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DOUBLE SENSE WORDS

comum a todas as lnguas a ocorrncia de palavras com significado ou funo gramatical mltiplos.
Freqentemente este mltiplo sentido em um idioma no tem correspondente em outro. Quer dizer: os
termos nem sempre cobrem as mesmas reas de significado entre diferentes idiomas. Este fenmeno,
tambm chamado de polissemia, ocorre com qualquer idioma; assim como o portugus, o ingls tambm
tem inmeras palavras de mltiplo significado. , entretanto a ocorrncia do fenmeno na lngua me do
aluno que causa maior dificuldade. Partir do geral para o particular sempre mais difcil do que o inverso.

Portanto, sempre que diferentes idias representadas pela mesma palavra na lngua me do aluno
corresponderem a diferentes palavras na segunda lngua, o mesmo ter dificuldades em expressar-se
corretamente. As diferentes palavras do ingls que correspondem aos diferentes significados da palavra do
portugus podem eventualmente funcionar como sinnimos, portanto neutralizando o contraste entre os
dois idiomas. O objetivo, entretanto, mostrar os contrastes nas ocorrncias mais usuais do vocabulrio
ingls moderno.

Segundo
Ingls Primeiro significado
significado
Abstract Abstrato Resumo
Determinar
Affiliate Filiar-se
Paternidade
Affluent Afluente Rico
Paciente de
Ambulant Capaz de Caminhar
Ambulatrio
Apology Apologia Desculpas
Application Aplicao Requerimento
Apply Aplicar Inscrever-se
Argument Argumento Discusso
Arm Arma Brao
Bachelor Bacharel Solteiro
Balance Balana Equilbrio
Ball Bola Baile, Bala (projtil)
Bar Bar Barra
Bat Basto de beisebol Morcego
Cancel Cancelar Carimbar
Capital Capital Maiscula
Case Caso Estojo
Cell Clula Cela
Personagem,
Character Carter
caractere
China China Porcelana
Class Classe Aula
Classified Classificado Confidencial
Club Clube Taco de golfe
Coll Fresco Legal
Collect Colecionar Cobrar, coletar
Compass Compasso Bssola
Confirmed Confirmado Inveterado
Consistent Consistente Compatvel
Content Contente Contedo
Date Date Tmara, Encontro
Directory Diretoria Lista telefnica
Easy Fcil Em Paz / Confortvel
Effective Efetivo Verdadeiro
Entertain Entreter Receber visitas
Faculty Faculdade (mental) Corpo Docente
Figure Figura Nmero
Fix Fixar Consertar
General General Geral
Individual Individual Indivduo
Interest Interesse Juros
Just Justo Apenas
Legend Legenda Lenda
Letter Letra Carta
Match Ligar (Relacionar) Partida (Jogo)
Major Major Principal
Manifest Manifesto bvio
Mark Marca Nota
Mass Massa Missa
Matter Matria Assunto
Medicine Medicina Remdio
Move Mover Mudar
Observe Observar Celebrar
Official Oficial Autoridade
Oil leo Petrleo
Operator Operador Telefonista
Order Ordem Pedido
Park Parque Estacionar
Period Perodo Menstruao
Plant Planta Fbrica
Principal Principal Diretor da escola
Pupil Pupila Aluno

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Race Raa Corrida
Rare Raro Mal passado (carne)
Record Recorde Gravar
Rest Resto Descansar
Retire Retirar Aposentar
Roll Rolo Lista
Save Salvar Economizar
Scale Escala Balana
Sequel Sequela Sequencia
Spectacles Espetculos culos
Spirits Espritos Bebida alcolica
Story Estria Pavimento, andar
Subject Sujeito Assunto
To Play Jogar/ Brincar Tocar / Imitar
Turkey Turquia Peru
Vice Vice Vcio

EXERCCIOS
A) Assinale o significado correto das palavras em destaque nas sentenas:

1) I need to cancel your documents.


( ) cancelar ( ) carimbar

2) She is the principal of the school.


( ) diretora ( ) principal

3) His mark was terrible.


( ) marca ( ) nota

4) The operator (a) gave me the wrong number of the plant (b).
a- ( ) operador ( ) telefonista
b- ( ) planta ( ) fbrica

5) We are lost. We need a compass now.


( ) bssola ( ) compasso

6) He is the most famous bachelor of the party.


( ) bacharel ( ) solteiro

7) Do you know the capital (a) of China (b)?


a- ( ) capital ( ) principal
b- ( ) porcelana ( ) China

8) Brasilia is the capital of Brazil.


( ) capital ( ) maiscula

9) I use capital letter to write my name.


( ) capital ( )maiscula

10) I appreciate Chinese china.

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( ) porcelana ( ) China

11) John collects caps.


( ) coleciona ( ) cobrou

B) D os respectivos significados das palavras repetidas em cada segmento:


1) a) Mike is not married. He is a bachelor.

b) He finished the college last year. Now, he is a bachelor in Biology.

2) We have a directory in order to look for the telephone numbers of the students. This directory is in the
directory of the school.

1) The character of this film has a bad character.

2) You have to write the names of the capitals with capital letters.

MOUSE MEMORIES
In 1968 Douglas Engelbart demoed a strange device called a mouse. Last week 1.500 people gathered at
Stanford University to honor him. Speakers stressed that Engelbarts contributions went beyond the mouse.
His Stanford computer was the second one to hook up to ARPAnet, the Internets predecessor, and he
developed the first use of multiple windows. More important, Engelbart strove to enhance human
intelligence, thus improving our ability to solve problems.
Well click to that.
(Newsweek, December 28, 1998)

(SCANNING) Responda as questes abaixo:

1) O que aconteceu:
a) em 1968?
______________________________________________________________________________

b) durante a semana anterior a 28 de dezembro de 1998?


______________________________________________________________________________

2) Na frase: Well click to that, o termo em destaque passa a idia de:


a) discordar
b) aprovar
c) rejeitar
d) aplaudir

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3) Verdadeiro ou Falso:
Segundo os oradores, o trabalho de Engelbart restringiu-se criao do mouse. (cite a linha do texto em
que se encontra essa informao)
______________________________________________________________________

4) De onde foi retirado o texto lido?


a) de um jornal
b) da internet
c) de um livro
d) de uma revista
5) Faa, em portugus, um breve resumo sobre o texto.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

CONECTORES

1. ADIO:
- and : e
- in addition, furthermore, besides, moreover: alm disso
- as well as: assim como
- also: tambm
- apart from: com exceo de
- both....and: ambos; tanto como
- not only ... but also: no apenas...mas tambm
2. CONTRASTE/CONCESSO/ADVERSATIVA:
- but: mas
- however, neverthless: entretanto
- yet: entretanto, ainda
- although, even though, though: embora
- nonetheless, notwithstanding: no obstante
- despite that, in spite of: apesar de
- rather than, instead of: em vez de
- whereas: enquanto

3. PROPSITO: - in order to: a fim de


- so as to: de modo que

4. CONSEQUNCIA/CONCLUSO:
- therefore: portanto
- consequently, as a result: consequentemente
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- accordingly: de acordo, adequadamente
- hence: pois, ento, da
- thus: assim
- thereby: assim, desse modo
- then: ento
- so: ento, pois
- finally: finalmente

5. ALTERNATIVA - otherwise: por outro lado


- or: ou
- or else: ou ento, ou ainda
- either ... or: ou... ou
- while, whereas: enquanto

6. REITERAO:
- that is: isto
- in other words: em outras palavras
- in short, in brief: em resumo
- i.e. : (do latim) isto
- that is to say: quer dizer

7. COMPARAO:
- like, as: como
- than: do que

8. ILUSTRAO:
- e.g. : (do latim) por exemplo
- for instance, for example: por exemplo
- such as: tal como
- namely: a saber
- viz: (do latim) quer dizer

9. CONDIO:
- if: se
- unless: se no, a menos que
- provided that: uma vez que
- on condition that: desde que
- as long as: uma vez que
- subject to: sujeito a
- wether: se

10. CAUSA:
- because: porque
- due to: devido a
- as: porque
- since: uma vez que

11. DVIDA OU HIPTESE: - perhaps, maybe: talvez


- possibly: possivelmente

12. TEMPORAL: - when: quando while: enquanto

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GRUPOS NOMINAIS
So grupos de palavras, compostos por duas ou mais palavras que esto relacionadas entre si, sendo
que uma a palavra principal; o substantivo (ncleo), e as outras so os modificadores; palavras que
caracterizam o substantivo.

Exs.: Electric Energy = Energia Eltrica


Private Investors = Investidores Privados
State Government = Governo Estadual

Observe que nos grupos nominais em Ingls a palavra principal, ou seja, o substantivo (ncleo)
sempre a ltima palavra do grupo, ao passo que em portugus ns comeamos o grupo com ela. Assim,
temos:

United Kingdom Parliamentary Vote


Reino Unido Voto Parlamentar

Os grupos nominais podem ter mais de um modificador:

Red Cross Emblem = Emblema da Cruz Vermelha

Vrias siglas so iniciais de Grupo Nominais:


VIP = Very Important Person = ________________________________________________
WTC = World Trade Center = _________________________________________________
WHO = World Health Organization = ___________________________________________
NASA = National Air and Space Administration = _________________________________
USAF = United States Air Force = ______________________________________________
USA = United States of America________________________________________________
FBI = Federal Bureau of Investigation_______________________________________________

Outros Exemplos:
Modern computer = Computador moderno
Central processor = Processador central
Laser printer = Impressora laser
Personal computer = Computador pessoal

Incredible speed = velocidade incrvel


(ncleo)

Hard disk = disco rgido


(ncleo)

Input devices = dispositivos de entrada

Confirma-se ento que a ordem dos grupos nominais em Ingls INVERSA ordem em
Portugus:

Data Processing = Processamento de dados

Central Processing Unit = Unidade Central de Processamento 7


Arithmetic and Logic Operations = Operaes lgicas e aritmticas
Operaes aritmticas e lgicas
Electronic machine = Mquina eletrnica
Pense nas seguintes estruturas: Como elas seriam traduzidas para o Portugus?

