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of Active Distribution Systems Considering

Communication and Control Requirements

Seyed Ali Arefifar, Member, IEEE, Yasser Abdel-Rady I. Mohamed, Senior Member, IEEE, and

Tarek El-Fouly

AbstractAn optimized communication and control of new digital and intelligent devices, the power grids are

infrastructure, based on the microgrid building block moving toward a faster-acting, potentially more controllable

concept, for active distribution systems is essential to and reliable grid, the so-called smart grid [7]. If implemented

facilitate powerful control framework under the smart grid

and operated properly, the smart distribution system can bring

paradigm. In this paper, a novel methodology for designing

a communication and control infrastructure is presented. lots of benefits and advantages to the environment, electric

The new design takes into account both communication power suppliers and electricity consumers [8]. For this reason,

system and distribution system-related aspects. The pro- they have been under study from several aspects including:

posed design facilitates systematic and optimized clus- smart grid automation [9], unbalanced optimal power flow [10],

tering of the distribution system into a set of virtual loss minimization [11], distributed-energy-resource manage-

microgrids with optimized communication requirements

ment [3], control and protection [12], optimal voltage regula-

while considering the power quality aspects, character-

istics of distributed generation units, distributed energy tion [13], and failure identification [14].

storage units, and distributed reactive sources. The new de- In the context of smart distribution systems, a large number

sign facilitates robust infrastructure for smart distribution of emerging devices with wide band of control actions and

systems operation and control, e.g., self-healing control options will be adopted. This includes distributed and renew-

and optimized system-level operation, by using virtual mi- able generation units, storage units, custom power devices,

crogrids as building blocks in future distribution systems.

electric vehicle charging stations, demand-side management

The motivations, conceptual design, problem formulation

and solution algorithms are presented in this paper. The controllers, etc. With the increased penetration of these de-

well-known PG&E 69-bus distribution system is selected vices along with conventional system devices, the control and

as a test case and through several sensitivity studies, the operation of bulk distribution systems can be an issue. A

effect of optimization coefcients on the design, and the ro- robust communication and control infrastructure is essential

bustness of the algorithm are investigated. Finally, the to facilitate optimized operation of such bulk systems with a

algorithm is tested on the IEEE 123-bus distribution system.

large number of controllable devices and operation scenarios

Index TermsCommunication system, control center, [15][19]. Two important communication and control strategies

graph partitioning, microgrid, power imbalance, Tabu exist for communications and control design in a power system,

search (TS). namely, they are centralized and decentralized [20], [21].

I. I NTRODUCTION In the centralized scenario, all the controllable devices receive

the control commands from a central control center. Despite

improve the operation of power distribution systems [1].

Introduction of renewable energy resources and energy storage

the advantage of lower costs for installation of communication

and control centers, this option has a higher length of commu-

nication media, relatively larger delays and lower reliability.

devices on one hand and the increase in the rate of electricity The other option is to cluster the controllable devices, such

consumption, associated costs of large power generating plants as distributed generators (DGs), storage devices, controllable

and environmental issues on the other hand, have manifested loads, etc., into groups and construct communication zones so

the need for new planning, operation and control strategies in that each zone has its own control center, including voltage and

power distribution systems [2][6]. Through the incorporation frequency control units. All the control centers are then super-

vised by a central control center that is at a higher control level

in the designed infrastructure. Through simulations on the IEEE

Manuscript received October 17, 2013; revised March 15, 2014 and 118-bus test network, it is shown in [21] that having almost the

May 12, 2014; accepted May 24, 2014. Date of publication August 27,

2014; date of current version January 7, 2015.

same total costs for both centralized and decentralized systems,

S. A. Arefifar and Y. A.-R. I. Mohamed are with the Department of the latency and reliability in the communication network will

Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, be improved in a decentralized infrastructure.

AB T6G 2V4, Canada (e-mail: arefifarr@ieee.org; yasser_rady@ieee. The question here is what the best scenario is to virtually

org).

T. El-Fouly is with CanmetENERGY, Natural Resources Canada split the network into different communication and control

(NRCan), Varennes, QC J3X 1S6, Canada (e-mail: telfouly@nrcan. zones and what items should be considered in the design so

gc.ca). that both utility and customers get the maximum benefits.

Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available

online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. A good communication infrastructure should be fast, secure,

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TIE.2014.2352212 reliable, and convenient in terms of controlling the devices at

0278-0046 2014 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission.

See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

712 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 62, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2015

different system operating conditions. These parameters and the be mostly the utilities. With the high penetration of distributed

installation costs are important and should be considered in an resources (DG), the communication infrastructure should cover

infrastructure design; however, there are some other issues that key system nodes where DG units, energy storage devices,

are also worth to be considered in the planning problem. Self- major loads, etc., are installed. The utility will use the com-

healing is a relatively new problem in smart distribution sys- munication infrastructure for monitoring and control of large

tems, which deals with the algorithms for taking preventative and complicated future distribution systems. In this context,

actions or to handle problems after they occur [22]. The ability the ownership of DG does not affect the planning aspects of

of a distribution network to self-heal in disturbance conditions the communication system. The communication infrastructure

is one of the important characteristics of future smart grids should cover both customer-owned and utility-owned DG units

[23]. Under some circumstances, such as disturbances, a self- to ensure complete access to key generators and loads. When

healing action is partitioning the system into islands by using the infrastructure is designed, both customers and utility will

reconfiguration switches so that the healthy part of the sys- benefit from it as it facilitates the realization of better control

tem remains untouched by the disturbance. Supply-adequacy- and operation algorithms for distribution systems. Some of

based optimum construction of microgrids in active distribution these benefits are summarized in the following.

systems is addressed in [3], however, communication system

requirements are not considered in the design stage. 1) Distributed Control Strategy: The controllable devices

Considering the importance of both communication and in a distribution system can be controlled in centralized

self-healing related aspects of system partitioning, this paper or decentralized ways. Other than the improvements in

presents a novel methodology to find the optimum communica- reliability and latency of the communication network,

tion and control infrastructure in a smart distribution system. in a decentralized approach, the system controllability

The proposed design simplifies the control of large systems becomes easier because of the fewer amounts of control-

with high penetration of DG resources in grid-connected and lable devices in each control zone.

islanded modes of operation. It also facilitates systematic and 2) Intelligent Monitoring Options: The number of intelligent

optimized clustering of the distribution system into a set of electronic devices for monitoring, protection, and other

virtual microgrids with optimized communication and control purposes such as smart metering, power quality mon-

requirements, while considering the power quality aspects and itoring, and distribution system automation have been

characteristics of DG units, distributed energy storage units increased in distribution systems, as part of smart grid

(DESR), and distributed reactive sources (DRS). The new projects. Improvements in smart grid communications

design facilitates robust infrastructure for smart distribution system makes the data captured by these new devices

systems operation and control, e.g., self-healing control and available to multisubscribers and serves multiple intelli-

optimized system-level operation, by using virtual microgrids gent electronic devices infrastructures [25].

as building blocks in future distribution systems. The proposed 3) Advanced Fault Location: In case of faults, the avail-

design is in line with the recently developed IEEE Std. 1547.6, ability of additional feeder data helps to improve the

which presented a microgrid structure as the building blocks of accuracy of the fault location methods and subsequently,

active distribution systems [24]. The contributions of this paper improve the self-healing control actions [25], [26]. With

to the research field are the following: the designed communication and control infrastructure,

1) development of a systematic strategy for designing a more data will be available and as the microgrids are

communication and control infrastructure in smart grids; smaller than the whole system, the fault locating task will

2) consideration of communication network costs such as be more accurate and the required self-healing actions

costs of building a new control center, costs of the com- will be done more conveniently.

munication media and routers in the design; 4) Advanced Self-Healing Control Actions: Self-healing

3) consideration of communication network properties such usually includes system reconfiguration, load shedding

as network latency and reliability in the design; or controlling the dispatchable generators output powers.

4) taking into account the power-related aspects, such as Since in the proposed infrastructure, each zone has min-

power quality issues, characteristics of DG, DESR and imum power imbalance and its own control center at the

DRS units, in making communication zones as a step same time, the self-healing control actions can be done

toward an improved self-healing action and coordinated with minimum required actions and the disconnected

control actions in a smart grid. microgrids can operate in autonomous mode with less

amount of load shedding

II. M OTIVATIONS AND C ONCEPTS OF D ESIGN 5) Self-Adequate Microgrids: When the microgrids are con-

structed in a distribution system, the less the generation-

The motivations for having an optimum communication and

load imbalance within them will result in the more

control infrastructure for a smart distribution system, as well as

self-sufficient microgrids. Thus, more loads can be sup-

both communications related and power-related aspects of the

plied in case of autonomous-mode operation of micro-

design, are explained here.

grids in the distribution system, and the energy losses on

power lines connecting the microgrids will be minimized.

