thory of mesen

© All Rights Reserved

45 views

thory of mesen

© All Rights Reserved

- Plane Stress Loading
- Unit_-_III
- New Microsoft Office Word Document (5).docx
- BIOMATERIAL-BIOCOMPATIBILITY
- L3
- publication_1_10695_6036.pdf
- Geometrically nonlinear analysis of plane truss and frames.pdf
- Pena 2008-Application of the Natural Element Method to Finite Deformation Inelastic Problems in Isotropic and Fiber-reinforced Biological Soft Tissues
- Ansys Lab Manual
- Tension Lab
- Estimating prestress loss in pretensioned high-strength concrete members.pdf
- Macro and Micro Collapse Mechanisms of Closed-cell Aluminium Foams During q
- Lec 11 Low Cycle Fatigue Analysis II - MASING BEHAVIOUR
- Contoh Soal 11
- Stress Pertubations adjacent to Salt Bodies in the Deeepwater Gulf of Mexico
- Compress WR200 Epoxy Huntsman
- My Homework 0
- tension.pdf
- Strength of Materials
- Design Charts for Proportioning Rectangular Prestressed Concrete Columns

You are on page 1of 43

Chapter 2

Two Dimensional Linear Theory of Elasticity

Learning Outcome:

LO1: Understand the theories of stress and strain that

are essential for the analysis of a s t r u ct u r a l o r

mechanical system subjected to loads. (cognitive

comprehending, level 2).

Programme Outcomes:

PO1: Ability to acquire and apply fundamental principles

of science and engineering.

PO3: Acquisition of technical competence in specialized

areas of engineering discipline

Contents

Introduction

Plane stress and plane strain

Airy stress function

Applications to problems in rectangular / polar

coordinates.

In the last chapter, we have learned about stresses and strains.

Now is the time to relate the two!

2

Introduction..

between stress, derived from measuring the load applied on the sample,

and strain, derived from measuring the deformation of the sample, i.e.

elongation, compression, or distortion.

The nature of the curve varies from material to material. The relation

between stress and strain is unique for a particular material and usually

modeled mathematically. They are known as constitutive model.

materials in terms of the engineering stress and engineering strain where

the stress and strain are calculated based on the original dimensions of

the sample and not the instantaneous values.

Relation between normal stress and

normal strain tensile test

different materials.

From the stress-strain curve, for elastic region:

where

E is the Young's modulus (modulus of elasticity)

F is the force applied to the object;

A0 is the original cross-sectional area through which the force is

applied;

L is the amount by which the length of the object changes;

L0 is the original length of the object.

Relation between shear stress and shear strain torsion test

d

dx

where

radial distance

d angle of twist of the element

dx length of the element

T

J

where

Radial distance

T Applied torque

J polar moment of inertia of cross

sectional area

From the shear stress-shear strain curve, for elastic

region:

where

G is the shear modulus of elasticity

E is the Young's modulus (modulus of elasticity)

v is the Poisson ratio;

is the shear stress;

is the shear strain;

Poisson ratio, v

n is known as Poissons ratio (is the negative ratio of transverse contraction

strain to longitudinal extension strain in the direction to stretching force)

transverse y

v

longitudinal x

Hookes Law for ISOTROPIC Material

Hooke s La w i s o n e

common constitutive

model for elastic y dy

materials, and can be

extended for biaxial

loadings (loading in

both x and y directions)

x dx

as follows:

From figure

y

x x dx x dx v dx

E E

Rewriting and extending

for deformations in

y and z axes give:

1

x x v y

E

1

y y v x

E

v

z x y

E

Equation above is valid

for 2-D loading (in x

and y directions) Note that = / E

Hookes Law for ISOTROPIC Material

x

1

E

x v y

y dy

1

y y v x

E

v

z x y

E

x dx

Note that even though

z = 0, z 0, due to the

poisson effect.