Car race = ________________________


Exerccios
Race car = ________________________

1) Qual o significado das siglas e as suas respectivas tradues: Para completar esta tarefa procure
em dicionrios e na internet.
a. IMF (International Monetary Fund): ______________________________________
b. NATO (North-Atlantic Treat Organization): _________________________________
c. EEC (European Economic Community): ____________________________________
d. UNO (United Nations Organization): ______________________________________
e. USA (United States of America): __________________________________________
f. CPU (______________________________________________________________):
________________________________________________________________
i. CD (________________________________________________________________):
______________________________________________________________________
j.ALU(__________________________________________________________________
__):__________________________________________________________________
k. ALGOL (____________________________________________________________):
______________________________________________________________________
l.BASIC(_______________________________________________________________)

o. DDD (______________________________________________________________)
______________________________________________________________________
p. DOS (______________________________________________________________):
______________________________________________________________________
q. IBM (______________________________________________________________):
______________________________________________________________________

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t. PC (________________________________________________________________):
_____________________________________________________________________
u.HTML(________________________________________________________________
____):________________________________________________________________
v.WWW(________________________________________________________________
_____)_______________________________________________________________

O texto seguinte foi adaptado do Manual do Software Simulador de Circuitos


Electronics Workbench Verso 5, produzido pela Interactive Image Technologies.
Diode
Diodes allow current to flow in only one direction and can therefore be used as simple solidstate switches in
AC circuits, being either open (not conducting) or closed (conducting).Terminal A is called the anode and
terminal K is called the cathode.

Exerccios de Interpretao de texto


1. Faa a verso para portugus do primeiro pargrafo do texto.

2. De acordo com o texto, como so denominados os terminais do diodo?

3) Passe os seguintes grupos nominais para o Portugus:

a. Data Communication Processor - ____________________________________________


b. Artificial Intelligence - ____________________________________________________
c. Backup System - _________________________________________________________
d. Secondary Memory - _____________________________________________________
e. Control Structure - _______________________________________________________
f. Central Processing Unit - __________________________________________________
g. Magnetic Tape - _________________________________________________________
h. Operating System - ______________________________________________________
i. Access Control - _________________________________________________________
j. Data Processing Department - _______________________________________________
k. Auxiliary Equipment - ____________________________________________________
l. Control Circuits - _________________________________________________________
m. Automatic electronic devices -______________________________________________
n. Last generation program - ________________________________________________________
o. correctly programmed data - ________________________________________________________
p. Computer integrated circuits. - ______________________________________________________

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OBS: Os exemplos dados nas atividades a seguir foram adaptados do livro: Infotech English for Computer
Users.

I) Os grupos nominais a seguir so bastante simples. So formados pelo ncleo (head word =
HW) que o substantivo e um modificador = Modifier (M), que pode ser adjetivo ou substantivo.
Grife o ncleo (HW) e faa a traduo.

1) Disabled worker = trabalhador incapacitado


2) Rehabilitation engineer =
3) Employs abilities =
4) Pointing device =
5) Speech synthesizer =
6) Disk controller =

II) Nesta segunda atividade temos: o ncleo e dois modificadores (um artigo e um adjetivo ou
substantivo):

1. the major informations = as informaes principais


2. a brief introduction = uma breve introduo (ou uma introduo breve)
3. the English language =
4. the principal program =
5. the file areas =

III) Agora vamos trabalhar com grupos um pouco maiores, compostos de um ncleo mais dois, trs
ou mais adjetivos e/ou substantivos. Esses grupos podem ou no vir precedidos de artigos.

1. ARP -- (Advanced Research Projects) =


2. ASP -- (Application Service Provider) =
3. AT&T American Telephone & Telegraph Company =
4. CDMA -- (Code Division Multiple Access) =
5. CRM - - (Customer Relationship Management) =
6. DHCP -- (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) =
7. DHTML -- (Dynamic HyperText Markup Language) =
8. DNS (Domain Name System) =
9. DSL -- (Digital Subscriber Line) =
10. Email -- (Electronic Mail) =
11. ERP - - (Enterprise Resource Planning) =
12. FAQ -- (Frequently Asked Questions) =
13. FTP -- (File Transfer Protocol) =
14. HDD Hard Disk Drive =
15. HTML -- (HyperText Markup Language) =
16. HTTP -- (HyperText Transfer Protocol) =
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17. IMAP -- (Internet Message Access Protocol) =
18. IP Internet Protocol =
19. ISP -- (Internet Service Provider) =
20. IT -- (Information Technology) =
21. JPEG -- (Joint Photographic Experts Group) =
22. LAN Local Area Network =
23. MAC Address (Media Access Control Address) =
24. MUD -- (Multi-User Dungeon or Dimension) =
25. OCR Optical Character Recognition =
26. OSI (Open Source Initiative) =
27. PDF -- (Portable Document Format) =
28. PPP -- (Point to Point Protocol) =
29. SEO -- (Search Engine Optimization) =
30. SMTP -- (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) =
31. SQL -- (Structured Query Language) =
32. Sysop -- (System Operator) =
33. TCP Transmission Control Protocol =
34. URI -- (Uniform Resource Identifier) =
35. URL Uniform Resource Locator =
36. URN -- (Uniform Resource Name) =
37. VOIP -- (Voice Over IP) =
38. VPN -- (Virtual Private Network) =
39. WAN -- (Wide Area Network) =
40. Wi-Fi -- (Wireless Fidelity) =
IV) H tambm os grupos nominais com a palavra of, onde a ordem das palavras continua igual
em portugus. Observe que o ncleo do grupo nominal vem antes da preposio of.

1. The performance of program = a performance de programa


2. A long history of personal computers = uma longa histria de computadores pessoais
3. An essential part of a printer =
4. A important group of personal files =
5. Different languages of the same families =
6. POP = Point of Presence =

Encontramos abaixo alguns termos encontrados na rea de telecomunicaes.


AMPS - Advanced Mobile Phone System. Abreviatura do sistema celular analgico
adotado no Brasil. Nesse sistema de telefonia mvel, a rea de cobertura dividida em
clulas para permitir o maior nmero de ligaes simultneas.
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Bluetooth - Tecnologia que permite, atravs das ondas de rdio, integrar aparelhos sem
fio e permitir o dilogo entre eles e a Internet. Mais de 2.000 empresas se habilitaram
para licenciar a tecnologia e desenvolver equipamentos com o chip Bluetooth. O grupo
Bluetooth Interest Group, que inclui empresas como Nokia, Toshiba, IBM, Intel e
Microsoft, ficou encarregado de certificar todos os produtos que utilizam a tecnologia.
Call back - Servio que permite ao usurio fazer ligaes internacionais que so
debitadas no domiclio de origem, independente do local.
CDMA - Code Division Multiple Access, ou Acesso Mltiplo por Diviso de Cdigo. Um
dos padres para o sistema de telefonia celular digital.
Downstream - Nas conexes de alta velocidade, refere-se ao fluxo de dados que vem
do provedor de acesso rumo ao micro do usurio.
DSL - Digital Subscriber Liner. Tecnologia digital de transmisso de informaes por meio
de fios de cobre.
DTH - Direct to Home. Servio que oferece TV por assinatura digital por satlite.
Dual band - Aparelho telefnico celular que opera em duas faixas de freqncia, de 800
e de 1.900 MHz.
Dual mode - Aparelho de telefone celular que opera tanto na rede analgica quanto na
digital.
Frame relay - Tecnologia baseada em fibras pticas destinada exclusivamente
comunicao de dados que exige meio de transmisso digital e imune a erros.
FTTD - Fiber To The Desk (Fibra at a Estao de Trabalho). Tecnologia de cabeamento
de fibra ptica que permite o uso da banda larga, possibilitando uma ampla capacidade
de transmisso de dados, voz e imagens, numa mesma rede.
FTTH - Fiber To The Home (Fibra at a Casa). Tecnologia de cabeamento de fibra ptica
que permite o uso da banda larga, possibilitando uma ampla capacidade de transmisso
de dados, voz e imagens, numa mesma rede.
GPRS - General Packet Radio Service. Trata-se de uma evoluo do sistema GSM
(Global System for Mobile Communications). Com ele, as novas operadoras tambm
podero oferecer servios de alta velocidade aos usurios das bandas C, D e E de
telefonia celular.
GPS - Global Positioning System. Sistema de localizao de coordenadas geogrficas
que se baseia nos sinais de satlites para fornecer a posio exata de um usurio.
GSM - Global System for Mobile Communications. Trata-se de um sistema europeu para
comunicao sem fio. Lanado em 1992, esta tecnologia digital o padro adotado na
Europa e sia, sendo utilizado em mais de 100 pases.
Half-duplex - Termo aplicado a transmisses de rdio que permitem a comunicao por
duas maneiras atravs de uma nica freqncia. Um boto fecha ou abre a freqncia
que vai ser usada.
Hot line - Nmero telefnico destinado a um servio especfico, como o servio de
atendimento ao consumidor.
Minibrowser - Programa de navegao na Internet para telefones celulares ou micros de
mo, usando tecnologia WAP.
MMDS - Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service. Tecnologia utilizada pelo mercado
de TV por assinatura. Estima-se que a montagem de uma estao de transmisso por
esse meio, incluindo a programao, exige investimentos mnimos da ordem de 1 milho
de dlares.
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Multiplexador - Dispositivo que combina vrios canais de comunicaes para que
compartilhem um sistema comum. Os sistemas analgicos empregam multiplexao por
diviso de freqncia, enquanto os sistemas digitais utilizam multiplexao por diviso de
tempo.
Ni-Cd - Sigla de nquel-cdmio, qumica usada em baterias de baixo custo para telefones
celulares e notebooks.
NTSC - National Television Standards Committee. O NTSC responsvel por
estabelecer os padres de televiso e vdeo nos Estados Unidos. Na Europa e no resto
do mundo, os padres dominantes em televiso so PAL e SECAM. O padro NTSC
define o sinal de vdeo composto com uma mdia de 60 half-frames por segundo. Cada
frame contm 525 linhas e pode conter 16 milhes de cores diferentes.
PCS - Personal Communications Services. Conceito de servio de telecomunicaes
mveis em que um usurio utiliza um nico terminal mvel, com um nico nmero.
RDSI - Rede Digital de Servios Integrados. Rede de telecomunicao digital capaz de
transportar indistintamente sinais de ampla variedade de formas de telecomunicao
integrantes de diversos servios. Por exemplo, capaz de comportar tanto sinais de
udio quanto de vdeo, ou ainda possibilitar a comunicao de dados.
Roaming - Este servio permite que os usurios de telefones celulares utilizem seus
aparelhos fora de sua rea de cobertura (quando esto em outra cidade ou Estado). A
abrangncia desse servio depende do acordo entre as operadoras.
Trunking - Sistema de comunicao via ondas de rdio onde possvel a comunicao
direta entre duas estaes mveis, sem passar pela central pblica, ou de uma estao
mvel para um grupo de outras estaes mveis, ou ainda de qualquer estao com a
rede pblica de telefonia.