A. Motivations for the Proposed Design

6) More Reliable Distribution Systems: Reliability is an

The problem defined in this paper is a planning problem; important issue in designing current distribution systems.

therefore, the audience and user of the proposed approach will With the proposed design, the system will be split into

AREFIFAR et al.: CLUSTERING OF SYSTEMS CONSIDERING COMMUNICATION AND CONTROL REQUIREMENTS 713

several self-adequate microgrids. Other than easing the balance can be considered in system partitioning [30]. Although

self-healing control actions, which increase the reliability the controllable generation and load must be balanced once

of the system, the self-sufficiency of microgrids will a system partitions, if we consider minimizing the power

also improve the reliability indexes such as the System imbalance in the zones and in steady-state conditions at the

Average Interruption Frequency Index (SAIFI), System planning stage, balancing generation and load considering the

Average Interruption Duration Index (SAIDI), etc. system dynamics will be much more convenient and effective in

the operating stage. Therefore, an optimum partitioned system

The aforementioned items present some justifications and is the one with minimum generation-load imbalance in each

motivations behind the proposed communication and control zone. With the proposed design in this paper, each island can

infrastructure design strategy. Some specific aspects of the behave as a microgrid and may operate in grid connected or

design such as communications- and power-related aspects are islanded mode, with minimum interactions from other parts of

explained with more details in the following sections. the system. Moreover, the power balancing in each microgrid

will be done easily, as each microgrid has its own control

B. Communication and Control-Related Aspects center. It should be noted that since the research in this paper

is a long-term planning problem, the system transients and

The communication network is an essential part of the power

dynamics, which may occur during islanding process and do

system as a failure in communication may affect the operation

not last for a long period, are not considered here. To account

of the electrical system itself. Furthermore, an optimized com-

for special distribution system characteristics associated with

munication infrastructure is essential to facilitate smart grid

power balancing, such as the intermittent nature of DG units

control and operation functions, such as self-healing control

and loads, a probabilistic power balancing approach is proposed

and distributed energy management. Thus, the communication

in this paper.

infrastructure will be as important as the electrical infras-

tructure [27]. The communication network performs the data

exchange between data resources, control centers, and control- D. Combination of the Two Aspects

lable devices; therefore, it will be a vital part of wide-area mea- Both communication and control and power-related aspects

surement systems, wide-area control systems, and wide-area are taken into account for finding the optimum communication

protection systems. The base-line communication and control and control infrastructure. With this design, from the commu-

infrastructure is usually designed for long-term purposes, and nication and control point of view, the whole system can be

it may evolve depending on new system-level needs. At the controlled more conveniently in grid-connected and islanded

base-line planning stage, however, there are some issues that mode of operation by using decentralized control centers to

should be considered. In case of future needs for upgrading optimize the overall operational aspects of the system. From

the communication system, the optimum design should be the power point of view, clustering the system into self-

updated accordingly. Key long-term objectives are considered sufficient microgrids, regardless of grid-connected or islanded

in this paper as a typical base-line communication and control mode operation, will ease the self-healing control actions such

infrastructure design for smart and active distribution systems. as system reconfigurations, load shedding or controlling the

Three important factors are cost-related issues, latency, and DGs outputs in case of disturbances. One obvious advantage

reliability of the network. The cost-related issues include the of this formulation is that if for any reason, the system is

costs of communication media, communicating routers and split into zones, each zone has the minimum generation-load

communication and voltage and frequency control centers and imbalance and, at the same time, has its own control center.

the latency/reliability of the communication system is mainly In this scenario, the preventive actions in the disturbed zones

based on the latency/reliability of communication media and and healthy zones can be performed more conveniently and

the communicating routers. Therefore, the optimum infras- more intelligently. Although in some zones the generation level

tructure is the one with optimum number of communication may not meet the required consumption at the peak load level,

zones and minimal total communication costs. In spite of the the islanding may be possible at light-load periods or through

minimized costs, the system latency should be kept less than a minimum load shedding actions, and this will be beneficial for

threshold, and the minimum required system reliability should both utility and customers. Furthermore, the created virtual mi-

be maintained. crogrids can be controlled in a coordinated manner to optimize

the overall system-level operational aspects. In other words,

C. Power-Related Aspects the extended formulation proposed in this paper provides a

flexible infrastructure for the distribution system operation by

In response to disturbances, a self-healing system reconfig-

applying the concept of virtual microgrids. The main design

uration that splits a power network into self-sufficient islands

concepts proposed in this paper and how the virtual microgrids

can stop the propagation of disturbances and avoid cascading

are clustered are shown in Fig. 1.

events. Traditionally, only the active power has been considered

in system partitioning [28], [29]. However, by considering

the reactive power as an important role player in supporting III. M ODELING OF L OADS AND DGs

the voltage profile and knowing that a significant mismatch To obtain an optimum communication and control infras-

of reactive power supply and demand causes high- or low- tructure in the presence of the uncertain nature of DG units

voltage conditions within islands, both real and reactive power and loads, the characteristics of loads and DG units should be

714 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 62, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2015

used to describe the probabilistic nature of solar irradiance, is

as shown in

( + )

fb (s) = s(1)

()()

(1 s)(1) 0 s 1, 0, 0 (1)

function of s, and and are parameters of the Beta distribu-

tion function. The parameters of Beta distribution function are

calculated by using the mean () and standard deviation () of

random variable s, as shown in

(1 + )

= (1 ) 1 & = . (2)

2 1

The Beta PDF is generated for each time segment (one hour

for this research) and the probabilistic output power of the PV

modules is then calculated using the following equations [31]:

Fig. 1. Main design concepts and the virtual microgrids. NOT 20

Tcy = TA + say (3)

0.8

considered in the design. For this purpose, DG units are mod- Iy = say [Isc + Ki (Tc 25)] (4)

eled as typical combination of three types of DGs, including

Vy = Voc Kv Tcy (5)

photovoltaic (PV) modules, wind turbines, and biomass gen-

P sy (say ) = N F F Vy Iy (6)

erators. The nature of renewable resources are probabilistic;

VMPP IMPP

therefore, the solar irradiance and wind speed for each hour of FF = (7)

the day are modeled by Beta and Weibull probability density Voc Isc

functions (PDFs) by using historical data [31]. To get the PDFs, where Tcy and TA are cell and ambient temperature during

the study can be done over a selected period of one year, and state y ( C); Kv and Ki are voltage and current temperature

four days can be selected as representatives of four seasons. coefficients (V / C and A/ C); NOT is nominal operating

The day representing each season is further divided into 24-h temperature of cell per C; F F is fill factor; Isc and Voc are

time segments, each having a PDF for solar irradiance and short circuit current (A) and open circuit voltage (V ); N is the

wind speed. The load is also modeled as a firm generation number of cells; IMPP and VMPP are current (A) and voltage

using IEEE-RTS [32]. In order to integrate the output power (V ) at maximum power point; P sy is the output power of

of PV modules and wind turbines as multistate variables in the PV module during state y, and say is the average solar

the formulations, the continuous PDF of each is divided into irradiance of state y.

different states. The selected number of states affects the accu-

racy and complexity of the formulation. In this research, the

B. Wind Turbine Generators

output power of the wind turbine and PV modules for each

hour of the day is divided into 12 segments. This means for The output power of wind turbines depends on the wind

each hour of the day, we have 12 states of solar DG power and speed and parameters of the wind-power conversion curve.

12 states of wind DG power with different probabilities. Similar to the PV module generators, once the wind speed is

Assuming that solar irradiance and wind speed states are in- modeled for each hour by using a PDF, the probabilistic func-

dependent, the probability of any combination of the load and tion of the output power of wind turbines can be generated eas-

generation is obtained by convolving the two probabilities. ily. The wind speed is usually modeled using the Rayleigh PDF,

Therefore, for each hour, we have 144 (1212) number of which is a special case of the Weibull PDF, as shown in (8) [31]

states with different probabilities and for each day there are

2v v 2

3456 (24144) states. To obtain the power and energy losses f (v) = 2

exp (8)

c c

for the system, the deterministic power flow is run for each

state, and the results are accumulated considering the proba- where c is called the scale index. The mean value of wind speed

bility of each state. (v) is calculated using the historical data for each time segment

and then the scale index can be calculated, as shown in

A. PV Module Generators

2v v 2

vm = vf (v)dv = v 2

exp dv

The output of each PV module depends on the amount of c c

0 0

solar irradiance, ambient temperature and characteristics of the

module itself. When the solar irradiance is modeled for each

= c, c 1.128vm . (9)

hour by using a PDF, the probabilistic function of the output 2

AREFIFAR et al.: CLUSTERING OF SYSTEMS CONSIDERING COMMUNICATION AND CONTROL REQUIREMENTS 715

The output power of a wind turbine is calculated using where LoMC is the total length of communication media,

N oRC is the total number of routers, and N oZ is the number

0, 0 vaw vci , vco vaw

vci ) of communication or control zones. The coefficients , , and

P vw (vaw ) = Prated (vvaw , vci vaw vr

r vci are the cost of communication media, cost of each router, and

Prated , vr vaw vco cost of installing a communication and control center (including

(10)

voltage and frequency controller units). Their dimensions are

where vci , vr , and vco are the cut-in, rated, and cut-out speed $/km, $/router and $/(control center), respectively. Minimizing

of wind turbine, respectively; P vw is the output power of wind F1 will minimize the total cost of communication infrastructure

turbine during state w; and vaw is the average wind speed of by finding the communication-based virtual microgrids.

