Closed-Loop Pneumatics

Workbook TP 111

Festo Didactic 094465 en

Authorised applications and liability The Learning System for Automation has been developed and prepared exclusively for training in the field of automation. The training organization and / or trainee shall ensure that the safety precautions described in the accompanying Technical documentation are fully observed. Festo Didactic hereby excludes any liability for injury to trainees, to the training organization and / or to third parties occurring as a result of the use or application of the station outside of a pure training situation, unless caused by premeditation or gross negligence on the part of Festo Didactic. Order No.: Description: Designation: Edition: Layout: Graphics: Authors: 94465 TEACHW. PNEUM D.S111-C-SIBU-GB 04.2001 14.05.2001, OCKER Ingenieurbüro OCKER Ingenieurbüro J. Gerhartz, D. Scholz

© Copyright by Festo Didactic GmbH & Co., D-73770 Denkendorf 2001 The copying, distribution and utilization of this document as well as the communication of its contents to others without expressed authorization is prohibited. Offenders will be held liable for the payment of damages. All rights reserved, in particular the right to carry out patent, utility model or ornamental design registrations. Parts of this training documentation may be duplicated, solely for training purposes, by persons authorised in this sense.

TP111 · Festo Didactic

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Preface
The Learning System for Automation by Festo Didactic is formulated according to various training prerequisites and vocational requirements. It has been divided into the following training packages:
n n n n

Basic packages which convey basic knowledge spanning a wide range of technologies Technology packages which deal with important subjects of open and closed-loop control technology Function packages to explain the basic functions of automated systems Application packages to facilitate practice-orientated vocational and further training.

The technology packages deal with the technologies of pneumatics, electro-pneumatics, programmable logic controllers, hydraulics, electrohydraulics, proportional hydraulics, closed-loop pneumatics and hydraulics.
Fig. 1: Pneumatics 2000 – i.e. mobile workstation

Mounting frame

Profile plate

U = 230 V~ p = 6 MPa

Storage tray

TP111· Festo Didactic

The courseware has been designed in line with didactic methods and coordinated for use with the training hardware. All training packages are based on an identical structure: n n n n Hardware Teachware Software Seminars The hardware consists of industrial components and systems which have been adapted for didactic purposes. which has been designed for use in the classroom as well as for self-tuition. A comprehensive range of seminars on the subject of the various technology packages completes our program of vocational and further training. TP111· Festo Didactic . possible to design PLC-controlled systems with pneumatic. for instance. It is. explanatory notes. The courseware comprises: n n n Textbooks (with exercises and examples) Workbooks (with practical exercises. hydraulic and electrical actuators. The software sector serves as a basis for providing computer training programs and programming software for programmable logic controllers.4 The modular design of the Learning System permits applications beyond the scope of the individual packages. solutions and data sheets) Transparencies and videos (to create a lively training environment) The training and learning media is available in several languages.

Non-dynamic closed-loop pressure control circuit Exercise 1: Exercise 2: Exercise 3: Exercise 4: Maintenance of a pressure gauge Characteristic of an analogue pressure sensor Spot-welding machine Mode of operation of a comparator Packaging machine Transition functions of controlled systems Reservoir-charging circuit. commissioning of a two-step-action controller with a switching pressure difference Tyre test-rig Commissioning of a three-step-action controller A-3 A-13 A-23 A-33 A-45 Exercise 5: II. Dynamic closed-loop pressure control circuit Exercise 6: Exercise 7: Exercise 8: Exercise 9: Pneumatic press Mode of operation of a proportional valve Quality assurance Mode of operation of a PID controller Baffle-plate flow sensor Transition function of a P controller Pneumatic post system Direction of action and commissioning of a P control circuit A-53 A-63 A-73 A-87 TP111· Festo Didactic .5 Contents Technology package TP 111 “Closed-Loop Pneumatics“ Component/exercise table Workbook concept Equipment set TP111 Safety instructions Symbols for equipment set 11 12 13 14 16 17 Section A – Course I.