Exerccio de Interpretao de Texto

1. Leia o texto abaixo e responda as respectivas perguntas:

what you need in the telecommunication?


In the modern world, some companies are finding it more efficient to have certain
employees stay at home and do all of their work on their home computers. Then, using
telecommunicatios, they transmit their work over a modem into the office where it is
printed and distributed.
Telecommunications are used now for hundreds of different applications. Investors
routinely check their stock market holdings, pilots file flight plans and get weather
briefings, and shoppers compare and purchase merchandise on their computers. national
and international electronic mail is sent and received with local phone calls, and electronic
bulletin, boards are used for everything from selling used cars to finding dates.
Telecommunicating is accomplished by linking your computer to telephone lines and
contacting someone through a device called modem.
a) Como podemos enxergar a Telecomunicaes nos dias de hoje?
b) De acordo com o texto quais as aplicaes diferentes nas Telecomunicaes?
c) Como feita a Telecommunicating?
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2. Explique a definio de cada elemento relatado abaixo:
A modem
Modem transmission speeds are measured in baud, roughly equivalent to bits per
second(bps). Typical speeds are 9600, 14400 and 28800 baud.
E-mail
Eletronic mail requires some special software. You type a message onto your computer
screen, click a send button and it pops up on the recipient's screen - provide that he or
she is connected to your computer via a network like the Internet.
Fax-modem
Is a modem with software and hardware which can emulate a fax machine. this allows
you to receive a fax directly into your computer, where you can read it or your printer. To
send a fax you prepare the document on your computer- for example, by using a word
processor.
A stand-alone fax service
Is a facsimile machine which transmits copies of original documents. It operates by
scanning pictorial or textual documents so that the image is converted into electrical
signals which are sent to and used by a receiving machine that produces a copy of the
original.
Teletext on ITV and Channel Four
Is an information service in Britain which broadcsts a database alongside the TV signal. It
provides constantly updated and real time information.

O texto seguinte foi adaptado do Manual do Software Simulador de Circuitos


Eletronics Workbench verso 5, produzido pela Interactive Image Techologies.

Full-wave bridge rectifier


This component uses four diodes to perform full-wave rectification of an input AC voltage. Two diodes
conduct during each half cycle, giving a full-wave rectified output voltage.
The top and bottom terminals can be used as the input terminals for the AC voltage. The left and right
terminals can be used as the output DC terminals.
Characteristic Equation
The average output DC voltage is approximately given by:
VDC = 0.636 * (Vp 1.4)
Where Vp = the peak value of the input AC voltage

Exerccios de Interpretao de Texto


1. Qual o nome do componente a que se refere este texto?
2. Faa a verso para o portugus do primeiro pargrafo do texto.
3. De acordo com o texto, para que servem os terminais 1, 2, 3 e 4 do componente?
4. Qual a tenso mdia CC na sada do componente se na entrada aplicada uma
tenso alternada com valor de pico de 20V?

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FORMAO DE PALAVRAS AFIXOS

(Material extrado do livro: Tcnicas de Leitura em Ingls. Eiter Otavio Guandalini. p. 37-39.)

Algumas palavras que aparecem nos textos demandam um pouco mais de ateno para inferi-las e
reconhec-las durante a leitura. So as chamadas palavras derivadas, ou seja, palavras que apresentam
componentes denominados genericamente de afixos que podem ser prefixos ou sufixos. O conhecimento
da formao das palavras muito til, sem dvida, para sua compreenso. Isto significa que necessrio
reconhecer os afixos mais comumente usados na lngua que se que aprender e, naturalmente, seu
significado.

Sufixos e prefixos podem ser acrescentados s palavras dando-lhes novos significados e, quase sempre,
alternando sua classe gramatical. Portanto, ateno: habitue-se a descobrir ou reconhecer o significado de
palavras e expresses atravs de prefixos e sufixos, da nova posio que ocupam na frase, como tambm
na alterao da classe gramatical.

A fim de facilitar sua identificao, colocamos a seguir uma lista com os afixos mais usados na lngua
inglesa.

Prefixao o prefixo muda o significado da palavra primitiva, mas no muda a classe gramatical.

a (sem) Amoral apolitical asexual


anti (contra) Anti-clockwise anti-nuclear Antichrist
dis (oposto) Disagree dishonest disloyal
il, ir, im, in (no) Illegal irregular imperfect /incomplete
mis (errado) Misunderstand misdirect misaddress
non (no) Nonsense non-fiction non-programable
un (no) Unmagnetized uncommon unprofessional
over (excesso, alm) Overdose overeat
pre (antes) Premarital prefix prehistory
Mini, micro Minicomputer Microcomputer
Macro, mega Macroeconomics Megabyte
Inter (entre) Interface Interactive

Sufixao o sufixo pode mudar a classe gramatical da palavra sem mudar-lhe o sentido primitivo.

Formao de verbos:
- en Freshen blacken Harden
- ify Simplify solidify
- ize Centralize modernize computerize

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Formao de advrbios

- ly (mente) Logically comparably Yearly annually


- ward (em direo) Downward homeward Inward

Formao de substantivos:

- ance / ence Tolerance Preference Performance


- or Operator Accumulator
- er Trainer Employer programmer
- ee Trainee Employee
- ist Economist Scientist Dentist
- ion Education Collision Compilation
- ment Investment development
- ity Sincerity Generosity
- ism Modernism Buddhism Magnetism
- ness Happiness Darkness
- dom Freedom Kingdom
- hood Childhood Brotherhood
- ship Friendship Partnership relationship

Formao de adjetivos:

- able, ible Programmable Admirable Divisible


- an, ian American Sagitarian suburban
- ful Powerful Hopeful wonderful/beautiful
-y Tasty Healthy
- ic Poetic Democratic
- ical/al Sociological Magical
- less Homeless Childless Wireless

Ex.: COMFORT = Substantivo = Conforto


UNCOMFORT = Substantivo = Desconforto
CONFORTABLE = Adjetivo = Confortvel
Selecione no texto as palavras que so formadas por sufixos:

CAREERS IN THE COMPUTERS FIELD

Computer specialists include System Analysts, Programmers and Operators. Systems Analysts develop
methods for computerizing business. They also improve the efficiency of systems in use. Application
Programmers write commercial programs to be used by business, science center and home. System
Programmers write the complex programs that control the inner working of the computer. Computer
operators handle several types of computers.
Other people who work in the computer field include Computer Scientists, who conduct research and
teach at universities; Hardware Designers and Engineers, who work in areas such as microchip and
peripheral equipment design; Information Center Administrators or Data Base Administrators, who manage
the information collections of business or data banks.

Excerpted from Comptons Interactive Encyclopedia 1993, 1994.

Agora, escreva em Portugus as especialidades que so mencionadas no texto:

16
____________________________________ - ___________________________________
____________________________________ - ___________________________________
____________________________________ - ___________________________________
____________________________________ - ___________________________________
____________________________________ - ___________________________________

A PR-HISTRIA DOS COMPUTADORES

AQUECIMENTO
Junte-se a um colega e, em cinco minutos, procure no texto da prxima pgina as respostas para as
seguintes perguntas. A dupla que acabar primeiro e apresentar todas as respostas corretas vence a
competio.

a) O que Lady Ada Lovelace inventou para a mquina de Babbage? __________________________

b) Quanto pesava o ENIAC, o primeiro computador a vlvula? _______________________________

c) Onde Charles Babbage exibiu The Difference Engine em 1855? __________________________

d) Qual foi o primeiro dispositivo de clculo utilizado pelo homem? ___________________________

e) At que sculo o baco foi utilizado como dispositivo de clculo? __________________________

f) Quem inventou, em 1804, o tear programado? ________________________________________

g) O que Blaise Pascal inventou em 1642? _____________________________________________

h) Quando ficou pronto o primeiro computador digital, o MARK 1? ____________________________

i) Quando Vannevar Bush construiu o primeiro computador analgico? ________________________

LEITURA E INTERPRETAO

a) Junte-se a outros colegas e discutam o que vocs sabem acerca da histria do computador e dos
mtodos de clculo.
b) Depois da discusso, organize os pargrafos abaixo numerando os parnteses em ordem
crescente, conforme a cronologia. O ttulo do texto j est marcado.

