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Dreams and Visi


ABSTRACT. The author explores the standing vs. understanding in terms of healing endeavors. The native labels
role of dreams and visions in Eurasian spirits). He also discusses the role of express their work succinctly, distin-
cultures with particular emphasis on the inspiration, such as the mead of inspira- guishing between, for example, herbal-
Old Norse. The shamanic illness tion in Old Norse traditions. Healing in ists, bone setters, shamans, seers, and
described in Eurasian traditions can be an indigenous context is described as a diagnosticians. In this article, I focus on
seen as an intense form of spiritual emer- holistic endeavor that includes dreams
gence that deepens an individuals con- and visions as important ingredients. Jrgen Werner Kremer is an executive editor of
nection to a larger view of reality that ReVision, where he has published recent articles
Keywords: dreams, healing, shamanic about mythic storytelling, ethnoautobiography,
includes dreams and visions. The author initiation, spiritual emergence and radical presence. He is a faculty member at the
draws examples from the Evenki, Soyot, Santa Rosa Junior College and teaches at Sonoma
and Nganasan traditions to contextualize State University, Saybrook Institute Graduate
Shamanic initiation School, and the Institute of Imaginal Studies. He
the records drawn between a psycholog- can be contacted at
ical and indigenous understanding of ini-
tiation and healing (symbolic under- M ost indigenous cultures have a
variety of specialists engaged in Copyright 2007 Heldref Publications

34 ReVision VOL. 29 NO. 1

ions in Jrgen W. Kremer

iation and Healing

in the acquisition and application of for hours at an object. The pale and wor-
indigenous knowledge. In this article, I ried man, with his piercing look, made a
explore the knowledge process resulting peculiar impression. After his dream, the
chosen man became uneasy and timid,
from a high valuation of dream and began to meditate, did not answer when
visionary states and compare Indigenous he was addressed, and frquently heard
and Eurocentered science. words whispered into his ears which he
My Nordic-Germanic roots connect had to sing, zarizacan (literally: to
me with the vast Eurasian cultural com- repeat). That was the moment when, in
shamanistic terminology, the spirits
plex that has certain common strands entered his ears and brain, telling him the
(Pentikinen 1989). Within this rich words of the song. . . . [The Evenki]
area, I begin my discussion with believed that the choice itself and the
descriptions from cultures that are less transfer of the assistant spirits to the
impacted by Christian influences and novice were directed by the master spirit
of the upper world. The first words heard
move subsequently to the Old Norse by the chosen person were instructions,
material that is more fragmentary and such as . . . do not commit evil things,
influenced by Christian thought. only cure the sick. . . . I shall be above
A feature on Tuvan shamanism filmed you, and take care of you, and give you
by Belgian Public Television (Dumon strength. In his dream, the young shaman
could see the shaman ancestors who also
1993) contains a moment where the gave him instructions. Then other spirits
interviewer asks the shaman whether he came whispering into his ears. (Vasile-
had to go through the shamanic illness to vic 1968, 345)
become a shaman. Were you also sick?
he asks. The question leads us to expect The last sentence of this passage
a long explanation of such a significant speaks most clearly to the difference
event; however, the old man answers between a psychologizing, Eurocentered
matter of factly: Of course I was sick. perspective and Indigenous perspectives:
The brevity of the answer indicates how the ancestors and other spirits speak to
obvious, necessary, and inevitable the the person being initiated, and self-con-
shamanic illness, or albystar (in Tuvin- struction is fluid and open enough to
the Eurasian cultural areas that, amid ian) is. It makes and defines a shaman. have intercourse with such realities. This
their rich diversity, have certain connect- All other shamans shown in this movie is different from an internalizing self-
ing strands. The jajan, saman, noaidi, underwent similar trials when they were construction comprehending and appre-
vlva, or seikarl embody the highest or called to shamanize.1 hending ancestors as various aspects of
deepest forms of seeing and healing; The common language for the call to the monadic self (whatever psychologi-
they are holders of the deep knowledge shamanize and the initiation is initiatory cal theory we might use). The process
of their cultures and keep it alive through illness or shamanic illness. The follow- leads from the initial visitation by spirits
their ceremonial practices; and they have ing are excerpts from descriptions among to the acquisition of the necessary
been initiated by spirits into the lived the Evenki (Tungus) of Central Asia: shamanic accoutrements, as described in
knowledge of their cultures. Dreams and the following statement from the Tuva
visions, the poetic inspiration of vision- He became tormented and timorous, (Soyot) of Central Asia:
especially at night when his head was
ary trance stateswhether during sleep filled with dream visions. On the day A shaman is recognized by typical attacks
or induced by chanting, singing, drum- when he had to act as shaman, the visions of a special disease called albystar. The
ming, or entheogensplay a central role stopped, he fell into a trance and stared person in question goes off his head,