N o w, e x t e n d i n g t o

triaxial loading;

x

1

E

x v y z

1

y y v x z

E

1

z z v x y

E

Note that = / E

Hookes Law for ISOTROPIC Material-

relationship between stress and strain (3D state of stress)

Similarly for shear strains :

xy yz xz

xy yz xz

G G G

Thus, the generalized Hookes Law for 3D state of stress and Isotropic materials

(strain-stress relations):

xy

1

x x v y z

E

xy

G

yz

1

E

y y v x z

yz

G

________________(1)

1

z z v x y

E

xz xz

G

The stress-strain relations can be obtained through strain energy density method which yield:

x

E

(1 v)(1 2v)

(1 v) x v( y z )

xy G xy

y

E

(1 v)(1 2v)

(1 v) y v( x z ) yz G yz ________________( 2)

xz G xz

z

E

(1 v)(1 2v)

(1 v) z v( x y )

Plane Stress and Plane Strain

Equations (1 and 2) give the fully three-dimensional form of Hookes Law.

Many problems can be simplified into two-dimensional, by assuming that

stress or strain varies only in a single plane, usually the x-y plane. There

are two ways to make such an approximation:

1) by assuming that the normal force to the plane is zero the plane

stress assumption; or

2) by assuming that the normal strain to the plane is zero the plane

strain assumption.

xy

x

1

E

x v y z xy

G

yz

1

E

y y v x z yz

G

__( 1 )

1

z z v x y

E

xz

xz

G

x

E

(1 v)(1 2v)

(1 v) x v( y z )

xy G xy

y

E

(1 v)(1 2v)

(1 v) y v( x z ) yz G yz __(2)

xz G xz

z

E

(1 v)(1 2v)

(1 v) z v( x y )

Plane Stress and Plane Strain Problems

The figure below shows two plates on which only compressive normal

stresses in the x and y directions are applied. The top and bottom

surfaces on the plate in figure (a) are free surfaces (plane stress), but

because the plate is free to expand, the deformation (strain) in the z

direction is not zero. The plate in figure (b) is constrained from

expanding in the z direction by the rigid surfaces. As the material pushes

on the plate, a reaction force develops, and this reaction force result in a

nonzero value of normal stress in the z direction.

Plane Stress and Plane Strain Problems

Plane stress or plane strain are often approximations

to simplify analysis. Plane stress approximation is

often made for thin bodies as in fig.(a) below, such

as the metal skin of an aircraft. Plane strain

approximation is often made for thick bodies as in

fig.(b) below, such as the hull of a submarine.

( (

Isotropic: Plane Stress;

Relationship between

The equation 1 can be simplified

stress and for plane

strain

stress condition by letting z= xz(xz) = yz (yz)

= 0. The strain-stress relations are therefore:

x

1

E

x v y xy

xy

G

1

y y v x

E

yz 0

_________(3)

xz 0

v

z x y

E

From the strain-stress relations (equation 2), it can be seen that even though z = 0,

the strain component z 0.

The stress- strain relations are obtained by simplifying equation 2 (by letting

z = xz = yz = 0):

x

E

2

x v y xy G xy

1 v

_________( 4)

y

E

2

y v x yz 0

1 v xz 0

z 0 ( plane stress )

Isotropic: Plane Strain;

Relationship between

The equation 1 can be simplified

stress and for plane

strain

strain condition by letting z= xz= yz = 0.

The strain-stress relations are therefore:

x

1 v

2

x

v

y xy

E 1 v xy

G

y

1 v

2

y

v

x yz 0

E 1 v

xz 0

z 0 _________(5)

From the strain-stress relations (equation 2), it can be seen that even though z = 0,

the strain component z 0.

The stress- strain relations are obtained by simplifying equation 2 (by letting

z= xz= yz = 0):

x

E

1 v 1 2v

1 v x v y

xy G xy

y

E

1 v 1 2v x

v (1 v) y yz 0

xz 0 _________(6)

vE

z ( x y )

1 v 1 2v

Relation between principal stress and principal strain (3D

loading)

Relation between principal stress and principal strain can be obtained by simply

substituting the following:

x = 1, y = 2, z = 3, and x = 1 , y = 2, z = 3

1

1 1 v 2 3

E

1

2 2 v 1 3 ________________(7)

E

1

3 3 v 1 2

E

E

1 (1 v)1 v( 2 3 )

(1 v)(1 2v)

E

2 (1 v) 2 v(1 3 ) ________________(8)

(1 v)(1 2v)

E

3 (1 v) 3 v(1 2 )

(1 v)(1 2v)

Example 1

Solution :

1 GPa

= 1

1 MPa = 1

10 6

Example 2

zz = zx = zy= 0

Solution :

Example 3

solution :

solution :

Compatibility Relationship (Plane Stress)

requirement that the strains must be continuous, which

means that the deformation or strains within the body

must be compatible with each other.

