman. I
shall look at how the superwoman functioned as a vehicle for feminist aspirations
in the Edwardian period, and what constraints it imposed on feminist thought.
I argue that the idea of the superwoman captures some important features of
Edwardian feminist political thought that must be recognized as co-existing with
the more well-known commitments to sisterhood, inclusion, and equality.
Specifically, these include elitism, introspection, and interest in internal psycho-
logical change as the first step towards external social reform. The contribution of
this article, then, is to highlight some additional commitments to the political

3 Teresa Billington-Greig, The militant suffrage movement - emancipation in a hurry (London, 1911), p. 213.
4 Flavia Alaya, 'Victorian science and the genius of women ', Journal of the History of Ideas, 38 (977),
pp. 261-80, at p. 268, original emphasis.

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demands commonly associated with suffrage feminism. It will be my ar
that ideals central to the genius and superwoman 'discourses' - i
character, will, and personality - were very important to many femin
this period. These have not received much historical attention beca
are difficult to incorporate into the commonly accepted narrative of tw
century feminism, that equates the Edwardian period with suffragism
'liberal feminist' struggle for equality. In offering a new reading of Ed
feminists' interest in genius and the 'superwoman', this article aims t
textualize the interest within contemporary political and cultural deb
to indicate the way in which feminist thinkers engaged with self-con
'modern' explorations of the self. This is not to suggest that 'superwo
an unproblematic idea, and I conclude with an examination of its limit
and tensions.

The Edwardian debates on supermen and superwomen drew on an older

language, that of 'genius'. It is useful to trace the development of ideas of genius,
to show the intellectual recasting of the genius as 'superhuman'.5 The literature
on genius in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was concerned with the
key political questions of how society should be organized around 'greatness',
and how genius could be harnessed to the needs of a race or nation. The idea of
the genius as a uniquely gifted individual had become significant from the mid-
eighteenth century, and later became a key concept of romantic thought. Genius
became associated with the sublime, with lack of interest in material possessions
and unconventionality. Genius status was potentially available to all, an inclusive
concept to which all might aspire. It was used in progressive discourse as a con-
cept with democratic potential, and this persisted into the nineteenth century.
The genius was to act as an agent of social renewal.6 This well-known idea
of romantic genius is the starting point for understanding the more elusive
Edwardian concepts of genius.
In the mid- to late nineteenth century, a change in the concept of genius can be
perceived, typified by the work of Francis Galton. Galton's 1869 study, titled
Hereditary genius, attempted to redefine genius from a universal human capacity to
an embodied type, found within certain 'great' families. Genius was thus shifting
from its romantic form of a broad aspirational ideal, towards a much more lim-
ited and elitist concept of individual greatness. This 'closing down' of genius can
also be seen in gendered terms, in Galton's belief that 'high reputation is a pretty
accurate test of high ability'. He could not allow that genius capacities might be
suppressed by environment, arguing that 'if a man is gifted with vast intellectual

5 The term 'superhuman' is here used as a shorthand for the many 'super' entities (-man, -woman,
-natural, -consciousness) discussed by Edwardians, though 'superhuman' was itself also a term in use.
6 Howard Mumford Jones, Revolution and romanticism (Cambridge, MA, 1974), and M. H. Abrams,
The mirror and the lamp: romantic theory and the critical tradition (Oxford, 1953).

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ability,eagerness to work and power
a man should be repressed'. The com
ment, that women's genius existed b
Galton, if women were not eminent,
Genius was also shifting from a spiritual or poetic ideal towards an empirical,
measurable one. Galton's work started a trend towards empiricism in the study of
genius - it could be confirmed by skull size, skin and eye colouring and so on.8
This quantification and narrowing of genius was continued into the Edwardian
period by the work of Havelock Ellis. Ellis's 1904 study of British genius attempted
a more 'empirical' account of genius than that of Galton, based upon flows of
'mental energy' and development of the nervous system. He defined genius,
somewhat vaguely, as 'a highly sensitive and complexly developed adjustment of
the nervous system along special lines'.' It took the form of 'intense cerebral
energy', directed along a 'limited path'."1
Ellis was at root committed to the empirical and hereditary model of Galton.
His work indicates another shift in the discourse of genius, from the unconven-
tional, excessive romantic genius to a more conventional idea of 'eminence' by
public recognition. 'Eminence', indicated through being listed in the Dictionary of
national biography, gave Ellis his population of geniuses. But his concept of genius
still had clear links to the constellation of ideas associated with romantic genius.
Like the romantics, Ellis felt that the genius was an 'exfoliating' agent of 'life
renewal', and his account of genius was associated with strong passions, imagin-
ation, the unconscious, and sexual drives.n Sexual energy or, as it was sometimes
described, 'vital force', was a successful idiom in use to describe the nebulous
concept of genius; references to 'vital force', 'life force', or 'energy' are common
in Edwardian descriptions of what it was to be a gifted person or a leader.12

7 Galton accepted that small numbers of eminent women did exist, but could not see them as
sexually attractive. He believed they would be unlikely to marry because of their 'dogmatic and self-
asserting type' or their 'shy, odd manners'. This meant that their 'genius' could not be passed on, and
was thus an evolutionary irrelevance. Francis Galton, Hereditary genius: an inquiry into its laws and conse-
quences (London, 1950), p. 318.
8 This trend was bolstered by the empirical investigations into the distribution of genius or intelli-
gence, such as the account published in 1871 by Hyde Clarke, 'On the geographical distribution of
intellectual qualities in England', Journal of the Statistical Society of London, 34 (Sept. 1871), pp. 357-73.
9 Havelock Ellis, A study of British genius (London, 1904), P. 227.
10 Ellis, British genius, pp. 229, 203.
"1 Christine Battersby, Gender and genius: towards afeminist aesthetics (London, 1989), p. 102. See also
Andrew Elfenbein, Romantic genius: the prehistory of a homosexual role (New York, 1999); Mumford Jones,
Revolution and romanticism, chs. 9 and io. For contrasting earlier meanings of genius, see KineretJaffe,
'The concept of genius: its changing role in eighteenth-century French aesthetics', Journal of the History
of Ideas, 41 (1980), pp. 579-99, and Logan Pearsall Smith, Words and idioms: studies in the English language
(London, 1957).
12 Vitalism can loosely be described as the postulation of a 'life force' additional to mechanics or
chemistry as an explanatory device in science. It had been discarded as a scientific theory for
Edwardians, but remained influential as a social ideology. Edwardian vitalism gained intellectual
standing through the growing influence of Samuel Butler, and the popularization of Henri Bergson.

