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SINUSOIDAL VARIABLES

In AC circuits, the basic current and voltage


variables are considered to be sinusoidal
functions
A sinusoidal function is

magnitude
angular phase
time or
frequency angle
amplitude
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SINUSOIDAL VARIABLES
The argument of the sinusoidal function is
radians and so:
x
is expressed
in radians T 2

t
Xm

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ANGULAR FREQUENCY

We can also express the argument of the

sinusoidal function in terms of the frequency f

given in Hz or cycles per second with

2 f

radians / cycle Hz
radians/s
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ANGULAR FREQUENCY
The periodic sinusoidal function has a period of
T s, where
1
s/cycle T cycles/s
f
that is each cycle (or period) takes T s
We may express x t therefore as

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AC SYSTEM
The current in the AC system is specified by

The use of the cosine function is rather arbitrary


since for an arbitrary angle

or equivalently

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AC SYSTEM
The voltage is also sinusoidal

v t Vm cos t + v

The power is

Recall that
1
cos cos cos cos
2
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POWER EXPRESSION FOR NETWORK

We are interested to evaluate the average value of

the power p t

As we consider two periodic functions, each with

the identical period T, the average value is given

by the average value over any single period


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AC SYSTEM

Therefore

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AC SYSTEM
where, we use the fact that the average value of

a sinusoid is 0, as the positive and negative

areas cancel out

Therefore

1
pavg Vm I m cos
2
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EFFECTIVE VALUE

The effective value of a periodic variable is the

square root of the average of the squared value

of the variable

For current

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EFFECTIVE VALUE
We next evaluate I

1
1 cos 2 t i
2
Im
I
2
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EFFECTIVE VALUE

The value I is referred to as the r.m.s. value


The r.m.s. value of a sinusoid equals its
amplitude divided by 2
The 240-V 60-Hz voltage at which electricity is
supplied to a dryer is understood to mean that
V = 240 V
and so
Vm 240 2 339.41V
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AC SYSTEM

with the angular frequency

and so we have the sinusoid

We henceforth adopt the convention of treating


the input voltage as having and we
measure all other variables with respect to the
reference voltage
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r.m.s. VALUE OF A SQUARE WAVE
We consider the square wave
x t
a

t0
t
T T
2 2
T
a t 0 n 1 T t t 0 2n 1
2
x t n 1, 2 , ...
T
0 t0 2n 1 t t0 nT
2
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r.m.s. VALUE OF A SQUARE WAVE
We compute the r.m.s. value of x t by evalua-
ting the average value over a cycle
1
1
t0
T
2
1 t0 T

2
1 2

x t dt
2
X a dt
2

T t0 T t0

1
a2 T 2

T 2
a

2
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IDEAL RESISTOR IN AC NETWORKS

i t
+

~ R

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IDEAL RESISTOR IN AC NETWORKS
We analyze the behavior of an ideal resistor in a
circuit with a sinusoidal voltage source

or in the terms of the r.m.s. voltage V

v t 2 V cos t
Now,

v t V
i t 2 cos t
R R
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IDEAL RESISTOR IN AC NETWORKS

is the current through the resistor with r.m.s.

value
V
I =
R
Since there is a 0 angle phase difference

between the v t and i t sinusoids, we say that

the two sinusoids are in phase with each other


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IDEAL RESISTOR IN AC NETWORKS

The evaluation of the average power is

In AC networks, power is always interpreted as


average power and so we drop the avg sub-
script and write
2
V
P V I I 2R
R
and P represents the average power
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EXAMPLE: CUISINART TOASTER

The two-slot Cuisinart toaster uses 1,500 W of


power when plugged into a 120-V socket at 60 Hz;
the appliance is modeled as a simple resistor
We compute from
V2
P
R
the value of the resistance

V2 120 120 14, 400


R 9.6
P 1, 500 1, 500
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EXAMPLE: CUISINART TOASTER