state w. The other objective is to minimize the real and reactive power

imbalance between generation and loads within the zones. This

C. Biomass Generators is a step toward 1) having a self-healing strategy for system

reconfiguration that splits the power system into self-sufficient

The biomass generators are assumed to be firm generators islands in response to disturbances; and 2) creating virtual

with constant output powers without uncertainty. In case of microgrids where controllable devices that affect the power

uncertainty in the factors that affect the availability of biomass, flow (e.g., DG units, demand-side management, etc.) can be

such as rain, the biomass DGs output powers can be modeled clustered. This objective function can be formulated as

in a similar way that has been presented for PV module or

wind turbine generators by using the probability function of a Pindex + b Qindex

F2 = (13)

availability of the biomass for the planning period. (N oZ 1)

D. DESRs and DRSs the probabilistic real and reactive power of the virtual cut set

The DESRs are modeled as loads during the charging period lines and are calculated, as shown in (14). The denominator is

and as generators during discharging period. It is also assumed set to normalize the cost function

that the DESRs charge only during off-peak hours of the day

N

N

and discharge only during the on-peak hours. Therefore, for Pindex = |Pijk |k & Qindex = |Qijk |k (14)

each period of 24 h, there is one charge-discharge cycle. A con- k=1 k=1

straint has been introduced on the amount of power generated

by the DESRs, as shown in where i and j are the nodes, which connect two zones to-

gether; Pij _k and Qij _k are the real and reactive power flowing

PDESR_i,t PLoad_j,t t (11) between buses i and j at the generation-load state k; N is

i j the number of states for each year (4(seasons) 90(days)

3456(states/day)); and k is the probability of the state, in

where Pload_j,t is the real power consumed at bus j, time t and

which the real and reactive powers are calculated. The power

PDESR_i,t is the real power generated by DESRs at bus i and

balance objective function can be calculated by performing a

time t. This constraint keeps the output power of DESRs always

probabilistic power flow in the system. Since the two aspects

less than the total demand during each hour and guarantees that

are to be considered simultaneously, the final objective function

the reverse power flow is coming from the DG units during any

(F ) can be represented as the weighted summation of F1 and

hour. The DRSs are also modeled as simple reactive sources

F2 , as shown in

with specific rated capacity.

M in(F ), F = K1 F1 + K2 F2 . (15)

IV. P ROBLEM F ORMULATION

Based on the definition of , , and , the dimension of F1

Optimization problems are constructed from an objective is costs in dollars, if we determine the cost of interruption due

function and some constraints. This section explains the pro- to the supply inadequacy or power quality issues of microgrids

posed problem formulation and associated constraints. (which is out of the scope of this paper), then we can define

K2 as dollar per imbalance ratio. With such definitions the

A. Optimization Objective Function objective function of the problem will be in dollars.

Two different objective functions are considered in this re-

search, namely, they are the communication and control re- B. Optimization Constraints

lated and the power balance related. The communication and

control cost function to be minimized includes the cost of There are two types of constraints for the optimization prob-

installation of new control centers, which includes voltage and lem, communication related and power related. From a commu-

frequency controller units; cost of network switches and routers nication point of view, two constraints, i.e., network latency and

and the cost for length of communication media that can be reliability, should be satisfied for the optimum infrastructure.

represented as Although the network latency is not only a function of the

length of media and the number of routers in the system;

F1 = LoMC + N oRC + N oZ (12) however, these two indexes provide sufficient information for

716 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 62, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2015

the design regarding the systems latency. On the other hand, the second necessary condition for a successful operation of the

since the power systems typically enjoy relatively low data rate microgrid is

communications, other factors (e.g., performance loss, band-

width cost) can be safely ignored. It is noted that by assuming PBM 0.6 PDG (22)

a proper medium access control for low-rate communications,

the operational delay can have a negligible effect on the latency. where PBM is the generated power of biomass DGs in the mi-

Therefore, the total systems latency is calculated, as shown in crogrid. Equations (21) and (22) are two necessary conditions

(16) [21] for the successful operation of microgrids and can be satisfied

by shedding the loads according to their requested reliability.

T = TSerial + Tbetween.packet + Tpropagation + Trouting . (16) In this research, the load shedding starts from smaller loads to

larger ones until the conditions are satisfied. Moreover, some

Tserial and Tbetween.packet are serial delay and between packet

other constraints should be satisfied to guarantee the security

delay, which are constant and Tpropagation and Trouting are

of supply for the constructed microgrids. They are the voltage

propagation delay and routing delay and are calculated, as

magnitude (V ) and frequency (f ) limits on all system buses

shown in (17); therefore, the total network latency will be

in the microgrids, and maximum lines currents (I), which are

T = Constant + Tpropagation + Trouting formulated as follows:

where v is the velocity at which the media is sent through fmin f fmax (23)

(close to speed of light), LoMT is the maximum length of

communication media from control center, N oRT is number and for power line current limits

of routers seen from control center to the farthest node, and

Trouter is the router delay. For the optimum infrastructure, we Ii Imax,i i. (24)

should have

The optimum microgrid design should satisfy these conditions

T Tmax . (18) in an islanded mode of operation. In Section VI, sensitivity

studies are conducted to assess the effects of changing the

The second constraint is the threshold for the network relia-

coefficients on the optimum design.

bility. The communication reliability is function of number of

routers and length of media. Each node is in service only if all

the links and paths related to this node work properly; therefore, V. S OLUTION A LGORITHMS

the communication networks reliability in each zone can be

formulated as The formulated problem in Section IV is a comprehensive

problem with combinatorial nature and demands efficient solu-

Rz = (Rrouter )N oRR RLoMR (19) tion algorithms. This problem has two different objective func-

tions, which are aggregated into a single-objective function, by

where Rrouter is the reliability of each router, RLoMR is the using weighting coefficients. It is assumed that the weighting

reliability of total length of communication media from control coefficients such as K1 and K2 are predetermined based on

center to each node, and N oRR is the total number of routers in economic and system-related studies; therefore, the problem

the zone. Since the network reliability in each zone should be can be seen as a single-objective optimization problem. Heuris-

higher than a threshold, the minimum calculated reliability for tic optimization techniques are well-suited for such optimiza-

each zone is considered as the reliability index (R). Here, also tion problems. In this paper, we have used three different

for the optimum infrastructure, we should have types of algorithms at different stages, including Tabu search

(TS) optimization algorithm, as the main optimization method,

R Rmin . (20) graph theory related techniques for suboptimization problems

and NewtonRaphson-based probabilistic power flow methods.

From power distribution system point of view, one necessary

condition for an island to be successful is Several heuristic optimization techniques other than TS have

been proposed in literature for graph partitioning, which cope

PDG PLoad + PLoss (21) with the combinatorial nature of the present problem, such as

those mentioned in [27], [28]. Since the algorithm proposed by

where PDG is the generated power of the DGs within the the authors in this paper is effective and sufficient for solving

microgrid, PLoad is the load power of the island, and PLoss the defined problem, and the main contribution of this paper

is the power losses of the island and assumed to be 5% of is the new problem formulation that combines communication

the current load [33]. On the other hand, according to [34] and power balance aspects, other methods are not considered

for an islanding operation of microgrid, the penetration level in this research for splitting the network. The flowchart of

of dispatchable DG units should be at least 60% of the total the algorithms is shown in Fig. 2. The optimization process

peak load demand at the time of islanding. For this research, for selecting the optimum cut set lines are explained in the

it assumed that biomass DG units are dispatchable; therefore, following.

AREFIFAR et al.: CLUSTERING OF SYSTEMS CONSIDERING COMMUNICATION AND CONTROL REQUIREMENTS 717

checked by calculating LoMT and N oRT . These values are

calculated by solving the minimum spanning tree (MST) [35]

and the shortest path [36] algorithms. By finding the MST

in each zone, the structure of the communication network is

determined. Afterward, the shortest path from each bus to the

other buses in the same microgrid is calculated. The bus that has

the shortest length of communication media to all other buses

is selected as the control center. After determining the control

center, the LoMT and N oRT can be calculated in each zone,

and the maximum values calculated for the zones will be used

to check the feasibility of infrastructure in terms of network

latency (less than 100 ms).

The reliability constraint is checked by calculating LoMR

and N oRR . Through the MST problem solved for the latency

constraint, these two parameters can be calculated for each

zone, and the minimum value for the zones will be used to

check the feasibility of the infrastructure in terms of network

reliability (more than 0.99). The power-related constraints can

be checked by performing power flow in the constructed micro-

grids. Each G vector represents a set of virtual cut set lines that

construct a microgrid structure. For a structure to be acceptable,

all the three constraints, voltage limits on all system buses in

the microgrids, system frequency, and power line current limits,

should be satisfied. The next step is to calculate the objective

function and select the best point among the neighbors.