(A: _____) It was during the Second World War that the modern age of computers began. In 1930,
Vannevar Bush built the first analog computer, which was used to help aim guns in World War II. In the
period between 1938-1942, John V. Atanasoff and Clifford Berry designed and built the first electronic digital
computer, the ABC, which provided the basis for the development of the ENIAC.

(B:_____) After that, in 1822, Charles Babbage built a machine called The Difference Engine, which he
showed at The Paris Exhibition in 1855. Next, Babbage envisioned and designed The Analytical Engine, a
machine which could complete programmed arithmetic operations. Unfortunately, Babbage never finished
his work, but many of his ideas were used as the basis for the modern computer.
17
(C: _____) The modern computer as we know it today is a result of lots of research and inventions of the
past. The following paragraphs will show you the evolution of this miraculous machine.

(D: _____) In the period called the Scientific Revolution, which began circa 1540 and lasted until 1687,
many scientists tried to find ways of calculating. As a consequence, other computational devices were
invented. In 1642, Blaise Pascal invented the first mechanical calculator. In 1673, Gottfried von Leibniz
invented another calculating device.

(E: _____) The Scientific Revolution was followed by the Industrial Revolution, which started in England
and brought many advances in technology. Several machines were developed in this period, and these
machines later had a great impact on the development of computers.

(F: _____) During the same period that Babbage was working on his machines, Lady Ada Lovelace
invented an arithmetic code for Babbages machine based on a binary system similar to the one used with
modern computers. For this reason, she is considered to be the first programmer.

(G: _____) The first calculating device used by man was the ten fingers of his hands. This explains why
we still count in tens and multiples of tens. Then the abacus was invented, a device which uses small
beads or stones to make calculations. This tool was used until the 16th century. It is still used today in some
parts of the world to make arithmetical calculations.

(H: _____) In 1804, Joseph Marie Jacquard invented a weaving loom which was programmed to make
certain patterns on cloth. This program was a series of holes punched in paper cards according to a code,
and it is very similar to the process used in punched cards of the first modern computers.

(I: 1 ) The Pre-History of Computers

(J: _____) Between 1943 and 1946, funded by the U.S. Army, John Mauchly and J. Eckert built the first
major eletronic digital computer using vacuum tubes. The ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and
Computer) was huge and weighed about 30 tons.

(K: _____) The developments which took place during World War II led to the advances made in the
period that followed the war. The period after the war led to the subsequent generations of computers,
which may be described as the modern age of computers.

(L: _____) In 1944, Howard Aiken and some engineers from IBM completed MARK 1, an electro-
mechanical calculating device controlled by punched cards. This first digital computer could figure out long
lists of mathematical problems and was used military ballistics.

c) Responda as seguintes perguntas:


1) Das informaes apresentadas no texto, quais voc j conhecia?
_________________________________________________________________________________

2) Que informao nova sobre a histria do computador voc achou mais interessante?
_________________________________________________________________________________

3) Sabemos que o computador uma mquina moderna. Por que o autor intitulou o texto The Pre-History
of Computers?
__________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

4) Das oraes abaixo, qual voc considera a idia principal do texto? Por qu?
__________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

18
a) Os avanos tecnolgicos da 2 Guerra Mundial levaram a era moderna do computador.
b) MARK 1, o primeiro computador digital, possua sistema de cartes perfurados e foi fabricado pela
IBM para fins militares.
c) Lady Lovelace considerada a primeira programadora do mundo por ter inventado o cdigo binrio.
d) As idias de Charles Babbage foram usadas como base para os computadores modernos, o que o
torna o pai do computador.
e) A Revoluo Industrial teve um grande impacto na tecnologia usada para o desenvolvimento dos
computadores.
f) Antes da inveno do baco, o dispositivo de clculo eram os dedos das mos.
g) O primeiro computador digital a vlvula foi o ENIAC.
h) A era moderna do computador nasce em 1930 com o primeiro computador digital, de Vannevar
Bush, usado para fins militares na 2 Guerra Mundial.
i) O tear programado, inventado por Jacquard em 1804, tem o mesmo princpio dos cartes
perfurados dos primeiros computadores.
j) O computador atual o resultado de vrias pesquisas e invenes do passado.
k) A Revoluo Cientfica (1540-1687) levou a inveno de vrios dispositivos de clculo.

5) A partir do exerccio anterior, como voc definiria o que deve ser a idia principal de um texto?
____________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

LEITURA E INTERPRETAO SKIMMING

a) Utilizando essa tcnica, procure no texto What is a Computer? as seguintes informaes. Nos espaos
em branco, escreva os nmeros das linhas em que elas se encontram:

1) ________ O computador processa dados e fornece os resultados em forma de informao.


2) ________ um erro acreditar que todo mundo hoje em dia saiba usar o computador.
3) ________ O processo de computao envolve trs etapas bsicas.
4) ________ O mundo da computao criou uma linguagem prpria.
5) ________ Hoje em dia quase todo mundo tem uma idia do que seja um computador.
6) ________ Algumas dessas palavras vm sendo usadas pelo mundo afora, pois foram tomadas de
emprstimo da lngua inglesa por vrias outras lnguas.
7) ________ Algumas sociedades contemporneas desconhecem o computador.
8) ________ A etapa final permite ao usurio ver os resultados do processamento.
9) ________ Mesmo nos pases ditos desenvolvidos, existem pessoas que no sabem o que um
computador e no se importam em saber.

WHATS IS A COMPUTER?

1 Nowadays, in most modern societies, almost everybody has an idea about what a computer is.
We depend on computers in every aspect of our lives whether we know how to use one or not.
But does everyone really know how a computer works inside?
A computer is an electronic machine which processes data and provides the results of the
5 processing as information. There are three basic steps in the computing process. The first one is
input, which consists of feeding data into the computers memory. Then comes the processing:
the program is run and the computer processes the data by performing a set of instructions. The
third and final step is the output furnished by the computer, which allows the user to see the
results either in printed from or on the screen.
10 The world of computers has created a specific language of its own. English words such as
software and hardware are used worldwide and have been borrowed by many different

19
languages. Software is information in the form of data and programs, and hardware refers to
the electronic and mechanical parts that make up a computer system.
Despite the constant presence of computers in most modern societies, it is a great mistake to
15 believe that everybody in the world is computer-literate, i.e., is familiar with computers and
knows how to use them properly. In some contemporary societies, many people still have no
idea about the existence of computers, and even in the so-called developed countries, there are
lots of people who do not know or do not care about what a computer is.

b) O autor conclui o texto afirmando que algumas sociedades contemporneas e muitas pessoas dos
pases desenvolvidos desconhecem o computador ou no ligam para ele, sem dar exemplos. Em sua
opinio, quais seriam essas sociedades e essas pessoas?

_____________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
c) Escreva na primeira coluna os nmeros correspondentes s palavras definidas na segunda.

a) ________ computer 1) Data fed into the computers memory.


b)_________ input 2) Information.
c) _________ processing 3) Machine that processes data.
d) _________ output 4) Electronic and mechanical parts of a computer.
e) _________ screen 5) Device that shows the results of the processing.
f) _________ software 6) The results shown on the screen or in printed form.
g) _________ hardware 7) Programs.
h) _________ data 8) Series of actions that a computer performs to arrive at a

OS USOS DO ING

Palavras cuja formao composta por ING podem apresentar diferentes classes gramaticais:
LEARNING = Pode significar aprendendo; aprender ou aprendizagem, dependendo de como
apresentada na sentena.

(gerndio)
They are learning how to get more information. = (aps o verbo to be)
Eles esto aprendendo como conseguir mais informaes.

(verbo/infin.)
This is a way of learning about management. = (aps preposies)
Esta uma maneira de aprender sobre gerenciamento.

(Adjetivo)
This is part of the learning process. = (parte de um grupo nominal)
Isto parte do processo de aprendizagem.

(Substantivo)
Learning is essencial to life.
Aprendizagem essencial vida.

EXERCCIOS

Classifique em cada frase as palavras formadas por ING como:

20
(substantivo, gerndio, adjetivo ou verbo infinitivo)

a. They are learning Computer Science.


__________________________.
b. Teleprocessing is the use of a telecommunication system by a computer.
__________________________.
c. The calculating machine was invented many years ago.
__________________________.
d. The recording surface of a disk has concentric circles called tracks.
__________________________.
e. He works 10 hours without stopping.
__________________________.
f. The printer is printing documents.
__________________________.
g. I prefer typing to writing.
__________________________.

O texto seguinte foi adaptado do Manual do Software Simulador de Circuitos Eletronics


Workbench verso 5, produzido pela Interactive Image Technologies.
Zener Diode
A zener diode is designed to operate in the reverse breakdown, or zener region.
In the forward region, it starts conducting around 0.7V, just like an ordinary silicon diode.
In the leakage region, between zero and breakdown, it has only a small reverse current. The breakdown
has a sharp knee, followed by an almost vertical increase in current.
Zener diodes are used primarily for regulation because they maintain constant output voltage.

Exerccios de Interpretao de Texto


1. Faa a verso para o portugus do primeiro do texto.
2. De acordo com o texto, qual a aplicao bsica dos diodos Zeners?
3. De acordo com o texto, por que os diodos Zeners podem ser utilizados na aplicao descrita na questo
anterior?

21
MARCADORES DE SUBSTANTIVOS

Substantivo a palavra que designa pessoa, lugar, objeto, evento, substncia.

possvel localiza-la no texto prestando ateno em certas palavras que acompanham substantivo.

