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g GE Industrial Systems

Power System
Harmonic Overview
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Harmonic Topics
What are harmonics?
Where do they come from?
Why worry?
Standards.
Solutions.

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 2


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com
What Are Power Line Harmonics?
Fundamental, 5th and 7th
Harmonics
1.5

Fundamental
Harmonics are voltages 1

and currents at frequencies Sum 7th


5th
that are multiples of utility 0.5
power frequency.
0
0 120 240 360

-0.5

-1

-1.5

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 3


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
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Where Do Harmonics Come From?


Harmonic currents result from loads that
draw power in non-sine-wave format.
These are so-called non-linear loads.

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 4


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com

Some Specific Harmonic Sources


Linear load examples: Non-Linear load examples:
Resistance devices - Transformers during
heaters, incandescent energization
lamps Arc welders and arc
Induction motors furnaces
Capacitor banks Ballasts.
Rectifiers
Computers, switching
power supplies
DC drives, AC Drives
Switched cap banks

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 5


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com
Some Harmonic Producers
Harmonic Producer Harmonic Notes
Transformers during
2nd Gone after 0.1 sec
energization
Broad spectrum,
Arc Welders and
2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, Filters usually included
Furnaces
7th, 11th
3rd cancelled in delta
Ballasts, electronic 3rd, 5th, 7th
transf
Typical 5th, 7th,
Varies by number of
Plating Rectifiers 11th, 13th, etc,
pulses
magnitude 1/n
Computers, switching 3rd cancelled in delta
3rd, 5th, 7th
power supplies transf
Typical 5th, 7th,
Varies by number of
DC Drives 11th, 13th, etc,
pulses
magnitude 1/n
Typical 5th, 7th, Varies by type, number
AC drives
11th, 13th, etc, of pulses, system Z
High frequencies,
Transients, induce
Switching Cap banks depend on
system resonances
system

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 6


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com

Why Worry?
OR - What makes Power system Harmonics so bad?

Capacitors can blow from


overvoltage
Drives can trip offline
Transformers can overheat -
possibly to destruction
Motors will heat more
Ballasts can pop
Electronics can malfunction

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 7


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com
A Closer Look: Capacitor Loss
from Harmonic Overvoltages
Every AC distribution system has
distributed inductance L & capacitance C.
Adding pf correction caps anywhere in the
system will produce a resonant point with
system L

Harmonic Number = Short Circuit MVA


of Resonance
Capacitor MVAR

IF THIS HAPPENS TO CORRESPOND TO A HARMONIC


CURRENT PRESENT IN THE SYSTEM, THE RESONANCE
WILL PRODUCE BIG VOLTAGES ON THE CAP BANK!
11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 8
g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com

69 kV
Example: PF Cap Bank in 1100 MVAsc
Harmonic Trouble
15 MVA, 5%
System KV = 12.47
12.47 kV
Equiv. System MVAsc = 235
Capacitor Bank Mvar = 5.0
5 MVAR

Harmonic Number = Short Circuit MVA


of Resonance EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT:
Capacitor MVAR

235 MVAsc
Approx Harmonic Resonance = 6.86 !

5 MVAR

CAP BANK AND SYSTEM Z RESONATE NEAR 7th HARMONIC!


ANY DRIVE OR RECTIFIERS ON THE SYSTEM COULD CAUSE HUGE OVERVOLTAGES!

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 9


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
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Symptoms of Capacitor Series Resonance

Voltages across caps measure


higher than 10% over nameplate
rating, scope shows high peaks.
Be sure to use True-RMS meter
Over-voltages can come and go with
operation of harmonic producing
equipment.
Capacitor Cans are swollen
Cap Fuses blow, cans fail
11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 10
g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com

Fixing System Resonance Problems


Experiment or calculate to verify
problem
Calculate using simplified approach
Temporarily remove caps and
observe effect.
Remove proven offending cap banks
OR, Change size of bank
OR, Tune the bank with inductors

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 11


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com
Example Power System
HV UTILITY

MV DISTRIB

CONVEYOR

C
PLANT
D
E EXCAVATORS

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 12


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com

The P.F. Correction Dilemma


A. Harmonic producers such as drives
often need power factor correction.
B. Naked capacitors will likely
resonate and cause problems

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 13


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com
Tuned Capacitor Banks
[Also Known As Harmonic Filters]
Naked capacitors often
cause resonance problems L
Res Freq =
on system 1
2pi(LC)^.5
C
Inductors and capacitors in
series combinations at
Delta
resonant frequency look Connected
like near zero ohms. Tuned
Bank
If tuned to harmonic
frequency, LC filter will act
as sink for that frequency

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 14


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com
Tuned Capacitor Banks
Configurations
Delta Connected Tuned Wye Connected Tuned
Bank - frequently used in Bank - frequently used
LV filters. in MV filters.

