algorithms

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algorithms

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Suppose T is a binary tree. Then, T is called a binary search tree (or binary sorted tree) if

each node N of T has the following property:

The value at N is greater than every value in the left subtree of N and is less than every

value in the right subtree of N.

The searching and inserting will be given by a single search and insertion algorithm.

Suppose an ITEM of information is given. The following algorithm finds the location of

ITEM in the binary search tree T, or inserts ITEM as a new node in its appropriate place

in the tree.

a) Compare ITEM with the root node N of the tree.

(i) If ITEM < N, proceed to the left child of N.

(ii) If ITEM > N, proceed to the right child of N.

b) Repeat step (a) until one of the following occurs:

(i) We meet a node N such that ITEM = N. in this case the search is successful.

(ii) We meet an empty subtree, which indicate that the search is unsuccessful, and we insert

ITEM in place of the empty subtree.

In other words, proceed from the root R down through the tree T until finding ITEM in T or

inserting ITEM as a terminal node in T.

The formal presentation of our search and insertion algorithm will use the following

procedure, which finds the location of a given ITEM and its parent. The procedure

traverses down the tree using the pointer PTR and the pointer SAVE for the parent node.

This procedure will also be used in the next section, or deletion.

Searching

Algorithm: FIND(INFO, LEFT, RIGHT, ROOT, ITEM, LOC, PAR)

A binary tree T is in memory and an ITEM of information is given. This procedure finds the

location LOC of ITEM in T and also the location PAR of the parent of ITEM. There are

three special cases:

(i) LOC = NULL and PAR = NULL will indicate that the tree is empty. [No node.]

(ii) LOC != NULL and PAR = NULL will indicate that ITEM is root of T. [No parent of node,

i.e., only one node.]

(iii) LOC = NULL and PAR != NULL will indicate that ITEM is not in T and can be added to T

as a child of the node N with the location PAR.

Step I: [Tree empty?]

If ROOT = NULL, then:

Set LOC := NULL and PAR := NULL, and Return.

Step II: [ITEM at root?]

If ITEM = INFO[ROOT], then:

Set LOC := ROOT and PAR := NULL, and Return.

Step III: [Initialize pointers PTR and SAVE.]

If ITEM < INFO[ROOT], then:

Set SAVE := ROOT and PTR := LEFT[ROOT]

Else:

Set SAVE := ROOT and PTR := RIGHT[ROOT]

[End of If structure.]

Step IV: Repeat steps 5 and 6 while PTR != NULL;

Step V: [ITEM found?]

If ITEM := INFO[PTR], then:

Set LOC := PTR and PAR := SAVE, and Return.

Step VI: If ITEM < INFO[PTR], then:

Set SAVE := PTR and PTR := LEFT[PTR].

Else:

Set SAVE := PTR and PTR := RIGHT[PTR].

[End of If structure.]

[End of step 4 loop.]

Step VII: [Search unsuccessful.]

Set LOC := NULL and PAR := SAVE.

Step VIII: Return.

Algorithm:

INSBST(INFO, LEFT, RIGHT, ROOT, AVAIL, ITEM, LOC, PAR)

A binary search tree T is in memory and an ITEM of information is given. This algorithm

finds the location LOC of ITEM in T or adds ITEM as a new node in T at location LOC.

Step I: Call FIND(INFO, LEFT, RIGHT, ROOT, ITEM, LOC, PAR)

Step II: If LOC != NULL, then: Exit.

[Element already in tree.]

Step III: [Copy ITEM into new node in AVAIL list.]

a) If AVAIL = NULL, then: Write: OVERFLOW, and Exit.

b) [Take free node from AVAIL list.]

(i) Set NEW := AVAIL, and AVAIL := LINK[AVAIL].

(ii) Set INFO[NEW] := ITEM.

c) Set LOC := NEW, LEFT[NEW] := NULL, and RIGHT[NEW] := NULL.

Step IV: [Add ITEM to the tree.]