Emprega-se antes de substantivo:


Artigos:

a, an = um, uma

the = o, a, os, as

Pronomes Possessivos adjetivos

MY Meu, minha, meus, minhas

Your seu, sua, seus, suas

His dele (para pessoa)

Her dela (para pessoa)

Its dele, dela (para coisas ou animais

Our nosso, nossa, nossos, nossas

Their deles, delas


Emprega-se geralmente antes de substantivos:

Numerais Cardinais:
One, two, three, etc.

Pronomes Demonstrativos:
This este, esta, isto

These estes, estas

That esse, essa, isso, aquele, aquela, aquilo

Those esses, essas, aqueles, aquelas

QUANTIDADES
Many muitos, muitas

(a) few poucos, poucas

much muito, muita

22
(a) little pouco, pouca

some algum, alguns, alguma, algumas

any qualquer, quaisquer

every todo, toda, todos, todas, cada

a lot of muito (a), muitos (as)

REFERNCIA CONTEXTUAL
A referncia contextual tambm representa um recurso auxiliar na compreenso das idias de um texto. As
chamadas palavras de referncia substituem palavras que esto no texto (ou fora dele) e podem
classificar-se da seguinte maneira:
pronomes (pessoais, possessivos, demonstrativos, relativos e indefinidos);

numerais ordinais;

palavras que indicam ordem e exemplificao.

Quando queremos nos referir a alguma coisa (ou idia) que j foi mencionada, ou ainda vai ser
mencionada numa determinada sentena, geralmente utilizamos recursos lingsticos para no tornar a
sentena repetitiva.

Exemplos:
The magazine which is on the desk is old.
A revista que est sobre a mesa velha.

Paul and Sue are good friends. They always help us.
Paul and Sue so bons amigos. Eles sempre nos ajudam.

John works in my office. We like him very much.


John trabalha em meu escritrio. Ns gostamos muito dele.

Pode-se observar que podemos nos referir a uma idia anterior ou posterior utilizando diferentes
PRONOMES;

Exerccios

John works in my office. We like him very much.


John trabalha em meu escritrio. Ns gostamos muito dele.

Pode-se observar que podemos nos referir a uma idia anterior ou posterior utilizando diferentes
PRONOMES.

Subject Pronouns Object Pronouns Possessive Adjectives Possessive


I Me My Mine
You You Your Yours
He Him His His
She Her Her Hers
It It Its Its
We Us Our Ours
23
You You Your Yours
They Them Their Theirs

Subject Object

I know Ann. Ann knows me.


You know Ann. Ann knows you.
He knows Ann. Ann knows him.
She knows Ann. Ann knows her.
We know Ann. Ann knows us.
They know Ann. Ann knows them.

Possessive Adjectives Possessive Pronouns

Its my money. Its mine.


Its your money. Its yours.
Its his money. Its his.
Its her money. Its hers.
Its our money. Its ours.
Its their money. Its theirs.
Exerccios

A) Finish the sentences with mine/yours/ours/theirs/hers/his:

1. Its your money. Its _______________ 5. Its their house. Its _______________
2. Its my bag. Its ________________. 6. Theyre your books. Theyre ________.
3. Its our car. Its ________________. 7. Theyre my glasses. Theyre ________.
4. Theyre her shoes. Theyre ____________. 8. Its his coat. Its ______________.

B) Classifique os pronomes grifados e indique as respectivas palavras a que eles se referem:

1. Most people are happy in their jobs.

_________________________________________________________________________.

2) Mr. Baker lives in London. His son lives in Australia.


_________________________________________________________________________.

3) Where are the tickets? I cant find them.


_________________________________________________________________________.

4) We are going out. You can come with us.


_________________________________________________________________________.
5) Margaret likes music. She plays the piano.
_________________________________________________________________________.

6) Ann is going out with her friends tonight.


_________________________________________________________________________.

7) I like tennis. It is my favorite sport.


_________________________________________________________________________.

24
8) I am talking to you. Please, listen to me.
_________________________________________________________________________.

PRONOMES RELATIVOS (Who / Which / That)

Who is for people (not things)

A Programmer is a person who writes programs.

The man who phoned will call you later again.

I know everybody who work in my company.

Which is for things (not people)

This is the printer which you asked me.

I dont have the CD-Rom which you need.

Is this the new computer which you bought?

That is for things or people:

I know everybody that work in my company.


(You can use that for people, but who is more usual)

This is the printer that you asked me.

Portanto, temos:
(Para pessoas)
Who
He is the system analyst who/that prepares instructions.
That (pessoa)

(Para coisas)
Which
This is the manual which/that you need.
That (coisa)

EXERCCIOS

1. Complete com who ou which:

a. I met a woman who can speak six languages.


b. Whats the name of the man ________ lives next door?
c. Whats the name of the river ________ flows through the town?

25
d. Where is the picture ________ was hanging on the wall?
e. Do you know anybody _______ wants to buy a car?
f. You always ask questions _______ are difficult to answer.
g. I have a friend _________ is very good at repairing cars.
h. I think everybody ________ went to the party enjoyed it a lot.

2. Volte ao texto Virtual Reality e retire 1 pronome relativo do 1 pargrafo, 1 pronome relativo do 2
pargrafo e 3 pronomes do 3 pargrafo, e indique as respectivas palavras a que eles se referem:

1 pargrafo: pronome: _____________


refere-se a: _______________

2 pargrafo: pronome: _____________


refere-se a: _______________

3 pargrafo: pronome refere-se a


_________ _____________
_________ _____________
_________ _____________

THE POSSESSIVE CASE OF NOUNS

Quando o substantivo/possuidor designa um ser vivo (pessoa ou animal, as expresses


possessivas (caso possessivo ou genitivo) so formadas do seguinte modo:
a) Acrescentando-se s ao substantivo/possuidor, quando ele estiver no singular.
The body of the man. The mans body. (O corpo do homem)
b) Acrescentando-se s tambm no caso em que o substantivo/possuidor estiver no plural mas no
terminar em s.
The family of the children. The childrens family. (A famlia das crianas)
c) Acrescentando-se apenas um apstrofo ao substantivo/ possuidor, quando ele estiver no plural
terminado em s.
The school of the girls. The girls school. (A escola das garotas)
Quando o substantivo/ possuidor designa um ser inanimado, no se usa a expresso com s mas
sim a que feita com de (of) como em portugus:
The door of the car, the trees of the garden, etc.
No entanto, a expresso com s pode ser usada (assim com o of) quando o substantivo/ possuidor
tiver um sentido nobre, caso principalmente dos nomes geogrficos, como a Terra, o Sol, o mar,
nomes de pases, cidades, etc.
f.e. The population of the world = The world population
26
Complete as frases com a forma possessiva dos substantivos entre parnteses, conforme o
modelo:
Exemplo:
Richard is the boss of John. Richard is Johns boss.
Geralmente usamos -s para pessoas:
- Marys computer O computador da Mary.
- Marys personal computer O PC da Mary.
- Johns laser printer A impressora do John.
- The managers equipment O equipamento do gerente.

Friends or Friends :
A casa do meu amigo = My friends house.
A casa dos meus amigos = My friends house.

Portanto, temos: My mothers car


My parents car
My fathers car

Usamos of para coisas, lugares, etc.


The high technology of Brazil. Tecnologia de ponta do Brasil.
Whats the name of this village? Qual o nome desta vila?
Madrid is the Capital of Spain. Madrid a Capital da Espanha.
The memory of the computer. (not the computers memory)

Drill Faa a correo da sentena quando necessrio:


1. I stayed at the house of my sister. - my sister house
2. What is the name of this village? - Ok__________
3. Do you like the color of this coat? - _____________________
4. Do you know the phone number of Bill? - ________________________
5. The job of my brother is very interesting. - _______________________
6. Write your name at the top of the page. - _________________________
7. When is the birthday of your mother? - _________________________
8. The house of my parents isnt very big. - ________________________
9. The walls of this house are very thin. - __________________________
10. The manager of the hotel is on holiday. - _______________________
Passe as sentenas para o Caso Genitivo:

The laptop of my sister.


______________________________________.

The computer of my secretary.


______________________________________.

The printer of my boss.


______________________________________.

27
PRINTING CONCEPTS
When users print, the computer completes several steps that involve a set of components including
executable files, drivers, device interfaces, and dynamic-link libraries, which work together to create the
printed output. Understanding how this process works helps you understand what happens when you print
a document and how to solve printing problems. Printing has two parts: printing process and the print
components. The two parts make the printing process possible. When printing to an Internet print server,
the print server adds to the standard print process by creating an interface for users.

VOCABULARY

To print = imprimir
Print = impresso
Printer = impressora
Set = jogo, conjunto, grupo,
To set up = iniciar, instalar, estabelecer-se
Drive = unidade de disco
Standar = padro
Device = dispositivo

1) Leia o texto PRINTING CONCEPTS e responda as questes a seguir:

a) Sobre o que trata o texto? ________________________________________________________


b) Quais so as duas partes da impressora?____________________________________________
c) O que estas partes possibilitam? ___________________________________________________
d) Qual e o conjunto de componentes citados no texto? ___________________________________
e) O que o servidor de impresso adiciona quando imprime para um servidor de impresso de Internet?
____________________________________________________________________________________
2) Localize as palavras familiares no texto acima e d a traduo.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
3) Circule todas as palavras cognatas.

Whats an Algorithm?