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For Ellis, life force, and therefore genius, was closely relat
argued 'In men the sexual instinct is a restless source of e
flows into all sorts of channels', and he described creativity
sexual character, in the same sense as a beard'.13 Sexual ex
despite the trend to a more conventional concept of the ge
a means (for men) to become a genius. The genius might b
his sexual promiscuity, or he might be seen to sublimate his
creative work.

This of course excluded women, whose sexual energy required channelling

towards motherhood and care. Ellis's account of British geniuses gave a ratio of
one eminent woman to every eighteen eminent men; genius was possible in
women, but rare.14 Having devoted pages in his earlier study of the sexes, Man and
woman, to describing women's docility, receptiveness, inattention to detail etc.,
he noted rather nervously: 'No inferiority is hereby attributed to women. It is
perhaps even possible to attribute an equality of genius to women if we are
prepared to recognise that quality outside the spheres of art and science in the
wider spheres of concrete life.' Such feminine genius, he argued, was found
in social work, and in love; this feminine genius was 'neither of other kind or of
less perfection than masculine genius; it is merely directed on other objects',
those more in line with what Ellis saw as women's natural interests. He preferred
to see women's genius as complementary to the male, operating in the spheres
men could not access. This was in part due to women's 'dispersal' of energy or
'vital force' through reproduction: 'The claims of reproductive and domestic life
are in women too preponderant and imperious to be easily conciliated with
the claims of a life of intellectual labour."'15 Though sexual energy in men was
closely related to genius, women's link to the sexual sphere disqualified them
from genius.
'Genius' was, however, a concept in transition, and the distinction between
non-genius and genius was not clearly defined for Victorians and Edwardians.
Invoking gendered characteristics of genius helped to give a clearer definition to

'Vital force' was a prominent trope in the plays of G. B. Shaw and many modernist writers, and was
seen as an alternative 'engine' of evolution to the survival of the fittest postulated by Darwin. Evol-
utionary theory had been influential in encouraging ideas of 'higher types', but seemed to rule out free
will, as well as the divine element in human life. Samuel Butler argued instead that evolution was a
process of' willed adaptation to the environment', which he (and, later, Henri Bergson) referred to as
'creative evolution'. G. D. H. Cole, Samuel Butler and the way of allflesh (London, 1947), p. 25; Henri
Bergson, Creative evolution, trans. Arthur Mitchell (London, 1911). Creative evolution would allow
humans to approach God or superhumanity, through ever increasing self-consciousness. Evolution
towards higher forms was 'directed mainly by intelligent sense of need', and driven by the human
qualities of ingenuity and heroism - in other words, by 'life force'. Samuel Butler, Life and habit
(London, 1916), pp. 253, 297.
13 Havelock Ellis, Man and woman: a study of seconday and tertiay sexual characters (London, 1934; 8th
edn), p. 360, and quoted in Alaya, Victorian science, p. 275.
14 Ellis, British genius, pp. IO-Ir. 15 Ibid., pp. 158, 159.

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the distinction between geni

recognized dualism that could
to see vital force as a gendered
giftedness. For vitalists, the m
enterprising, polemical and p
dictably) 'more emotional, m
sexologists described it, femin
force that directed them towa
'katabolic', a destructive or 'sp
that underlay genius."s This b
Millicent Murby, argued that
female enfolds and nourishes an
The significance of gender wit
the 'peripheral' characteristics of
pages to a discussion of the ill
consumption. The latter two co
was 'a somewhat feminine ord
tivities, their restless versatili
versely, 'the genius of the gou
original; these men show a mas
rest", it may be, but also "wit
solved its problem'.20 The 'gout
Indeed, Ellis noted, somewhat
means stands in the way of ...
favourable to mental activity' -
At root, Ellis's theories were b
as creative. Women's life force

16 Susan Kingsley Kent's study, Gen

authority have frequently been cast in
Britain, i64o-99go (London, 1999), P. 19
" R. C. Macfie, Heredity, evolution, and
included a chapter-long polemical diatr
inculcated by the propaganda of the so
18 Patrick Geddes and Arthur Thom
picked up in political tracts, such as that
(London, 1908), p. 22. Cesare Lom
conservators': 'Like children', he argu
habits and customs and religions.' Ces
Alaya, Victorian science. Stanley Hall also us

to physiology, anthropology, sociology, sex,

19 Millicent Murby, The common sen
involved in the translation of the 1911
The Freewoman, a feminist journal whi
20 Ellis, British genius, p. 182. Gout w
the 90oi New English dictionary as 'A
hereditary and in male subjects.' A new E
21 Ellis, British genius, p. 180.

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unsuitable to creative experimentation. The response t

women might claim genius through the discourses of genius
down on women's aspirations through a polarized and arb
and appeals to gendered 'life force'.


What impact did these theories of genius and 'life force' have on
thought ? The shift from a universal to a more elitist idea of genius reson
and had perhaps informed, a turn within nineteenth- and early twentiet
political thought towards a more aristocratic and elitist form of polit
eminent or great individual was seen to provide leadership - national le
or leadership for the whole process of human evolution. Francis Galto
mented: 'We know how intimately the course of events is dependent
thoughts of a few illustrious men.'22 He made it clear in his study of ge
he was trying to define the qualities of leadership that justified imperi
Europeans. Later thinkers saw the problem of leadership as one raised
empire but by the move to a wider democracy. William James argued
'Our democratic problem thus is stateable in ultra-simple terms: Who
kind of men from whom our majorities shall take their cue ?' He sought el
would act as 'the yeast-cake for democracy's dough'.23
The fascination with elites and aristocracies is unsurprising amongs
servative thinkers who had long held that, as W. H. Mallock put it, 'the
human powers and the highest human faculties ... are embodied in an
polised by a minority of exceptional men'.24 But forms of elitism were
among progressive and radical thinkers. The 'new liberal' J. A. H
described the repudiation of democracy in favour of aristocracy by w
reluctantly termed 'the party of progress'. Writing in 1906, he noted:
have I found such great contempt for the capacity, the morals, and the
the people as in this country.'25 George Bernard Shaw tried to capture
vergence around the idea of aristocracy in a lecture on Ruskin's politics,
labelled 'Tory oligarchism' or equally, 'Tory Communism'.26 John Rus
proposed in I86o 'the eternal superiority of some men to others, somet
of one man to all others'; and thus 'the advisability of appointing such
or person to guide, to lead, or on occasion even to compel and subd

22 Galton, Hereditary genius, p. 331.

23 William James, The social value of the college-bred, in James, Writings, 1902-1910 (New
pp. 1246-7.
24 W. H. Mallock, Aristocracy and evolution: a study of the rights, the origin and the socialfunction of the wealthier
classes (London, 1898), p. 379. This was explicitly identified as a 'Tory' position by texts such as
J. M. Kennedy's Tory democracy (London, 1911), and Anthony Ludovici's A defence of aristocracy: a textbook
for tories (London, 2915).
25 J. A. Hobson, 'The new aristocracy of Mr Wells', The Contemporary Review (Apr. 1906), pp. 487-97,
at p. 488. 26 G. B. Shaw, Ruskin's politics (London, 1921), p. 30.