Compatibility Relationship (Plane Stress)

And the

compatibilit

y relations:

Substituting Hookes

Law into

compatibility

relation yields:

(41)

equations of

equilibriu

m yields

equations of

equilibriu

m yields

Hookes Law and Compatibility Relationship (Plane Strain)

(48)

Supplementary Question 1

A rectangular rosette, as shown in the figure below is cemented to the free surface

of an airplane wing. It is made of an aluminium alloy 7075 T6 (Youngs Modulus, E

= 72 Gpa, Poissons ratio, v = 0.33). Under load, the strain readings are a = xx =

0.00250, b = 0.00140, c = yy = -0.00125.

a.) Determine the principal stresses. Note that the stress components on the free

surfaces are zero.

b.) Show the orientation of the volume element on which the principal stresses in

the plane of the rosette act.

c.) Determine the maximum shear stress max.

d.) Show the orientation of the volume element on which max acts.

Supplementary Solution 1 For the rosette given :

x a 0.00250

y c 0.00125

xy 2 b ( a c ) 0.00155

Supplementary Solution 1

a.)

b.)

Supplementary Solution 1

c.)

d.)

Supplementary Question 2

parallel to the x and y axes has a uniform thickness h =

10mm and is made of an isotropic steel (E = 200GPa

and v = 0.29). The plate is subjected to a uniform state

of stress. If zz = zx = zy = 0 (plane stress), xx =

500MPa, and yy = 0 for the plate, determine yy and the

final dimensions of the plate, assuming linearly elastic

conditions.

Supplementary Solution 2

Supplementary Question 3

Supplementary Solution 3

Supplementary Solution 3

Supplementary Question 4

Supplementary Solution 4

x

1

E

x v y

1

y y v x

E

v

z x y

E

Supplementary Question 5

aluminum spar of an airplane (E= 72 Gpa and v =

0.33) are measured on a free surface as x = 0.002,

y = 0.001, and xy =0.001.

a) Determine the corresponding nonzero stress

components.

b) A design criterion for the spar is that the

maximum shear stress cannot exceed max = 70

Mpa. Is this condition satisfied for the measured

strain state ?

- Unit_-_IIIUploaded byNishigandha Bansode
- New Microsoft Office Word Document (5).docxUploaded bysuhas_SCEM
- BIOMATERIAL-BIOCOMPATIBILITYUploaded byDhivya Raja
- publication_1_10695_6036.pdfUploaded byfred pogi
- Geometrically nonlinear analysis of plane truss and frames.pdfUploaded byTom Jobim
- Pena 2008-Application of the Natural Element Method to Finite Deformation Inelastic Problems in Isotropic and Fiber-reinforced Biological Soft TissuesUploaded byMinhao Zhou
- Ansys Lab ManualUploaded byMandi Masood Asfer
- Tension LabUploaded byWilliamMermell
- Estimating prestress loss in pretensioned high-strength concrete members.pdfUploaded byunix0123
- Macro and Micro Collapse Mechanisms of Closed-cell Aluminium Foams During qUploaded byelmira
- Lec 11 Low Cycle Fatigue Analysis II - MASING BEHAVIOURUploaded byNhan Hoa
- Contoh Soal 11Uploaded byBasyir
- Stress Pertubations adjacent to Salt Bodies in the Deeepwater Gulf of MexicoUploaded byTHiago LOpes
- Compress WR200 Epoxy HuntsmanUploaded byDeva Ismaya
- My Homework 0Uploaded byFortunata Citraningrum Sukmono
- L3Uploaded byr005w3lt
- tension.pdfUploaded bysergioleit
- Strength of MaterialsUploaded bykdp8
- Plane Stress LoadingUploaded byAjeet Kumar
- Design Charts for Proportioning Rectangular Prestressed Concrete ColumnsUploaded byMagui
- Rare Metals Volume 27 Issue 1 2008 [Doi 10.1016%2FS1001-0521%2808%2960032-7] ZHU, H -- Damage and Fracture Mechanism of 6063 Aluminum Alloy Under Three Kinds of Stress StatesUploaded byAnonymous YU0QeLgtS
- lab2_uniaxial_hardnessUploaded bySôme Guy Incôgnito
- Scaling of Strength and Ductility in Bioinspired Brick and Mortar CompositesUploaded byImran Sajid Shahid
- Stress and StrUploaded byLily Sharma
- List of FiguresUploaded byYELLAMANDA SANKATI
- Antonella PresentationUploaded byCamilo Granados
- WORKING STRESSUploaded byMandar Nadgaundi
- boussinesq2Uploaded bypriatnorendra
- My Homework 5Uploaded byFortunata Citraningrum Sukmono

