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6

Series-Parallel Circuits

6-1: Finding RT for Series-Parallel Resistances

6-2: Resistance Strings in Parallel

6-3: Resistance Banks in Series

6-4: Resistance Banks and Strings in Series-Parallel

Topics Covered in Chapter 6

6-5: Analyzing Series-Parallel Circuits with Random

Unknowns

6-6: The Wheatstone Bridge

6-7: Troubleshooting: Opens and Shorts in Series-

Parallel Circuits

6-1: Finding RT for

Series-Parallel Resistances

Overview of Series-Parallel Circuits

A series-parallel circuit, or combination circuit,

combines both series and parallel connections.

Most electronic circuits fall into this category.

Series-parallel circuits are typically used when different

voltage and current values are required from the same

voltage source.

6-1: Finding RT for

Series-Parallel Resistances

Overview of Series-Parallel Circuits

1

3

V 2

circuit; sections 1 and 2 are series strings.

6-1: Finding RT for

Series-Parallel Resistances

Overview of Series-Parallel Circuits

V 3

circuit; sections 1 and 2 are parallel banks.

6-1: Finding RT for

Series-Parallel Resistances

To find RT for a series-parallel

circuit, add the series

resistances and combine the

parallel resistances.

In this diagram, R1 and R2 are

in series, and R3 and R4 are in

parallel. However, R2 is not in

series with either R3 or R4.

Resistances in series have the

same current, but the current

in R2 is equal to the sum of the

branch currents I3 and I4.

parallel circuit.

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

6-1: Finding RT for

Series-Parallel Resistances

For Fig. 6-1b,

The series resistances are:

0.5k + 0.5k = 1k

The equivalent resistance of the parallel resistances is:

1k / 2 = 0.5k

The series and parallel values are then added for the

value of RT:

1k + 0.5k = 1.5 k

6-2: Resistance Strings in Parallel

In this figure, branch 1

has two resistances in

series; branch 2 has

only one resistance.

Ohms Law can be

applied to each branch,

using the same rules for

the series and parallel

components that were

discussed in Chapters 4

and 5.

Fig. 6-3a: Series string in parallel with

another branch (schematic diagram).

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

6-2: Resistance Strings in Parallel

Series Circuit Parallel Circuit

Current is the same in all Voltage is the same

components. across all branches.

V across each series R is I in each branch R is V/R.

I R. IT = I1 + I2 + I3 +...+ etc.

VT = V1 + V2 + V3 +...+ etc.

6-2: Resistance Strings in Parallel

I is the same

V in this

section.

6-2: Resistance Strings in Parallel

The current in each branch equals the voltage applied

across the branch divided by the branch RT.

The total line current equals the sum of the branch

currents for all parallel strings.

The RT for the entire circuit equals the applied voltage

divided by the total line current.

For any resistance in a series string, the IR voltage drop

across that resistance equals the strings current

multiplied by the resistance.

The sum of the voltage drops in the series string equals

the voltage across the entire string.

6-3: Resistance Banks in Series

In this figure, R2 and R3

are parallel resistances in

a bank. The parallel bank

is in series with R1.

There may be more than

two parallel resistances in

a bank, and any number

of banks in series.

Ohms Law is applied to

the series and parallel

components as seen

previously. Fig. 6-4a: Parallel bank of R2 and R3 in

series with R1 (Original circuit).

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

6-3: Resistance Banks in Series

To find the total resistance of this type of circuit,

combine the parallel resistances in each bank and add

the series resistances.

V

R=

I 10 (of R2 + R3)

6 = + 1 (R1)

24V 2 branches

R=

4A

24V 6 = 5 + 1

6 =

4A

6-4: Resistance Banks and Strings in

Series-Parallel

To solve series-parallel (combination) circuits, it is

important to know which components are in series with

one another and which components are in parallel.

Series components must be in one current path without

any branch points.

To find particular values for this type of circuit,

Reduce and combine the components using the rules

for individual series and parallel circuits.

Reduce the circuit to its simplest possible form.

Then solve for the needed values using Ohms Law.

6-4: Resistance Banks and Strings in

Series-Parallel

Example:

Find all currents and voltages in Fig. 6-5.

Step 1: Find RT.

Step 2: Calculate main line current as IT = VT / RT

Fig. 6-5: Reducing a series-parallel circuit to an equivalent series circuit to find the RT. (a)

Actual circuit. (b) R3 and R4 in parallel combined for the equivalent R7.