PD and PID controllers A-95 A-105 A-123 A-131 Exercise 11: Exercise 12: Exercise 13: Exercise 14: Exercise 15: Exercise 16: Bending device Empirical setting of parameters of a PID controller A-147 Papermaking machine Influence of interference variables Testing machine Setting of parameters using the Ziegler-Nichols method A-155 A-165 III. Closed-loop position control circuit Exercise 17: Stamping machine Transition function of a controlled system without compensation Mode of operation of a linear potentiometer Sorting device Structure of a status controller Deburring an engine block Setting the parameters of a status controller Cake production Lag error and closed-loop gain Pallettizing station Influence of mass load and tubing volume A-177 A-187 A-197 A-209 A-221 Exercise 18: Exercise 19: Exercise 20: Exercise 21: TP111· Festo Didactic .6 Exercise 10: Clamping device Control quality and limit of stability of a P control circuit Pneumatic screwdriver Transition function of an I and PI controller Injection-moulding machine Empirical setting of parameters of a PI controller Forming of moulded packaging Transition functions of D.

6 2.10 1.1 1.5 1.7 Section B – Fundamentals Chapter 1 Fundamentals 1.8 Controlled systems with and without compensation First-order pneumatic closed-loop controlled systems Second-order pneumatic closed-loop controlled systems Third-order pneumatic closed-loop controlled systems Controlled systems with dead time Classification of controlled systems according to their step response behaviour Operating point and system gain Short-delay pneumatic closed-loop controlled systems B-46 TP111· Festo Didactic .7 1.12 Signal Block diagram Signal flow diagram Test signals Open-loop and closed-loop control Closed control loop terminology Stability and instability Steady-state and dynamic behaviour Response to setpoint changes and interference Fixed-value. follow-up and timing control systems Differentiation of a signal Integration of a signal B-7 B-7 B-11 B-14 B-18 B-20 B-23 B-25 B-27 B-31 B-33 B-35 B-39 B-43 B-44 B-47 B-48 B-50 B-52 B-52 B-54 Chapter 2 Pneumatic Closed-Loop Controlled Systems 2. 1.9 1.2 1.3 2.1 2.3 1.2 2.4.6 1.8 1.11 1.7 2.4 2.5 2.

8 Chapter 3 Controller Structures 3.3 4.2 3.5 5.6 3.11 3. PD.7 3. PID controllers Block diagrams for standard dynamic controllers Status controller Selection of controller structure Response to interference and control factor B-57 B-58 B-60 B-61 B-63 B-66 B-69 B-71 B-74 B-81 B-86 B-89 B-91 B-97 B-97 B-104 B-107 B-110 B-111 B-111 B-112 B-116 B-122 B-126 B-132 B-137 Chapter 4 Technical Implementation of Controllers 4.1 4.5 3.3 3.6 5.12 Two-step action controller Three-step action controller Multi-step action controller Block diagrams for non-dynamic controllers P controller I controller D controller PI.4 5.3 5.1 5.4 3.8 3.1 3.2 4.4 Structure of closed-loop control circuits Pneumatic and electrical controllers Analogue and digital controllers Selection of a controller Chapter 5 Directional Control Valves 5.7 Purpose of a directional control valve Valve designs Mode of operation of a dynamic 5/3-way valve Designations and symbols for dynamic directional control valves Steady-state characteristics for dynamic directional control valves Dynamic behaviour of dynamic directional control valves Selection criteria for directional control valves TP111· Festo Didactic .2 5.9 3.10 3.

with mechanical adjustment Electrically-actuated pressure regulators.2 6.3 8.4 8.1 8.4 6.5 6.3 6. with electrical adjustment Pressure regulation with a directional control Selection criteria for pressure regulators B-139 B-139 B-140 B-142 B-144 B-147 B-150 B-151 B-153 B-153 B-154 B-158 B-159 B-159 B-162 B-165 B-167 B-170 B-176 Chapter 7 Measuring Systems 7.7 Purpose of a pressure regulator Designs of pressure regulators Mechanical pressure regulator Electrically-actuated pressure regulators.2 8. Commissioning and Fault-Finding 8.3 Purpose of a measuring system Measuring-system designs and interfaces Selection criteria for measuring systems Chapter 8 Assembly.6 6.1 7.2 7.5 8.6 Closed-loop control circuits in automation Planning Assembly Commissioning Controller settings Fault-finding TP111· Festo Didactic .9 Chapter 6 Pressure Regulators 6.1 6.