The current is
V 120
I 12.5 A
R 9.6
Now, consider a voltage spike of 125 V and so the
dissipated power becomes
V2 125 125
P 1627.6 W
R 9.6
representing an increase of 127.6 W in the toaster
consumption a rather marked 8.5 % increase
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IDEALIZED CAPACITOR IN AC NETWORKS

Recall the equation of motion for a capacitor

dv
i t C
dt

~ C

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IDEALIZED CAPACITOR IN AC NETWORKS

For a sinusoidal voltage in an AC network

We use the identity


sin cos cos cos
2 2 2

Thus

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IDEALIZED CAPACITOR IN AC NETWORKS

Therefore, the voltage across the capacitor and

the current through it are

same frequency sinusoids

there is a radians shift between the two


2

waveforms

the current leads the voltage by radians


2
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IDEALIZED CAPACITOR IN AC NETWORKS

Let

I CV

and so

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IDEALIZED CAPACITOR IN AC NETWORKS

We summarize

1 AC version of Ohms Law


V I
C for capacitors

The power dissipated by the capacitor is


pt v t i t 2 V cos t 2 I cos t
2

and this simplifies to


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IDEALIZED CAPACITOR IN AC NETWORKS

Since the average value of a sinusoid is 0

and so for a capacitor

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CAPACITOR EXAMPLE
We consider the current through a 200 F
capacitor supplied by a 120-V 60-Hz source
The voltage is given by
v t 2 120 cos t
and the current is therefore

i t 2 I cos t
2
with

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IDEALIZED INDUCTOR IN AC NETWORKS

Recall the equation of motion for an inductor


di
v t L
dt

i t
+

~ v t 2 V cos t L

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IDEALIZED INDUCTOR IN AC NETWORKS

and so t
1
i t v d
L0
For the sinusoidal voltage
v t 2 Vcos t
we have
t
1 2V
i t 2 V cos d sin t
L0 L
We use the identity

sin cos
2
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IDEALIZED INDUCTOR IN AC NETWORKS

Thus

V
i t 2 cos t
L 2

Therefore, the voltage across the inductor and


the current through it are
same frequency sinusoids
there is a
radians shift between the two
2
waveforms
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IDEALIZED INDUCTOR IN AC NETWORKS

the current lags behind the voltage by


2
Let
1
I V
L
and so

AC version of
We summarize:
Ohms Law for

V LI inductors
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IDEALIZED INDUCTOR IN AC NETWORKS

The power dissipated by the inductor is



pt v t i t 2 V cos t 2 I cos t
2
and this simplifies to

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IDEALIZED INDUCTOR IN AC NETWORKS

Clearly

and so

Neither capacitors nor inductors consume real

power
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POWER FACTOR
We generalize the expressions for resistors
capacitors and inductors for a sinusoidal

and a current
i t 2 I cos t
Now, we have shown that
for a resistor

for a capacitor

for an inductor
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POWER FACTOR
but for a network with an arbitrary combination
of R, L and C components, is unknown
We also showed earlier that the average value of
power is
pavg V I cos (* )
for
v i
Power engineers define the quantity cos as the
power factor

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POWER FACTOR

The expression in (* ) is general and may apply to

any circuit or circuit element, any combination of

R, L and C elements and, more importantly, any

component with sinusoidal voltage and current

The interpretation of p f is the fraction that the

real power represents of the total apparent power

used by a particular component or system


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A p f EXAMPLE
A small industrial customer is supplied by a

24-kV 60-Hz source to run a 1.5-MW real power

load through a line with resistance R

We compute the ratio of the real power line

losses on the feeder line under two different p f

values

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EXAMPLE ON p f
R

P 1.5 MW
+
~ v t 2 V cos t

Basic assumption: the voltage drop through R is


negligibly small
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EXAMPLE ON p f
Since
P V I cos 1.5 MW
the r.m.s. value of the feeder current we compute
under p f 1
1.5 MW
I1
1
24 kV
2 MW
and also under p f 2 kA
kV
1.5 MW
I2
3
24 kV
2
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EXAMPLE ON p f