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

6-4: Resistance Banks and Strings in

Series-Parallel

Fig. 6-5, cont. (c) R7 and R6 in series added for R13. (d) R13 and R5 in parallel combined for R18.

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

6-4: Resistance Banks and Strings in

Series-Parallel

Fig. 6-5 (e): The R18, R1, and R2 in series are added for the total resistance of 50 for RT.

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

6-5: Analyzing Series-Parallel Circuits

with Random Unknowns

In solving such circuits, apply the same principles as

before:

Reduce the circuit to its simplest possible form.

Apply Ohms Law.

6-5: Analyzing Series-Parallel Circuits

with Random Unknowns

Example:

In Fig. 6-6, we can

find branch

currents I1 and I2-3,

and IT, and

voltage drops V1,

V2, and V3,

without knowing

the value of RT.

Fig. 6-6: Finding all the currents and voltages by calculating the branch currents first.

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

6-5: Analyzing Series-Parallel Circuits

with Random Unknowns

Find I1, I2-3, and IT.

V

I1 =

R

90V (parallel branches have the same voltage)

I1=

30

I1= 3A

6-5: Analyzing Series-Parallel Circuits

with Random Unknowns

V

I2-3 = IT = I1 + I2-3

R

90V IT = 3A + 2A

I2-3 =

20 + 25

IT = 5A

90V

I2-3 =

45

I2-3 = 2A

6-5: Analyzing Series-Parallel Circuits

with Random Unknowns

Find voltage drops V1, V2,

and V3:

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

6-5: Analyzing Series-Parallel Circuits

with Random Unknowns

V1 = VA (parallel branches have the same voltage)

V1 = 90V

or

V1 = I1R1 V2 = I2-3R2 V3 = I2-3R3

V1 = 3A 30 V2 = 2A(20 ) V3 = 2A(25 )

V1 = 90V V2 = 40V V3 = 50V

Note: V2 + V3 = VA

40V + 50V = 90V

6-5: Analyzing Series-Parallel Circuits

with Random Unknowns

VA

RT =

IT

90A

RT =

5A

RT = 18

6-6: The Wheatstone Bridge

A Wheatstone bridge is a circuit that is used to

determine the value of an unknown resistance.

The unknown resistor (RX) is in the same branch as the

standard resistor (RS).

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

6-6: The Wheatstone Bridge

Resistors R1 and R2 form the ratio arm; they have very

tight resistance tolerances.

The galvanometer (M1), a sensitive current meter, is

connected between the output terminals C and D.

When R1 / R2 = RX / RS, the bridge is balanced.

When the bridge is balanced, the current in M1 is zero.

6-6: The Wheatstone Bridge

Using a Wheatstone Bridge to Measure an Unknown

Resistance

RS is adjusted for zero current in M1..

When the current in M1 = 0A, the voltage division

between RX and RS is equal to that between R1 and R2.

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

6-6: The Wheatstone Bridge

Note: When the Wheatstone bridge is balanced, it can be

analyzed as two series strings in parallel. Note the

following relationship:

RX R1

=

RS R2

R1

RX = RS

R2

6-7: Troubleshooting: Opens and

Shorts in Series-Parallel Circuits

In series-parallel circuits, an open or short in one part of

the circuit changes the values in the entire circuit.

the techniques used when troubleshooting individual

series and parallel circuits.

6-7: Troubleshooting: Opens and

Shorts in Series-Parallel Circuits

Effect of a Short in a Series-Parallel Circuit

The total current and total power increase.

Fig. 6-13: Effect of a short circuit with series-parallel connections. (a) Normal circuit with S1

open. (b) Circuit with short between points A and B when S1 is closed; now R2 and R3 are short-

circuited.

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

6-7: Troubleshooting: Opens and

Shorts in Series-Parallel Circuits

Effect of a Short in a Series-Parallel Circuit

with S1 open to 10A with S1 closed. are shorted out.

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

6-7: Troubleshooting: Opens and

Shorts in Series-Parallel Circuits

Effect of an Open in a Series-Parallel Circuit

Fig. 6-14: Effect of an open path in a series-

parallel circuit. (a) Normal circuit with S2

closed. (b) Series circuit with R1 and R2 when

S2 is open. Now R3 in the open path has no

current and zero IR voltage drop.

the circuit.

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

6-7: Troubleshooting: Opens and

Shorts in Series-Parallel Circuits

Effect of an Open in a Series-Parallel Circuit

voltage across R2,which is 89V. The voltage across R3 is

zero.

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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