If PAR := NULL, then: [Tree empty.]

Set ROOT := LOC.

Else if:

ITEM < INFO[PAR], then: [ITEM is added as a left child.]

Set LEFT[PAR] := LOC.

Else: [ITEM is added as a right child.]

Set RIGHT[PAR] := LOC.

[End of If structure.]

Step V: Exit.

Suppose T is a binary search tree, and an ITEM of information is given. This section

gives an algorithm which deletes ITEM from the tree T. The deletion algorithm first find

the location of the node N which contains ITEM and also the location of the parent node

P(N). The way N is deleted from the tree depends primarily on the number of children of

node N. There are three cases:

Case 1: N has no children. Then N is deleted from T by simply replacing the location of

N in the parent node P(N) by the null pointer.

Case 2: N has exactly one child. Then N is deleted from T by simply replacing the

location of N in P(N) by the location of the only child of N.

Case 3: N has two children. Let S(N) denotes the inorder successor of N. Then N is

deleted from T by first deleting S(N) from T and then replacing node N in T by the node

S(N).

(I) Algorithm:

When the node has no child or one child: CASEA (INFO, LEFT, RIGHT, ROOT, PAR,

LOC)

This procedure deletes the node N at location LOC, where N does not have two

children. The pointer PAR gives the location of the parent of N, or else PAR = NULL

indicates that N is the root node. The pointer CHILD gives the location of the only child

of N, or else CHILD = NULL indicates that N has no children.

1. [Initialize CHILD.]

If LEFT[LOC] = NULL and RIGHT[LOC] = NULL, then:

Set CHILD := NULL.

Else if:

LEFT[LOC] != NULL, then:

Set CHILD := LEFT[LOC].

Else:

Set CHILD := RIGHT[LOC].

[End of If structure.]

If LOC = LEFT[PAR], then:

Set LEFT[PAR] := CHILD.

Else:

Set RIGHT[PAR] := CHILD.

[End of Inner If.]

Else:

Set ROOT := CHILD.

[End of Outer If.]

3. Return.

(II) Algorithm:

When the node has two children: CASEB (INFO, LEFT, RIGHT, ROOT, LOC, PAR)

This algorithm will delete the node N at location LOC, where N has two children. The

pointer PAR gives the location of the parent of N, or else PAR = NULL indicates that N is

the root node. The pointer SUC gives the location of the inorder successor of N, and

PARSUC gives the location of the parent of the inorder successor.

1. [Find inorder successor and its parent in SUC & PARSUC respectively.]

a) Set PTR := RIGHT[LOC] and SAVE := LOC.

b) Repeat while LEFT[PTR] != NULL;

Set SAVE := PTR and PTR := LEFT[PTR].

[End of loop.]

2. [Delete inorder successor.]

Call CASEA(INFO, LEFT, RIGHT, ROOT, SUC, PARSUC).

a) If PAR != NULL, then:

If LOC = LEFT[PAR], then:

Set LEFT[PAR] := SUC.

Else:

Set RIGHT[PAR] := SUC.

[End of Inner If.]

Else:

Set ROOT := SUC.

[End of Outer If.]

b) Set LEFT[SUC] := LEFT[LOC] and

RIGHT[SUC] := RIGHT[LOC].

4. Return.

(III) Algorithm:

A binary search tree T is in memory and an ITEM of information is given. This algorithm

deletes ITEM from the tree.

Call FIND(INFO, LEFT, RIGHT, ROOT, ITEM, LOC, PAR).

2. [ITEM in tree]

If LOC = NULL, then: Write: ITEM not in tree, and Exit.

If LEFT[LOC] != NULL and RIGHT[LOC] != NULL, then:

Call CASEB(INFO, LEFT, RIGHT, ROOT, LOC, PAR).

Else:

Call CASEA(INFO, LEFT, RIGHT, ROOT, PAR, LOC).

[End of If structure.]

Set RIGHT[LOC] := AVAIL and AVAIL := LOC. 5. Exit.

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