Appendix List of applicable guidelines and standards List of literature Index Data sheets D-2 D-4 D-5 D-13 TP111· Festo Didactic .10 Part C – Solutions Solution 1: Solution 2: Solution 3: Solution 4: Solution 5: Solution 6: Solution 7: Solution 8: Solution 9: Solution 10: Solution 11: Solution 12: Solution 13: Solution 14: Solution 15: Solution 16: Solution 17: Solution 18: Solution 19: Solution 20: Solution 21: Maintenance of a pressure gauge Spot-welding machine Packaging machine Reservoir-charging circuit Tyre test-rig Pneumatic press Quality assurance Baffle-plate flow sensor Pneumatic post system Clamping device Pneumatic screwdriver Injection-moulding machine Forming of moulded packaging Bending device Papermaking machine Testing machine Stamping machine Sorting device Deburring an engine block Cake production Pallettizing station C-3 C-5 C-9 C-11 C-13 C-15 C-17 C-19 C-21 C-23 C-25 C-29 C-31 C-35 C-39 C-43 C-47 C-49 C-51 C-55 C-59 Section D .

which can then be added to as necessary. Students working through technology package TP110 should preferably have basic knowledge of electropneumatics and measuring systems. The training aims of TP111 are concerned with analogue closed-loop control technology. This makes it possible to begin a study of closed-loop control technology with a small number of components.11 Technology package TP 111 “Closed-Loop Pneumatics“ The technology package TP111 “Closed-Loop Pneumatics” forms part of Festo Didactic’s Learning System for Automation and Communications. The equipment set is designed in such a way that the number of components required becomes larger from one exercise to the next. Actuators are activated via electrical open and closed-loop components. The exercises of TP111 are concerned with three main subjects: n n n Non-dynamic pressure regulation (exercises 1 – 5) Dynamic pressure regulation (exercises 6 – 16) Position control (exercises 17 – 21) The components required for particular exercises can be seen in the component/exercise table over leaf. TP111· Festo Didactic .

12 Component/exercise table Exercises Description Service unit with on/off valve Manifold PUN tubing 10 m Signal input plate Analogue pressure sensor Comparator Reservoir One-way flow control valve Pressure gauge 3/2-way solenoid valve with push button Push-in T connector 3/2-way solenoid valve 5/3-way solenoid valve Connector components 5/3-way proportional valve PID controller Linear actuator 450 mm Mounting kit for potentiometer Loading weight 50 N Linear potentiometer Status controller Scale 450 mm Cable set Digital multimeter Power supply unit Setpoint card Function generator Storage oscilloscope Cable BNC-4 mm Connection panel 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 4 1 1 1 5 1 1 1 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 1 1 1 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 TP111· Festo Didactic .

The structure of the book has been designed to allow the use of its contents both for practical training. Section B. is intended for use as a reference work. and for self-study purposes TP111· Festo Didactic . gives the results of the exercises in Section A. “Appendix”. e. It contains data sheets. contains general technical knowledge which complements the training aims of the exercises in Section A. “Solutions”. “Course”. More detailed information is given is Section B.13 Workbook concept The workbook is divided into the following sections: Section A – Course Section B – Fundamentals Section C – Solutions Section D – Appendix In Section A. progressive exercises are used to explain the assembly and commissioning of analogue closed-loop control circuits. with explanatory notes.g. Section C. a list of literature and an index. Theoretical relationships are demonstrated and the necessary specialist terminology is explained in an easily understandable way with examples. “Fundamentals”. in classroom courses. Section D. Non-essential detail is avoided. The necessary technical knowledge required to complete an exercise is provided at the start of the exercise concerned.

162242 153128 151496 152963 152860 152865 152881 152894 152896 152898 167073 Quantity 1 3 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 Pressure regulation Equipment set TP111 – Pressure. silver-metallic. in Ruhestellung gesperrt Druckluftspeicher Analog-Drucksensor 5/3-Wege-Proportionalventil Order No. 10 m. 6 x 1. 5 m. 162257 162254 167077 152912 167094 167078 Quantity 1 1 1 2 1 1 TP111· Festo Didactic .: 184468 Description Signal input plate.14 Equipment set TP111 Order No.0 3/2-way valve with pushbutton Pressure gauge One-way flow control valve Service unit with on/off valve Manifold Connector components 3/2-way solenoid valve. Order No. silver-metallic.:184467 General Equipment set TP111 – 100/200.: 184469 Description Komparatorkarte PID-Reglerkarte 5/3-Wege-Magnetventil. normally closed Order No. 4 x 0.75 Plastic tubing. electrical Push-in T connector Plastic tubing. Order No.