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 15


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com

Harmonic Filters
Medium voltage or low voltage
Tune to below desired trap
frequency [example, 4.7th]
Rising temps move up resonance
Filter LC is in parallel with system z -
causing ANOTHER resonant point
New parallel resonant point is
hopefully not on critical frequencies

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 16


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com
Multipulse Rectifier Circuit Comparison
Vprim Vprim Vprim

0 deg 30 deg +20 deg 0 deg -20 deg

6-RECT 6-RECT 6-RECT 6-RECT 6-RECT


6-RECT
BRIDGE BRIDGE BRIDGE BRIDGE BRIDGE
BRIDGE

LOAD
LOAD LOAD

18-PULSE RECTIFIER
6-PULSE RECTIFIER 12-PULSE RECTIFIER 5th, 7th 11th, 13th
5th, 7th, 11th, 13th, 5th, 7th 90% cancelled 90% cancelled
17th, 19th, 23rd, 25th Etc. still have 11th, 13th, still have 17th, 19th
17th, 19th, 23rd, 25th Etc. 23rd, 25th Etc.

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 17


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com

Plating Rectifiers
Power range 1-10 MVA
Thyristor [SCR] phase controlled
Frequently 12 pulse configuration to
cancel 5th and 7th harmonics
Filters are on transformer primary
side.
Small 5th and 7th plus 11th and 13th
filters.

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 18


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com
DC Drives
Phase controlled
SCR drives, phase
amps in square wave DC Rectified
blocks Excavator Drive
Usually have PF
comp and Filters
onboard. M
Typical 5th, 7th etc at
1/N magnitude.
HF ringing
harmonics due to Phase
switching. Voltage A B C A B C
Switched caps on
Phase
P&H individually A B C A B C
Currents
tuned. Square Waves Currents
LAG PF at stall very
poor w/o caps.
11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 19
g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com

Switched Capacitor Banks


Contactors or SCRs can be
used.
Provide automatic compensation
of variable PF demands
OR
Switched banks must be
individually tuned.
Can introduce HF ringing
harmonics due to switching.

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 20


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com
Power Conversion
AC Inverter

TRANSFORMATION UTILIZATION
LOAD
AC TO DC DC TO AC
AC IND
MOTOR

RECTIFICATION SWITCHING
UTILITY
SUPPLY AC INVERTER TECHNOLOGY
UP TO 97% EFFIC

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 21


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com

Inverter System
General Block Diagram

3 Ph.
Rectifier DC Bus Inverter Motor
Input

Reference Regulator

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 22


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com
BASIC AC DRIVE TYPES
VARIABLE VOLTAGE INVERTER - V.V.I. 3 PHASE
OUTPUT
CONVERTER INVERTER
3-PHASE AC TO DC DC TO MOTOR
INPUT
V.F. AC

MOTOR
CURRENT SOURCE INVERTER - CCI FILTER

CONVERTER INVERTER
3-PHASE AC TO DC
INPUT DC TO MOTOR
V.F. AC
3 PHASE
OUTPUT

PULSE-WIDTH MODULATED INVERTER - PWM


3 PHASE
OUTPUT
3-PHASE CONVERTER INVERTER
AC TO DC DC TO MOTOR
INPUT
V.F. AC

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 23


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com

AC-VFD Current Source Drives


All have phase-controlled front ends.
DC Link inductors keep current
continuous
Inverter switches curent to the motor
phases.
Used for large induction or sync
motors
Looks like a DC drive to the power
line, with similar harmonics.