SUMMER 2006 35
utters inarticulate sounds, breaks dishes, her traditions (the tree of fate). As the aspects of the weave that the fluid, par-
leaves the house and roams about the descriptions indicate, such shamanic ticipatory Indigenous self are connected
taiga, twitches in hysterical convulsions,
initiations are not mere psychological into impinge their awareness onto the
is seized with nausea and rends his gar-
ments, etc. The invalid repeats that the processes. They are a process always individual mind. Or, more plainly:
soul of a shaman istig irgk has moved resulting in actions capable of manifest- The Indian has achieved a particularly
into his body, that the spirit urges him to ing healing. Paula Gunn Allen (1998) effective alignment of [the physical and
take a horse (by which the drum dr is aptly describes the difference between imaginative] planes of vision. . . . The
meant) and clothes (ala xujaq) and to appropriation of both images into one
the psychologizing of spirita tempta-
become a shaman. (Vajnstejn 1968, 331) reality is what the Indian is concerned to
tion to which many alternate Eurocen-
do: to see what is really there, but also to
Even in Old Norse traditions, where tered approaches succumb in our cur- see what is really there. (Momaday, cited
shamanism fell prey to Christianity in Blaeser 1996, 26)
more than one thousand years ago, we
find remnants in the records describing This is a self that has easy concourse
with spirits and spiritual dimensions;
an indigenous self-construction of the The connection with instead of being unconscious or in
practitioners. For example, at the begin-
ning of the Eddic poem reaching most denial about such presences and con-
deeply into the older layer of the cul-
ones dream, vision, course, it is present to it. This is the
ture, we read how the seeress was raised work of the vlva, noaidi, and various
by ancestral spirits: medicinal power, or other shamanic practitioners.
Mircea Eliade, in his classic book
Ek man itna / r um borna, / er Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of
forum mik / fdda hfu. / Nu man ek personal gift is part of Ecstasy (1951/1964, 42), complains that
heima / nu viiur, / mitvi mran / fyr
mold nean. (Vlusp, stanza 2) not enough care had been taken to col-
I remember the Jtnar who were born at
native life. Reinforcing lect the confessions of . . . Siberian
the beginning of time and reared me in shamans so that they are reduced to
the meager common formula: the candi-
former times. I remember nine worlds
beneath the earth, nine giantesses, and
that connection is the date remained unconscious for a certain
also the glorious tree of fate. (Plsson number of days, dreamed that he was cut
1996, 47, 58) function of rites of to pieces by spirits and carried into the
The vlva is raised by giants and sky, and so on. He sees the following
reared with primal spirits of old, one of passage. detailed description as a relief from such
them called Burr, the bear ancestor. Per- reductions. This example may be the
sonal and collective or communal time most frequently quoted in the literature
are indistinguishable in this incantatory (see Popov, cited in Dioszegi 1968,
account of earliest Norse history. The rent culture of psychologyand the 13746; Eliade 1951/1964, 3842; Hali-
giants are primal spirits, presences from indigenous conversation: fax 1979, 3749; Vitebsky 1995, 6061),
before human beings. (If we accept and it can also be found on the Internet.
In tribal cultures, ecstatic, mystical states
Plssons interpretation of itna as dont so much convert into emotive per- Repeating this report may thus con-
Smi, we end up with the same under- sonal experience as into physical experi- tribute to a reification and ossification of
standing: the seeress was raised in the ence or experience with direct effect in what shamanic initiation is. Those who
the physical (that is, as a consequence of escaped the care of the anthropological
presence of spirits or with spirits.) entering an ecstatic state, a practitioner
The connection with ones dream, collectors may be the lucky ones:
can do something actual). Visionary expe-
vision, medicinal power, or personal gift riences, in themselves, are either a direct Natives are forever studied, invented as
is part of native life, manifesting in a requirement for some ritual activity in abstruse cultures, and then embodied in
multitude of cultural ways. Reinforcing which the individual is engaging or are a motion pictures as the simulated burdens
prelude to a life as a holy person. (47) of civilization. . . . These adversities
that connection is the function of rites of became more grievous and caused a turn
passage. Shamanic initiation, in the The shamanic self is not so much in the notions, courses, and literary
indigenous sense, is deepening or rein- constructed as affirmed and confirmed canons at universities, but the treacheries
forcing ones presence to the spiritual during initiations; it is the rigorous con- and dominance of anthropologism, the
realities within a communal framework. firmation of something that has been in obsessive, unmerciful studies of natives
by social scientists, have not been over-
Although spirits are part of all indige- the process of construction. It is note- turned. (Vizenor 1997, 86)
nous conversations, the awareness and worthy that the shamanic illness is not
presence of them becomes intensified something an individual chooses as an With the opening of the East Bloc,
and heightened for shamans. Thus, the endeavor during a sequence of work- anthropological attention has turned
vlva in Vlusp is raised with spirits in shops, but that the spirits come to them. more intensely on its aboriginal tradi-
such intensity and to such depths that The shamanic self is initiated from the tions previously more difficult to
she sees through time and remembers outside, to speak in Eurocentered ter- access. Here is an abbreviated version
the beginnings of things, the center of minology. More accurately, other of the visionary dream account:

36 ReVision VOL. 29 NO. 1

At first he was descending somewhere, the cliff. The cliff said: I am the Heavy Dyukhade found himself on the summit
then he grasped that there was a sea Stone. By the use of my weight I hold the of a mountain. He entered a tent and
beneath him. While walking by the sea, fertile soil in its place. The wind would awakened, in his own tent. Afterwards he
he listened to the voice of upper disease carry it away without me. The second behaved like an insane person: daily he
who told that he would acquire the cliff opened and said: Let all men melt sung incantations and frequently
shamans gift from the Mistress of water iron from me. So Dyukhade studied swooned away, nightly suffered torments
and his shaman name would be Hotarie. seven days near the cliffs. Afterwards the caused by spirits. During the seventh year
After that he reached the shore. A naked ermine and the mouse led him to the of his illness he went far into the tundra
woman, who was lying there, suckled marshland. They reached the hill with and met there a man who gave him back
him. She was the Mistress of water. Her swampy slopes. There was an open door- his heart, cut out at the very beginning of
husband Frosty God gave an ermine and a way on the closest slope, and they went his shamans sickness. (Popov 1936,
mouse to guide him. They led him to the in. The interior, except for the ice around 8593)
hill in the lower world where he saw it, looked like the one of the conical tents.
seven tents. Dyukhade entered the second There was a hearth in the middle of the These descriptions should make obvi-
tent. The Smallpox people were living room. On the left side two naked women ous that the call to become a shaman is
there. They cut out Dyukhades heart and were sitting. Their bodies were furry and not a light matter. The initiation is a
put it in the cauldron to boil. Afterwards they both had antlers (one of them had journey in which the persons life is on
Dyukhade visited other tents and got green ones). Both of them bore him two
familiar with the spirits of diseases who reindeer calves destined for sacrifice and the line and not getting something right
lived there. Still preceeded by his guides, nourishment. They gave him some rein- can easily mean death (Eliade
Dyukhade came to that place of the deer fur for the shaman costume and for 1951/1964, 3842). The patterns of call,
Shamans Land where his throat and his good luck with reindeer. Then Dyukhade initiation, and instruction vary from cul-
voice were strengthened. Then he was came to a desert and saw a distant moun- ture to culture in accordance with the
carried to the shores of the nine lakes. In tain. After three days travel, he reached it
the middle of one lake was an island, and and entered an opening. There was a form the nurturing conversation takes in
on the island there was a tree, quite simi- naked man working a bellows inside the a particular place (local knowledge),
lar to the larch, only its top rose to the sky. mountain. On the fire was a cauldron as time, ancestry, and ceremonial tradition
It was the tree of the Mistress of the earth. big as half the earth. The naked man saw (see Vitebsky 1995 for a brief
Beside it grew seven herbs, the ancestors Dyukhade and caught him with a huge overview). However, all descriptions
of all the plants on the earth. In each of pair of tongs. Dyukhade had only time to
the lakes swam a species of bird with its think: I am dead! The man cut off his include pressure from spirits resulting
young. There were several kinds of ducks, head, chopped up his body and put them in a heightened presence (dream or
a swan and a sparrow-hawk. While in the cauldron. There he boiled them for visionary state) to them and the impart-
singing songs and telling incantations, three years. There were three anvils on ing of healing knowledge in a way that
Dyukhade walked [a]round all of the the tundra side of this mountain. The makes it available to the personal reper-
lakes. Some of them were very hot, some naked man forged Dyukhades head on
were terribly salty. Thereafter Dyukhade the third anvil, which was the one on toire of the person being initated. The
raised his head and saw men of various which the best shamans were forged. person is getting initiated into the deep
nations in the top of the high tree. There Then he chilled his head in the cauldron, knowledge of his or her culture. This is
were Nganasans, Russians, Dolgans, in which the water was the coldest (there the crucial point: although this process
Nenetses, and Tunguses. He heard voices: were three cauldrons with water). He certainly has a psychological dimension
It has been decided that you shall have a said: When you will be called to cure
drum from the branches of this tree. someone, you will remember: if the soul it functions, when comprehended as a
Then he grasped that he was flying with of your patient will be warmer then water whole, entirely outside of not just a psy-
the birds of the lakes. As he left the shore, in the first cauldron, it will be useless to chological paradigm, but outside of the
the Lord of the Tree called to him: My shamanize, for the man is already lost. If boundaries of the Eurocentered paradig-
branch has just fallen. Take it and make a the soul will be as warm as water in the mata in general. Psychologizing spirit
drum of it that will serve you all your second cauldron, your patient is not very
life! The branch had three forks and the seriously ill and you will shamanize to amounts to the appropriation and con-
Lord of the Tree bade him make three cure him. Water in the third cauldron has tainment of Eurasian ancestries. Espe-
drums from it. I let you have three wives, the temperature of the healthy body. cially since the publication of Joseph
who will watch over your drums, he said. Then the blacksmith poured Dyukhades Campbells The Hero with a Thousand
The first drum you have got to use for bones and muscles out of the cauldron Faces (1949), Eurocentered individuals
shamanising women in childbirth, the and separated flesh from bones. He said:
second for curing the sick, and the third As you have three of them too many, you are prone to interpret initiation in psy-
for finding men lost in the snowstorm. will have three shaman costumes too. chological terms, particularly in Jungian
Dyukhade took the branch and flew away Afterwards he said: Your spinal cord is a archetypal terms (initiation into Self).
with the birds. On his way he met a demi- river now, look at your bones floating Such process has psychological validity
man-demitree creature who told: If you away! He fished Dyukhades bones out (there is, of course, such a process as the
will be asked to shamanise in the case of of the river and put them together. The
serious illness and your heart will not be bones were covered with flesh again. psychological initiation into the Self
strong enough, then you will take this, Only the skull was still separated. Then archetype), but it is a partial interpreta-
and he gave him seven herbs. Each of the blacksmith told Dyukhade to read the tion of the Eurasian indigenous process
them has its lords. If you will meet an letters inside the skull. And Dyukhade of shamanic initiation (the call from and
orphan girl or a widow, you will help read. Then the blacksmith covered the invasion of spirits) as is, hopefully,
them. Then Dyukhade reached the large skull with flesh and put it to its original
sea. He saw seven cliffs on the shore. place again. He changed his eyes and apparent from the above statements.
When he got close, one of them opened. pierced his ears, making him able to An illustration of such contact with
There were teeth like from the bear inside understand the language of plants. Then spirits can be seen in the story of inn