C. Selection of the Best Point

A. Starting the Optimization Process The objective function includes two parts, i.e., F1 and F2 . F1

The optimization process starts with finding a feasible so- is determined as a weighted summation of LoMC , N oRC , and

lution as a starting point, searching within the neighbors and N oZ, which are determined from solving the suboptimization

continues until a certain criterion, which is usually the maxi- problem. F2 is related to the real and reactive power flowing

mum iteration numbers, is reached. A feasible solution is an in each cut set line of the system and can be determined once

infrastructure constructed through virtually cutting some power at the beginning through probabilistic power flow calculations

lines in the network. Each feasible solution can be represented considering typical characteristics of DG units and loads in

by a vector (G), as shown in active distribution systems. After calculating the objective func-

tion for all the points (G vectors) in the neighborhood, the

G = [1 0 1 1 0 . . . . . . 1 0 1 1] (25) best neighbor (vector) will be set as the new starting point and

the algorithm continues until reaching the maximum iteration

where the length of the vector is equal to the number of power number. Finally, the optimum result is selected as the best point

lines, which can be considered as cutting edges to construct the (vector) of each set of neighbors.

zones. Each component of the G vector represents one physical

line. The number 1 and 0 for each component of G vector

represents an inside or between microgrids line, respectively. D. Implementing Memory Structures

The next step is to make a set of neighbors for the starting To avoid stopping over a local optimum, and to prevent

point. A neighbor can be defined in many ways; here, we have cycling around it, the Tabu List (TL) is introduced, which

selected each neighbor by changing some components (e.g., prevents to visit the best solutions that have been visited in

five components) of the G from 0 to 1 or vice versa and previous moves or the moves that resulted in the optimum point

checking the feasibility of the resulted infrastructure in terms in previous regions. To construct the TL from the best recently

of the constraints. The constraints should be satisfied for all visited solutions, a unique quantity for each vector G is used,

neighbors as explained in the next part. which is calculated in

n

B. Checking the Optimization Constraints G(i) 2i . (26)

i=1

As explained in Section IV-B, two types of constraints

should be satisfied, the communication related and power re- Furthermore, the TS algorithm uses different memory struc-

lated. The communication-related constraints include two parts, tures to avoid random search. In this paper, the short-term

718 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 62, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2015

memory (STM) and the long-term memory (LTM), are imple- TABLE I

V IRTUAL C UT S ETS C ONSIDERING P OWER R ELATED A SPECTS

mented. The STM memorizes the common features of subopti-

mal solutions for a number of iterations and tries to search for

the solutions with similar features in that region. The LTM is

used to diversify the search by jumping to new regions to find

the global optimum. This long-term memory will keep track of

the common features of all initial starting points in different

regions to avoid restarting from similar previously used starting A. Power Imbalance Related Objective Function Only

points. The two types of memories have been implemented by

In this part, we only consider the power imbalance related

using two different vectors with the same length as G.

objective function. In other words, K1 = 0 & K2 = 1. Math-

In the next sections, the proposed algorithms have been

ematically, the optimum result will occur when the system is

applied to a 69-bus distribution system. After several sensitivity

split into two virtual microgrids and the connecting power line

studies for the formulation and robustness of the algorithm, the

carries the minimum power. In order to have more feasible

algorithm has been applied to a larger system, the IEEE 123-bus

values (more than two microgrids), another constraint is added,

distribution system, and the results are presented.

at this stage only, which is on the number of zones to be more

than 5. For the rest of simulations in this paper, there is no limit

VI. I MPLEMENTATION AND S ENSITIVITY S TUDIES on the number of microgrids, and the optimum number will

The well-known PG&E 69-bus distribution system [37] is be determined as a result of solving the optimization problem.

selected as the test system for implementation of the algorithm Table I shows the optimum virtual cut set lines to construct the

and sensitivity studies. The locations of DGs, DESRs, and microgrids. In Table I, the cut set line j is the line between

DRSs are arbitrary selected to be as shown in Fig. 3. The total bus j and j + 1, line jei is the ith branch starting from bus

rated capacities of DG units are 250, 150, and 600 kW, for j. The sensitivity studies at this stage, reveals that the system

wind turbines, PV modules and biomass DGs, respectively. The partitioning results will be different based on selection of real

total rated power of DESRs and DRSs are also 450 kW and and reactive power indexes, or both, for minimizing the power

400 kVAr, respectively, in 25 kW/kVAr and 50 kW/kVAr units. imbalance in the zones. For this table, the goal is normalized

The location of reconfiguration switches are also shown in using the case that has a = b = 0.5, and the rest is shown as

Fig. 3 [38]. In the next sections, the optimum communication percentage values of this case.

and control infrastructure are designed for this system consider-

ing different objective functions. The goal or objective function

B. Communication-Related Objective Function Only

defined in this paper can represent real costs. The coefficients a,

b, , , , K1 , and K2 will be different for different distribution In this part, we only consider the communication-related

systems depending on the economic conditions. How variation objective function and its constraints to investigate the impact

of these coefficients affects the optimum design for communi- of communication-related coefficients on the optimum design.

cation and control infrastructure is investigated here. In other words, K1 = 1 & K2 = 0. The results of sensitivity

For the sensitivity studies, the cost function for all cases is studies are shown in Table II, where , and represent the

normalized by using one of them as a reference (arbitrary) and cost of length of media, cost of a router, and cost of building

the rest is shown as percentages of this value. This will help a control center, respectively. Since the cost of length of media

to have a more clear evaluation of the effect of varying the per kilometer and the cost of a communication router are in the

coefficients on total costs. same range and very different from the cost of installation of

AREFIFAR et al.: CLUSTERING OF SYSTEMS CONSIDERING COMMUNICATION AND CONTROL REQUIREMENTS 719

V IRTUAL C UT S ETS C ONSIDERING C OMMUNICATION A SPECTS

equipped with a controllable device such as distributed and re-

newable generation units, storage units, custom power devices,

electric vehicle charging stations, demand-side management

controllers, etc.

The sensitivity studies presented here reveals that the de-

signed communication and control infrastructure is dependent

on the optimization coefficients and for having an optimum

communication and control infrastructure, all the optimization

TABLE III

O PTIMUM R ESULTS C ONSIDERING B OTH C OMMUNICATION AND

coefficients should be selected properly.

P OWER R ELATED A SPECTS

VII. R OBUSTNESS OF THE A LGORITHM

The research presented in this paper is related to the plan-

ning stage and the audiences of this paper are mostly util-

ities. From the utility point of view, a communication and

control infrastructure or any other long-term plan will be

acceptable if it is optimal or near optimal, in case of vari-

ation of system conditions, for the designated long-term pe-

riod. In this research, the sensitivity of the proposed design

to variation of some important characteristics of a distribu-

tion system that may change over time is investigated. These

a new control center, and are assumed to be constant (0.5

characteristics include variation of loads, penetration level

each) and has been changed to see its effect on the optimum

of DGs on some or all system buses, adding new DGs to

communication and control infrastructure. It is seen that the

random buses, and variation of system topology. How the

results are very dependent on . By changing it from 50 to 500,

variation of each parameter will affect the optimum infras-

the total infrastructure changes from 9 control zones to 3 control

tructure and whether the planned infrastructure is still op-

zones. The value of varies for different systems and should

timal or near optimal design are investigated here. For this

be set based on the cost of building the communication center

purpose, several case studies are presented; first, the effect of

in each area, its maintenance, etc. For this table, the objective

changing the loads and generation levels, then the effect of ad-

function is normalized using the case that has = = 0.5 and

ding DGs to some random buses, and finally the effect of system

= 200.

reconfiguration on the optimum design is observed. For the

sensitivity studies here, any of the cases mentioned in Table III

C. Considering Both Objective Functions can be used. As a sample case, here, it is assumed that a

and b are equal to 0.5, and , and are 0.5, 0.5, and 200

Both power imbalance and communication cost-related ob-

respectively, also K1 and K2 are 0.7 and 0.3, respectively.

jective functions are considered here. For this purpose, the al-

gorithm is applied under different circumstances with different

optimization coefficients, and the optimum communication and A. Load and Generation Levels

control infrastructure are developed as presented in Table III. The load level or consumers of electric power in the system

For the sensitivity studies here, it is assumed that a and b usually increases during a long period of time. The penetration

are equal to 0.5, and , , and are 0.5, 0.5, and 200, level of DG units in the system also varies during a long-

respectively. Table III shows that depending on the importance term operating period depending on several factors such as

of communication related or power imbalance related aspects, economic, environmental, and weather conditions, based on

the optimum communication and control infrastructure will be distribution system companies decision. This part examines

different. For Table III and the rest of tables in this paper, the effect of long-term variations in the load and generation on

the objective function is normalized using the case that has the optimum design. For this purpose, three different scenarios

a = b = = = 0.5, = 200, K1 = 0.7, and K2 = 0.3. As are investigated. First, it is assumed that the load and generation

explained before, the selection of these parameters for a refer- rated powers are changed from 90% to 150% for all system

ence case is arbitrary, and normalizing is done for having a more buses, and the results are shown in Table IV. In the second

clear comparison between the objective functions of different scenario, only the loads on some buses of the system are

cases. The goal in Table III has large variations for different changed from 90% to 150% (even buses) and the rest of loads

cases. The reason is that K1 and K2 , which are determined and DGs penetration are kept constant. The results related to

based on circumstances of communication- and power-related this part are shown in Table V. Finally, the penetration levels

aspects of the problem, have significant impacts on the total of DGs on some system buses (even buses) are changed from

objective function. The optimum infrastructure for the case that 90% to 150% and the rest of DGs generations and load levels

K1 and K2 are 0.7 and 0.3, respectively, is shown in Fig. 4. are kept constant, as shown in Table VI. The sensitivity studies

The optimum infrastructure in this case, divides the system here show a little difference in the optimum infrastructure in

into 5 zones with each having different controlled buses. As each case; however, from a communication and control point

720 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 62, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2015