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 24


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com
Load Commutated Inverter

Variable DC Synchronous
AC Input
Bus Motor

Controlled Inverter
Rectifier (SCR)

Inverter Bridge Topology Comparison

Inverter Advantages Drawbacks Practical Power


Topology Range

Load-commutated Low Parts Count Requires a controlled front end Above 2 MW


Current source Full Regen and DB High motor current THD
SCR Inverter possible Slow transient response
Rugged Narrow motor frequency range
Economical High HP Minimum Starting Torque
Poor low speed performance
Synchronous Motor

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 25


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com
Current Source PWM GTO Inverter

Variable DC Induction
AC Input
Bus Motor

Controlled Inverter Motor Filter


Rectifier (GTO) Capacitors

Inverter Bridge Topology Comparison

Inverter Advantages Drawbacks Practical Power


Topology Range
Current Source GTO Full regen and DB Requires a controlled 2 - 15 MW
PWM Inverter possible front end
Low parts count Poor input power factor
Low motor THD Low switching frequency
Low motor insulation Slow transient response
stress Narrow motor frequency
range
Poor multi-motor
operation

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 26


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com

Typical Large CSI Drive


PF Correction & Harmonic Filters
Vprim
Often 12 pulse AC
front end is used to
reduce 5th and 7th 0 deg
6/12 RECT
30 deg
6/12-
6/12-RECT
harmonic currents BRIDGE BRIDGE

Poor PF at low speeds


requires caps to LOAD
correct
Banks must be tuned. 12-PULSE RECTIFIER
5th, 7th 90% cancelled
Small 5th & 7th still still have 11th, 13th,
needed, plus 11th. 17th, 19th, 23rd, 25th Etc.

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 27


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com

AC PWM Drives
The most frequent AC drives in use
today.
LV or MV drives - usually use diode
front ends.
Create unique PF and harmonic
problems.

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 28


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com

Utility Considerations
Stiffness of supply UTILITY

Utility power level variations


Quality of power as received
Restrictions on power quality
effects by new installation [power
factor, harmonics]
Impact of new loads on Drive
M
existing system.

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 29


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com

Power Control and Protection


UTILITY
Medium Voltage switchgear
Unique needs of drive-
dominated loads.
Metering, monitoring, and
power management.

Drive
AC
M
Drive

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 30


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com

Power Distribution
Harmonic effects on UTILITY
equipment
True meaning of power factor
Feeder sizing
Mixture of drive and non
drive loading.
Transformer rating factors Drive
AC
M
Drive

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 31


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com

Power Quality Issues


Power disturbances on existing UTILITY

system.
Injection of harmonics -
The problem & true impact
Specs, recommendations &
regulations [IEEE-519 & others]
Rational solutions
Economic tradeoffs. Drive
AC
Drive
M

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 32


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com

PWM AC Drive Block Diagram


3 PHASE E AC POWER

DC BUS
RECTIFIER
INVERTER

LOGIC
Motor

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 33


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com

Pulse-Width-Modulated [PWM]
Wave Form
Voltage = The Average of the PEAK VOLTAGE
time the Voltage is on Plus
the time the Voltage is Off.

The Motor tends to smooth


the voltage wave

Present designs use IGBT


devices to produce smooth
current waves.

IGBT devices switch at


rates up to 20K Hz.

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 34


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com

Low voltage PWM drive


R e c tifie d 3 -P h a s e
1 .2

0 .8

PWM Motor Volts


0 .6

0 .4

3 Phase 0 .2

0
0 5 0 1 0 0 1 5 0 2 0 0 2 5 0 3 0 0 3 5 0 4 0 0

Diode Bridge
[+] DC Buss Rectified Power
AC Incoming
Line
Cap
Bank a
b
M
T hree P h ase In p u t

1.2

0.7
DBR c
0.2

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400


-0.3

-0.8

-1.3

[- ]

Motor Amps
11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 35
g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com

Inverter System Power Components


R e c t if ie d 3 - P h a s e
PWM Drive 1 .2

DC Link 0 .8

Reactor 0 .6

0 .4

Line 0 .2

System Z Reactor IGBTs 0

A
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

M
Fuses Average No Load
Cap Inverter DC Bus at A
Bank

General Rule: 5% Z needed in System Z + Line Reactor


OR include DC Link reactor to Prevent Fuse Blowing.
Some drives have SCR in rectifier to control charging.
Line reactor &/or DC reactor Improve average power
factor & reduce Harmonics
11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 36
g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com

Inverter System AC Line Distortion


PWM Drive

DC Link
Reactor
Line
System Z Reactor IGBTs
A LINE AMPS
M
Fuses
Cap
Bank Rectified 3-Phase
1.2