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inferiors'.27 Ruskin did not make

drawn; others believed that it w
might, through their outsider st
Ibsen, an influential figure for
aristocratic rule 'from below'. A statement from him formed the masthead of the

I89os British feminist journal Shafts:

Mere DEMOCRACY cannot solve the social question. An element of ARISTOCRACY must be
introduced into our life. Of course, I do not mean the aristocracy of birth, or of the purse,
or even the aristocracy of intellect. I mean the aristocracy of character, of will, of mind.
That only can free us. From two groups will this aristocracy I hope for come to our people:
from our WOMEN and from our WORKMEN.

The idea of the women's and working-class movements as seed-beds for a new
'aristocracy' was thus already prominent in the I89Os. Politics could serve the
needs of the few, because in them were the seeds of the future, while the rest could
be variously disregarded as the 'herd', 'crowd', or residuum, whose utility
and fulfilment were unimportant. Alfred Orage, editor of the British periodical
The New Age, summed this up in 1907 when he argued that 'the question to be
asked of every institution is whether it makes for the creation of a superior type'.28
Utilitarian concerns were scorned, and political argument centred on the evol-
ution of a 'great society', or 'higher beings'. Many subscribed to a 'top-down'
political style, believing the poor and the workers to be too volatile, or exhausted
and dehumanized by their struggle for existence, to provide political
leadership. The Fabians had tended to regard the poor as positively disqualified
from participation: 'it is difficult for their atrophied brains to grasp an idea. Even
if they could, their devitalised natures and anaemic bodies would be incapable of
working for it. This explains why no socialist has or ever will come from the slums.'29
It was not only conservatives, then, who dwelt on leadership and aristocracy. For
progressives and radicals as well, leadership was crucial.
These comments capture the focus of much political and utopian thinking
within 'advanced' or 'progressive' Edwardian circles.30 Innovation was to come
from the front, from a few gifted individuals. Impetus for the elaboration of

27 John Ruskin, 'Unto this last', in E. T. Cook and A. Wedderburn, eds., The works of John Ruskin
(London, 1905), p. 74, quoted in Ernest Barker, Political thought in Englandfrom Herbert Spencer to the present
day (London, 1915), p. 193.
28 A. R. Orage, Nietzsche in outline and aphorism (Edinburgh, 1907), p. 51.
29 Ruth Cavendish Bentinck, 'The point of honour: a correspondence on aristocracy and social-
ism', in Sally Alexander, ed., Women's fabian tracts (London, 1988), p. 144. George Bernard Shaw's
The illusions of socialism (London, 1956) made a similar argument.
30 The content of affiliations such as 'progressive' are hard to establish for this period, one in which
iconoclasm and experimentalism reigned, and the 'avant-garde' became a site of a curious mixture of
radicalism and reaction. See Tom Steele, 'From gentleman to superman: Alfred Orage and aristo-
cratic socialism', in C. Shaw and M. Chase, eds., The imagined past: history and nostalgia (Manchester,
1989), PP. 12-27, and Paul Peppis, Literature, politics and the English avant-garde: nation and empire, I901-1918
(Cambridge, 2000).

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elitism amongst Edwardians can be traced to the popula

Max Stirner and Nietzsche. Max Stirner's The ego and his
1845, had become newly popular in English-speaking co
English translation of I907.31 Stirner's key insight was th
were sustained through the recognition the oppressed g
hegemonic institutions. The genius, or egoist, was the i
accord such recognition. To follow one's own impulses ga
from oppression, and, indeed, the 'masters' were depende
of the 'servant'. This gave great power to the oppressed
subordination. Stirner argued 'He who, to hold his ow
absence of will in others is a thing made by these others,
made by the servant. If submissiveness ceased, it would be o
The entire focus of political change thus lay in the deplo
the agent's ability to self-overcome. This was a political p
appealed to modernist thinkers in early twentieth-century
on the uniqueness and social atomism of genius figures.
previously an aspirational, even democratic figure, coul
individual who threw off oppression through the cultiv
ality'. This, as we shall see later on, was extremely signif

Nietzsche's popular figure of the Ubermensch was another

idea of egoist or genius, and one with more active polit
Stirner was relatively uninterested in leadership, Nietzs
egoist morality of the 'will' a significance for his Edwa
variously interpreted in terms of leadership of the nation,
Alfred Orage declared in 1907, in highly Nietzschean te
history of man would be nothing better than a meaning
that such a history can be regarded as the pre-natal cond
justifying species.'34 In order to achieve this superior race
abandoned, and the focus of politics was to be inter
The nature of genius remained contested for Edwardian
the influence of Nietzsche and Stirner, it became more

31 The first British edition of Stirner's work was published in 1912. Max
trans. Steven T. Byington (London, 1912). 32 Ibid., pp. 25
33 See David Thatcher, Nietzsche in England, 189o-19i4 (Toronto, 19
tactless NietzscheanJew" : Oscar Levy's critique of western civilisation', Jou
History, 36 (2001), pp. 271-92; Bruce Detwiler, Nietzsche and the politics of
1990). Most contemporaries drew their interpretation of Nietzsche's 'sup
referred to) 'beyond-man' from Thus spake Zarathustra; see A. C. Pigou,
A. W. Benn, 'The morals of an immoralist: Freidrich Nietzsche. II', Internat
19 (1908 and 1909). Zarathustra was one of the earliest works of Nietzsc
first volume to be issued in what was intended to be a complete works
Zarathustra: a bookfor all or none, trans. A. Tille (London, 1896).
34 Orage, Nietzsche in outline and aphorism, pp. 43-4. Also quoted in T
P. 249.