TABLE IV TABLE VI

O PTIMUM V IRTUAL C UT S ETS IN C ASE OF VARIATION OF O PTIMUM V IRTUAL C UT S ETS IN C ASE OF VARIATION OF

L OAD AND G ENERATION L EVELS G ENERATION L EVELS ON E VEN B USES

TABLE VII

O PTIMUM V IRTUAL C UT S ETS W HEN A DDING DG S TO R ANDOM B USES

TABLE V

O PTIMUM V IRTUAL C UT S ETS IN C ASE OF VARIATION OF

L OAD L EVELS ON E VEN B USES

including wind turbines, photovoltaic modules and biomass

of view, the optimum infrastructure is very similar. This means generators are randomly added to some of the system buses,

that if for any reason the load or generation changed over a and the optimum communication and control infrastructure is

long period of time for all or some of the system buses, the designed and compared for the updated systems. The results

designed infrastructure is still valid and close to optima in related to this part are shown in Table VII. In this table, the

terms of communications and power-related aspects. It is clear total penetration level of DGs is increased from 0 to 350 kW in

that further increase in the load or penetration level of DGs 25 kW steps. The second column, WSB, represents the number

will affect the optimum design. In such cases, the optimum of wind, solar and biomass DG units added to some random

communication and control infrastructure should be updated buses of the system. For instance, WSB = 325 means three

accordingly. units of 25 kW wind turbines, two units of 25 kW photovoltaic

module and five units of 25 kW biomass generators are added

B. Adding DGs to Random Buses of the System to ten (3 + 2 + 5) random buses of the system. The sensitivity

During a long-term period, the total number of DGs may in- studies here reveal that the optimum designed infrastructure

crease in the system based on utilities or DG owners decision. is similar in all cases. This means that adding up to 350 kW

The impact of adding DGs to the system buses on the optimum new DGs to the system (%35 of existing DGs capacities) does

communication and control design is investigated here. For not have significant impact on the location of sectionalizing

AREFIFAR et al.: CLUSTERING OF SYSTEMS CONSIDERING COMMUNICATION AND CONTROL REQUIREMENTS 721

TABLE VIII

O PTIMUM V IRTUAL C UT S ETS IN C ASE OF VARIATION

OF S YSTEM C ONFIGURATION

ture. It should be noted that adding more DGs to the system

may affect the optimum infrastructure, and in such cases, the

communication and control infrastructure should be modified

accordingly.

C. Distribution System Reconguration

The system configuration might change through operation of system is split into 7 virtual zones. In each zone, there are some

sectionalizing switches. In such cases, whether the designed DGs, DESRs and DRSs. Through the optimum design, every

communication-control infrastructure is still valid and close zone has minimum real and reactive power imbalance between

to optima should be investigated. In Table VIII, the system generation and load; therefore, the DGs will be able to feed

configuration is changed and the optimum infrastructure has the zones with minimum load shedding actions or even may

been designed for the system. L-in and L-out in the table be able to feed the loads in the zone during light-load periods.

represent the connected and disconnected line, respectively. The total cost of communication and control infrastructure is

Table VIII reveals that the optimum designed communication also minimized while maintaining the acceptable reliability and

and control infrastructures under different system topologies latency of the communication network. With such design for

are similar. This means that if for any reason the system the communication and control infrastructure, each zone has its

configuration changed over a period of time, the designed own control center. Having a control center and communication

infrastructure is still acceptable. Similarly, in this case, it is network, with acceptable reliability and latency in each zone,

clear that major topological changes in the system configuration will ease the operation and control of generation and loads

may affect the optimum design, and in such cases, the optimum such as controlling the DGs output powers, load shedding and

communication and control infrastructure should be updated performing demand-side energy management. Furthermore, in

accordingly. case of faults, with the minimal self-healing actions, such as

load shedding in the zones, the maximum number of loads can

VIII. L ARGE S YSTEM A PPLICATIONS still get their service from utility.

IX. C ONCLUSION

123-bus distribution system and the results are presented here.

For this system also, the locations of DGs, DESRs, and DRSs This paper has presented a strategy for designing a com-

are arbitrary selected to be as shown in Fig. 5. The total munication and control infrastructure in a distribution system

rated capacities of DG units are 350, 250, and 800 kW, for based on the virtual microgrid concept. The new design takes

wind turbines, PV modules and biomass DGs, respectively. The into account both communication and power-related objective

total rated power of DESRs and DRSs are also 800 kW and functions. In the optimum infrastructure, the total costs related

700 kVAr, respectively, 50 kW/kVAr units. The locations of to building communication and control infrastructure should be

DGs in the system are shown in Fig. 5. In order to design minimized while maintaining the acceptable network latency

the optimum communication and control infrastructure for the and reliability. On the other hand, the optimum partitioning

123-bus distribution system, the optimization parameters are scenario in case of emergency is the one with minimum power

selected the same as in Section VII. The processing time imbalance in each zone. This will ease the control strategy in

for 1000 iterations on an Intel Core2 Duo with CPU each island and protects other healthy areas of the network

E7500@2.93GHz for 69-bus system was 24 min and 46 s and from the disturbances as a self-healing action in a distribution

for the 123-bus was 38 min and 53 s. Since this is a planning system. The sensitivity studies show that the optimum infras-

not operation problem, there is no limitation for the processing tructure depends on these coefficients, which differ for different

time; therefore, to get higher quality results, we can increase the systems. The robustness of the infrastructure to the variation

number of neighborhood and iterations in the TS algorithm. The of loads and DG penetration levels, adding new DGs to the

optimum communication and control infrastructure designed system, and system reconfiguration is investigated. The results

for this system is shown in Fig. 5. The 123-bus distribution show that the final design is not very sensitive to the DG and

722 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 62, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2015

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AREFIFAR et al.: CLUSTERING OF SYSTEMS CONSIDERING COMMUNICATION AND CONTROL REQUIREMENTS 723

Yasser Abdel-Rady I. Mohamed (M06SM11) Tarek El-Fouly received the B.Sc. and

was born in Cairo, Egypt, on November 25, M.Sc. degrees in electrical engineering from

1977. He received the B.Sc. (with honors) and Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt, in 1996

M.Sc. degrees in electrical engineering from and 2002, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree

Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt, in 2000 in electrical engineering from the University of

and 2004, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada, in 2008.

in electrical engineering from the University of He joined CanmetENERGY, Natural Re-

Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada, in 2008. sources Canada, Varennes, QC, Canada, in

He is currently with the Department of Elec- 2008, as a Transmission and Distribution Re-

trical and Computer Engineering, University of search Engineer, where he is conducting and

Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, as an Asso- managing research activities related to active

ciate Professor. His research interests include dynamics and control distribution networks, microgrids, and remote communities. In 2010,

of power converters; distributed and renewable generation, and micro- he was appointed as Adjunct Assistant Professor with the Department

grids; modeling, analysis, and control of smart grids; electric machines; of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo. His

and motor drives. research interests include protection and coordination studies, integra-

Dr. Mohamed is an Associate Editor of the IEEE T RANSACTIONS tion of renewable energy resources, smart microgrid, smart remote

ON I NDUSTRIAL E LECTRONICS . He is also a Guest Editor of the IEEE community applications, demand-side management, and forecasting.

T RANSACTIONS ON I NDUSTRIAL E LECTRONICS Special Section on Dis-

tributed Generation and Microgrids. His biography is listed in Marques

Whos Who in the World. He is a Registered Professional Engineer in

the Province of Alberta, Canada.

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, VOL. 5, NO. 1, JANUARY 2014 209

Renewable-Powered Microgrids:

A Duality-Based Approach

Binyan Zhao, Student Member, IEEE, Yi Shi, Member, IEEE, Xiaodai Dong, Senior Member, IEEE,

Wenpeng Luan, Senior Member, IEEE, and Jens Bornemann, Fellow, IEEE

lem in renewable-powered microgrids, which is used to determine Emission limit.

the least-cost unit commitment (UC) and the associated dispatch, Euclidean projection of to the interval

while meeting load, environmental, and system operating require-

ments. The intermittency nature of the renewable energy sources, , i.e., .

as well as microgrids capacity to operate either in parallel with, or Euclidean projection of to the interval

autonomously of, the traditional power grid, pose new challenges to , i.e., .

this classic optimization task. A probability-based concept, proba- Fuel cost coefcients of a unit.

bility of self-sufciency (PSS), is introduced to indicate the proba- Aggregated cost coefcients of a unit.

bility that the microgrid is capable of meeting local demand in a

self-sufcient manner. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, Maintenance cost coefcients of a unit.

we make the rst attempt in approaching the mixed-integer UC Error function [17, eq. 8.250.1].

problem from a convex optimization perspective, which leads to an Unit index (subscript).

analytical closed-form characterization of the optimal commitment

Iteration index (superscript).

and dispatch solutions. The simulation results show that 1) the

proposed method achieves an efcient performance that incurs no Power dispatch of a unit.

loss of optimality with lower complexity than existing algorithms; Optimal power dispatch of a unit.

2) an energy storage system (ESS) with suitable capacity contributes , Minimum and maximum power generation

to the self-sufciency target of a microgrid, and the stored energy

limits.

varies less remarkably as the microgrid tends to operate more

independently; 3) the proposed method provides guidelines in decid- Wind turbine power output.

ing the ESS size to achieve a desired PSS. Power dispatch of a unit in the relaxed UC

Index TermsDistributed generators, duality, economic dispatch, problem.

microgrid, renewable energy resources, unit commitment (UC). Forecasted wind power in time interval .