CAPACITOR CAN FILL ONLY WHEN 1

PEAK LINE VOLTS AT A ARE ABOVE 0.8

CAPACITOR VOLTS: 0.6

* LINE AMPS CHARGE CAPS IN VERY 0.4

UNEVEN BUMPS [NOT SINE WAVE!] 0.2

* NON SINE WAVE CURRENT IS FULL 0


0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

OF HARMONICS.
11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 37
g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com

Displacement vs Real Power Factor


Drives are usually specified in
displacement power factor, DPF
DPF = cosine of phase angle between supply
volts and line amps.
For diode front end PWM, DPF > .95
True PF = KW / KVA
True PF can be quite bad. PF =0.60 not
uncommon! Depends on Line Z.

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 38


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com
Effects Line & DC Reactors on Power Line
AC Line Amps
Soft Source 30 KVA, 5.5% Zt
Base line DC Link AC Line Ac and DC
Baseline
Reactor Reactors Reactors
Input KVA 5.9 5.0 5.0 5.0
DC Link
Reactor Avg Inp Volts 469 467 471 468

Avg Ph Amps 7.2 6.2 6.1 6.2


Input
AC Line 5.0% 3.2% 2.8% 2.6%
VoItageThd..
Reactors Input Current
Thd
69.1% 31.8% 34.2% 27.8%

Input Volts Imb 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2%

Input Amps Imb 4.8% 2.4% 5.5% 0.8%


DC Link &
& AC line Input True PF 0.81 0.94 0.91 0.93
Reactors Mot Amps THD 3.5% 3.0% 3.0% 3.3%

Ref Page 12-9 & 12-10 GEZ-7984E

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 39


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com
Effects Of Line & DC Reactors on Power Line
AC Line Amps Stiff Source 180 KVA, 2% Zt

DC Link AC Line Ac and DC


Base line Baseline
Reactor Reactors Reactors

Input KVA 5.2 3.8 3.2 3


DC Link Avg Inp Volts 469 467 470 469
Reactor Avg Ph Amps 6.2 4.7 4 3.7
Input
1.70% 1.40% 1.20% 1.30%
VoItageThd..
AC Line Input Current Thd 129.0% 54.7% 58.3% 39.4%
Reactors
Input Volts Imb 0.30% 0.30% 0.40% 0.30%

Input Amps Imb 13.9% 11.6% 6.8% 4.8%

DC Link & Input True PF 0.61 0.85 0.83 0.9


& AC line Mot Amps THD 4.2% 3.3% 4.4% 4.1%
Reactors

Ref Page 12-9 & 12-10 GEZ-7984E

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 40


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com

Power System Compatibility-Supply


Fast-acting current limiting AC line fuses
protect input rectifiers and limit fault current.
Added reactance in AC line or DC link is
needed when feeder transformer kVA is >10
times drive HP to prevent fuse blowing.
System reactance [native or added]
GREATLY reduces line KVA and harmonic
currents

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 41


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com

Drives Pulse Number Overview


Vprim
Simple full-wave drive rectifier front
end has 6 diodes
Each diode gives a pulse of output
6-DIODE
voltage for every peak of 3-phase RECT.
voltage.
INVERT.
Higher pulse drives use more
diodes in rectifier section.
Each rectifier fed from own M
transformer secondary
6-PULSE BASIC
PWM DRIVE

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 42


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
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Multipulse Drives Circuit Comparison
Vprim Vprim Vprim

0 deg 30 deg +20 deg 0 deg -20 deg

6-DIODE 6-DIODE 6-DIODE 6-DIODE 6-DIODE


6-DIODE
RECT. RECT. RECT. RECT. RECT.
RECT.

INVERT.
INVERT. INVERT.

M
M M
6-PULSE BASIC 18-PULSE BASIC
12-PULSE BASIC
PWM DRIVE PWM DRIVE
PWM DRIVE

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 43


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
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Multi-pulse LV PWM Drives


PWM Drive 6- PULSE WAVEFORM R e c t if ie d 3 - P h a s e
1 .2

DC Link 0 .8

Reactor 0 .6

0 .4

0 .2

IGBTs 0
6-DIODE 6-DIODE 6-DIODE

A
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
RECT.