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introspective idea of sel

and to recognize onese
nition. Nietzsche's work
Edwardian period. The
century romantic gen
a more powerfully elit
described it in 1908,

Emerson and Carlyle [tau

men. Theirs is the Indivi
alism of Nietzsche, howev
supermen. Only the latter
the masses.35

The genius as superm

had overcome weaknes
trend can be summari
the cusp, between a ro
early modernist ideas o
world.36 The Edwardia
ings, drawing on the u
aloofness of early mo
society became what so
authority', who turned


The 'super' prefix was widely used by Edwardians, with refere

athletes', 'super-ladies', 'supermanity', and so on abounding
press.38 'Superman' was a translation from the German Uberme
translated as 'over-man' or 'beyond-man'. The term became we
Edwardians, through the popularity of Nietzsche's work and t
Bernard Shaw's adoption of the term in his 1903 play, Man and s

5 Dr Angelo S. Rappoport, The New Age (26 Sept. 1910), p. 429.

36 See Bruce Clarke, Dora 2Alarsden and early modernism (Ann Arbor, 1996), for fu
politics and 'genius' of early modernism.
37 Barbara Will, Gertrude Stein, modernism and the problem of 'genius' (Edinburgh, 2o0
38 A 1921 dictionary noted that the word 'superman' 'has led to any number of
which the language is getting very tired'. Ernest Weekley, An etymological dictiona
(London, 1921). 'Superman' and 'superwoman' were terms popular in the Unit
Reader's guide to periodical literature listed both terms in its indices covering 1905-1
appeared before or after these dates.
39 Despite its wide usage, 'superman' was certainly not a word that gained
ance, and it was probably only useful to a minority of thinkers. It was describ
used 'to express an ideal very popular with those to whom nature has denied a
other virile attributes', Weekley, Etymological dictionary. The association betw
sexuality had persisted from the nineteenth century, and also permeated the id

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situated this as a political move: 'the

imperative aspect, a political one', pos
'Proletarian Democracy'.40 The Fabian w
superman as a 'future being in whom all
beyond what we know now, who is to b
sensitive and comprehending', and who
up and not down'.41 This concern with
to feminists, who felt that their argum
'levelling down' accusation. Dora Mars
The Freewoman, argued that suffragism 'h
which are attacking popular democracy
of feminist ideals would bring to demo
supposed dangers and difficulties'.42 Th
to describe a democracy of superior t
uneducated (feminized) masses. But this
the idea of the superman took it to b
supplementing or even bypassing demo
utopian order.
Two key explanations can be offered f
in the Edwardian period. First, it can be
to the massification of modern life.4
Edwardians that the higher elements of
creasing influence of the masses in polit
mass was found in a great variety of gu
opment of mass advertising, in urbaniz
since 1870.44 The actual and threatened
reality of mass politics. Dislike of these
progressive or 'advanced' thought. A re
liberal critic of democracy, Graham Wal
politics of 'working men who have passe
tary schools, and who live in hundreds
tinguishable suburban streets'.45 Wallas
many of them Fabians, who continued a
see democracy as incompatible with pers
Reba Soffer has outlined this and other

40 G. B. Shaw, Man and superman (Westminster, 1

41 Mabel Atkinson, 'The struggle for existence
Journal ofEthics, 18 (1908), pp. 291-311, at p. 309. A
in which progressives used the 'superman' to fram
the superman 'furnishes [Englishmen] with a moti
conditions of to-day; for supermen cannot be bre
42 Marsden, The New Age (23 Nov. 1911), p. 95. 4
44 See John Carey, The intellectuals and the masses:
1880-1939 (London, 1992). 45 Graham Wallas, Hum

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critical of mass demo

growth of an elitist
Trotter, whose politi
the crowd instincts o
from the biological e
eugenicists. These dif
itical power made the
or neutralizing the m
understanding of w
meanings, and cann
perhaps become so co
families that a new a
required. The super
about 'superior types'
'genius' and the class
Second, the interest
spiritual or occult. A
interest in spiritual,
self-transformation a
self that was to be ex
made up of many le
psychological explora
ling.49 For Owen, th
made the I890s and ea
marked by compet
been seen as embody
Bernard Shaw argued
ution, would 'build up
individual being omn
conscious: in short, a
was the god-like natu
the superman; Nietzs

46 Reba Soffer, Ethics and so

47 Wilfred Trotter, Instin
influenced by Gustave Le Bon
(London, 1896). Trotter's in
logical Review in 1908 and 19
48 Owen, 'Occultism and
Meanings of modernity: Brita
49 Ibid., p. 87.
50 Owen notes the prefer
'extreme modernity', and '
'modernism' was a later in
51 Shaw, Man and superm
1895-1919 (Athens, 1986), p

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theosophists and members of the Hermetic Order

idea of the 'Superhuman', 'Higher Self', 'Permanent S
Man' had wide currency, and implied a new gender or
would be transcended by the superman, or saw th
despite the gender dissonance this implied. Floren
Golden Dawn, argued in The New Age that 'the st
identified by leading modern thinkers as the state call
feminine '.52 As the theosophist writer Frances Swiney
means by which human evolution can proceed. Physio
complex and highly specialised of organic forms; psy
most highly evolved.' Portraying herself as 'the prop
sought 'the full and perfect development of tha
hood - upon which the future of the race depends'." W
the superman, then, tended to centre on women as mo
and this meshed with the widespread belief that wom
force' was preservative rather than creative.
An additional connotation of 'superman' was one
selection. Writers spanning the political spectrum expl
degeneration, and regeneration. The Nietzschean supe
part, the 'sub-man' provided an avant-garde means of
and the need to select for a racial aristocracy. Dan St
between eugenicists, race theorists, and the idea of t
convincing case for a 'widespread acceptance of racial
historical processes' in Edwardian Britain.54 There was
this political turn towards aristocracy, though some r
gested that British racial discourse was not dominated
was more multifaced, working not only to construct
but also to relate individuals to their past and positively
Degeneration and race thinking also incorporated a
notes the anxiety of such thinkers over the 'New W

52 Farr, The New Age (6June 1907), p. 92. By seeing the superman
individual, Farr was able to claim it for women.
53 Swiney in Huntly Carter, Women's suffrage and militancy: a sympo
Bland, Banishing the beast: English feminism and sexual morality, 18
Robb, 'Eugenics, spirituality and sex differentiation in Edward
Swiney', Journal of Women's History, io (1998), pp. 97-117.
54 Dan Stone, Breeding superman: Nietzsche, race and eugenics in Edwardia
2002), p. 93. Interest in race should not, however, be overstated
The New Age proposed a superman 'not as the offspring of male and
within the mind of man'. Indeed, for this contributor, 'as an indiv
instinctively away from procreation and from sex'. Anon., 'Unedit
1910), p. 107.
5 For both sides of the debates, see Mathew Thomson, '"Savage
mind in Britain, 1898-1939', in Ernst and Harris, eds., Race, science
1999), PP. 235-58, and Daniel Pick, Faces of degeneration: a European dis