The ratio of the losses is therefore


2
3

2
I1
3
2
I 1R 2 2
3
2
I2 R I 1
2
2

There are 3 times higher losses under the poor

value p f 1 than the better value p f 2


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THE POWER TRIANGLE

There is an important relationship between the

apparent power S, the real power P and the

reactive power Q ; we represent this relationship

by the so-called power triangle in the complex

plane

The power triangle is drawn as follows


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imaginary power VAr THE POWER TRIANGLE

apparent power VA Q VI sin


real power
P VI cos W 44
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THE POWER TRIANGLE

S VI

P S cos real power

Q S sin reactive power

S 2 P 2 Q2 apparent power

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THE POWER TRIANGLE

For an arbitrary consumptive load

The actual power consumed by a load is the rate


at which work is done and is measured in W
The reactive power is incapable of doing work
and its average is always 0 for either a capa-
citive or an inductive element
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THE POWER TRIANGLE

Power suppliers, typically, charge for the P


consumption but are impacted also by the Q
since the larger the Q the larger the line losses;
in some cases, charges are imposed on the
basis of S or take into account the p f
The presence of electric motors, which are
highly inductive loads, leads to increased losses
on transmission lines
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EXAMPLE: POWER TRIANGLE
We consider a 250 V induction motor that
draws 20 A of current to generate 4.33 kW of real
power delivered to its shaft
We draw the power triangle using

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EXAMPLE: POWER TRIANGLE
reactive power

Q 2.5kVAr

6
P 4.33kW active power

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POWER FACTOR CORRECTION

The smaller the p f , the worse the utilization of


power is; the ideal is to get as near as possible
to the perfect p f of 1.0
Sometimes, it is desirable or necessary to use
capacitors to correct the p f to offset the VArs
of the inductive elements
A p f corrective action can lead to the increased
real power delivery to the loads
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EXAMPLE: POWER FACTOR CORRECTION

i ( pf < 1 ) i ( pf = 1 )

fully loaded transformer


with extra load: lagging
transformer pf
capacity
load: lagging pf correction
pf capacitor
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EXAMPLE: POWER FACTOR CORRECTION

A transformer is operating close to its kVA

rating and is used to deliver 600 kVA at a 0.75 p f

There is a 20 % forecasted growth in the real

power demand

This growth needs to be accommodated without

investing in a new transformer by installing

capacitors for p f correction


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EXAMPLE: POWER FACTOR CORRECTION

The existing situation is characterized by

p f 0.75 cos
cos 1 0.75 0.72 radians
P 600 0.75 450 kW
Q 600 0.66 397 kVAr
The forecasted situation
Pnew 450 1.2 540 kW
540
p f new 0.9
600
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EXAMPLE: POWER FACTOR CORRECTION

cos 1 0.9 0.45 radians

Qnew 600 0.435 261 kVAr

The difference between Q = 476 kVAr and

Qnew = 261 kVAr can be compensated by

capacitors

Qc 476 261 215 kVAr


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EXAMPLE: POWER FACTOR CORRECTION

reactive power
capacitor
215 kVAr
anticipated
without pf

Q = 476 kVAr
growth to

Q = 476 kVAr
correction
720kVA
Q = 397 kVAr

Q new 261 kVAr


= 0.72 = 0.45
P = 450 kW Pnew = 540 kW
90 kW

before correction with 215-kVAr correction


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EXAMPLE: POWER FACTOR CORRECTION

We can determine the capacitance of the p f


correcting capacitors
Q c V c I c V c C Vc
Qc
C
V c2
If we assume that the input voltage to the
capacitors is at 12 kV, then

215 kVAr
C 3.96 10 3 F
377 12 kV
2 2

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DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CAPACITORS
FOR p f CORRECTION

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THE RESIDENTIAL ELECTRICITY SUPPLY
In the US, residential service is typically

provided from a 4.16 kV feeder line through a

step-down transformer to the 120/240 V

household voltage

all outlets provide 120 V

some outlets provide 240 V electricity (air

conditioning, heavier duty appliances)


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THE RESIDENTIAL ELECTRICITY SUPPLY