Hour index (subscript).

NOMENCLATURE Unit status indicator of a unit where 1 means

ON and 0 means OFF.

Symbol Description

Cut-in wind speed.

Emission coefcients of a unit.

Cut-out wind speed.

Demand forecast error.

Rated wind speed.

Wind power forecast error.

Wind speed.

Convergence criterion parameter.

Rated electrical power.

, , Lagrange multipliers.

Modiedelectricitydemandintimeinterval .

Mean of demand forecast error.

, Lower and upper limits of the energy stored

Mean of wind power forecast error.

in ESS.

Cooling time constant of a unit.

Cold start-up cost of a unit.

Variance of demand forecast error. Dual function.

Variance of wind power forecast error. Forecasted demand in time interval .

Step size of the subgradient method. Emission function of a unit.

CDF of wind power forecast error.

Manuscript received November 23, 2012; revised April 12, 2013 and July 15, Fuel cost function of a unit.

2013; accepted July 16, 2013. Date of publication September 30, 2013; date of

current version December 12, 2013. Hot start-up cost of a unit.

B. Zhao, Y. Shi, X. Dong, and J. Borenmann are with the Department of L Lagrange function.

Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8W Maintenance cost function of a unit.

3P6, Canada (e-mail: binyanz@ece.uvic.ca; shiyipfc@ece.uvic.ca; xdong@ece.

uvic.ca; jbornema@ece.uvic.ca). , The time a unit needs to remain ON/OFF if ON/

W. Luan is with the State Grid Smart Grid Research Institute, Beijing 100085, OFF at the beginning of the scheduling period.

China (e-mail: luanwenpeng@sgri.sgcc.com.cn). Total number of units.

Color versions of one or more of the gures in this paper are available online at

http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Probability operator.

Digital Object Identier 10.1109/TSTE.2013.2279837 Probability of self-sufciency.

210 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, VOL. 5, NO. 1, JANUARY 2014

Operating reserve requirement in time particle swarm optimization (PSO) [10], simulated annealing

interval . techniques [11], [12], and network-ow programming [13], have

Start-up cost function of a unit. been proposed to solve the optimal UC problem, but most of

Total time horizon of 1 day. them only provide a reasonable numerical solution (suboptimal,

Total cost of all units. nearly global optimal) and have high computational complexity.

, The time a unit has been ON/OFF at the For the classical mixed-integer UC problem, the branch and

beginning of the scheduling period. bound (BB) technique provides exact accurate numerical results.

However, the procedure is generally not efcient except when

large portions of the solution space can be quickly discarded in

I. INTRODUCTION

the case that there are not too many solutions having near optimal

USTAINABILITY has become an imperative requirement function values. In [14], a linear optimization problem was

S on the electric power infrastructure with the impending

energy crisis and environment deterioration. In parallel to the

formulated and numerically solved to determine the optimal

size of energy storage system (ESS) that minimizes the operating

rapid evolution of smart-grid-based solutions [1], another emerg- cost. The authors in [15] and [7] also established UC strategies

ing power distribution system known as microgrids is also based on piecewise linear blocks approximating the quadratic

quietly gaining momentum. A microgrid is an integrated system objective function and frequency droop scheme. The authors in

consisting of a set of distributed generators (DGs) [microturbines [16] modeled explicitly the length of time the microgrid operates

(MT), fuel cells (FC), reciprocating engines] and renewable autonomously and used a Monte Carlo analysis to study the

energy sources (RESs) [solar photovoltaics (PV) and wind impact of RESs over a set of United Kingdom commercial

turbines (WT) systems] [2], which function cooperatively to load proles.

furnish the cooperation in parallel with, or autonomously of, the This paper deals with a quadratic formulation of the environ-

traditional electricity macrogrid. The dening characteristic of mental/economic UC optimization problem in a microgrid that

a microgrid is its ability to separate itself seamlessly from the consists of DGs, RESs, and an ESS. The contributions of this

macrogrid during a utility grid disturbance, and function as a work are summarized as follows: 1) in light of microgrids

self-controlled entity with high efciency and low greenhouse unique operational feature and to take into account the forecast

gas emissions. This transparent adaptation in operational modes, errors that exist in demand and wind power forecast, a novel

along with the capacity to better manage distributed energy probability-based concept is proposed to indicate the probability

resources (DERs), renders microgrid the most promising solu- that the microgrid is able to operate in islanded mode, termed

tion to develop a more reliable and decentralized energy system. probability of self-sufciency (PSS); 2) the mixed-integer UC

The daily operation of a microgrid involves nding the least- problem is approached from a convex optimization perspective,

cost dispatch of the DGs that minimizes the total operating cost, which leads to an analytical closed-form solution. Compared to

while meeting the electrical load and satisfying various technical, two classical methods, BB and GA, the proposed method uses

environmental, and operating constraints. This can be seen as a signicantly less processing time yet renders no loss of optimal-

downsized version of the unit commitment (UC) problem that is ity in performance; and 3) the proposed method provides guide-

traditionally applied to large central generators in macrogrid [3]. lines in deciding the size of ESS to improve the autonomous

Mathematically, the UC task can be described as a mixed-integer target PSS for a microgrid efciently.

optimization problem with a nonlinear solution space, which has The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. Section II

been the subject of intensive investigation for more than 40 years discusses the basic system models including wind power forecast,

(c.f., bibliographical survey [4]). Nevertheless, the unique features operating cost, emission, as well as various unit and operation

of microgrids introduce further restrictions as well as simplica- constraints. In Section III, the optimal UC problem is formulated,

tions to this classic optimization task that needs to be addressed. transformed into a convex optimization problem, and nally

The biggest challenge comes from the intermittent nature of solved in analytical closed forms. An efcient subgradient-based

RESs, which often leads to power variations and makes it much algorithm is also proposed to obtain the optimal UC solution in

more difcult to produce accurate day-ahead schedules in this section. Section IV conducts numerical simulations that

microgrids. Therefore, the operation scheduling of the dispatch- verify the efciency and reliability of the proposed scheme.

able DGs should be performed at a much ner level, providing Finally, concluding remarks are drawn in Section V.

quick and continuous power provision, based on the most recent

and accurate forecasted data [5]. Although large thermal units

II. SYSTEM MODEL

are often subject to ramping rate limits that are typically in the

order of several tens of megawatts per hour, it only takes We consider a microgrid that consists of a set of DG units,

several minutes for an MT to ramp up from 0 to full load [6]. including both MTs and FCs, an RES, the WT, and an energy

This further supports the operation scheduling to be performed storage module, the ESS. Electrical loads in the microgrid are

at a more granular level for microgrids [7]. Last but not the least, prioritized into tiers, which consists of critical loads that relate to

the capacity of switching between different operational modes essential processes that must be always met and lower-priority

calls for a proper modeling framework that reects the unique non-critical loads that can be temporarily removed until adequate

characteristic of microgrids. power is available. Due to the limited capacity of the DERs and

Various numerical-based algorithms, including some typical as in [18][20], we assume that the microgrid schedules its units

heuristic methods such as genetic algorithm (GA) [8], [9], to meet the critical loads in the highest priority, satises the

ZHAO et al.: SHORT-TERM OPERATION SCHEDULING IN RENEWABLE-POWERED MICROGRIDS 211

the macrogrid in case of supply shortage. In addition, to better

utilize an environmentally friendly resource, we assume that the Start-Up Costs: The generator start-up cost depends on the

WT is always ON and functions as the primary power source [14]. time the unit has been off prior to a start-up. The start-up cost

The DGs, on the other hand, serve as backup generators and work of unit in time interval can be represented by an exponential

collaboratively with the WT to meet the critical loads. The ESS cost curve [24, eq. (3.12)]

module is introduced to mitigate the renewable power intermit-

tencies and load mismatches. In this work, we assume that the

microgrid updates its UC strategy every 1 h1 during which load

and generation are considered constant.

A. Forecasted Wind Power Model Sometimes, the industry is interested in the total cost per day

in locations with strong and sustained winds. In practice, the

actual wind power almost entirely depends on the wind speed

when other physical limitations are xed or changed relatively

slowly [14]. In principle, is a random variable and varies

C. Emission Model

continuously over time. In this work, we assume that remains

unchanged in one scheduling period (i.e., 1 h), and can vary Emission effects should be taken into account for an

independently between different scheduling periods. environmentally friendly power production. The microgrids are

Extensive research has been done in developing wind envisioned to be new energy savings and green grids in the

forecasting models and approaches [14], [21]. To capture the future, which entails carbon emissions limited to regulations and

relationship between the wind speed and wind power and as in legal requirements.