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generally; Nietzschean eugenic

for manliness as a key quality
perhaps made proponents of t
of racial degeneration, though


The superman was described by the women's suffrage journal, The Englishw
as 'humanity's last and noblest aspiration', and was regularly discuss
feminist thinkers interested in questions of political leadership and democ
Given this interest in the superman from feminists, it was unsurprising
the neologism, 'superwoman' soon came into use.57 It was needed beca
the strong masculine overtones of 'superman' - contemporary dictio
explicitly pointed out that the superman was male. An early example of 'su
woman' dates from i906;58 the term became increasingly common after t
though it remained an idea only taken seriously by an avant-garde minor
and was often used as a joke, or to satirize the extravagant goals of femi
In 1911, it was still being given a tentative status by quote marks and va
uses of capitalization, and both superman and superwoman seem to
slipped out of usage after the First World War, when what had been call
'pseudo-superwoman' suffragette had been transformed into a voter and
worker, and 'the "super" cult, both male and female' became associated w
'the Teutonic lust of world power' and 'the Hun'.59 As one commentator
in 1917,

Our Superman fades before our eyes ... The war has raised the standard all round; it
has shown that if our civilisation is not prolific of geniuses, it has produced a race of
ordinary men and women who are braver and more generous than the dominating
aristocracies and high chivalric groups of the Past. It is the answer to the scientific senti-
mentalists, like Nietzsche and his followers, who talk about slave-morality and crowd-

Despite its short life, the term indicates the presence of a debate within fem-
inism that has rarely been discussed. In part because it does not fit with our
contemporary expectations of feminist principles, the twenty-first-century reader

56 Maximilian Muigge, 'Eugenics and the superman: a racial science and a racial religion', Eugenics
Review, I (i909), p. 184, quoted in Stone, Breeding superman, p. 73.
57 George Robb's paper on Frances Swiney's interest in the superman misleadingly suggests that
'no English-language feminists ever used the term "superwoman" in their writings'; Robb only finds
French uses of surfemme, though he accepts that many British feminists were fascinated by the idea of
the superwoman. Robb, 'Eugenics, spirituality and sex differentiation', p. 18, n. 113.
58 Westminster Gazette (22 Jan. 19o06), quoted in Supplement to the Oxford English dictionary (Oxford, 1986).
9 'The fallibility of the term "super"', Anti-Suffrage Review (Mar. I915), p. 22.
60 Sidney Low, 'The passing of the superman', Fortnightly Review (May 1917), PP. 758, 761.

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is troubled by the desire within a subsection of the fe

a movement for superwomen, an elitist feminism th
'higher types'. The formulations of superman and gen
contextualize this interest in the superwoman, and su
in keeping with the political argument of the time.
collection on feminism argued 'The greatness of a soc
to the number of individuals who are perfectly d
saw it as their goal to further such a society.61 Ther
engagement with the question of genius within the
ment, despite the fact that feminine genius seemed t
biological and historical 'evidence '.62 This engageme
motivated by a desire to counter the common anti-fem
had never been a female genius. It was argued again
could not produce a single 'great' artist, poet, or com
genuinely second-class citizens and deserved their
In response to this, many feminist writers did not chal
or try to change the terms of what counted as 'greatn
eminent women, hitherto overlooked, who might qu
conventional canon.64
But it was not only anti-suffrage arguments that explain the interest in genius
and 'superwoman' displayed by the women's movement. Some were motivated
by a sense that women of genius were those who felt most keenly the confines of
women's position. The suffragist Helena Swanwick argued: 'the woman who
suffers most [from the tyranny of conventional femininity] is the biggest
woman. The world suffers too, from the stunting or warping or exasperation of
its strongest and most original female minds.'65 She felt that feminism should
be addressed to these exceptional women, and should organize society to
meet their needs. In this context, the superwoman could stand in as a potential
subject for feminist aspirations. Feminists sought to use the discourse of romantic
genius, associated with the regenerative power of 'life force' and exercised by
outsiders, to indicate their aim to transform society. Drawing on Nietzsche,
Florence Farr argued in i9IO that the twentieth century -'Women's Cen-
tury'- was to witness 'a revaluation of all values' once woman 'awakes from
her long sleep '.66 Feminists aimed to position feminism as a movement for social
renewal; 'genius' and 'superwoman' were attractive as concepts that conveyed

61 Rathbone Royden et al., in Victor Gollancz, ed., The making of women: Oxford essays in feminism
(London, 1917), p. 13. 62 See Battersby, Gender and genius.
63 See for example, Frederic Harrison's essay on 'The future of woman', in Harrison, Realities and
ideals (London, 1908), pp. 73, 74-
64 Olive Schreiner, for example, listed Sappho and Aspasia as women of genius, but subscribed to
conventional theories of genius in admitting that feminine genius was highly exceptional, Schreiner,
Woman and labour (London, 1978), pp. 101-2, 87.
65 Helena Swanwick, The future of the women's movement (London, 1913), P. 142.
66 Florence Farr, Modem woman: her intentions (London, 1910I), p. 7.

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this. This emphasis was mocked by cont
published an epigram on 'The new genius':

With the maligned and martyred suff

Genius to a new note is set,
Which is, as our brave militant explai
A great capacity for breaking panes.67

Despite such comments, writers such as H

the spheres in which genius might operate,
feminist ends. Swanwick focused on politic
argued: 'it seems very likely that [women]
almost forbidden to them; I mean in organ
power to govern'.68 Feminist writers had st
versions of greatness and leadership wou
the debate away from romantic or moderni
creative genius, resisting the closing down
evident in the twentieth century. Feminine g
might include such lowly, practical talents a
In general, though, the rhetoric of the
concerns, and provided a means for Edwardi
in the 'trivial', mass, everyday politics of th
cerns at what was portrayed as a more fund
This represents, I argue, an important and
thinking of this period. An 'introspective
feminism, a desire to seek liberation not
granted by men, but through internal trans
being. It was a widely accepted belief within
to achieve emancipation depended on will or
out, oppressed groups such as women we
position, and had to take individual respons
power of men. The moral tone of much lat
writing was introspective and individualistic
and agency. In 1912 Havelock Ellis approvin
feminist' Ellen Key, 'She is of the opinio
progress less by an increased aptitude to cla

