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# EME3046 Mechanics of Materials

Chapter 2
Two Dimensional Linear Theory of Elasticity

Learning Outcome:
LO1: Understand the theories of stress and strain that
are essential for the analysis of a s t r u ct u r a l o r
mechanical system subjected to loads. (cognitive
comprehending, level 2).

Programme Outcomes:
PO1: Ability to acquire and apply fundamental principles
of science and engineering.
PO3: Acquisition of technical competence in specialized
areas of engineering discipline
Contents

Introduction
Plane stress and plane strain
Airy stress function
Applications to problems in rectangular / polar
coordinates.
In the last chapter, we have learned about stresses and strains.
Now is the time to relate the two!

2
Introduction..

## The stressstrain curve is a graphical representation of the relationship

between stress, derived from measuring the load applied on the sample,
and strain, derived from measuring the deformation of the sample, i.e.
elongation, compression, or distortion.

The nature of the curve varies from material to material. The relation
between stress and strain is unique for a particular material and usually
modeled mathematically. They are known as constitutive model.

## The following diagrams illustrate the stressstrain behavior of typical

materials in terms of the engineering stress and engineering strain where
the stress and strain are calculated based on the original dimensions of
the sample and not the instantaneous values.
Relation between normal stress and
normal strain tensile test

## The relationship between stress and strain is different for

different materials.
From the stress-strain curve, for elastic region:

where
E is the Young's modulus (modulus of elasticity)
F is the force applied to the object;
A0 is the original cross-sectional area through which the force is
applied;
L is the amount by which the length of the object changes;
L0 is the original length of the object.

## The relation E = / is known as Hookes Law

Relation between shear stress and shear strain torsion test

d

dx
where
d angle of twist of the element
dx length of the element
T

J
where
T Applied torque
J polar moment of inertia of cross
sectional area
From the shear stress-shear strain curve, for elastic
region:

where
G is the shear modulus of elasticity
E is the Young's modulus (modulus of elasticity)
v is the Poisson ratio;
is the shear stress;
is the shear strain;
Poisson ratio, v
n is known as Poissons ratio (is the negative ratio of transverse contraction
strain to longitudinal extension strain in the direction to stretching force)

transverse y
v
longitudinal x
Hookes Law for ISOTROPIC Material
Hooke s La w i s o n e
common constitutive
model for elastic y dy
materials, and can be
extended for biaxial
both x and y directions)
x dx
as follows:
From figure
y
x x dx x dx v dx
E E
Rewriting and extending
for deformations in
y and z axes give:

1
x x v y
E

1
y y v x
E

v

z x y
E

Equation above is valid
and y directions) Note that = / E
Hookes Law for ISOTROPIC Material

x
1
E

x v y
y dy
1

y y v x
E

v
z x y
E

x dx
Note that even though
z = 0, z 0, due to the
poisson effect.
N o w, e x t e n d i n g t o

x
1
E

x v y z
1

y y v x z
E

1

z z v x y
E

Note that = / E
Hookes Law for ISOTROPIC Material-
relationship between stress and strain (3D state of stress)
Similarly for shear strains :
xy yz xz
xy yz xz
G G G

Thus, the generalized Hookes Law for 3D state of stress and Isotropic materials
(strain-stress relations):
xy
1

x x v y z
E

xy
G
yz
1
E

y y v x z
yz
G
________________(1)

1

z z v x y
E

xz xz
G
The stress-strain relations can be obtained through strain energy density method which yield:

x
E
(1 v)(1 2v)

(1 v) x v( y z )
xy G xy
y
E
(1 v)(1 2v)

(1 v) y v( x z ) yz G yz ________________( 2)
xz G xz
z
E
(1 v)(1 2v)

(1 v) z v( x y )
Plane Stress and Plane Strain
Equations (1 and 2) give the fully three-dimensional form of Hookes Law.
Many problems can be simplified into two-dimensional, by assuming that
stress or strain varies only in a single plane, usually the x-y plane. There
are two ways to make such an approximation:
1) by assuming that the normal force to the plane is zero the plane
stress assumption; or
2) by assuming that the normal strain to the plane is zero the plane
strain assumption.
xy
x
1
E

x v y z xy
G
yz
1
E

y y v x z yz
G
__( 1 )

1

z z v x y
E
xz
xz
G

x
E
(1 v)(1 2v)

(1 v) x v( y z )
xy G xy
y
E
(1 v)(1 2v)

(1 v) y v( x z ) yz G yz __(2)
xz G xz
z
E
(1 v)(1 2v)

(1 v) z v( x y )
Plane Stress and Plane Strain Problems
The figure below shows two plates on which only compressive normal
stresses in the x and y directions are applied. The top and bottom
surfaces on the plate in figure (a) are free surfaces (plane stress), but
because the plate is free to expand, the deformation (strain) in the z
direction is not zero. The plate in figure (b) is constrained from
expanding in the z direction by the rigid surfaces. As the material pushes
on the plate, a reaction force develops, and this reaction force result in a
nonzero value of normal stress in the z direction.
Plane Stress and Plane Strain Problems
Plane stress or plane strain are often approximations
to simplify analysis. Plane stress approximation is
often made for thin bodies as in fig.(a) below, such
as the metal skin of an aircraft. Plane strain
approximation is often made for thick bodies as in
fig.(b) below, such as the hull of a submarine.