SUMMER 2006 37
being initiated by fasting and hanging on
inns Shamanic Journey
the tree of life for nine days. Although it
is fragmentary, it clearly contains some
of the elements described for Siberian 138. Veit ek, at ek hekk 137. I know that I hung in the windtorn tree
shamanism. We must reasonably assume vindga meii
ntr allar nu Nine whole nights, spear-pierced,
that inn started out as the village mas-
geiri undar ni,
ter shaman, who later became hyposta- sjlfr sjlfum mr, Consecrated to Odin, myself to my Self above me in the tree,
sized and patriarchalized in the course of eim meii
the emergence of Eurocentered social er manngi veit Whose roots no one knows whence it sprang.
constructions. In the poem on this page, hvers hann af rtum renn.
inn undergoes shamanic initiation.
139. Vi hleifi mik sldu 138. None brought me bread, none served me drink;
What is really there, and what is really n vi hornigi,
there, come together, and the physical nysta ek nir I searched the depths, spied runes of wisdom;
and imaginative spiritual planes are nam ek upp rnar
aligned. He is wounded and sacrifices pandi nam, Raised them with song, and fell once more thence.
fell ek aptr aan.
himself for nine long nights on the tree
of life, at the center of which the female 140. Fimbullj nu 139. Nine powerful chants I learned
spirits Urr, Verandi, and Skuld renew nam ek af inum frgja syni
life continuously from the sources of Blrs, Bestlu fur, From the wise son of Blthorn, Bestlas father;
creation. The giant spirit of Blthorns ok ek drykk of gat A draught I drank of precious mead
ins dyra mjaar
son (ancestral spirit of his uncle) teaches
ausinn reri. Ladled from Odraerir.
him the shamanic song for spirit calling,
and he drinks the mead, the herbal drink 141. nam ek frvask 140. I began to thrive, to grow wise,
of ecstasy and inspiration, thus becom- ok frr vera
ing full of spirit and being present to ok vaxa ok vel hafask; To grow greater, and enjoy;
or mr af ori For me words led from words to new words;
spirits, he learns from various spirits,
ors leitai,
ginnregin, the mighty gods,2 the tools of verk mr af verki For me deeds led from deeds to new deeds.
his shamanic trade (runes, not merely verks leiti.
letters or symbols, but images to make
spirit present for shamanic work, invoca- 142. Rnar munt finna 141. Runes shall you know and right read staves,
ok rna stafi,
tions; carving runes means creating spir-
mjk stra stafi, Very great staves, powerful staves,
itual presences). mjk stinna stafi,
The poem describes one of inns er fi fimbululr Drawn by the mighty one who speaks,
shamanic journeys recorded in the Old ok gru ginnregin Made by wise Vaner,
Norse literature in which he learns what ok reist Hroptr rjgna. Carved by the hightest rulers.
(Evans 1986, 6869) (Titchenell 1985, 12627)
he needs for his craft. Although this
description seems to contain but rem-
nants of a complete cultural practice, find this form of seeing described in magic song, Zaubergesang; warlock is a
these ciphers direct our attention to a Eirks Saga Raua [Eirik the Red]: related word; vrr is soul, fylgja, the
quality of Indigenous conversation pre- Slgu konur hring um hjalling, en familiar spirit who follows, the spirit of
sent beneath the layer of Christianized orbjrg sat uppi. Kva Guriur fl the home and hearth, guardian spirit;
descriptions and patriarchal conceptual- kvi sv fagrt ok ve. . . . Spkonan lka is what encloses the spirits, binds
izations. In this nurturing shamanic con- akkar henni kvit, ok kva margar r them). The power and beauty of the
versation, inn consorts with spirits nttrur n til hafa stt ok ykkja fagrt at song brings the spirits. The vlva cannot
heyra, er kvit var sv vel flutt.
and feminine sources of creation, do her seeing and prophesying without
renewal, and healing. Hanging from the The women then cast a circle round the the spirits being present.
ritual platform on which Thorbjrg seated
tree of life, he has accessed the deep The various techniques of spirit call-
herself. Then Gudrid sang the songs so
knowledge of his culture in the world of well and beautifully. . . . The vlva gives ing have led many to interpret Indige-
dreams. thanks for the song to her and said many nous spirituality in terms of the dichoto-
spirits have come to us and are charmed mous pair immanencetranscendence
Indigenous healing by what they hear as the song was sung so used in religious discussions of major
beautifully. (Jones 1961, 136)
Healing is intimately connected with religions, for example. However, this
seeing: spirits and the perception of The calling of the spirits is done by represents a fundamental misunder-
spirits are an integral part of any healing means of varlokkur, the spirit song, standing of native beingknowing,
endeavor. Without seeing spirit, there is which has a similar function as the where even the term spirituality creates
no healing. Understanding spiritually drumming and inspired singing or a division reflecting more the impact of
what is out of balance and how healing chanting in other Eurasian shamanic tra- Eurocentered thinking and splitting than
needs to happen requires seeing. We ditions (varlokkur is often translated as the practice of native realities: spirit is