67 Anon., The New Age (26 Sept. 1912), p. 517. I am

reference out. 68 Swanwick, The future of the wom
69 This is reflected in Olive Schreiner's Woman and labo
of this period. Three out of six chapters in this work
Schreiner's emphasis is firmly on the corrupted character
in attention to character and a determination to seize f
in attention to changing social institutions that impos
president of the Women's Freedom League, made sim
the building of character and personality. Her femin
aristocratic. Despard, Theosophy and the woman's moveme

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of self-development, that it is not by what they can

that women ... finally count.'70
Though gaining political rights and equality with
cerns, they were in some sense subordinate to wome
develop personality. This element of feminist though
the interest in the elitist superwoman; for many, all w
self-development. Anarchist thinkers such as Emma
'inner regeneration', while remaining highly suspici
men"'.71 An introspective politics was not in itself n
could co-exist with a desire to deepen democracy and
The stress on introspection dominated the radical, 'modernist' strand of
feminism and was also influential in the more conventional women's movement.
The intellectual sources of this 'introspective turn' were in the 'new woman'
fin-de-siicle interest in the psychological, in the more prosaic 'self-help' strand of
late Victorian moral thought, which emphasized the individual's power to help
him or herself, and in the egoist literature described above. The romantic ideal of
self-overcoming within the 'superman' literature resonated with feminist thought.
Many significant feminist (and anti-feminist) texts of this period stress women's
responsibility (or inability) to overcome their weaknesses and self-imposed con-
straints. Otto Weininger had argued, 'Who is the enemy? What are the retarding
influences ? The greatest, the one enemy of the emancipation of women is woman
herself. 72 Within The Englishwoman, a contributor argued 'not until [women] have
learned ardently to despise the ignoble, and to desire as ardently the higher man
will the superman be more than the "baseless fabric of a vision"'.7
The debate over 'superwomen' did not, in general, run along racial lines. It
may be that race was not discussed because it was an assumed element of the
discourse, given its prevalence within Edwardian political argument more widely.
But the absence of a strongly racialized 'superwoman' discourse seems worthy of
comment, given the racial and degeneration rhetoric pervading British debates
about aristocracy and elites. Feminist thinkers such as Frances Swiney certainly
made some claims about 'Teutonic womanhood', and sporadic calls for 'white
women to fight now' against Jewish domination are found within the women's
movement. Such claims may have been particularly prevalent among mystical
and occult elaborations of 'superwoman'.74 The anti-Semitism of the women's
movement was widespread, and has been mostly overlooked by historians. But in
broader usage, the concept of the superwoman seems relatively race-neutral.

70 Ellis, introduction to Ellen Key's The woman movement, trans. M. B. Borthwick (London, I912),
p. xv. Key's maternalist policies placed her on the conservative side of the women's movement.
71 Emma Goldman, 'The tragedy of women's emancipation', in Anarchism and other essays (New York,
1969), P. 230, and Alix K. Shulman, ed., Red Emma speaks (London, 1979), p. 89.
72 Otto Weininger, Sex and character (London, 1906), p. 45.
73 Ethel L. Rogers, 'The professor, women and the superman', The Englishwoman (Nov. 1909), p. 24.
74 Schreiner, Woman and labour, p. 144; Farr, Modern woman, p. 8.

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Perhaps it was conceptually so remar
human ideal that race was simply eclip
aware that their claims about wome
degeneration, and they therefore avoi
to construe 'the woman question' as, a
seems that these concerns of characte
degenerationist debates. The emphasis
the age of the superman or superwom
This question of character reveals a di
associated with the predominant suffr
frequently not sought as ends in them
Charlotte Carmichael Stopes, the mot
the strongest argument for the vote w
followed by external action by, and n
help women 'to develop our individua
responsibility'." Another commentator
gering blow' to women convinced that
convinced that the vote would do wom
retard their personal self-developmen
political system. Above all, women's p
Of all Edwardian feminist sources, Th
epitomizes this primary emphasis on
commitment to leadership by elites.
was the first British periodical to call
'humanist' and 'individualist' as altern
prominent of its small circle of contrib
Though it reached a tiny readership
national profile, and was notorious fo
emancipation beyond the vote. The jou
enabling British feminism to become
tive'.77 Freewoman contributors tende
their own emancipation and preached
change. Only geniuses or superwomen

71 Stopes, in Carter, Women's suffrage and mil

77 The Freewoman (henceforth FW) (23 Nov. 1
self-development, while rejecting the focus on
Edwardian feminism, and is reflected in Stopes's
and beautiful spirit: Dora Marsden, 1882-i96o (Al
Freewoman, periodical communities and the feminis
61 (2000), pp. 233-76; Lucy Delap, '"Philosophical
critique of the suffrage movement', Women's Hist
Browne, the new woman as freewoman', in A
woman in fiction and infact: fin-de-sieclefeminisms (B

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contemporary critic put it, 'the superwoman is the u

new philosophy of feminism preached by the daring
London Freewoman'.78 One editor, Dora Marsden, s
women who are gifted to the extent of genius can be
rest must be Bondwomen, i.e., followers, servants'
Gawthorpe, idealized the 'aristocratic perfect self-
Contributors felt that modern conditions of 'mass-val
One, Charles Whitby, bemoaned 'the sacrifice of the
exceptional to the mediocre, the superman and super
both sexes'.81 Whitby pointed out 'the wretched life of
under the current democratic and utilitarian politics o
instead that 'those for whom [happiness] is synonymou
tune of life '.82 Another, Frangoise Lafitte, described her
'the comedy of superman toppling over underwoman
in the motto: 'no common good without grand individ
to The Freewoman group.83
The Freewoman's stance was based upon a passion
genius, sometimes expressed as the 'superwoman',
woman'. Since the journal was independent and comm
nor democracy, it could consider radically elitist or in
The content of The Freewoman was saturated with the
As the editor, Dora Marsden put it, 'Moral institution
the multitude, but by the higher moral consciousness
moral, thinking, articulate freewomen are more than a
inarticulate bond. In these things the battle is dec
numbers. '84
So how could women free themselves of their internal psychological con-
straints? According to Marsden, nothing but 'the sense that she is a superior,
a master can give her the strength [to become a freewoman] '.85 Though she
accepted that some external conditions had to be met, she was vastly more in-
terested in the internal question of genius. If one had genius, one could undertake
the hard and solitary process of self-transformation. The insight that Freewoman
contributors had gained from Max Stirner was that women's recognition of male
power- epitomized in their request for the vote and equality - could only shore
up this power. Making requests of men implied servility; women should rather
seize what they wanted on an individual basis. The power of change lay with the
enslaved, who could simply refuse to accord recognition to male institutions.
It was the superwoman, independent and self-confident, who might achieve this

78 Current Opinion (Jan. 1913), p. 47, Dora Marsden Collection, Manuscripts Division, Department
of Rare Books and Special Collections, Princeton University Library box Iv folder 2.
79 Marsden, FW(3o Nov. I9I1), p. 21. so Gawthorpe, The .New Age (12 Sept. 1912), P. 479.
81 Whitby, FW(18 Apr. 1912), PP. 425-6. 82 Ibid.
83 FranHoise Delisle, Friendship's odyssey (London, 1946), pp. i80-1.
84 Marsden, FW(18July I912), p. 164. 85 Marsden, FW(23 Nov. 1911), p. 2.