An algorithm is a sequence of instructions that tells how to solve a particular problem. Once the problem
has been identified, the next step is to select the best method for solving it. If the problem is a familiar one,
standardized algorithms may be available from program libraries. But if standard algorithms are not
28
available or suitable, a new algorithm must be written and then added to the program library. An algorithm
must be specified exactly, so there can be no doubt about what to do next, and it must have a finite number
of steps. A computer program is an algorithm that is written in a language that a computer can understand,
but the same algorithm could be written in several different languages.

Observe a sentena: Once the problem has been identified, the next step is to select the best
method for solving it.

1) A classificao da palavra solving :

a) substantivo (soluo)
b) gerndio (resolvendo)
c) particpio (resolvido)
d) verbo/infinitivo (resolver)

2) O pronome it (ltima palavra) refere-se a:

a) problem
b) identified
c) select
d) method

3) Observando o uso do verbo modal must a traduo apropriada da sentena a seguir : it must
have a finite number of steps.
a) ele (algoritmo) poderia ter um nmero finito de passos.
b) ele (algoritmo) no precisa ter um nmero finito de passos.
c) ele (algoritmo) deve ter um nmero finito de passos.
d) ele (algoritmo) no pode ter um nmero finito de passos.
e) ele (algoritmo) talvez tenha um nmero finito de passos.

Magnetic Tape and Magnetic Disk

Magnetic tape it is one of the principal input/output recording media used with computers and is mainly
used for storing intermediate results of computations and for compact storing of large amounts of data, in
an ordered sequence. It is much cheaper to store information on tape than in the computer main memory or
on a disk memory device, but it takes longer to locate a particular data item if it is stored on tape: data must
be stored and accessed sequentially.

Magnetic disk it consists of a series of concentric paths or tracks each capable of storing data in
magnetically coded form. It looks like a phonograph record and a series of disks is mounted on a vertical
shaft. One or more access arms move into the disk to read or write the data stored on it. Disks may be hard
(made out of aluminum) or floppy (made out of plastic). Disks may be permanently attached to the drive unit
or they may be made up as removable disk packs. Disks may be made even more efficient by using laser
beam to read and write data.

As questes 7 e 8 devem ser respondidas em Portugus.

29
7) Qual a definio, conforme o texto, de Disco Magntico?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________.

8) Quais so os dois principais usos das Fitas Magnticas?


_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________.

9) Indique a ordem em que essas idias ocorrem no texto: Magnetic Disk

( ) disks may be hard or floppy.


( ) disks may be more efficient.
(1 ) disks consists of a series of concentric paths.
( ) disks may be made up as removable disk packs.
( ) disks may be mounted on a vertical shaft.
( ) disks may be permanently attached to the drive unit.

10) Indique se as afirmaes so verdadeiras (V) ou falsas (F):

a) Magnetic tape is the only way for inputting data. ( )


b) It is used for storing data sequentially. ( )
c) It is much cheaper to store data on disks. ( )
d) It takes longer to locate data stored on tapes. ( )
e) Data on tape is stored in an ordered sequence. ( )

11) Indique os dois erros do Presente Simples com crculos e d as formas verbais corretas:

Some mail systems uses a large disk space, but they doesnt determine any amount before its use.

Formas corretas: a) _________________


b) ___________________

12) Destaque das frases abaixo, os verbos na Voz Passiva:

Disks may be permanently attached to the drive unit and they may be made up as removable disk packs.
_____________________________ - _____________________________
13) Circule na sentena a palavra que se encontra no Comparativo e d o seu significado em Portugus:

It is much cheaper to store information on tapes than in the computer main memory
_________________ = ____________________________

14) Observe o segmento abaixo:

Magnetic Tape is mainly used for storing(1) intermediate results of computations and for compact
storing(2) of large amounts of data.

A palavra storing (1) significa: A palavra storing (2) significa:

a) armazenar a) armazenar
b) armazenando b) armazenando
c) armazenamento c) armazenamento
d) armazenado d) armazenado

30
ABOUT CHIPS

Does anybody here know anything about chips?

Nobody expected such a question during an art class. Not from an old teacher of music. And he added, I
must confess that I know nothing about chips. I really dont know anything at all. Sometimes I feel like a
Jurassic teacher.

A quiet girl with curly hair asked shyly, What do you want to know, professor? I have some information
about it.

Lucy was her name. Everybody remained silent. No one sang. Nobody played. Lucy stood up and spoke
up; A computer consists of hundreds of parts, including a monitor, a mouse, disk drives and a keyboard.
Inside the computer is a circuit board. It houses all sorts of microchips, including those for ROM (read-only
memory) and RAM (random-access memory). Mounted on the circuit board is a microprocessor, which is
housed n a protective container and connected to rows of gold-plated pins. Inside the microprocessor
package is the chip itself. This tiny square of silicon is packed with transistors that process instructions and
data for the computer. A chip can process 500 million instructions every second and it has the size of a
fingernail.

After this explanation everybody clapped their hands. The teacher said. Where have you learned all this,
Lucy, my dear?

Well, she said, Ive read it from an old magazine at the library.

VOCABULARY

to remain = permanecer
to house = conter/armazenar
gold-plated = coberto com ouro
tiny = muito pequeno

Questes

1) Assinale a alternativa correta:


a) Os alunos ficaram surpresos com a pergunta da menina.
b) O professor no sabia nada sobre tecnologia.
c) A menina ficou decepcionada com o professor.
d) O antigo professor gostaria de deixar a escola.

2) O professor se considera:
a) ignorante sobre computao
b) um especialista em computao
c) muito antiquado sobre msica
d) um grande leitor de revista de informtica

3) Lucy ensinou seu professor sobre chips provavelmente porque ela:


a) L muito livros na biblioteca
b) Tem algum interesse em computadores
c) studou o assunto em outra escola
31
d) queria se aparecer

4) O material bsico do chip :


a) silicone
b) transistor
c) silicon
d) gold-plated pin
e) data

5) Na sentena: A chip can process 500 million instructions every second and it has the size of a
fingernail.; o pronome it refere-se a:

a) million
b) second
c) instructions
d) chip
e) fingernail

6) Na sentena: Does anybody here lnow anything about chips?


destaque os pronomes indefinidos e d os seus significados:

________________________ = __________________________________
________________________ = __________________________________

7) Destaque os verbos modais das sentenas abaixo e passe-as para o Portugus:

I must confess that I know nothing about chips.


_______________________________________________________________

A chip can processo 500 million instructions every second.


_______________________________________________________________

8) Relacione as informaes numerando as colunas:

a) The list on the screen which shows the ( ) e-mail


things that you can do.

b) A small sign on a computer screen which ( ) virus


shows your position in a text

c) A system for sending written messages by ( ) menu


computer

32
d) A number of computers connected together ( ) cursor
in a larger system

e) Instructions that are put into a computer in ( ) network


order to cause mistakes and destroy information

O texto seguinte uma adaptao de um fragmento do tpico Discrete LED selecting made
easier, extrado da publicao Catalog of Optoelectronic Products da General Instrument.
Electrical Considerations
Most incandescents are rated in terms of voltage; LEDs, on the other hand, are currentdependent
devices since they are basically diodes.
When operating from constant-voltage sources, incorporating a current-limiting resistor with
each LED should provide protection.
Basic DC circuit. For the simple circuit shown in Figure 1 the resistor value can be calculated
from : RL = Vcc Vf / If.
Where Vf and If are taken from an LED Data Sheet. The power rating required for the resistor
should also be kept in mind.

Exercicios de Interpretao de Texto


1. De acordo com o primeiro pargrafo do texto, o que diferencia os LEDs da maioria dos
dispositivos incandescentes?
2. Faa a verso para o portugus do segundo pargrafo do texto.

MODAL VERBS (VERBOS MODAIS)


H uma srie de verbos em ingls que expressam idias gerais. J que o objetivo do ingls instrumental
diferente (estratgias de leitura), atenha-se s regras e tradues abaixo, pois elas sero suficientes para
nosso propsito.
CAN: Usamos CAN (do) para dizer que alguma coisa possvel ou que algum tem a
habilidade/capacidade para fazer algo. Podemos usar com a forma negativa (CAN NOT / CANNOT ou
CANT).
Exemplo: Can you swim very fast? No I cant, but I can play chess.
COULD: algumas vezes o COULD o passado do CAN. Ns usamos Could para dizer que algum tinha
habilidade geral para fazer alguma coisa. Podemos usar com a forma negativa (COULD NOT ou
COULDNT). Usamos Could especialmente com os seguintes verbos:

TO SEE TO HEAR TO SMELL TO TO FEEL TO REMEMBER TO UNDERSTAND


TASTE

Exemplo: My grandfather could speak five languages.


33
MUST / MUSTNT: Usamos MUST para dizer que ns temos certeza que alguma coisa certa.
Exemplos: 1. Fish must live in water. (necessidade)
2. Everybody must uphold laws. (obrigao)
3. He must be your father. (Deduo forte)
4. You mustnt tell anyone what I said. (proibio)
MAY: Usamos MAY e MIGHT para dizer que alguma coisa possvel ou seja, com 50% de certeza..
Tambm usamos para pedir permisso (de algo incerto, com baixa probabilidade ou mais formal). No
existe diferena importante entre MAY e MIGHT. Podemos dizer, por exemplo:
Paul may be in his office. OU Paul might be in his office. (probabilidade)
May I dance with your girlfriend? No, you may not. (permisso com baixa probabilidade)
SHOULD / SHOULDNT: Geralmente usamos SHOULD quando pedimos ou damos uma opinio sobre
alguma coisa. (frequentemente usamos I think/I dont think/do you think).
Exemplos:
I dont think you should work so hard.
Mike shouldnt drive really. He is too tired.