[14] and [22], the following piecewise linear model is adopted: The amount of emissions produced depends on the fuel used,

pollution control devices installed, and the amount of electricity

generated. In this work, we assume that only DGs produce

emissions and the RESs are emission free.2 The emission

< function is typically expressed as a polynomial, the order of

which depends on the desired accuracy [27], [28]. As in [15] and

[28], a quadratic function is considered for the emission curve

B. Cost Models for MT and FC as follows:

liquid fuels to create high-speed rotation that turns an electrical

generator. Depending on the size range, an MT can ramp up D. Energy Storage System

from 0 to full load between 10 s to several minutes [6]. The FC In renewable-powered microgrids, the problem of mitigating

technology uses an electrochemical process rather than a com- power intermittencies and load mismatches is an important and

bustion process to generate electricity. Polymer electrolyte FCs, challenging task. In this context, an ESS plays a critical role in

also known as proton exchange membrane FCs, are particularly shaving peak demand and compensating forecast errors. For

attractive for microgrids that require rapid start-up and quick instance, when the forecasted wind power is smaller than the

response to load change [23]. actual value (i.e., an underestimate), the supplied power is likely

The operating cost of an MT/FC usually includes fuel cost, to be larger than the actual electricity demand, in which case

maintenance cost, and start-up cost. the ESS will be functioning in charging state to store surplus

Fuel Costs: The fuel costs for DGs are considered as a electrical/renewable energy, which can be dispatched properly

quadratic model [24], which includes linear fuel cost models later in the event of power shortage.

as special cases [7], [14]. The fuel costs of unit in time interval The charge and discharge of the ESS is subject to stored energy

can be expressed as limits, and , which specify the minimum and maxi-

mum energy stored in the battery bank, respectively. In this case,

is set as the full capacity of the ESS and to be around

10% of its full capacity. The ESS is also subject to starting and

Maintenance Costs: The maintenance costs for DGs are based ending limits that specify the initial and nal energy inside the

on forecasts with minimal real-life situations, which are assumed battery bank during the course of 1 day. In this work, the starting

to be proportional to the produced power [25]. Therefore, the and ending limits are both selected as for the purpose of

maintenance costs of unit in time interval is energy balance of the ESS [14].

1 2

Depending on different application requirements, a smaller updating interval Note that the emissions in the production process of WT and other equipments

can be selected since the closed-form UC solutions can be computed fast. [26] have not been considered.

212 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, VOL. 5, NO. 1, JANUARY 2014

E. Unit and Operation Constraints As in [29] and [30], we assume that both demand forecast

error and wind power forecast error can be modeled

Maximum and Minimum Output Limits: The output power of

as independent normally distributed random variables, i.e.,

the DG in stable operation is restricted by its lower and upper

and , respectively. Then,

limits as follows:

the probabilistic power balance constraint can be expressed as

In our case, the minimum available power for the DGs is 0, i.e.,

the DG can be turned OFF when the output power from the WT is

enough to meet the demanded power. which, after some algebra, can be reformulated as

Minimum Up/Down Time: Once a DG is switched ON, it has to

operate continuously for a certain number of times before it can

be switched OFF. Also, a certain number of hours have to pass

before a DG can be brought online after being switched OFF.

Violation of such constraints can shorten the units life time.

Mathematically, we have

Based on the aforementioned cost models and system con-

straints, we rst formulate the UC optimization problem that is

For DGs in microgrids, the minimum up/down time of DGs is used to determine the loads and commitments of DGs such that

around 600 and 300 s [5], respectively, which is always satised the total cost is minimized, power demand is met, and the system

under hourly scheduling operations. constraints are satised. A duality-based analysis is then applied

Ramp Rates: Traditional thermal units are often subject to ramp to derive closed-form solutions. Finally, an efcient subgradient-

rate limits that specify the amount a units generation can increase based method is introduced to numerically compute the optimal

or decrease during one scheduling period. In the context of solutions.

microgrids, small DG units can ramp up from 0 to full load in

the order of several minutes [23]. Thus, the ramp rate limits are A. Problem Formulation

typically not reached under normal hourly scheduling operations.

Emission Limits: To comply with the purpose of environment The UC optimization problem in a particular operation sched-

conservation and reduce the greenhouse gas footprint, we impose uling interval can be written as

hourly emission limits on all the DGs. Mathematically, we have

Evidently, problem is a mixed-integer programming prob-

operating reserve constraints guarantee that there exist extra

lem with a nonlinear solution space. In order to transform into

generating capacity to the system that can be brought online

a convex optimization problem, we introduce auxiliary power

immediately (spinning reserves) or within a short interval

variables and relax to be a continuous variable

(supplementary reserves). In microgrids with fast-start DGs,

in [0,1]. Thus, the transformed problem can be written as3

operating reserves are imposed as follows [3]:

power forecast are prone to errors, which negatively affect

the microgrid in meeting the local power demand and their

autonomous and independent functions. Once a microgrid

cannot meet the power demand solely based on local

generating units, it can switch to a grid-connected mode and

purchase energy from the upstream macrogrid. To better

understand the impacts of operational mode on total operating

cost, we propose the use of a novel probability-based concept,

PSS, which indicates the target probability that the microgrid

is able to operate in islanded mode without purchasing energy 3

The objective function is dened at by continuity as

from the macrogrid. .

ZHAO et al.: SHORT-TERM OPERATION SCHEDULING IN RENEWABLE-POWERED MICROGRIDS 213

where the aggregated cost coefcients are and Besides, we observe that the commitment decisions are

. Note that the objective function of completely determined by the sign of at the optimal

is equivalent to that of as the change of variables is invertible dispatch [c.f. (18)]. Thus, can be seen as a UC

except for . The same statement holds for the emission indication function. In the case that the power generated by

constraints (10) and (14). In case that , every the WT is sufcient to meet local power demand, the microgrid

solves . will be entirely powered by the RES and no DG needs to be

The Hessian matrices of the objective function and the turned ON, i.e., for all .

constraints of are positive semi-denite, and the form of

the whole problem meets the requirement of a convex problem C. Subgradient-Based Algorithm

[31], indicating that is a convex problem. So far, we have found the analytical optimal solutions in

(17) and in (18), which are, however, functions of the

B. Closed-Form Economic Dispatch and UC Solutions

Lagrangian multipliers. By convexity, it sufces to obtain the

To solve analytically, we rst decouple the optimization optimal dual variables ( , , ) to the dual problem, which

variables and by substituting . Note that are used to compute optimal primal solutions (17) and (18).

for the case of interest, i.e., . For this reason, The complete algorithm is formally stated in Algorithm 1.

we will henceforth use . The Lagrangian function can This section discusses the use of a subgradient-based iterative

then be written as procedure to numerically compute the corresponding optimal

Lagrangian multipliers , , and . The key iteration steps

L are [31]

The dual function can be obtained by minimizing the which are provably convergent to the optimal value provided

Lagrangian (14), which is given by that the step sizes are selected to satisfy and

< [32]. A graphical convergence illustration can

be found in the simulation section.

non-negative values and set the step size .

The initial step to solve (16) is to tackle the inner minimization,

the solution of which can be easily derived as repeat

Compute economic dispatch using (17).

Obtain UC indication function via (15).

Find unit status indicator using (18).

Update , , and via (19), (20), and (21),

The next step is to solve the outer minimization over in respectively.

(16), given the optimal power dispatch solution (17). Evidently,

the minimum value is attained by setting for all until < .

< and otherwise. Mathematically, we have

In this study, a microgrid system consisting of two MTs, FC

and WT, and one ESS is considered for a scheduling time horizon

Remark 1: An important step in the course of analytical of 24 h. The fuel cost coefcients, the emission coefcients,

derivation is to decouple the optimizations of the commitment and the power limits of the DGs are summarized in Table I, where

status and the power dispatch separately as in (16). of all DGs are 0 kW. Similar parameter settings have also

214 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, VOL. 5, NO. 1, JANUARY 2014

TABLE I

PARAMETERS OF DISTRIBUTED GENERATORS

. , , and

for GA.

Fig. 1. Total operating cost per day under different PSS targets.

The wind speed data samples adopted in this work are from

the Wind Test Center in West Texas A&M University [33],

with the parameters in (1),

. Unless stated otherwise, the demand forecast

error statistics and those of the wind power are set as

, , and . To understand the

impact of PSS on the total operating cost, three different Fig. 3. Elapsed CPU time of the proposed algorithm under different stopping

criteria. The computer used was an ThinkPad Laptop with a i7 M560 duo-core

operation scenarios are considered, which are , processor at 2.67 GHz.

, and .

order of , with < < [34], and a simple GA

This section illustrates the derived UC solutions without involves a complexity of , where gens is the

considering the functionality of the ESS. The effects of ESS number of generations and pop the population size [35]. There-

will be investigated in Section IV-C. Fig. 1 illustrates the fast fore, the proposed method achieves accurate results with lower

convergence behavior of the proposed algorithm in optimizing computational complexity compared to BB and GA as shown in

the total operating cost per day of the microgrid. It takes only Fig. 2. The corresponding CPU time to run the proposed algo-

about 20 iterations to reach the optimal solution under all three rithm has been plotted in Fig. 3. It is observed that the algorithm

PSS values. Besides, it is observed from Fig. 1 that the operating running time decreases as the stopping criterion drops from

cost increases as the microgrid functions more autonomously, within 0.1% of the value in the previous iteration to 10%.

since more power has to be generated to ensure self-sufciency The optimal amount of dispatch of each DG for given demand

and to mitigate demand and wind power forecast errors. and wind power forecast proles is shown in Fig. 4 under

Fig. 2 shows the comparison results of four different methods different target PSS values. Take Fig. 4(b) as an example.

in our environmental/economic dispatch optimization problem. Observe the forecast wind power decreases from 1:00 A.M. to

We use GA and the proposed method (Prop-algor) to solve the 5:00 A.M. in the early morning. In order to fulll the demand, the

original problem and the transformed problem , respec- DGs are dispatched economically according to the optimal UC

tively. In addition, BB is applied to solve , providing us an solution. The dispatched power from the DGs continues to be in

accurate result as a benchmark. In terms of computational a higher level until 13:00 P.M., when the forecast wind power

complexity, the proposed method has [31] time comes into play again. At midnight, the power demand reaches a

complexity with the number of generators in the system, minimum and the microgrid is entirely powered by the wind

while BB with depth-rst search requires the computation on the power. During the whole process, the DGs serve as backup

ZHAO et al.: SHORT-TERM OPERATION SCHEDULING IN RENEWABLE-POWERED MICROGRIDS 215

Fig. 4. Forecasted demand and wind power as well as optimal dispatch of the DGs under different PSS targets: (a) , (b) , and

.