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mode of political ema

some Edwardian femi
destined 'to realize in
to become in the dim
further removed from
It was not only egoist
emancipation. As desc
although one of which
None the less, theosop
for thinking through
Freewoman readers w
Weininger, and other
Two Freewoman contr
psychoanalytic practi
Freud, and from 1912
opment of Edwardian
psychoanalysis, was pa
that contextualizes th
vided a language and c
turn', by calling int
discussed in The Freew
life, including the p
women's sexual experi
to the desire among f
consciousness or repre
'super-world'. Psychol
this discourse less sui
since this was usually
'perfected' individual c
Introspection became
as a superwoman. Mar
of life in any sphere'.
broadly available and
numbers of individua

86 E. M. White, Internationa
87 See comments from Do
Weaver papers, vol. 57352, B
88 Mathew Thomson, 'Psy
century Britain', in Daunton
89 Ellis subscribed to the
Circle that met fortnightly i
change between feminism a
9o In 1913 Eder became the first secretary to the London Psycho-Analytic Society. See
J. B. Hobman, David Eder: memoirs ofa modern pioneer (London, 1945).

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sphere of life whatever'. The reader was reminded that '

we wish to support the view that all women will be free
are free ... a feminist must make her appeal to freewome
women '. The 'equality strategy' that has been used to ex
in genius was not in evidence. Instead, there was a belief
led from the front, and should not be associated with th
into politics by a wider democratic franchise, the 'votes
There was a concession towards broader access to th
human, however. As Havelock Ellis had emphasized, it wa
achieve higher states of consciousness or being through
It was an important aspect of the Freewoman project to thr
and sexual conservatism that suffrage feminists predomi
of anti-feminist comments about licentiousness and
Edwardian suffragists were willing to risk their cause by
sexuality, and preferred to emphasize women's civic res
and workers. In contrast, the Freewoman version of th
emphasized the power of sexual experimentation to allow
ordinary spheres of life; sexual energy, akin to vital for
democratic passion' which was 'within the reach of all'
life higher'.92 The superwoman thus fluctuated between
type', marked off from the herd once and for all, and an
of being that was accessible to all who chose to experime
This latter view drew on the discourse of 'vital forc
achieving 'genius', but attempted to turn this away from
creativity, towards a view of sexuality jointly giving me
higher realms. One Freewoman contributor commented tha
into aesthetic expression which is by no means connected
children '.93
Freewoman reader Helena Swanwick recognized in her 1913 book on the future
of the women's movement that arguments about genius and vital force needed to
move on from the portrayal of women as mothers. She accepted that motherhood
and genius were probably incompatible, not due to any draining away of 'vital
force' in women, but for the more pragmatic reason that genius required 'intense
egotism' and concentration, and these were likely to be unavailable to the
mother. However, she declared: 'This does not dismay me at all. Why, after all,
should the genius be a mother ? And if she be, could she not find motherly women
to bring up the children ? '94 It was a novel feature of Edwardian feminism that it
was accepted that not all women would or could become mothers. This opened
the door to imagining other forms of achievement, in creative and leadership

91 Marsden, FW(3o Nov. 1911), p. 21. 92 Marsden, FW(23 May 1912), p. 2.

93 'A.B.', FW (i Feb. 1912), p. 213, also quoted in Lucy Bland, 'Heterosexuality, feminism
and The Freewoman journal in early twentieth-century England', Women's History Review, 4 (1995),
PP. 5-23, n. 22. 94 Swanwick, The future of the women's movement.

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Some feminists
motherhood was 'the
contributors could im
childcare, and mother

Thus far, I have indica

of this interest in the
and interest in Stirner
self and consciousness
ences and practices of
for this interest in a su
ences of the militant su
the Women's Social an
and both initial Freew
cause'. Militant grou
'aristocratic politics', a
politics described abov
individuals could mak
militant action to Edw
the few. The few wou
select elite was preferr
action could also be s
timidity and the norm
of the transcendent su
This power of militan
by the organizational
had served to crush th
might have developed
from its followers. As
to act in a disciplined,
'genius'. Furthermore,
of femininity that go
peals to self-sacrifice, a
manners. It was Dora
imposed on her ability
that led her to quit th
first led her to believ
crushed her hopes. She

95 Edith A. Browne, FW
96 Watson, FW(I4 Apr.

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psyche of obedient 'follower' and thus gained an inte

' superwomen'. Some writers for The Freewoman came t
stance, arguing against the vote and portraying demo
device to engender servility and 'mass values'.97 M
contemptible weakness on the part of the intelligent t
made insignificant under the wide-spreading robes of t
Yet even among the small community of Freewoman
no consensus about what 'superwoman' meant. Som
arguing 'If freedom can only be attained by an infinite
Women", it seems to me hardly worth fighting for at
stress on elites was compatible with democracy. A utop
argued that their 'overman' was not like the 'atavistic'
something more akin to Confucian or even Christian
'We can be a true democracy only on condition that w
and sought a childless community, dedicated to the ser
felt that while they might agree with the politics of the
selves could not qualify. One reader asked the editor to
women into classes; then I might, perhaps, scrape into
my teeth. It is so bitter to feel that one hasn't even a spo
free.'101 The concept of the superwoman was self-cons
site of anxiety for Freewoman contributors. Many were
thought of being measured and found wanting accordi
nine genius. Some were also critical, however, of the u
of egoism - the idea that the superhuman, creative indi
constraints, could voluntarily declare him or herself
constraints seemed to imply that someone else, likely t
their material, bodily needs. A Freewoman contributor
editor: 'One wonders how far the artist would work ou
not depend on the services of his fellows. Would he rea
not do the menial work? ... You frequently speak of th
each of us to be an artist ? '102
She perceived the carelessness concerning the subordi
at the heart of The Freewoman's attraction to the ide
fundamental tension between the claims of the many o
of a superwoman, a tension that reflected the ambigui
the more inclusive romantic agent of renewal and
transcendent genius.