: 184470 Description Scale 450 mm Loading weight Connection panel (loading weight) Linear actuator 450 mm Status controller card Linear potentiometer Mounting kit for potentiometer Cable for linear potentiometer Shock absorber Order No. 525927 034065 167032 192501 162253 152628 178441 376177 34572 Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 Positioning Description Workbook german Workbook english Order No. Order No. 167091 035681 162256 159396 152917 152918 152919 323571 Quantity 3 1 1 1 1 1 3 16 Accessories TP111· Festo Didactic .15 Equipment set TP111 – Position. 94459 94465 Quantity 1 1 Courseware Description Cable set Digital multimeter Setpoint card Power supply unit Oscilloscope Function generator Cable BNC 4 mm Plug-in adapter Order No.

16 Safety instructions In the interests of your own safety. Observe the data sheets referring to individual components. particularly with regard to safety instructions. maximum 24 V DC. Please note that the slide of the linear drive is fitted with powerful magnets. Shut off the compressed air supply immediately if tubing becomes detached. Never exceed the maximum permissible operating pressure of 8 bar. This will help to prevent accidents. always switch on first the electrical power supply and then the compressed air. When commissioning control circuits. Never disconnect tubing while this is under pressure. You will need a maximum of 6 bar to carry out the exercises in the course. Use only extra-low voltage supplies. Please also observe the general safety instructions of DIN58126 and VDE 100. work in reverse order. When switching off. Cylinders may advance or retract unexpectedly. Before commissioning closed-loop control circuits. Do not bring any diskettes or other objects sensitive to magnetic fields into the vicinity of these magnets. please follow the instructions given below: n n Mount all components securely on the plate. check not only the pneumatic lines but also the electrical cables and connections. Do not switch on the compressed air until you have connected up and secured all the tubing. n n n n n n n n n n TP111· Festo Didactic . Exercise great care when switching on the compressed air.

manual actuation Water separator. simplified representation without lubricator TP111· Festo Didactic .17 Symbols for equipment set Compressor with constant displacement volume Pressure source Symbols for equipment set Reservoir Pressure regulating valve One-way flow control valve Filter: Separating and filtering of dirt particles Water separator. pressure gauge and lubricator Service unit. pressure regulator. automatic Lubricator: Metered quantities dispersed into air flow Service unit consisting of compressed air filter. simplified representation with lubricator Service unit.

18 Symbols for equipment set Double-acting cylinder with single-ended piston rod Double-acting cylinder with double-ended piston rod Double-acting cylinder without piston rod Earth/ground Pressure gauge Shut-off valve Manual operation Outlet port one threaded connection Plugged port 3/2-way valve normally closed 3/3-way valve mid position closed 3/3-way dynamic valve single working line 5/2-way valve two working lines 5/2-way dynamic valve two working lines 5/3-way valve mid position closed 5/3-way dynamic valve two working lines TP111· Festo Didactic .

19 Linear scale Regulator general Symbols of equipment set Converter general Adjuster general Pressure gauge general Limiter electrical Pressure sensor electrical Pressure sensor pneumatic Amplifier general Operation amplifier general Electrical actuation Solenoid with one winding Electrical actuation solenoid with two opposed windings infinitely adjustable Manual actuation by means of spring Pilot actuated indirect by application of pressure TP111· Festo Didactic .

20 Symbole des Gerätesatzes Switch detent function Working line line for energy transmission Line connection fixed connection Link collecting or summation point Electrical line line for electrical power transmission Oscilloscope Display indicator light Voltmeter Transmission element proportional time response Transmission element PT1 time response Transmission element with integral time response Transmission element with differential time response TP111· Festo Didactic .