TABLE II

UNIT COMMITMENT OF THE DISTRIBUTED GENERATORS WITH TARGET

tricity demand.

Table II further depicts the UC status of the DGs for the case of

over a period of 24 h. Cross-referencing Fig. 4(b),

we can observe that an FC is the most preferred power source

among the DGs and contributes signicantly during the entire

scheduling period. In contrast, MT2 contributes the least and Fig. 5. Total operating cost per day under different time horizons.

is always the last one to be turned ON. The reason is as follows.

Recall from (18) in Section III-B that the commitment status of

the DG is solely determined by the sign of the UC indication

function at the optimal dispatched point . An interest-

ing phenomenon observed from numerical results is that

< < for all . In other

words, there exists a hidden priority listing order that arranges

the DGs based on lowest operational cost characteristics as well

as emissions.

Clearly, the shorter the forecasting interval is, the more

accurate the forecast data and the smaller the variance of the

forecast error. According to [29] and [36], the typical standard

deviation of the wind power forecast error for a specic wind

farm can be expressed as a function of the forecast horizon, which Fig. 6. Achieved PSS versus the capacity of the ESS based on wind power

can be approximated accurately by a linear function when the statistics collected in 1 month.

forecast horizon is less than 6 h. Fig. 5 examines the impact of

varied forecasting time horizons on the total operating cost,

C. The Impact of ESS on Microgrids Autonomy

based on the aforementioned linear model. It is observed that for

the case of , the operating cost grows almost linearly In the last numerical example, we incorporate the ESS into the

as the forecasting interval increases from 10 min to 1 h. The microgrid setting and study the impact of ESS on the achieved

same trend is observed for the case of . Interestingly, level of autonomy of the microgrid. To verify the effectiveness of

the cost holds constant for the case of , due to the fact the ESS on the achieved PSS, data samples collected by the wind

that the microgrid is indifferent to either being connected to, or test center [33] in 1 month are employed to calculate the achieved

autonomous of the macrogrid. PSS of the microgrid in practice. We observe from Fig. 6 that for

216 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, VOL. 5, NO. 1, JANUARY 2014

Fig. 7. Variations in the amount of energy stored in ESS in 1 day under different PSS targets: (a) , (b) , and (c) .

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[17] I. Gradshteyn and I. Ryzhik, in Table of Integrals, Series, and Products,

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tion, Master Thesis, Virginia Tech, 2009.

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in a PV-based microgrid with a multi-agent system, Renew. Energy, include cooperative communications, resource allocation and scheduling using

vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 166174, Mar. 2012. optimization and game theory, etc.

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distributions used in wind energy analysis, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev.,

vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 933955, Jun. 2009.

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B.Sc. degree in information and control engineering

systems over multiple installation sites, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers.,

from Xian Jiaotong University, Xian, China, the

vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 124129, Mar. 2002.

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University of Singapore, Singapore, and the Ph.D.

membrane fuel cells, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, vol. 13, no. 8,

degree in electrical and computer engineering from

pp. 10271037, 1997.

Queens University, Kingston, ON, Canada, in 1992,

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1995, and 2000, respectively.

dissertation, Helsinki University of Technology, Helsinki, Finland, 2008.

She is currently a Professor and Canada Research

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Chair (Tier II) with the Department of Electrical

neural networks, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 10511058,

and Computer Engineering, University of Victoria,

Apr. 2005.

Victoria, BC, Canada. Between 2002 and 2004, she was an Assistant Professor

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with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of

analysis of grid connected photovoltaic systems in Spain, Renew. Energy,

Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. From 1999 to 2002, she was with Nortel

vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 11071128, Jul. 2006.

Networks, Ottawa, ON, where she worked on the base transceiver design of

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third-generation mobile communication systems. Her research interests include

game theory for online management of microgrid, Eur. Trans. Electr.

communication theory, radio propagation, cooperative communications, ultra-

Power, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 839854, 2011.

wideband radio, and signal processing for communication applications.

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Dr. Dong is an Editor for the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICA-

sources for cost and emission reductions, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron.,

TIONS, the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, and the Journal of

vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 12291238, Apr. 2011.

Communications and Networks.

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Syst., vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 587595, May 2005.

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forecast error and its application to the estimation of penalties in liberalized from Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, in 1986,

markets, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 20312039, the M.Sc. degree from Tianjin University, Tianjin,

Nov. 2011. China, in 1989, and the Ph.D. degree from Strathclyde

[31] S. Boyd and L. Vandenberghe, Convex Optimization, Cambridge, U.K.: University, Glasgow, U.K., in 1999, all in electrical

Cambridge Univ. Press, 2004. engineering.

[32] D. P. Bertsekas, Nonlinear Programming, Belmont, MA, USA: Athena He was an Engineering Team Leader in the Smart

Scientic, 1995. Metering and Infrastructure Program at BC Hydro,

[33] Wind energy database of white deer [Online]. Available: http://www. Burnaby, BC, Canada. He is currently working at the

windenergy.org/datasites/14-whitedeer/. State Grid Smart Grid Research Institute, Beijing,

[34] W. Zhang, Branch-and-Bound search algorithms and their computational China. His special elds of interest include smart

complexity, University of Southern California Marina Delrey Information metering, smart grid solutions, system planning, asset management, control

Sciences Inst, Tech. Rep. ADA314598, May 1996. system cyber security, and utility advanced applications.

[35] What is time complexity of genetic algorithm [Online]. Available: http://

wiki.answers.com/Q/What-is-time-complexity-of-genetic-algorithm.

[36] D. Lew and M. Milligan, The value of wind power forecasting, in Proc.

91st American Meteorological Society Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA, USA, Jens Bornemann (M87SM90F02) received the

Jan. 2011. Dipl.-Ing. and the Dr.-Ing. degrees, both in electrical

[37] S. Arefar, Y. Mohamed, and T. El-Fouly, Supply-adequacy-based opti- engineering, from the University of Bremen,

mal construction of microgrids in smart distribution systems, IEEE Trans. Germany, in 1980 and 1984, respectively.

Smart Grid, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 14911502, Sep. 2012. From 1984 to 1985, he was a Consulting Engineer.

In 1985, he joined the University of Bremen,

Germany, as an Assistant Professor. Since April

1988, he has been with the Department of Electrical

and Computer Engineering, University of Victoria,

Binyan Zhao (S13) received the B.Sc. and M.Sc.

Victoria, BC, Canada, where he became a Professor in

degrees in telecommunication from Beijing Universi-

1992. From 1992 to 1995, he was a Fellow of the

ty of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, China,

British Columbia Advanced Systems Institute. In 1996, he was a Visiting

in 2008 and 2011, respectively. She is currently

Scientist at Spar Aerospace Limited (now MDA Space), Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue,

working toward the Ph.D. degree at the Department

Qubec, Canada, and a Visiting Professor at the Microwave Department, Univer-

of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University

sity of Ulm, Germany. In 2003, he was a Visiting Professor at the Laboratory for

of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada.

Electromagnetic Fields and Microwave Electronics, ETH Zurich, Switzerland.

Her research interests include scheduling problems

From 1997 to 2002, he was a codirector of the Center for Advanced Materials and

in distribution power network and service restoration

Related Technology (CAMTEC), University of Victoria. From 1999 to 2002, he

issues in microgrid.

served as an Associate Editor of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY

AND TECHNIQUES in the area of microwave modeling and CAD. From 2006 to 2008,

he was an Associate Editor of the International Journal of Electronics and

Yi Shi (S06M10) received the B.E. degree in tele- Communications. From 1999 to 2009, he served on the Technical Program

communications from Beijing University of Posts Committee of the IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium. He

and Telecommunications, Beijing, China, in 2006. He has coauthored Waveguide Components for Antenna Feed SystemsTheory and

received the Ph.D. degree in electronic and computer Design (Artech House, 1993) and has authored/coauthored more than 250 tech-

engineering from The Hong Kong University of nical papers. His research activities include RF/wireless/microwave/millimeter-

Science and Technology, Hong Kong, in August 2010. wave components and systems design, and eld-theory-based modeling of

From 2010 to 2012, he worked as a post-doctoral integrated circuits, feed networks, ultrawideband technology, and antennas.

fellow in the Department of Electrical and Computer Dr. Bornemann is a Registered Professional Engineer in the Province of British

Engineering, University of Victoria. He is currently an Columbia, Canada. He is a Fellow of the Canadian Academy of Engineering

Engineer with Huawei Technologies, Beijing, China. (CAE) and serves on the editorial advisory board of the International Journal of

His work involves the 3GPP standarization of the Numerical Modeling.

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