97 See Delap, Philosophical vacuity, pp. 613-30. 98 Marsden, F

99 E. M. Watson, FW(21 Dec. 1911), p. 91.
100 'The Chancellor', 'The angel club', New Freewoman (I Oct. 1913)
101 Helen Hamilton, FW(21 Mar. 1912), p. 352.
102 Rachel Graham, FW(5 Sept. 1912), pp. 313-I4.

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We have seen how preoccupied Edwardian political thinkers were with t

pact of the few and the great. This concern was expressed within The Free
in the belief that the best feminist strategy was to concentrate on the gifted
encourage them to fulfil their potential, and thus perhaps to lead the w
broader female emancipation. What lay at the heart of this method was th
that the constraints on women were mainly internal. External constraints
but the real problem was internalized within women. For Marsden, free
'declare themselves free by acting as freewomen'.1?3 A fellow paper, The
saw this as the most distinctive feature of this periodical:

The Freewoman came with the incredible heresy that the woman movement was no
not an effort on the part of the women to lift themselves forever out of the 'serv
and to place themselves definitely and finally among the 'masters' using their facultie
all masters, for the upbuilding and development of their own personalities and
vancement of their own personal aims.104

Though presented as a heresy, this belief in self-overcoming was in fac

much in keeping with Edwardian political thought, including that of the f
movement. The discourse of genius offered an ideal language to disc
voluntaristic process of self-overcoming that many Edwardian feminists id
as emancipation. The genius was the paradigm example of the per
individualized ego, succeeding through self-motivation and will. Yet how
was this? At a conceptual level, 'genius' resisted feminist deployment. G
was such a keystone in the concept of genius that it was very hard to cha
gender connotations. Feminist attempts to rethink and broaden the con
genius were very partial, and failed to establish firmly the idea of feminine
The prevailing exclusivity of early twentieth-century conceptions of gen
the 'superman' made theories of feminine genius, and the 'superw
troubling. Though women were paradigm outsiders and thus seemed to fit
for romantic genius, they could not instantiate elite leadership. In fact,
represented the mass and the vulgar, the very features of modern society th
superman was to transcend.105 Their agitation to achieve suffrage and free
work only emphasized this - they were no longer content with an individ
existence as the 'angel in the home', but sought to join the public spher
masse' as workers and voters. The superman's self-transformation was pr
on the devaluation of the mass or the crowd figured as female. Th
psychologist Gustave Le Bon had notoriously argued 'Crowds are everyw
distinguished by feminine characteristics.' He elaborated that the m
marked by those features - 'impulsiveness, irritability, incapacity to reas

103 Marsden, FW(16 May 1912), p. 504.

104 The Forum, Oct. 1912, p. 457, Dora Marsden Collection, Princeton University Library f
box 2.
105 Andreas Huyssen, 'Mass culture as woman: modernism's other', in After the great divide: modernism,
mass culture andpostmodernism (London, 1986), pp. 44-62, at p. 55.

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absence of judgement and of the critical spirit, the ex

and others besides - which are almost always observe
inferior forms of evolution - in women, savages and c
widely believed to cluster around the average, to be m
lacking the great heights and depths of achievement.
ogist Stanley Hall argued, 'Women go in flocks, and i
prone to stand out with salient individuality.' But Hall
women could only be mothers of supermen and not to

As a gendered entity, genius and its underlying ideas

appropriated for feminist purposes without some tens
contributor described feminism as 'in essentials, an ex
the trend of the Edwardian concept of genius persiste
force as reproductive and conservative.10s Orage com
'the mystical idea of the emancipation of women is not
the transfiguration of man into superman. In both in
not by suppression but by illumination of the sex nature
the animals.' This was a veiled reference to women's m
Orage, it was more in keeping with women's 'natural
instead of attempting to better men in industry, ... they
attempt to become better women than Eve!'. As a res
more manly as women became more womanly'.09 Stan
women were 'at the top of the human curve from whi
the future is to evolve' sounded promising for the evol
'superwomen'. But in fact, in Hall's opinion, woma
superman, and not aspire to superhumanity herself.110
This emphasis on mothering gained ground amongst
191o a contributor to The Nineteenth Century saw the co
imate child into the world as the very mark of a
American feminist Charlotte Perkins Gilman wr
'Over Mothers' in her utopian novel, Herland.m11 A so
of celebration of women's maternal role came to incr

106 Le Bon, The crowd, pp. 21, 17.

107 Hall, Adolescence, p. 561. See also Kopald, in Frida Kirchway, ed., Ou
(London, 1925).
108 M. P. Willcocks, FW (18 July 1912), p. 175. The Freewoman group disintegrated as the journal
moved away from feminism and became more firmly 'high modernist' under its new title, The Egoist.
Dora Marsden sought solitary philosophical self-realization, became a recluse, and eventually her
mental health broke down under the strain. See Garner, Brave and beautiful spirit.
109 Orage, 'Notes of the week', The New Age (22 Aug. 1912), PP. 385-9, at p. 389.
110 Hall, Adolescence, p. 561.
11 Margaret L. Woods, 'Supermanity and the superwoman', Nineteenth Century, 66 (1910), p. 534.
Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Herland (New York, 1970), p. 69. Gilman had previously celebrated genius
in terms of the 'domestic genius' and 'mother-genius' of women, 'Genius, domestic and maternal',
Forerunner (July I9Io), pp. 5-7.

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laterEdwardian feminism, both

women's role as citizens. Maude
Women's Suffrage Societies, agr
women were ineligible due to the
she argued:

We have all a certain vital force, wh

little, or find life gives it no scope.
Vinci, pour it in torrents along the w
generally does, pour itself into mo
spent leaves much to spend elsewhe
'creators' among men than among w

Women's genius, for Royden, w

feminism was concerned with th
that which gained most suppor
shifted from the pre-war stres
campaigns for family allowances
discourse associated with superw
purposes, as the attention of man
porting and protecting mothers.
'The superwoman' emerged as a
of social renewal, tied to a mode
argued that 'genius' and the 'sup
tures for feminists, and progre
(relatively) politically neutral m
But with regard to gender it wa
cessful appropriation by femini
metaphors of vital force. The s
elitist discourse, wherein wom
Any attempt to offer a feminin
challenging the gendered disc
likely to succeed. The feminist
and confining intellectual fram

112 Royden, in Gollancz, ed., The makin

vital force, see Ellis, British genius, pp. 158, i59.

113 See Eleanor Rathbone, The disinheritedfami(y (London, 1924).

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