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4. Multi-Ventures Capital v.

Stalwart Requisites of an action for reformation are the following:

(1) there must have been a meeting of the minds of the parties to the contract;
Facts: (2) the instrument does not express the true intention of the parties; and
(3) the failure of the instrument to express the true intention of the parties is due to
Multi-Ventures Capital (P) filed with RTC of Makati, Branch 134, a Complaint for mistake, fraud, inequitable conduct or accident
Reformation of Instrument with application for attachment against Stalwart (R)
Subject of the Complaint is the Confirmation of Agreement between Petitioner The onus probandi or burden of proof is upon the party who insists that the contract should
Multi-Ventures and Respondent Stalwart over the transaction of Land Bank Bonds be reformed. Moreover, the presumption is that an instrument sets out the true agreement
of the parties thereto and that it was executed for valuable consideration.
Petitioner Multi-Venture alleges that it obtained from respondent Stalwart a loan In this case, petitioner was not able to overturn the presumption of validity of the
amounting to P9M contract and it also failed to discharge the burden of proving that the true intention of the
For the purposes of expediency, the said transaction was denominated as a sale parties has not been expressed.
where petitioner Multi-Ventures bought from respondent Stalwart various Land
Bank bonds originally valued at P11.5M at discounted price, as shown in a Subsequent conduct or acts of parties may be proof of the intent in the contract. The
Confirmation of Agreement. Bonds serve as collateral for payment of the loan following acts show that the transaction is one of sale:
Petitioner Multi-Venture further alleged that respondent and some of its officers,
however, have plans of defrauding their creditors by absconding and disposing of a. Buy-Back letter: if the bonds were only to serve as a collateral for the loan, why
its properties, thus constraining petitioner to file the complaint for reformation in would respondent offer to buy them back from petitioner if they were not sold in
order to express the true intent of the parties the first place? Obviously, ownership of the bonds had been transferred from
respondent to petitioner
RESPONDENTS ALLEGATIONS b. Also, petitioner endorsed and transferred the bonds to the AFP Mutual Benefits
denying petitioners allegations and claiming that both petitioner and respondent Association, Inc., as collateral for an investment. Petitioner did not rebut or at the
are companies engaged in dealing and trading government securities. very least, offer a plausible explanation for said transfer which is unmistakably an
The transaction entered into is really a purchase of Land Bank bonds, and there is act of ownership
no mistake, fraud, inequitable conduct or accident in the preparation of the true c. Finally, petitioner failed to show that mistake, fraud, inequitable conduct or
agreement of the parties such that reformation is called for accident attended the execution of the agreement such that their true intention
was not reflected.
RTC: Ruled in favor of Petitioner Multi-Ventures
Contract of Sale REFORMED as Contract of Loan Expediency and convenience, however, are not grounds for the reformation of an
instrument. As such, absent any proof of mistake, fraud, inequitable conduct or accident,
CA: Reversed RTC, ruled in favor of Respondent Stalwart and dismissed the Complaint for the Confirmation of Agreement dated January 11, 1991 remains the best evidence to
Reformation ascertain the real intent of the parties.
Transaction is a Contact of Sale
WHEREFORE, the petition is DENIED for lack of merit. Costs against petitioner.
Hence, this petition

Issue: W/N the action for reformation is proper.

Held: No. Absent any proof of mistake, fraud, inequitable conduct, or accident, the best
evidence to ascertain the real intent is what the Agreement expressly stipulated.

Reformation is a remedy in equity, whereby a written instrument is made or construed so

as to express or conform to the real intention of the parties, where some error or
mistake has been committed. In granting reformation, the remedy in equity is not making a
new contract for the parties, but establishing and perpetuating the real contract between
the parties which, under the technical rules of law, could not be enforced but for such