M 12- PULSE WAVEFORM R e c t if ie d 3 - P h a s e

Fuses
1 .2

Cap 0 .8

Bank
RECT.

0 .6

0 .4

0 .2

Fuses 0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

18- PULSE WAVEFORM R e c t if ie d 3 - P h a s e


RECT.

1 .2

Vprim 1

Fuses 0 .8

0 .6

0 .4

0 .2

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 44


0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
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Pulse Count Drive Comparison
Factors 6 Pulse 12 Pulse 18 Pulse

Cost Lowest More Most

None, or
Special, Special,
Transformer Simple [Can
Dedicated Dedicated
Share]
11-17 % TDD, <5 % TDD, 90%
Harmonics
Large TDD 90% of 5th & of 5th to 13th
[drive only]
7th cancel cancel
Complexity /
Simplest More Most
Parts Count

Potential
Most Less Least
Reliability

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 45


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
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Multi-level Voltage Source
IGBT PWM Inverter

Fixed DC
Bus

Diode Inverter
Rectifier (IGBT)

Inverter Bridge Topology Comparison


Inverter Advantages Drawbacks Practical Power
Topology Range

Multi-level Voltage Low motor current THD No regen or DB possible 0.5 - 5 MW


Source IGBT PWM Low motor insulation stress Large parts count
Inverter Partial N+1 redundancy Reduced efficiency (many
available series IGBTs and diodes)
Easy repair Special transformer required
Fast transient response Larger footprint in high HP
Wide motor frequency range
High power factor
Low power system harmonics

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 46


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
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Voltage Source Med Voltage PWM IGBT Inverter

Fixed DC Induction
AC Input
Bus Motor

Diode Inverter
Rectifier (IGBT) Inverter Bridge Topology Comparison

Inverter Advantages Drawbacks Practical Power


Topology Range
Minimum parts count for Motor termination impedance 0.5 - 5 MW
Three or Five Level voltage rating matching [3 level only]
Voltage Source IGBT Full regen and DB available Not N+1 redundant
PWM Inverter High efficiency
Low motor current THD
Low motor insulation stress
Easy repair
Fast transient response
Wide motor frequency range
Smooth low speed operation
Inverter duty motor not necessary due to 3 or 5 level switching
GE Innovation Laminated bus which has lower parasitic inductance that allows for a snubberless design
Three or Five Level Fault current tolerance no longer an issue due to the use of IGBTs and optimized gate
Voltage Source IGBT control. No inductor needed (di/dt limit) and no fuses (current magnitude protection)
PWM Inverter Smaller footprint due to the use of heat pipe technology that improves power density

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 47


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com

Utility Considerations
Stiffness of supply UTILITY

Utility power level variations


Quality of power as received
Restrictions on power quality
effects by new installation [power
factor, harmonics]
Impact of new loads on Drive
M
existing system.

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 48


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com

Power Control and Protection


UTILITY
Medium Voltage switchgear
Unique needs of drive-
dominated loads.
Metering, monitoring, and
power management.

Drive
AC
M
Drive

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 49


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com

Power Distribution
Harmonic effects on UTILITY
equipment
True meaning of power factor
Feeder sizing
Mixture of drive and non
drive loading.
Transformer rating factors Drive
AC
M
Drive

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 50


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com

Power Quality Issues


Power disturbances on existing UTILITY

system.
Injection of harmonics -
The problem & true impact
Specs, recommendations &
regulations [IEEE-519 & others]
Rational solutions
Economic tradeoffs. Drive
AC
Drive
M

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g GE Industrial Systems
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Harmonic Overview
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IEEE 519-1992 Table 10.3 ITDD Limits
Maximum Harmonic Curent Distortion in % of I-Load
Isc to I-load h = 11 h = 17 h = 23 h = 35 TDD
h < 11 PCC Isc Available
Ratio to <17 to <23 to <35 & up %
Vpcc
< 20 4.0 2.0 1.5 0.6 0.3 5.0
20 < 50 7.0 3.5 2.5 1.0 0.5 8.0
50 < 100 10.0 4.5 4.0 1.5 0.7 12.0 I-Load I-harm
[fund]
100 < 1000 12.0 5.5 5.0 2.0 1.0 15.0
>1000 15.0 7.0 6.0 2.5 1.4 20.0
Notes: Even Harmonics limited to 25% of the harmonic level D
TDD = Total Demand Disortion %, based on maximum demand current M
at the point of common coupling [PCC].
Isc = Maximum Short Circuit current or kVA at the PCC
I-load = Fundamental freqency load current or kVA at the PCC