21 Transmission element two step action without hysteresis Transmission element hysteresis. differential Symbols for equipment set Comparator Transmission element three step action Transmission element three step action with two different hystereses Transmission element with PD time response Transmission element with PI time response Transmission element with PID time response Voltage generator D.C.voltage Voltage generator square-wave voltage Voltage generator sine-wave voltage Voltage generator triangular-wave voltage TP111· Festo Didactic .

22 TP111· Festo Didactic .

Dynamic closed-loop pressure control circuit Exercise 6: Exercise 7: Exercise 8: Exercise 9: Pneumatic press Mode of operation of a proportional valve Quality assurance Mode of operation of a PID controller Baffle-plate flow sensor Transition function of a P controller Pneumatic post system Direction of action and commissioning of a P control circuit Clamping device Control quality and limit of stability of a P control circuit A-53 A-63 A-73 A-87 Exercise 10: A-95 TP111 · Festo Didactic . Non-dynamic closed-loop pressure control circuit Exercise 1: Exercise 2: Exercise 3: Exercise 4: Maintenance of a pressure gauge Characteristic of an analogue pressure sensor Spot-welding machine Mode of operation of a comparator Packaging machine Transition functions of controlled systems Reservoir-charging circuit. commissioning of a two-step-action controller with a switching pressure difference Tyre test-rig Commissioning of a three-step-action controller A-3 A-13 A-23 A-33 A-45 Exercise 5: II.A-1 Section A – Course I.

PD and PID controllers A-105 A-123 A-131 Bending device Empirical setting of parameters of a PID controller A-147 Papermaking machine Influence of interference variables Testing machine Setting of parameters using the Ziegler-Nichols method A-155 A-165 III.A-2 Exercise 11: Exercise 12: Exercise 13: Exercise 14: Exercise 15: Exercise 16: Pneumatic screwdriver Transition function of an I and PI controller Injection-moulding machine Empirical setting of parameters of a PI controller Forming of moulded packaging Transition functions of D. Closed-loop position control circuit Exercise 17: Stamping machine Transition function of a controlled system without compensation Mode of operation of a linear potentiometer Sorting device Structure of a status controller Deburring an engine block Setting the parameters of a status controller Cake production Lag error and closed-loop gain Pallettizing station Influence of mass load and tubing volume A-177 A-187 A-197 A-209 A-221 Exercise 18: Exercise 19: Exercise 20: Exercise 21: TP111 · Festo Didactic .

Digital sensor – A digital sensor produces an output signal which corresponds to a number. created for example by the addition of several pulses. digital or analogue types.A-3 Exercise 1 Closed-loop pneumatics Maintenance of a pressure gauge n n n Subject Title Training aims To be able to distinguish between sensors according to their signal types To be able to explain the design and mode of operation of an analogue pressure sensor To be able to produce and evaluate characteristics for sensors Sensor A sensor acquires a measured variable.g.g. such as temperature. on/off or 0 V / 10 V). TP111 · Festo Didactic . depending on the signal they produce. signal converters or as measuring systems or measuring transducers. filling level or torque. and converts this into an electrical or mechanical signal. Analogue sensor – An analogue sensor produces an output signal which can be represented by a continuous curve (e. n n Technical knowledge Binary sensor – A binary sensor produces an output signal which can have one of two switching statuses (e. Sensors are classified as binary. the deflection of the pointer of a pressure gauge) n Sensors are also occasionally referred to as signal pick-ups.

n TP111 · Festo Didactic .A-4 Exercise 1 Analogue pressure sensors The pressure sensor used in this case converts the measured variable “pressure” into an electrical signal. They are used for assessment and comparison purposes.1: Connection diagram. pneumatic and electrical symbols for analogue pressure sensor Characteristic A characteristic is a graphic description of the relationship between an input variable and an output variable. too. The permissible supply voltage lies between 15 and 24 V. – A current of between 0 and 20 mA. In the case of a pressure sensor. Imax). Output range – The output range is the range between the smallest and largest output values (Omin. devices or even complete installations. The pressure sensor used here has two output ranges: 0 to 10 V and 0 to 20 mA. A1. The permissible input pressure is between 0 and 10 bar positive pressure. the relationship between the input variable and output variable can be represented by a characteristic. Omax). Characteristics can be produced for components. from which the following characteristic data can be read: n Input range – The input range is the range between the smallest and largest input values which can be recorded (Imin. The sensor supplies two output variables: – A voltage of between 0 and 10 V. Fig. The pressure sensor used here has an input range of between 0 and 10 bar.