- borang aqiqahUploaded byNorsyazwani Abdul Rashid
- 3The origins and the future of microfluidics.pdfUploaded byNorsyazwani Abdul Rashid
- Compressible FlowUploaded byNorsyazwani Abdul Rashid
- New ME Course-structure-V2 1516 MPU-U2 Mar16Uploaded byNorsyazwani Abdul Rashid
- lab report measurement and instrumentation 1Uploaded byNorsyazwani Abdul Rashid
- ED1 CHAPTER1 (1)Uploaded byNorsyazwani Abdul Rashid
- 80580_Chapter 2 - The 8051 Microcontroller [Students].pdfUploaded byNorsyazwani Abdul Rashid
- 80580_Chapter 2 - The 8051 Microcontroller [Students].pdfUploaded byNorsyazwani Abdul Rashid
- 82880_Chapter 3 Opcode MapUploaded byNorsyazwani Abdul Rashid
- 82880_Chapter 3 Opcode MapUploaded byNorsyazwani Abdul Rashid
- 94539 Assignment 1Uploaded byKevin Chong

- Lecture 08Uploaded bymaga2000
- Technical Tidbits July-August 2005_ Tensile Strength ConsiderationsUploaded byLee Koon Peng
- Nonlinear analysis of prestressed concrete structures considering slip behavior of tendonsUploaded byAdam Ahmad
- High-Strength_Concrete_Columns_Confined_by_Rectang.pdfUploaded bykshama hemkar
- Materia Science and EngineeringUploaded byG-miz Morrey
- Vibration AssignmentUploaded byMirWaseemBugti
- FE Mechanical Exam Computer Based Test CoverageUploaded byaoeusnthid
- Mechanical PropertiesUploaded byYagnik Kalariya
- Prestressed Concrete Refer AS3600-2009Uploaded byMario Minga
- MECHANICAL PROPERTIES.pdfUploaded byvardha
- Soal Hibbeler UASUploaded byRokhim van Heaven
- 1 325 1 MadjadoumbayeUploaded byVidita Rewayani
- M03 Partially Saturated Soils[1]Uploaded byrealchic
- ArcelorMittal Automotive Product Offer EnUploaded byqshaath
- MULTIAXIAL STRESS IN THE FATIGUE LIFE OF MECHANICAL PARTS.pdfUploaded byAdemar Cardoso
- 200113.Audi.body Construction.(USA)Uploaded byFernando García
- 1. Strength of Materials Objective and Conventional by S K MondalUploaded byMadhu Ram
- IES OBJ Civil Engineering 2003 Paper IUploaded byArnab Dutta
- Relationships Between Micro StructureUploaded byAndrés Möller
- 92-363-1-PcUploaded bymiguelramirezalvarez
- Lug DesignUploaded byNaman Dugar
- Mech 302- Strength of Materials SyllabusUploaded byHarold Taylor
- Hydrodynamic alignment and assembly of nanoﬁbrils resulting in strong cellulose ﬁlamentsUploaded byElvis Ponce Abarca
- Mudulus ConUploaded byMuhammad Sajid
- Titzman ThesisUploaded byJe-sim'iel Quite Abinal
- 3338748Uploaded bysunny171083_90123592
- 140133 2.Pdf3rd DiplomaUploaded bypinky
- Abaqus IntroductionUploaded bygrenouille2
- ASTM - STP 1250 - Case Studies for Fatigue Education.pdfUploaded byHendra Yudistira
- Basic of Drillpipe Tensile Capacity and Its Calculation.pdfUploaded byMokr Achour