( (
Isotropic: Plane Stress;
Relationship between
The equation 1 can be simplified
stress and for plane
strain
stress condition by letting z= xz(xz) = yz (yz)
= 0. The strain-stress relations are therefore:

x
1
E

x v y xy
xy
G
1

y y v x
E
yz 0
_________(3)
xz 0
v

z x y
E

From the strain-stress relations (equation 2), it can be seen that even though z = 0,
the strain component z 0.
The stress- strain relations are obtained by simplifying equation 2 (by letting
z = xz = yz = 0):

x
E
2
x v y xy G xy
1 v
_________( 4)
y
E
2
y v x yz 0
1 v xz 0
z 0 ( plane stress )
Isotropic: Plane Strain;
Relationship between
The equation 1 can be simplified
stress and for plane
strain
strain condition by letting z= xz= yz = 0.
The strain-stress relations are therefore:

x
1 v
2
x
v
y xy
E 1 v xy
G
y
1 v
2
y
v
x yz 0
E 1 v
xz 0
z 0 _________(5)

From the strain-stress relations (equation 2), it can be seen that even though z = 0,
the strain component z 0.
The stress- strain relations are obtained by simplifying equation 2 (by letting
z= xz= yz = 0):

x
E
1 v 1 2v

1 v x v y
xy G xy
y
E
1 v 1 2v x

v (1 v) y yz 0
xz 0 _________(6)
vE
z ( x y )
1 v 1 2v
Relation between principal stress and principal strain (3D
Relation between principal stress and principal strain can be obtained by simply
substituting the following:
x = 1, y = 2, z = 3, and x = 1 , y = 2, z = 3

## Thus, the principal strain-principal stress relations are:

1
1 1 v 2 3
E
1
2 2 v 1 3 ________________(7)
E
1
3 3 v 1 2
E

## Similarly, the principal stress-principal strain relations are:

E
1 (1 v)1 v( 2 3 )
(1 v)(1 2v)
E
2 (1 v) 2 v(1 3 ) ________________(8)
(1 v)(1 2v)
E
3 (1 v) 3 v(1 2 )
(1 v)(1 2v)
Example 1

Solution :
1 GPa
= 1
1 MPa = 1
10 6
Example 2

zz = zx = zy= 0

Solution :
Example 3

solution :
solution :
Compatibility Relationship (Plane Stress)

## Solution of elasticity problems is constrained by the

requirement that the strains must be continuous, which
means that the deformation or strains within the body
must be compatible with each other.

## Recall equations of equilibrium (from Chapter 1-3a):

Compatibility Relationship (Plane Stress)

And the
compatibilit
y relations:

Substituting Hookes
Law into
compatibility
relation yields:

(41)
equations of
equilibriu
m yields

equations of
equilibriu
m yields
Hookes Law and Compatibility Relationship (Plane Strain)
(48)
Supplementary Question 1

A rectangular rosette, as shown in the figure below is cemented to the free surface
of an airplane wing. It is made of an aluminium alloy 7075 T6 (Youngs Modulus, E
= 72 Gpa, Poissons ratio, v = 0.33). Under load, the strain readings are a = xx =
0.00250, b = 0.00140, c = yy = -0.00125.
a.) Determine the principal stresses. Note that the stress components on the free
surfaces are zero.
b.) Show the orientation of the volume element on which the principal stresses in
the plane of the rosette act.
c.) Determine the maximum shear stress max.
d.) Show the orientation of the volume element on which max acts.
Supplementary Solution 1 For the rosette given :
x a 0.00250
y c 0.00125
xy 2 b ( a c ) 0.00155
Supplementary Solution 1

## Principal stresses are therefore:

a.)

b.)
Supplementary Solution 1

c.)

d.)
Supplementary Question 2

## A square plate in the side of a ship with 800mm sides

parallel to the x and y axes has a uniform thickness h =
10mm and is made of an isotropic steel (E = 200GPa
and v = 0.29). The plate is subjected to a uniform state
of stress. If zz = zx = zy = 0 (plane stress), xx =
500MPa, and yy = 0 for the plate, determine yy and the
final dimensions of the plate, assuming linearly elastic
conditions.
Supplementary Solution 2
Supplementary Question 3
Supplementary Solution 3
Supplementary Solution 3
Supplementary Question 4
Supplementary Solution 4

x
1
E

x v y
1

y y v x
E

v

z x y
E

Supplementary Question 5

## The strain components at a critical point in an

aluminum spar of an airplane (E= 72 Gpa and v =
0.33) are measured on a free surface as x = 0.002,
y = 0.001, and xy =0.001.
a) Determine the corresponding nonzero stress
components.
b) A design criterion for the spar is that the
maximum shear stress cannot exceed max = 70
Mpa. Is this condition satisfied for the measured
strain state ?