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CHRONOLOGICAL TEXT

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When information in a passage is organized by the time in which each event occured, it is organized
chronologically.
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Nonfiction passages that are organized chronologically often contain dates.
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Fiction passages and narratives are more subtle and are organized chronologically but usually have no
dates.
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There are also times that the text are ordered chronologically in a creative way. Even if the author uses
flashbacks, flash-forwards, or manipulates the time in his or her text, the events still occur on a timeline.
Therefore, it is still considered as a chronological text.
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Chronological text - timeline and logical order
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Chrono - time
Logic - order
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Logical order - chronological order and sequential order
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Sequential order are still in chronological manner but it mainly focuses on the sequence of events as
described by the procedures, instructions, and steps etc.
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Chronological order are the way of systematically arranging events as described by the time and the
dates.
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There are three ways in order to understand chronological text well:
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1.) The use of dates and times (chronological order)
2.) The use of transitional devices (signal words)
3.) The use of processes, steps, directions, instructions, and procedures. (Sequential order)
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Flowcharts and Outline - these are the most used graphic organizer available in order to breakdown
chronological text by events.
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Flowcharts - shapes connected by arrows
Outlines - bullet-type or numbering type of organizer.

aromatic. Subjective  Injecting one’s personal attitude towards the subject.  Reflecting thoughts. Objective  Writing plainly about something without passing on judgement  Using words that are considered ‘neutral’ or ‘denotative’. a place. spicy) o Smell (fragrant.”  “Descriptive writing creates an impression in the reader’s mind of an event. scalding) o Taste (distasteful. colorful. melodious)  DESCRIPTIVE WORDS & PHRASES o ADJECTIVES (for nouns/pronouns) o ADVERBS (for verbs/adjectives/adverbs) Note: Carefully choose the words you will use in order to evoke the proper feeling you want in your reader. a person or character or an event. It creates a mental image of a thing. smooth. o Sight (shiny. . statistics and empirical details or data.  Using words that are ‘connotative’ – words that convey a good or bad impression (of the subject)  Conveying emotions and opinions about the subject. sweet.”  REMEMBER: Utilize the 5 Senses. pungent) o Hearing (deafening. or thing. feelings and mood (of the writer). a person. raspy. distant) o Touch (sharp. Descriptive Text  “Description is one of the main rhetorical patterns.  Conveying information while avoiding emotion and sensationalism  Focusing on facts.

It is the action or process of classifying something according to shared qualities or characteristics.  Transitional expressions: • can be divided • can be classified • can be categorized • the first type • the second kind • the last category . Classification Text  Classification . allowing a great deal of information to be presented logically and clearly.  Classification Paragraph .  Purpose .The purpose of a classification paragraph is to clearly define something and place it in a group according to some basis or rule so that it only fits in one group.presents information in categories.

For these reasons. all of the problems are listed first. Structure There are two main ways to structure a problem-solution essay. each problem is followed immediately by the solution to that problem. which includes the 'situation' in the introduction and 'evaluation' in the conclusion. Problem-solution essays are actually a sub-type of another type of essay. which has the following four components:  Situation  Problem  Solution  Evaluation The 'situation' may be included in the essay prompt. or omitted altogether. especially for shorter essays. would probably have these two sections as separate paragraphs in the main body. and all of the solutions are listed afterwards. For the block structure. They are in some ways similar to cause and effect essays. as with the example essay below. for example one of around 1. while the latter ensures that any solutions you present relate directly to the problems you have given. If it is needed. it can often be included in the introduction.000 words. Problem – Solution Text What are problem-solution essays? Problem-solution essays consider the problems of a particular situation. This is for a short essay. A longer essay. The 'evaluation' may be included as part of the conclusion (also as in the example below). especially for short essays. These are similar to the ways to structure cause and effect essays. especially in terms of structure (see below). in which case it will not be needed in the main body. with citations. especially for short essays. namely using a block or a chain structure. problem-solution essays are more common than situation-problem- solution-evaluation essays (or SPSE essays). The two types of structure. For the chain structure. Both types of structure have their merits. The former is generally clearer. are shown in the diagram below. Signal words PROBLEM/SOLUTION Problem the question is a solution one answer is Dilemma is The puzzle is To solve this One reason for the problem is . and give solutions to those problems. block and chain.

long time ago. after that. what.2. Maybe. 4 .5. Use specific nouns. and where). Use conjunction (and. Likewise. C o m p l i c a t i o n : Tells the problems of the story and how the main characters solve them. The purpose of the text is to entertain or to amuse the readers or listeners about the story. if it only discusses ways that the things are different. 2 . one day. The text must do both to be considered compare and contrast. and different. E v a l u a t i o n : The stepping back to evaluate the story or the moral message of the story Linguistic features : 1. The generic structure of Narrative text : 1 . it is only contrasting. or They). like: once upon a time. …4. for better or worse. Compare and Contrast Compare and Contrast is a text structure or pattern of organization where the similarities and differences of two or more things are explored. 3. etc) Also Temporal conjunction . unlike. both.o r i e n t a t i o n : The ending of the story. Use adjective and adverbs .6. it is only comparing.when. neither. What is Narrative Text? Narrative text is a kind of text to retell the story that past tense. Compare and Contrast Graphic Organizer Identifying when the writer is comparing and contrasting is usually not difficult because the speaker will bounce back and forth between two subjects and this pattern is generally pretty easy to recognize. Use active verbs. 5 . It is important to remember that with the compare and contrast text structure the text should be discussing similarities and differences. happy ending or sad ending. similar. However. If the text only discusses similarities. The first person (I or We) or the third person (He. then. She. O r i e n t a t i o n : It set the scene and introduce the participants (it answers the question : who. here are some signal words that may indicate that the text is written using the compare and contrast organizational pattern: like. next. 3 . R e . R e s o l u t i o n : The crisis is revolved. Use past tense.