38 ReVision VOL. 29 NO. 1

everywhere, spirituality is everywhere, ture to say that the constant use of a for- Within this worldview, acts of magi-
everything is spiritual. Everything is mula in older times spoken for the sake cal speech are the highest form of heal-
immanent, spirit is immanent, not sepa- of healing, blessing, and greeting, but ing (Lincoln 1986, 101). Magical
rate or transcendant (immanence and now spoken millions of times every day speech, sacred poetry, singing, and
transcendence are more like poles on a for the sake of destruction and geno- chanting are part of this evocative con-
scale with many thick and thin places of cide, gave the fascism of the Third text in which physical accoutrements
connection in between). Although there Reich a particular power and created the and interventions form adjuncts that
are all kinds of aspects and levels to mass of bystanders and willing execu- would be less effective if not accompa-
this, and although our awareness of tioners so much in the public debates nied by the spiritual presences created
these various presences and aspects may since the publication of Jonah Goldha- through sacred sound. Many words in
be clear or clouded, all of these aspects gens book, Hitlers Willing Execution- the Old Norse and other Eurasian
and beings are nonetheless present to ers (1996). Since that time, the word Indigenous traditions use terms for cer-
indigenous beingknowing. In contrast, emonial endeavors that are etymologi-
the dissociated mindsplit from the cally connected to chanting (such as Old
world of spirits, ancestors, and nature Norse blt and seir and Evenki jajan),
taken for granted by shamansneeds to and many words for chanting are con-
transcend to conceptualize or reach any The term spirituality nected with seeing (even the English
of these aspects that are immanently singing). Another important complex
present to the indigenous or primal or consists of the words for knowing, the
natural mind, when in balance.
creates a division one who knows, and seeing.
Such an immanent worldview can be Lincoln concludes his discussion of
found even at the roots of the Eurocen- reflecting more the magical healing:
tered traditions. (Historically, they first
In considering the IE [Indo-European]
turned against their own Indigenous impact of Eurocentered vocabulary for the act of healing, I noted
roots and subsequently projected this that one term commonly used in this con-
shadow material out; this led to the text, kai-lo-, signified wholeness,
colonial and genocidal violence against thinking and splitting integrity. It now becomes apparent just
how awesome a task the production or
Indigenous people.) We can trace it restoration of such integrity must be, for it
clearly in some of the central concepts: than the practice of is not just a damaged body that one
within the oldest layers of the IndoEu- restores to wholeness and health, but the
ropean traditions, we find healing, holy, very universe itself. I also noted that the
and wholeness all as aspects of such an
native realities: spirit is verb used to denote healing, med-,
stressed the knowledge and authority that
immanent worldview. enabled a healer to create proper order in
everywhere, spirituality an ailing patient. The full extent of such
IE [IndoEuropean] kai-lo-, which occurs
in Goth hailjan, OE [Old English] hlan, knowledge is now revealed in all its
grandeur: the healer must understand and
OHG [Old High German] heilen, and is everywhere, everything be prepared to manipulate nothing less
OBulg [Old Bulgarian] celjo, all of which
mean to heal. What is expressed most than the full structure of the cosmos.
directly through these terms, however, is is spiritual. (1986, 11718)
not just the establishment of a vague state
of health or well-being, but more pre-
Kailo and heill are terms that need to
cisely a state of wholeness, totality, com- be understood in a communal frame of
pletion, as shown in the nominal and mind that includes humans, ancestors,
adjectival formations from this root, such animals, and plants. To conceive of
as Goth hails, ON [Old Norse] heill, denoting the process of healing carries them or of frir (peace or Great Peace)
OHG heil, and OBulg cel, all of which
mean both healthy and whole.. . . So
the shadows of history, and is thus col- as individualistic pursuits (analogous to
desirable was this state of wholeness lectively in need of purification and the pursuit of happiness) means not
thought to be that two common IE formu- healing. Lincolns analysis of the old seeing the obligations that weave the
laic greetings and toasts express the wish Indo-European understanding of heal- individuals contribution into the com-
that the one addressed may be whole. ing and wholeness identifies magic not munal fabric. Such weaving has its ori-
Such a state of well-being and wholeness
might be lost through injury or disease,
as idle superstition, but rather as a sys- gins in the place from which the possi-
whereupon the healers task was to tem of non-Aristotelian, homologic bility of healing and balance emanate:
restore it. (Lincoln 1986, 100) causality, whereby items connected to creation and creation story. inn fast-
one another in a relation of underlying ing on the tree of life puts him at the
The centrality of this concept of heal- constubstantiality are considered capa- center of anthropogenesis where he
ing is apparent. Hitler turned this very ble of acting on one another. The precise receives crucial instructions for his way
understanding of heil through his evil terms of these homologies are drawn as a shaman or seimenn. The following
genius on to the dark side; from an from cosmogonic and anthropogonic story from Snorris prose Edda (Sturlu-
Indigenous perspective, one could ven- myth (Lincoln 1986, 110). son 1987) speaks to the centrality of