EXERCISES:
Traduza as seguintes sentenas para o portugus e escreva nos parnteses a idia expressada
pelos verbos modais em destaque.
1. We might have several problems in case inflation rises sharply. (_________________)
_______________________________________________________________________
2.They can manufacturer high-tech equipment, but they may have problems to ship it.
(_________________) (___________________)
__________________________________________________________________________
3.How much should we purchase from that supplier?
(_________________)
__________________________________________________________________________
4.A foreign company can encourage its employments to study languages.
(_________________)
__________________________________________________________________________
5.We mustn`t do this because it`s against the laws.
(_________________)
__________________________________________________________________________
6.Some terms may be included in such exemptions.
(_________________)
__________________________________________________________________________

34
7.She must be in trouble in the traffic because she never comes to work late.
(_________________)___________________________________________________________________
_______
8.People should be in contact with a foreign language more often, otherwise they won`t memorize new
vocabulary and structures.
(_________________) ____________________________________________________
9.Companies should develop equipment, processes and goods that are ecologically clean.
(_________________)
__________________________________________________________________________

O texto seguinte uma adptao do tpico sobre transistores extrado da publicao Components
Techinal Descriptions and Characteristics for Students da Siemens.
Transistors
General
Transistors are semiconductor components witch can be used for amplification, generation of oscillations
and for control and for control and switching purposes.
Basic Transistor Configurations
Transistors may be operated in three basic circuit configurations. This results in considerable differences in
the electrical characteristics. It is therefore necessary to indicate not only the
parameters but also the pertinent basic circuit configuration.
Depending on which of the three electrodes is used as the common pole for input and output circuit, the
configuration is called a common emmiter, common, or common collector configuration.

Exerccios de Interpretao de Texto


1. De acordo com o texto, quais so as aplicaes bsicas dos transistores?
2. Faa a verso para o portugus do item denominado Basic Transistor Configurations?

35
PUZZLE

Existem dezessete palavras no quadro abaixo. Encontre-as e indique a traduo de cada uma delas,
relacionando as colunas (as que no souber deixe em branco).
Comece localizando os cognatos.

E A T O P E R F O R M T T I S

N O T E L A R R Q B A R O Y I

G P D D U X C F D R T B O T N

I R E B T T O S T O R E T M C

N I V M A B M V I D R A H A E

E C E E R V P C E S A D E R T

N E L W M A U U U S L S D E H

T C O S D A T A E S F S W S E

R A P P A C E A C M E D H O N

I R E M G P R O G R A M E U M

E R D K V F O R E I T N E R L

S I A D E V I C E S U G L C O

V E R Y M U C H S E R U S E I

M S R T O H A N D L E N T S F

O E N V I R O N M E D I G I T

36
VOCABULARY

1) COMPUTER ( ) rodas dentadas; engrenagens


2) DATA ( ) contas (pequenas bolas com orifcio
3) FEATURE ( ) caractersticas; trao
4) TO STORE ( ) dados
5) TO PERFORM ( ) muito; bastante
6) BEADS ( ) mquina; motor; mecanismo
7) RODS ( ) computador
8) DEVICES ( ) guardar; armazenar
9) TOOTHED WHEELS ( ) desenvolvido
10) TO HANDLE ( ) dgito; qualquer numeral de 0 a 9
11) CARRIES ( ) manipular; lidar com
12) DIGIT ( ) desempenhar
13) ENGINE ( ) varetas; hastes
14) PROGRAM ( ) desde essa poca
15) SINCE THEN ( ) programa (srie de instrues)
16) DEVELOPED ( ) transportes; transferncias
17) VERY MUCH ( ) dispositivos

COMPUTERS: START POINT

A computer is a machine capable of executing computations on data. The distinguishing feature of a


computer is its ability to store its own instructions and to performance thousands of operations each
second.
The Abacus, on which information is stored by moving beads along rods, was one of the earliest calculating
devices. Blaise Pascal developed an adding machine in 1642 that used toothed wheel to handle carries
from on digit to the next. Charles Babbage developed the concept of a stored program computer when he
designed a calculating engine in 1833.
The first electronic digital computer was ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator), which was
built for the U.S. Army in 1945. In the same year John Von Neumann introduced the modern concept of a
stores program computer, in which the computer memory can store both programs and data.
Since then computer technology has developed very much.
(Adaptado de Galante, Ingls bsico para informtica,1992, p.9)

Responda s questes de acordo com o texto:


1) Quem desenhou uma mquina calculadora e em que ano? ________________________________
2) Qual foi o primeiro computador eletrnico digital e em que ano foi construdo? _________________
3) Ligue as colunas de acordo com a traduo.
Dados ( ) Hard disk
Teclado ( ) Floppy disk
Disquete ( ) Data
Disco rgido ( ) Memory
Memria ( ) Keyboard
4) Coloque verdadeiro (V) ou falso (F): No grupo nominal electronic digital computer podemos afirmar
que:
a) computer e digital so modificadores ( )
b) electronic e digital so modificadores ( )
c) electronic e computer so modificadores ( )

37
d) computer o ncleo ( )
e) electronic o ncleo ( )
5) Escreva um breve resumo relatando sobre o que trata o texto.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________

6) Retire do texto cinco (05) palavras cognatas com traduo:


_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
7) Retire do texto um (01) falso cognato e sua traduo.___________________________
8) Assinale abaixo, o nico facilitador e/ou estratgia que NO foi utilizada na leitura do texto. Justifique sua resposta.
Dicas tipogrficas;
Cognatos e palavras familiares;
Scanning;
Skimming;
Conhecimento de mundo.

9) D a traduo da sigla ENIAC.


__________________________________________________________
1) Relacione os cognatos e falsos cognatos encontrados no texto:
COGNATOS FALSOS

2) Qual o assunto principal abordado no texto?_____________________________________________


3) Qual a definio de computador?_____________________________________________________
4) Cite as siglas existentes no texto.______________________________________________________
5) Em que ano Charles Babbage desenhou uma mquina calculadora?__________________________
6) Qual foi um dos primeiros dispositivos de calcular e como funcionava?
____________________________________________________________________________________7)
Qual foi o primeiro computador eletrnico digital?______________________________
8) Em que ano foi construdo?________________________________________________

IMPERATIVO

A forma imperativa, utilizada para ordenar ou pedir algo, possui a mesma forma do infinitivo do verbo, sem
to:

To repair: consertar Repair the terminal.


Please repair the equipment.
Repair the engine, please.

38
Para formar o imperativo negativo, coloca-se do not (dont) antes do verbo:

To press: pressionar Dont press this button.


Please dont press the button.
Dont press this button, please

Com Let us (Lets) = vamos:


Usado antes do infinitivo do verbo, sem to, para sugerir ou convidar algum para uma ao conjunta.

Lets load the peripherals.


Lets stop.
Lets go.

EXERCISES:
Relacione as colunas de acordo com a traduo:
1) DRAG ( ) INCLUA
2) PRESS ( ) MUDE
3) CLICK ( ) PRESSIONE
4) CLOSE ( ) APAGUE
5) MOVE ( ) ARRASTE
6) GRAB ( ) PUXE
7) SELECT ( ) ABRA
8) OPEN ( ) CLIQUE
9) PUSH ( ) EXECUTE
10) PULL ( ) CANCELE
11) DELETE ( ) FECHE
12) RUN ( ) MOVA
13) INSTALL ( ) INSIRA
14) INSERT ( ) EMPURRE
15) INCLUDE ( ) SELECIONE
16) CHANGE ( ) PEGUE
17) CANCEL ( ) INSTALE

Internet

39
Internet started in 1969, in a military project in which 21 computers were linked. This means that a person in
one oh those computers could read the files of any other computer in the same network. This project was
called ARPANET. During the 70s and 80s, computer technology developed vary fast. Networks were
developed, like the ARPANET.You will do everything through Internet: shopping, electronic forums, debates
etc. The Internet will be the necessary basis for our everyday life. (Adapted from Sun, Amos)

Questions
Leia o texto acima, aplique as estratgias de leitura e responda:

1) O que o texto afirma sobre a Internet? Escolha apenas uma alternativa correta e traduza na linha
abaixo.
a) will be a military reality in the future
b) will be important for everyone
c) is made of 21 computers
d) can be used to develop technology very fast
e) teachers computer skills
traduo:
_______________________________________________________________________________

2) Explique o que ARPANET. Resposta em portugus.


____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

3) De acordo com o texto a frase computers were linked pode ser traduzida como:
a) computadores esto ligados
b) computadores eram desligados
c) computadores no eram conectados
d) computadores esto conectados
e) computadores estavam conectados

4) Explique o que aconteceu entre os anos 70 e 80? ________________________________________


_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
5) traduza a frase: a person in one of those computers could read the files of any other computer in the
same network. _______________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

40
HOW IS COMPUTER USED?
A computer is used first as a number processor, to continue to perform accurate and quick computations.
Second, as data processor, to handle, process, and print huge quantities of data. Third, as an information
analyzer, to aid and improve decision-making. And finally, as a knowledge processor, to make available to
the public vast banks as information through electronic channels called networks.

Examples of these four major users are:


Adding up the daily transactions at a bank (number processing)
Printing the charge account statements of a major department store (data processing)
Projecting sales for an industrial manufacturer (information analyzing);
Planning a vacation schedule (knowledge processing).

Source: (Galante, Ingls para informtica.)