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 52


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Harmonic Overview
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IEEE 519-1992 Table 11.2 VTHD Limits


Voltage Distortion Limits for
Individual Harmonic Number: PCC Isc Available
< 3.0% Vpcc

Total Harmonic Voltage Distortion


[ VTHD ] Limits for all harmonics: I-Load I-harm
< 5.0% [fund]

Voltage distortion is what is passed


on to other equipment & utility. D
Voltage distortion depends on both M
injected current and source Z.
THD within user system is separate
concern, but not utility concern.
11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 53
g GE Industrial Systems
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Harmonic Overview
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Typical Inverter Line Side % Current Harmonics

6-pulse SYSTEM WITH NO DC LINK REACTOR 6-pulse SYSTEM WITH DC LINK REACTOR
500 500
Data source: GE FujI Drives - April 1993 Data source: GE Fuji Drives - April 1993

% OF FUNDAMENTAL AMPS % OF FUNDAMENTAL AMPS


200 200
Total Effective Current

Total Effective Current


100 100
% OF FUNDAMENTAL AMPS

% OF FUNDAMENTAL AMPS
5th
7th

50 11th 50
5th
13th

20 20
17th 7th
19th
10 10 11th

13th
17th
5 5
23rd 19th

23rd
25th 25th
2 2

AC Source Reactance [%] --->


AC Source Reactance [%] --->

1 1
0.02 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.5 1.0 2 5 10
0.02 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.5 1.0 2 5 10

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 54


g GE Industrial Systems
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Harmonic Overview
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Harmonic Calculations
Consider both drives and linear loads.
TDD per IEEE is a % of total kva, including PCC Isc Available
Vpcc
non-VFD motors
Demand distortion is not instantaneous number,
but based on meter kva-hours.
I-Load I-harm
Must define a Point of Common Coupling: [fund]
where currents sum.
Computer programs are available [see
www.transcoil.com].
D
If you ignore harmonics, then breakers, M
transformers and feeders may be under-sized.

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 55


g GE Industrial Systems
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Harmonic Overview
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Simplified AC PWM Harmonic Analysis


TCI-Analyzer
PWM VFDs with
diode front ends
Simple First-cut
calculations.
Allows rapid
comparisons of
drive & filter
combinations
Program available
for purchase &
download at
www.transcoil.com

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 56


g GE Industrial Systems
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Harmonic Overview
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MV Filter- Metal Enclosed

Air core or iron


core inductors
Oil filled
capacitors
L-C pairs Tuned
to harmonics to
be absorbed
Switchgear and
protection
needed.

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 57


g GE Industrial Systems
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Harmonic Overview
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Stack-Rack Filter Banks


Open Construction

Air core core


inductors
Oil filled
capacitors
L-C pairs Tuned
to harmonics to
be absorbed
Switchgear and
protection
needed.

9 MVAR Bank, 12.47 KV, Tuned to 5th harmonic [5/98]


11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 58
g GE Industrial Systems
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Harmonic Overview
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Typical Costs for MV Harmonic Banks


Fixed = $30 / KVAR, Auto = $35-60 / KVAR
Not including:
)
Taps for iron core reactors (typically 35% adder to cost & size
Breakers
Disconnect switches, fused or unfused
Vacuum switches
Thermal protection for reactors (CT's & relays)
Unbalance/Blown Fuse detection (CT's & relays)
Automatic banks (controllers, switches & reactors for each step)
Ground switches
Ventilation/heaters
Provisions for Kirk key interlocks

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 59


g GE Industrial Systems
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Harmonic Overview
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Typical Costs for LV Harmonic Banks


Fixed = $70 to $180 / KVAR, Auto = $85 to
$150 / KVAR, 480 volt or 600 volt
Including:
Iron core reactors for each step
Contactors for each step
Breakers
Thermal protection for reactors (CT's & relays)
Unbalance/Blown Fuse detection (CT's & relays)
Ventilation/heaters

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 60


g GE Industrial Systems
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Harmonic Overview
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Low Voltage Harmonic Filters


For VFD Application

Incoming
MV Feed

PER DRIVE 6-PULSE MOTOR


FILTER PWM DRIVE & LOAD

6-DIODE INVERT.
RECT. M

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 61


g GE Industrial Systems
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Harmonic Overview
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Harmonic Correction:
Rational Approaches
Correct known problems, use
consultation if needed.
Local filters - at the source.
System level filters.
Minimize injection of currents by
equipment selection & application.
Maintain standards to prevent future
problems.