SUMMER 2006 39
healing and inspiration emanating from
the oldest layers of the story of the peo-
ple. The literature commonly talks
about the mead of inspiration or the
mead of poetry; however, to be inspired
by poetic song is making the spirits pre-
sent and is becoming present to them.
Such poetic inspiration is not only see-
ing, but also the foundation of healing,
of manipulating the structure of the uni-
verse through the power of the magic
words chanted. The power of such
tremendous manipulation is not the
shamans, but the spirits; the power of
the shaman is the capacity of
varlokkur, spirit calling, and then the
skill of his spirits traveling to where
they must go for seeing and healing (the
intensification of Indigenous presence);
the rest is the grace of spirits.
The story of inns recovery of the
mead (see below) illustrates a variety of
things important in shamanic work: we
read about shapeshifting, wrestling with
spirits, the recovery of medicine, a spir-
it that has been held by illegitimate
owners, and spirit journey. Remember-
ing that magical speech is the highest
form of healing, the significance of the
rescue of the source of such magic from
thieves and murderers becomes evident.
It is important to notice how the nature
of the medicine of the mead changes as
the story unfolds from creation: from
the power of truce between two groups
of spirits (the Vanir and the sir) to
poetic inspiration from one group of during a shamanic recovery process. Its wanted to have it all to himself, but he
spirits only (the sir; IndoEuropeaniza- character changed significantly in the said that he would go with Blverkr and
tion is thus strengthened). process. Instead of being medicine, [see] whether they could get the mead.
The mead inn recovers by means Blverkr did the work of nine men for
mediating and balancing between the Baugi during the summer, and when win-
of his shamanic work is spiritually of sir and Vanir spirits, it ended up in the ter came, he asked Baugi for his hire.
eminent importance: its origins lie with possession of the sir as the mead of Then they both set off. Baugi told his
the truce between the sir and Vanir poetry (poetry is also known as Kvasirs brother Suttungr of his agreement with
groups of gods/goddesses or spirits. blood). From the seal of truce-making Blverkr, but Suttung flatly refused a sin-
They had spat into a vat to seal the gle drop of the mead. Then Blverkr told
between two aspects of spirits, it turned Baugi that they would have to try some
agreement and then decided to create into the inspiration from and for one stratagems to see if they could get hold of
the wisest of humans, Kvasir,3 out of it. group of gods and goddesses; the magic the mead, and Baugi said that was a good
Kvasir traveled the world teaching his of healing words and inspired song was idea. Then Blverkr got out an augur
wisdom. He was killed by dwarves who now in the hand of the sir, spirits of called Rati (drill, augur) and instructed
preserved his blood mixed with honey Baugi to bore a hole in the mountain, if
IndoEuropean cultural context. the augur would cut. He did so. Then
in three containers. The mead was
Baugi said that the montain was bored
passed on as recompense for the drown- inn told him his name was Blverkr through, but Blverkr blew into the auger-
ing of a giant. His son kept the mead (worker of trickery or evil); he offered hole and the bits flew back up at him.
and put his daughter in charge of it. This to take over the work of nine men for Then he realized that Baugi was trying to
medicine, which was ceremonially cre- Baugi (the bent one) and stipulated as cheat him, and told him to bore through
his payment one drink of Suttungrs mead the mountain. Baugi bored again. And
ated by the sir and Vanir spirits and (Suttungr is probably heavy with when Blverkr blew a second time, the
became manifest in the wandering wise drink). Baugi said he had no say in the bits flew inwards. Then Bolverk turned
person Kvasir, was rescued by inn disposal of the mead, said that Suttungr himself into the form of a snake and

40 ReVision VOL. 29 NO. 1

crawled into the auger-hole, and Baugi gap, the conjunction of fire and ice (cf. between language and place is
stabbed after him with the auger and Gylfaginning, Sturluson 1987). rrir described by Thomas Pinkson (1995) on
missed him. Blverkr went to where
is commonly translated as mead (Ger- the basis of his initiations into the Hui-
Gunnl (invitation to fight, giant spir-
it) was and lay with her for three nights man Met), considered the oldest spiritu- chol tradition:
and then she let him drink three drafts of al drink; it is the drink of fermented
The original language of the people
the mead. In the first draught he drank honey (but also berries4) and a word that indigenous to a specific area on Mother
everything out of rrir (the one stim- points to an old connection between Earths body grows directly out of the
ulating ecstasy; originally the mead
IndoEuropean and FinnoUgric cultures. land itself. The vibratory essence of the
itself, but also the vessel containing it),
Saami miehta (originating from natural forces in a given area grow
and in the second out of Bon (vessel),
ProtoFinnoUgric of circa 4000 BCE; upward from the bowels of the land and
in the third out of Sn (probably blood,
surrounding elements to form the plant
reconciliation, atonement), and then he Sammallahti 1998, 119) and Finnish life and vegetation of that area. The
had all the mead. The he turned himself mete are related to the PreAryan indigenous people live, eat, and breathe
into the form of an eagle and flew as hard
IndoEuropean language layer. In the these natural elements. They die back into
as he could. And when Suttungr saw the
words soma, mead, and rrir, we them and new generations birth back out
eagles flight, he got his own eagle shape
find a constellation of the primal forces again in the passage of generations. The
and flew after him. And when the sir
land literally teaches them how to live in
saw inn flying, they put their contain- of creation, spiritual seeing, renewal, harmony with it through this ingestion
ers out in the courtyard, and when inn mantic poetry, and nourishment from process. They take it into their bodies. It
came in over sgarr (the home of the
the center of creation and spirits, as well speaks to them. Then it comes out of
sir), he spat out the mead into the con-
as atonement and peacekeeping. their mouths as language. They speak the
tainers, but it was such a close thing for
The discussions of varlokkur, kailo, vibrations of that land. Their language
him that Suttungr might have caught him
and creation myths are embodied vehicles
that he sent some of the mead out back- and the mead of inspiration show that for for the wisdom of that place. I could
wards, and this was disregarded. Anyone what so many Eurocentered minds are now understand why maintaining the
took it that wanted it, and it is what we
looking for in Native American and original language of indigenous people is
call the rhymesters share. But inn
other Indigenous traditions can truly be important not just to their survival, but to
gave Suttungrs mead to the sir and to
found in their own roots, for example, all of humanity. Original languages con-
those people who are skilled at compos-
tain within their vibratory sturcture the
ing poetry. Thus we call poetry inns the GermanicNordic traditions. Heal- operating rules for how to live in their
booty and find, and his drink and his gift ing is not a mere technology, but a spir- home territory in a harmonious manner.
and the sirs drink. (Sturluson 1987,
itual activity that, while using certain The indigenous language is a nierica
Skaldskaparmal, 6364)
pragmatic interventions such as herbs, [gateway] by which to access the intelli-
This seems to be an old shamanic is embedded in the deep structure of gence of place. Lose the language and
you lose its vital instructions about right
story that finds clear resonance within cultural beingknowing and the prereq- relationship. (127)
the Eurasian complex, for example, in uisite initiations and lifeways. In my
the Rig Veda of 1200900 BCE. Here case, healing can and needs to arise This visionary insight finds its
Indra, in the form of an eagle or with the from the place where the Old Norse reflections in the NordicGermanic
eagle as helper spirit, steals the elixir of ancestors were created into their precise Indigenous traditions, in which the
immortality, soma (which Wasson cultural identity, just as it does for power of the word arising from the
[1968] identifies with the fly agaric Native American tribes and other lands is used in spells and runes, in
mushroom), the plant spirit of inspira- Indigenous peoples. Frank LaPena which the language of the poetic Edda
tion and seeing. Verse 4.27.5 offers an (1999, 18) writes that the elders learn speaks an ancient wisdom from cre-
interesting conjunction between over- the earths secrets by quietly observing. ation. But this statement does some-
flowing cows milk, the finest honey, It is a secret language called knowledge thing else: it clearly identifies the ini-
the clear juice (all presumably words that releases the spirit from stone and tiatory challenges for those who no
connoting soma; see Wasson for exten- heals by tone of voice and changing longer live in the place of their ances-
sive discussions), which, by bold sickness into elements that flow instead tors, who have forgotten their lan-
IndoEuropean generalization, brings of blocking life. This is what it means guage, and who may now live in places
r, the drink of inspiration, to the milk to follow our original instructions in a where the Indigenous language has dis-
the primal cow Auumla offers as nour- particular place and time. Sacred appeared, eating food that predomi-
ishment. Modern Icelandic ur means names, dreams, and visions are images nantly is not indigenous to their area of
not only furious, but also crazy and that connect the bearer to the earth; residence.
mad, which originally presumably shamans and other tribal healers and
would have been the madness of spir- visionaries speak the various languages Contrasts in healing paradigms
it possession or religious trance of in- of plants and animals and feel the spe- The contrasts between Indigenous
spiration. Doniger OFlaherty (1981, cial dream power to travel backward healing paradigms and Eurocentered
128) comments that Soma is the fiery from familiar times and places approaches can be seen by looking at
juice, simultaneously fire and water, (Vizenor 1981, XVII). This is what the how each attempts to explain how heal-
and Auumla feeds the primal giant vlvas, the seeresses, and the seers of ing happens. Within Indigenous world-
spirit Ymir, who was born at the place the Nordic Germanic traditions did and views, healing occurs in the narrative
from which the world arises, Ginnunga- do. The importance of the connection weave of the lived culture as it unfolds