The provision of 240 V service is done by

grounding the center tap of the secondary

side of the transformer

using the other two ends of the windings at

the 120 V supply to obtain the 240 V

potential
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THE RESIDENTIAL ELECTRICITY SUPPLY

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THE RESIDENTIAL ELECTRICITY SUPPLY

v1 120 2 cos 377 t

v2 120 2 cos 377t

v1 v2 240 2 cos 377t

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THE RESIDENTIAL ELECTRICITY SUPPLY

Analytically

v1 t 120 2 cos 377 t

v2 t 120 2 cos 377 t

120 2 cos 377 t


and therefore

v1 t v2 t 240 2 cos 377t


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RESIDENTIAL LOAD EXAMPLE

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RESIDENTIAL LOAD EXAMPLE
We consider the three loads served by a three-

wire 120 / 240 V system with

1, 200 W at 120 V on phase A , p f 1.0


2, 400 W at 120 V on phase B , p f 1.0
4, 800 W at 240 V , p f 1.0
We wish to compute the currents in the wires

We start with the relationship

P V I cos V I
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RESIDENTIAL LOAD EXAMPLE

For the 4,800 W load

For the 2,400 W load

For the 1,200 W load

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RESIDENTIAL LOAD EXAMPLE

Note that KCL induces a current of 10 A in the

neutral leg and therefore the unbalanced load

creates a nonzero current in the neutral

This case differs from the typical balanced

conditions we encounter in which each hot leg

has current of the same magnitude and the

neutral current vanishes


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THREE PHASE AC NETWORKS
Todays systems use the three phase
generators to produce electricity and
transmission lines to transport it to various
parts of the network
The interconnection of network elements into a
network is done typically using either the
delta or wye Y configuration
We examine a Yconnected generator to a
load
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THREE PHASE AC NETWORKS

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THREE PHASE AC NETWORKS
The phase voltages are measured with respect
to the neutral

,
where the entities on the right represent the
phasor notation for the voltages
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THREE PHASE AC NETWORKS

Note that the voltages are equal in magnitude


and exactly radians from another (balanced
voltages)

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THREE PHASE AC NETWORKS

Consequently,

The voltage between two-phases are typically


called line voltages; for example the line a to the
line b voltage is

and so

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THREE PHASE AC NETWORKS
Now, for a balanced network, the phase voltage
r.m.s. values are equal

r.m.s. phase voltage


Therefore

We make use of the identity

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THREE PHASE AC NETWORKS
So we obtain

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THREE PHASE AC NETWORKS
The relationship of importance for the r.m.s. value
of line-to-line voltage relative to that of the
phase voltage V p is

Examples of typical values


service type Vp
buildings 202 V 120 V
commercial 480 V 277 V
residential 416 V 240 V
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THREE PHASE AC NETWORKS
Each phase has apparent power

and so the system has apparent power

Therefore,

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THREE PHASE AC NETWORKS
where is the phase angle between the phase
current and the voltage and is identical for each
phase under balanced conditions
In fact, we can show that

and is constant and such a smooth constant level


of power constitutes a key advantage of sys-
tems in contrast to where is sinusoidal
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THREE PHASE AC NETWORKS

total power pa pb pc is constant

average power in pa , pb or pc
power

pa pb pc

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EXAMPLE: NETWORK p f CORRECTION

The motors in a small enterprise are supplied

using a 208 V transformer

The real power demand is 80 kW with a p f = 0.5

and incurs losses of 4 kW

We compute using

so that

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EXAMPLE: NETWORK p f CORRECTION

We also evaluate

Next consider a p f correction to 0.9 and so

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EXAMPLE: NETWORK p f CORRECTION

Also

We also evaluate the losses under corrected pf

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THE DELTA CONNECTION

The other way to connect elements in the


connection which has no neutral line

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THE DELTA CONNECTION

The comparison of the key characteristics of the


two connection schemes is summarized by the
table

variable

r.m.s. current

r.m.s. voltage

power P3 3 V p I p cos
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