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 62


g GE Industrial Systems
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Harmonic Overview
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Low Voltage Harmonic Filters
For VFD Application
CONFIGURATION
SHOWING
ONE FILTER PER BUS

Incoming
MV Feed 6- 6- 6-
PULSE PULSE PULSE
PWM PWM PWM
DRIVE DRIVE DRIVE

M M M

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 63


g GE Industrial Systems
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Harmonic Overview
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Low Voltage Harmonic Filters
For VFD Application
CONFIGURATION USING
ONE FILTER PER DRIVE
LV BUS

Incoming
MV Feed 6- 6- 6-
PULSE PULSE PULSE
PWM PWM PWM
DRIVE DRIVE DRIVE

M M M

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 64


g GE Industrial Systems
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Harmonic Overview
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High/Med. Voltage Harmonic Filters


CONFIGURATION USING
ONE FILTER BANK AT MV SYSTEM LEVEL

MV BUS

Incoming
HV Feed 5 7 11 13 DRIVES
PLANT
LOADS

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 65


g GE Industrial Systems
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Harmonic Overview
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Power System Compatibility-
Feeder Equipment
Breakers, transformers, and cable must be
rated to carry full kVA.
Transformers need to be drive isolation
rated with proper K factor.
K 13 = 50% NL loads, K30 = 100%
Equipment size may be minimized by
reducing harmonics by using:
Line & Link Reactors
Filters
Multipulse rectifier drives

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 66


g GE Industrial Systems
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Harmonic Overview
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IEEE 519-1992
Cable Derating Table
100 100

98
PERCENT CABLE DERATED CAPACITY

awg 8 99
awg 1
SIMPLIFIED
98 CURVES ARE BASED ON
FOLLOWING HARMONIC 98 CONCLUSION:
CURRENT DISTRIBUTION 1/0 AWG REDUCE VFD
2/0 AWG
97
h Ih[(pu)
3/0 AWG
HARMONICS TO
97
5 0.175 4/0 AWG
THESE LEVELS
7 0.110
11 0.045 250 kcmil
OR LESS AND
96
13 0.029 96 CABLE IMPACT
17 0.015 350 kcmil
19 0.010 500 kcmil
WILL BE
95
23
25
0.009
0.008
MINIMAL.
95
750 kcmil

PERCENT HARMONIC LOAD 1000 kcmil


94
94
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 67


g GE Industrial Systems
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Harmonic Overview
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Harmonic Solutions

Understanding
Planning
Studies & surveys
Filters
Low impact equip

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 68


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
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Harmonic Surveys
What are they?
When are they needed?
Serious & widespread symptoms
Starting fresh
To fix utility complaints
Localized or system wide?

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 69


g GE Industrial Systems
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Harmonic Overview
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Harmonic Surveys
Do-it-yourself Approach
Measurement locations
Instrument availability, setup,
calibration.
Data interpretation
When do you need professional
help?

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 70


g GE Industrial Systems
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Harmonic Overview
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Example Power System
HV UTILITY

MV DISTRIB

CONVEYOR

C
PLANT
D
E EXCAVATORS

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 71


g GE Industrial Systems
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Harmonic Overview
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Using Harmonic Survey Results


Recognize what data means trouble,
and what can be ignored.
Know the industry standards.
Know how to apply standards with
practical results in sight at lowest
cost.

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 72


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
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Summary
Use common sense approach - dont
be pushed into excessive action.
Recognize symptoms of harmonic
problems.
Use design tools to do simple calcs
and planning
Consult reliable systems analysis
sources when help is needed.

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 73


g GE Industrial Systems
Power System
Harmonic Overview
www.geindustrial.com

Summary
Use common sense approach - dont
be pushed into excessive action.
Recognize symptoms of harmonic
problems.
Use design tools to do simple calcs
and planning
Consult reliable systems analysis
sources when help is needed.

11/20/2003 10:26:46 PM wmea-harmonic-1.ppt Slide 74