SUMMER 2006 41
imaginatively from creation. Within the integrity and wholeness of the healing something else. This interpretation
Eurocentered worldview, healing is ceremony. reflects the split in the dissociative Euro-
researched and understood in a para- The different motivations for under- centered mind: the different parts of the
digm of truth, of cause and effect, sin- standing healing in the case of Eurocen- rock carving point to something that is
gularity of story, and the objective tered and Indigenous sciences are note- elsewhere, outside the representation.
records of experimental observations. worthy. The research of the native The participatory tribal mind relates
This leads to two forms of inquiry that healer is done to increase the integrity differently to the rock carving. The
are qualitatively distinct. and wholeness of the communal fabric spirits are in the rock carvings; they
The skeptical Eurocentered researcher and to benefit the individuals that are are the rock carving. The making of
would primarily be interested in the effi- part of it. Eurocentered research of the rock carving is the creation of the
cacy of Native American healing and native healing practices rarely seems to presence of these beings. The beings
would try to isolate the elements consid- benefit the peoples studied directly, but are not separate from the appearance of
ered efficaceous or a necessary condi- it is a way to address the limitations of the carving. Once the rock carving is
tion in healing ceremoniesmaybe the there, they are there, and then they can
rattle, the drum, a particular herb, or the be ceremonially honored and renewed
temperature in the sweat lodge. The by tracing the carving with red ochre or
sympathetic researcher would also pay Whether an image other pigments or by making offerings
attention to the set and setting and of amber or axes. Blt, the Old Norse
attempt to validate native approaches or in a rock carving is ceremonies of offering, bring rock-
find similarities (for example, via psy- carving spirits and the people present
chotherapeutic approaches such as neu- to each other. This simple distinction
rolinguistic programming or Rogerian
perceived as symbol or marks worlds of differences. Whether a
counseling, or via biochemical research rock carving is a symbol for something
of curative agents in herbs). The Euro- as spirit marks the or whether it is a certain being indi-
centered scientific approach commonly cates the consciousness process in
entails stripping away what is consid- difference between which we are engaged. In one case, we
ered extraneous and isolating what is have symbolic healing; in the other, the
considered effective. Through this spirit heals. There is no simple tech-
process, science makes Other, or dis- Indigenous knowing nique that can bridge this difference.
tances in a dissociative maneuver, what Each understanding reflects a different
is essential for native understandings. and Eurocentered way of being in the world. There is no
In contrast, inquiry into native heal- such thing as a simple switch from one
ing practices by way of Indigenous sci- to the other. Whether we use trances
ence would begin with the culturally knowing. for symbolic work or to seek healing
specific, ecologically and historically with and from spirits is an indication of
grounded Indigenous understanding of the consciousness and reality in which
friur or the good mind (Colorado the Western healing paradigm and come we participate.
1988), the balanced way of living in a to terms with events that Eurocentered Jungian interpretations of rock carv-
community on a particular land. Heal- scientists commonly consider anom- ings (or sandpaintings and other
ing is needed when the good mind is alous, inexplicable, or nonexistent. images), myths, or healings do not
out of balance, when the proper limits They are attempts to better an individu- reflect tribal mind; they reflect the
are exceeded; the cultural stories and alistic paradigm without fundamentally process of the Eurocentered mind. Jun-
myths then provide explanations. leaving or changing it. gian psychology and related transper-
Indigenous healing practices then are Whether an image in a rock carving is sonal approaches are the closest to
based in a synthetic, integral approach perceived as symbol or as spirit marks Indigenous ways of being in that they
to what is out of balance. Native science the difference between Indigenous validate the seminal importance of par-
guides the healer to the point in the fab- knowing and Eurocentered knowing. ticipation mystique and spiritual experi-
ric where it is rent and where wholeness The rock carvings in Bohusln, south ences. However, they are accurate only
needs to be reestablished. The cere- Sweden, for example, contain extraordi- as long as they deal with the Eurocen-
monies done are the precise knowledge nary images from the Bronze Age, tered mind. There they can be very help-
and practice designed to create balance northern European times. The Eurocen- ful. If such a psychology gets projected
on all levels and from all levels (within tered mind understands them as an onto Indigenous peoples, grave misun-
the person on the mental, physical, emo- assemblage of symbols that represent derstandings result. A good starting
tional, and spiritual levels, and, by beings that are significant in the world of point for the Eurocentered mind may be
doing so on the level of spirits, commu- the Old Norse and their ancestors. They engaging the Indigenous mind in a
nity, and nature that hold the individ- are commonly seen as symbols of heal- process of splitting and dissociation.
ual); they are Indigenous science. Their ing or symbols of initiation, in which Within the Western paradigm, we
efficacy is established through the each piece of the rock carving stands for pick an herb for its curative properties

42 ReVision VOL. 29 NO. 1

they are picked as need-
ed, and then, no more
than are necessary. An
herbalist finds two of a
particular species that she
wishes to pick. To the
largest and healthiest
plant, she says a prayer
and explains why she
must pick its neighbor.
An offering of shell,
pollen, or other sacred
material is deposited with
the first plant. Then she
picks what she needs.
Afterward, the plant
remains are buried with a
final prayer. (Mayes and
Lacy 1989, 23)