The rising and falling characteristics form a hysteresis loop. A1. Each input value is thus associated with two output values. gives the value for the hysteresis.2: Characteristic for a measuring system n TP111 · Festo Didactic . divided by the input range. Hysteresis – Measurements with an increasing input variable often produce a different characteristic than measurements with a decreasing input variable. the characteristic is a straight line in the linear range. The hysteresis H is specified as a percentage and is calculated as follows: Hysteresis = Maximum divergence × 100 % Input range Fig.A-5 Exercise 1 n Linear range – The linear range is the part of the characteristic line which has a constant gradient. whose maximum divergence. in other words.

3: Positional sketch Exercise In the course of the maintenance work. Production of characteristic for pressure gauge 4. Definition of measured variables and selection of measuring system 2. the accuracy of the reading of the pressure gauge must be checked. Determination of hysteresis TP111 · Festo Didactic . This work includes a check of the pressure gauge on the service unit. A1.A-6 Exercise 1 Problem description Routine maintenance work is to be carried out on a pneumatic clamping device. Assembly of measuring circuit 3. The following steps must be carried out: 1. Fig.

n 1. Ensure that you go directly to the desired pressure value in order to ensure that you do not need to turn the adjusting knob back. n n n Read the measured values carefully and record the values in the table on the worksheet. Also specify the associated units for the measured variables. n Note the following with regard to the electrical measuring circuit: n n The sockets of the signal input unit are used to connect up the sensor plugs. TP111 · Festo Didactic . which would reduce the hysteresis. 1. The power supply for the pressure sensor is 24 V.1 Definition of measured variables and selection of measuring system n Execution Define the input and output variables of the measuring system. the output voltage of the pressure sensor must be determined and recorded. Take one measurement with rising pressure and one with falling pressure. Select a measuring system which can handle the input and output variables which you have defined. Then turn the adjusting knob of the service unit to increase the pressure slowly until the gauge pressure specified in the worksheet is reached.2 Assembly of measuring circuit Note the following points with regard to the pneumatic circuit diagram: n The pressure-gauge function for the pneumatic clamping device is provided by a service unit with an integral pressure regulator and pressure gauge. Assemble the measuring circuits in accordance with the circuit diagrams provided. A multimeter is used to display the sensor output voltage. n Start the measurements at 0 bar.A-7 Exercise 1 1. Then enter the values on the graph provided.3 Plotting the pressure gauge characteristic In order to produce the characteristic for the pressure gauge. A pressure sensor is connected directly to the compressed-air output of the service unit by means of a piece of tubing. Assume that the output pressure of the service unit is to be measured and that you have a voltmeter available to measure the sensor output signal.

Calculate the hysteresis with the aid of the hysteresis equation. TP111 · Festo Didactic .A-8 Exercise 1 1.4 Determining the hysteresis n n Determine the maximum divergence between the two measurement curves.

. ( Measuring system: ..... A1.............. ( Output variable: .. ) ) 1...1 Definition of measured variables and selection of measuring system Measured variables and units Input variable: .........................4: Pneumatic circuit diagram Fig...5: Electrical circuit diagram TP111 · Festo Didactic ......... A1.A-9 Exercise 1 WORKSHEET 1...................2 Assembly of measuring circuit Fig......

3 Plotting the pressure gauge characteristic Measure the output voltages of the pressure sensor for the various readings of the pressure gauge. Measurement with increasing pressure Table A1. Fig.A-10 Exercise 1 1.2: Pressure gauge reading [bar] Pressure sensor voltage [V] 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Enter the measured values into the prepared graph.1: Pressure gauge reading [bar] Pressure sensor voltage [V] 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Measurement with decreasing pressure Table A1.6: Diagram TP111 · Festo Didactic . A1.

..4 Determining the hysteresis How great is the hysteresis of the pressure gauge? H= Max........A-11 Exercise 1 WORKSHEET 1.. divergence × 100 % Input range × 100% = H= ..... % TP111 · Festo Didactic .

A-12 Exercise 1 TP111 · Festo Didactic .

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