This is no longer the

collection of an herb,
but an engagement and
appointment with spirit
to help heal. What
heals is more than the
beneficial chemical
ingredient in the herb.
Knowing the med-
ical benefits of a sweat-
lodge purification or
the effective chemical
agents in an healing
herb is useful. Howev-
er, if this knowledge is
not integrated into an
framework, we fail to
understand Indigenous
approaches to healing.
If we are healing our
selves within the exist-
ing paradigm, then
iatrogenic diseases
an expression of the
continuing dissocia-
tionare the result
(which is one of the
reasons why natives
are disturbed about the
decontextualized use
of their healing
known to relieve a certain ailment. edge of their language; it requires approaches). The correct technique used
Herbal collection is a different event knowledge of cycles and the prepara- in a dissociated way is dangerous
within an Indigenous context; it is a cer- tions necessary for gathering. It means because it allows the appearance of a
emonial event that involves spirit and understanding plants the way we under- deeper healing that did not occur (indi-
especially the spirits of the plant to be stand any other intelligent people. vidual benefits notwithstanding). Com-
collected. It is a participatory event with Prayer accompanies all plant use on the bining Indigenous approaches with
the plant relations that presupposes Navajo Reservation. . . . Plants are not modern techniques on the basis of the
detailed knowledge, including knowl- picked randomly or wastefully. Rather, story of excess and imbalance (the Euro-

SUMMER 2006 43
centered notions of progress) is not the Placing ourselves (those of Eurocen- sense, to babble: talk inspired by the
same as integrating the knowledge from tered or NordicGermanic mind) at the mead, by kvase, was increasingly consid-
ered nonsense, as it became unintelligible
psychology and other sciences on the creative source Ginnungagap, the mys-
as people lost their ongoing and ceremoni-
basis of Indigenous beingknowing. If terious gap filled with magical powers, al presence to the world of spirits. What
we are healing our Indigenous selves is not possible as a direct, unmediated people claimed to come from that world
through the remembrance of Indigenous act because we have divested ourselves was increasingly considered Quatsch, or
healing ways, then individual healing is from the self capable of getting there nonsense, whereas before it was the wis-
dom of Kvasir. This is similar to the way
also the healing of community and para- with immediacy. Recovering the self
the seeresses of the Delphic oracle increas-
digm. that can enter Ginnungagap, the maw of ingly appeared to babble nonsense, thus
Telling a story in a participatory Migarsormr, the world snake, means necessitating the interpretation by men and
frame of mind instead of dissociated purifying ourselves from the self-con- resulting in the patriarchal control of inter-
consciousness may sound simple struction that is incapable of entering course with spirits.
4. It is beyond the scope of this article to
enough. But just as past Indo-European such a place, because dissociation disal-
display the rich web of connections in its
healers needed to be able to be with lows it to be present to the continuing entirety. However, it is worth mentioning
spirits in a way that the entire cosmos reality of Urr, Ginnungagap, that the berry, especially in its form as elder-
was impacted, so does a different telling Migarsormr, orrir, and the other berry (Hollunder), is also the sacred blood
of the story change the cosmos in which spiritual powers of the Norse universe from the female spirit or goddess (Frau
Holle), and that we find lines leading us
we are living. Changing the story is of old. How this universe appears today
back into the Nordic culture at the times of
impacting the cosmos as the cosmos will become apparent only to the self Old Europe (cf. Gimbutas 1999).
impacts it. Instead of evoking and main- that has initiated itself into participating
taining dissociation and splitting from in its continuing creative, regenerative,
an Indigenous nurturing conversation, and imaginative story. Putting ourselves
such telling would evoke participatory into the presence of such powers of cre- Allen, P. G. 1998. Off the reservation.
being. This is no small matter: it is the ation is possible only through the Boston: Beacon.
Blaeser, K. M. 1996. Gerald Vizenor:
healing ceremony of the Eurocentered cathartic mediation of the grieving
Writing in the oral tradition. London:
self, the reconstruction of who we are. shudder over the modernist story of University of Oklahoma Press.
Such an endeavor finds its parallel not imbalancing, through the confrontation Campbell, J. 1949. The hero with a thousand
in a bandaid on a cut, but in heart and ownership of shadow material. As a faces. Princeton, NJ: Bollingen.
surgery. It is not a mere change in iden- consequence, our story may evoke Colorado, P. 1988. Bridging native and
western science. Convergence 21 2/3:
tity, but a foundational, qualitative shift something different. Instead of the story
in the process of how we construct our of exceeding the proper limits, we cre- De Vries, J. 1977. Altnordisches etymolo-
identities. This means we need to ate the possibility of the contemporary gisches Wrterbuch [Old Norse etymolo-
deconstruct ourselves as the beings we celebration of Indigenous healing sto- gical dictionary]. Leiden, Netherlands:
are so there can be renewal from the cre- ries, even among peoples who contain Brill.
Diszegi, V., ed. 1968. Popular beliefs and
ative source of our origins. their Indigenous roots at a safe distance
folklore tradition in Siberia. Bloomington:
Although such healing clearly means by putting them in museums and vari- Indiana University Press.
the return (to use the language of the ous other reifying and distancing places. Dumon, D. 1993. Shamans of Tuva. Feature
Old Norse) to Urr, the well of memo- of BRT, Belgian Public Television.
ry, such remembrance is not for the NOTES Eliade, M. 1951/1964. Shamanism: Archaic
techniques of ecstasy. Princeton, NJ:
indulgence of nostalgic or retroromantic
1. The available sources on Siberian Bollingen.
splits (dissociative endeavors indeed), shamanism are not without serious problems Evans, D., ed. 1986. Hvaml. London:
but for the righting of the story for the and need to be discussed in the context of Viking Society.
future. Like inn and other men and the history of Soviet ethnography. Gimbutas, M. 1999. The living goddesses.
women before him, we need to be capa- 2. Titchenell translates ginnregin as Vaner, Berkeley: University of California.
the older layer of Norse gods or spirits, relat- Goldenhagen, J. 1996 Hitlers willing
ble of transforming ourselves so we can ing inns wisdom thus to the deepest and executioners. New York: Knopf.
drink orrir, the mead of inspiration. more clearly woman-centered base of Norse Halifax, J. 1979. Shamanic voices. New
The dissociated self commonly gets mythology (with Freyja as the great goddess York: Dutton.
diluted sips from such powerful sub- and primal shamanic spirit). Jones, G., trans. Eirks Saga Raua [Eirik
stance. Aspiring to drink a higher per- 3. Kvasir is an interesting word. It is con- the Red]. In slendinga Sgur. Reykjavk:
nected to Norwegian kvase and Russian Ml og menning, 1961. CD-ROM.
centage of mead means having our lan- kvas, denoting the fermented berry drink LaPena, F. 1998. In vision we can balance
guage fall apart so that the words of created through the communal chewing of the world. News from Native California
seeing can reemerge, so that words can the berries which were then spat into a vat. 12 (2): 1819.
become inspirited and healed, and so The mead of the skalds, the Old Norse Lincoln, B. 1986. Myth, cosmos, and
that word, chant, and seeing are part of poets, is also known as kvasis dreyra, society. Boston: Harvard University
Kvasirs blood (De Vries 1977). English Press.
our life world. Our language inevitably quash and German (dialectical) quatschen Mayes, V., and B. Lacy. 1989. Nanise.
comes apart when we of Eurocentered are related. The latter word leads me to sur- Tsaile, AZ: Navajo Community College
mind confront the shadows that walk mise an interesting etymology for this Press.
with us. word, which can also mean to talk non- OFlaherty, W. D., trans. 1981. Rig veda.

44 ReVision VOL. 29 NO. 1

New York: Penguin. Karasjohka, Spmi/Norway: Davvi Girji. (Tungus). In Popular beliefs and folklore
Plsson, H. 1996. Vlusp. Edinburgh, Sturluson, S. 1987. Edda. Trans. Anthony tradition in Siberia, ed. V. Dioszegi,
Scotland: Lockharton. Faulkes. London: Everyman. 33950. Bloomington: Indiana University
Pentikinen, J. Y. 1989. Kalevala mythology. Titchenell, E-B. 1985. The masks of Odin. Press.
Trans. R. Poom. Bloomington: Indiana Pasadena, California: Theosophical Vitebsky, P. 1995. The shaman. New York:
University Press. University Press. Little, Brown.
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Vizenor, G. 1981. Earthdivers: Tribal
Mill Valley, CA: Wakan. shamans drum and the ceremony of its
narratives on mixed descent. Minneapolis:
Popov, A. 1936. Tavgitsy. Trans. A. Lintrop. enlivening. In Popular beliefs and
University of Minnesota Press.
Moscow: Trudy Instituta Antropologii i folklore tradition in Siberia, ed. V.
Etnografii, Dioszegi, 33138. Bloomington: Indiana . 1997. Hotline healers. London:
~aado/vis.htm (accessed February 12, University Press. Wesleyan University Press.
2007). Vasilevic, G. M. 1968. The acquisition of Wasson, R. G. 1968. Soma. New York:
Sammallahti, P. 1998. The Saami languages. shamanistic ability among the Evenki Harcourt-Brace.

SUMMER 2006 45
Annual Index
Volume 28, Numbers 14

Author Index Psychotherapy in a mythic key: The Getting real: The praxis of integral
legacy of Carl Gustav Jung. 4, 216. education. M. C. Bronson. 3, 23.
Ardelt, Monika. How wise people cope with
Lewis, Jacquie. Dreaming of animals. 4, How wise people cope with crises and
crises and obstacles in life. 1, 719.
1726. obstacles in life. M. Ardelt. 1, 719.
Bassett, Caroline. An attitude toward
McDermott, Robert. An Emersonian Integral education by design: How integral
gratitude. 1, 56.
approach to higher education. 2, 617. theory informs teaching, learning, and
Introduction. 1, 34.
Montuori, Alfonso. The quest for new curriculum in a graduate program. S.
Becvar, Dorothy S. Tracking the archetype
education: From oppositional identities to Esbjorn-Hargens. 3, 2129.
of the wise woman/crone. 1, 2023.
creative inquiry. 3, 420. Introduction. C. Bassett. 1, 34.
Blatner, Adam. Enacting the new academy:
Ryan, Jim. The complete yoga: The lineage No soul left behind: Paths to wisdom in
Sociodrama as a powerful tool in higher
of integral education. 2, 2428. American schools. C. Jax. 1, 3441.
education. 3, 3035.
Subbiondo, Joseph L. An approach to Perspectives on wisdom-ing. A. Blatner. 1,
. Perspectives on wisdom-ing. 1,
integral education: A case for spirituality 2933.
in higher education. 2, 1823. The practice of embodied emergence:
Bronson, Matthew C. Getting real: The
Watson-Gegeo, Karen Ann. Teaching to Integral education in a counseling
praxis of integral education. 3, 23.
transform and the dark side of being psychology program. I. J. Grand. 2,
. Revisioning higher education for
professional. 2, 4348. 3542.
the twenty-first century. 2, 35.
Wexler, Judie. Toward a model of integral Psychotherapy in a mythic key: The legacy
Bronson, Matthew C., and Ashok
education. 2, 2934. of Carl Gustav Jung. S. Krippner and D.
Gangadean. ((Circling)) the /square/:
Feinstein. 4, 216.
Reframing integral education discourse
Title Index The quest for new education: From
through deep dialogue. 3, 3647.
oppositional identities to creative inquiry.
Devereux, Paul, Stanley Krippner, Robert An approach to integral education: A case
A. Montuori. 420.
Tartz, and Adam Fish. Comparing home for spirituality in higher education. J. L.
Reflections on wisdom as movement in the
dream reports with reports from English Subbiondo. 2, 1823.
life space. A. J. Johnson. 1, 2428.
and Welsh sacred sites. 4, 3645. An attitude toward gratitude. C. Bassett. 1,
Revisioning higher education for the twenty-
Esbjorn-Hargens, Sean. Integral education 56.
first century. M. C. Bronson. 2, 35.
by design: How integral theory informs ((Circling)) the /square/: Reframing integral
Teaching to transform and the dark side of
teaching, learning, and curriculum in a education discourse through deep
being professional. K. A. Watson-
graduate program. 3, 2129. dialogue. M. C. Bronson and A.
Gegeo. 2, 4348.
Goldman, Connie. The wisdom of elders. 1, Gangadean. 3, 3647.
Toward a model of integral education. J.
4648. Comparing home dream reports with reports
Wexler. 2, 2934.
Grand, Ian J. The practice of embodied from English and Welsh sacred sites. P.
Tracking the archetype of the wise
emergence: Integral education in a Devereux, S. Krippner, R. Tartz, and A.
woman/crone. D. S. Becvar. 1, 2023.
counseling psychology program. 2, Fish. 4, 3645.
A way to wisdom: The next step. A. R. Kahn.
3542. The complete yoga: The lineage of integral
1, 4245.
Jaenke, Karen. Dreaming with the ancestors. education. J. Ryan. 2, 2428.
The wisdom of elders. C. Goldman. 1,
4, 2835. Dreaming of animals. J. Lewis. 4, 1726.
Jax, Christine. No soul left behind: Paths to Dreaming with the ancestors. K. Jaenke. 4,
wisdom in American schools. 1, 3441. 2835.
Johnson, Andy J. Reflections on wisdom as An Emersonian approach to higher This 200506 annual index should have
movement in the life space. 1, 2428. education. R. McDermott. 2, 617.
Kahn, Alan R. A way to wisdom: The next Enacting the new academy: Sociodrama as a been printed in the Spring 2006 issue of
step. 1, 4245. powerful tool in higher education. A. ReVision. The editorial staff at ReVision
Kripper, Stanley, and David Feinstein. Blatner. 3, 3035. regrets this error.

48 ReVision VOL. 29 NO. 1