VOCABULARY
Accurate = careful and exact = precisas, certeiras.
Quick = speedy, rapid = velozes, rpidas.
Huge = immense, enormous = enormes, colossais, imenso, vasto.
Decision-making = tomada de posio / tomada de deciso.
Available = acessible = disponveis, acessveis.
Networks = redes (de comunicao).
Adding up = achar a soma de
Charge account statements = relatrios de contas de crdito e dbito.
Vacation schedule = escala ou programao de frias.
Aid = auxiliar.
Major = principal
To handle = manipular

EXERCISES
1) Escreva abaixo os principais usos de um computador.
First as___________________________________________________________________
Second as_________________________________________________________________
Third as__________________________________________________________________
Finally as_________________________________________________________________
2) Ligue os exemplos e os usos.
(a) planning a vacation schedule ( ) data processing
(b) printing the charge account statements ( ) number processing
(c) projecting sales for an industrial manufacturer ( ) knowledge processing
(d) Adding up the daily transactions at a bank ( ) information analyzing

3) Escreva as palavras familiares encontradas no texto e suas tradues.

FAMILIAR TRADUO

41
4) Siga o exemplo. (to process, processor, processing)

a) to analyse,_______________________________________________________________
b) to project, ______________________________________________________________
c) to print, ________________________________________________________________
d) to plan, ________________________________________________________________
5) D a traduo das palavras do exerccio anterior.

6) Qual a fonte do texto?

1) Escreva um breve pargrafo explicando o que voc entendeu sobre o texto.

LOADING THE DOCUMENT

Up to 20 pages can be placed in the feeder at one time. The pages will be automatically fed into the fax
starting from the page on the bottom.

If you need to send or copy more than 20 pages, place the additional pages gently and carefully in
the feeder just before the last page is scanned. Do not try to force them in, as this may cause
double-feeding or jamming.
If your document consists of several large or thick pages which must be loaded one at a time,
insert each page into the feeder as the previous page is being scanned. Insert gently to prevent
double-feeding.

1 Adjust the document guide on the


right side of the feeder to the width

of your document.
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
42
2 Place the document face down and
push it gently into the document
feeder. The top edge of the docu-
ment should enter the fax first.

The feeder will draw the leading


edge of the document into the fax.
READY TO SEND will appear in
the display.
3 You can now make resolution and/
or contrast settings as described in
the following section, or dial the
other party as described in the sec-
tion, Dialing and transmission.

Important
If you need to remove the document from the feeder before the transmission or copying, first open the
operation panel by pulling the front edge up and then remove the document. If you try to pull out the
document without opening the operation panel, you may damage the feeder mechanism.

Source: FACSIMILE OPERATION MANUAL / SHARP


Questes sobre o texto:

1) Como voc deve proceder se precisar enviar ou copiar mais de 20 pginas?


_____________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________.
2) Qual deve ser o primeiro passo para se carregar o aparelho?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________.
3) Qual o segundo passo?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________.
4) O que pode acontecer se voc abrir puxar o documento sem abrir o painel de operao?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________.
5) Grife no texto a seguir 5 verbos modais e os seus verbos principais.

Wireless Networking
43
The term wireless networking refers to technology that enables two or more computers to communicate
using standard network protocols, but without network cabling. Strictly speaking, any technology that does
this could be called wireless networking. The current buzzword however generally refers to wireless LANs.
This technology, fuelled by the emergence of cross-vendor industry standards such as IEEE 802.11, has
produced a number of affordable wireless solutions that are growing in popularity with business and schools
as well as sophisticated applications where network wiring is impossible, such as in warehousing or point-
of-sale handheld equipment.

There are two kinds of wireless networks:

a. An Hoc or Peer-to Peer wireless network consists of a number of computers each equipped
with a wireless networking interface card. Each computer can communicate directly with all of the other
wireless enabled computers. They can share files and printers this way, but may not be able to access
wired LAN resources, unless one of the computers acts as a bridge to the wired LAN using special
software. (This is called "bridging")

Figure 1: Ad-Hoc or Peer-to Peer Networking.


Each computer with a wireless interface can communicate directly with all of the others.

b. A wireless network can also use an access point, or base station. In this type of network the
access point works like a hub, providing connectivity for the wireless computers. It can connect (or "bridge")
the wireless LAN to a wired LAN, allowing wireless computer access to LAN resources, such as file servers
or existing Internet Connectivity.

There are two types of access points:

i. Dedicated hardware access points (HAP) such as Lucent's WaveLAN, Apple's


Airport Base Station or WebGear's AviatorPRO. (See Figure 2). Hardware access points offer
comprehensive support of most wireless features, but check your requirements carefully.

ii. Software Access Points which run on a computer equipped with a wireless network
interface card as used in an ad-hoc or peer-to-peer wireless network. (See Figure 3) The Vicomsoft
InterGate suites are software routers that can be used as a basic Software Access Point, and include
features not commonly found in hardware solutions, such as Direct PPPoE support and extensive
configuration flexibility, but may not offer the full range of wireless features defined in the 802.11 standard.

With appropriate networking software support, users on the wireless LAN can share files and printers
located on the wired LAN and vice versa. Vicomsoft's solutions support file sharing using TCP/IP.

Figure 2: Hardware Access Point.


Wireless connected computers using a Hardware Access Point.

44
Figure 3: Software Access Point.
Wireless connected computers using a Software Access Point.

Leia o texto e responda:


1) O que uma rede de trabalho sem fio?

__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

2) Em que consiste a rede de trabalho sem fio Hoc ou Peer to peer?

__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

3) Uma rede de trabalho sem fio pode tambm usar um ponto de acesso, ou uma estao base.
Como este ponto de acesso trabalha?

__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

4) Quantos tipos de rede de trabalho sem fio existem, de acordo com o texto?

__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

45
5) Escreva o que as figuras 1, 2 e 3, respectivamente representam?
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

6) Retire do texto dez 10 cognatas e 10 familiares.

7) Circule abaixo todos os facilitadores e/ou estratgias utilizados na anlise e interpretao do texto.
a) Dicas tipogrficas d) Skimming
b) Cognatos e palavras familiares e) Conhecimento de mundo
c) Scanning
9) Com base no texto, circule a alternativa em que todas as palavras so falsos cognatos.
a) refers, term
b) more, file
c) using, interface
a) directly, generally
e) business, wireless

10) Retire do texto cinco (05) afixos (prefixos ou sufixos) com traduo.

AFIXO TRADUO

11) Retire do texto cinco (05) grupos nominais com traduo.

GRUPO NOMINAL TRADUO

12) De acordo com o texto, a quem os pronomes em destaque se referem?


That:______________________________________________________________________
They:______________________________________________________________________
Which:_____________________________________________________________________

13) D a traduo das palavras abaixo


1. To change 2. To connect
____________________________ ___________________________
3. To develop 4. To
___________________________ feed______________________________
5. To handle 6. To have
____________________________ ______________________________
7. To improve 8. To perform
___________________________ ___________________________

9. To plan 10. To run


______________________________ _______________________________
11. To save 12. To set up

46
______________________________ _____________________________
13. To supply 14. Tool ________________________________
____________________________
15. User 16. Very much
________________________________ ___________________________
17. Way 18. Wireless
________________________________ _____________________________
19. Wizard 20. Workgroup
______________________________ ___________________________

Photo

Your CV

Example:

NAME: Gavin H Alvarez


_____________________________________________________________________________________

ADDRESS: 26 Dryfield Road


Cambridge CB2 2DS
_____________________________________________________________________________________

TELEPHONE NUMBER: 01223 3268452


_____________________________________________________________________________________

E-MAIL ADDRESS: gavinhalvarez@btinternet.com


_____________________________________________________________________________________

DATE OF BIRTH: 14 June 1984


_____________________________________________________________________________________

EDUCATION
1995 2000 Graves High School for Boys
Graves Avenue
Cambridge CB3 4RG
_____________________________________________________________________________________

2000- 2002 Cam College of Engineering and Technology


Birch Road
Cambridge CB6 7YT
_____________________________________________________________________________________

QUALIFICATIONS

2000 GCSEs: English, Maths, General Science, Design and Technology, French,
Spanish, Art, and History
_____________________________________________________________________________________

2001 Level 1 Engineering and Technology foundation course


_____________________________________________________________________________________
47
2002 Level 2 Computing course specializing in software development
_____________________________________________________________________________________

WORK EXPERIENCE

AUGUST SEPTEMBER 2000 Temporary job as IT assistant


at Norriss Aeronautics, Cambridge.
_____________________________________________________________________________________

OCTOBER 2000 JUNE 2002 Saturday and holiday job testing computer games at Silicompany,
Cambridge.
_____________________________________________________________________________________

OTHER INFORMATION Bi-lingual in Spanish and English; clean driving licence

INTERESTS Developing computer games, member of college football team,


photography, and playing the guitar
_____________________________________________________________________________________

REFEREE Ms Daisy Valentine (course tutor)


Cam College of Engineering and Technology Birch Road -
Cambridge CB6 7YT
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Before you start

1 Have you ever had a part-time or work experience job? Tell your class:

what your job was


how you got it

Reading

2- Read the curriculum vitae (CV) quickly and choose the correct answers to the questions below.

1 What is a CV?

a) A description of someones family, education, likes and dislikes.


b) A description of someones education, work experience, and skills.

2 How is a CV arranged?

a) under headings
b) like a letter

3 Read the CV again and decide if the sentences (1-7) below are true (T) or false (F).

1 Gavin Alvarez lives in Cambridge. ( )


2 He is a student at Cam College. ( )
3 He passed his GCSEs in 2001. ( )
4 He has had Saturday and holiday jobs since 2000. ( )
5 He left Cam College in 2000. ( )
6 He is quite good at languages. ( )
7 He isnt interested in technology. ( )

48
Writing

4 Write your own CV in English using qualifications you already have, or ones that you think you might get
in the future. Use Gavins CV as a model for your writing.

Name
Address

Telephone number
e-mail address
Date of birth
Education

Qualifications

Work experience

Other information

Interests

Referee

O texto seguinte refere-se a um equipamento de laboratrio, de fabricante fictcio, tendo sido


adaptado a partir da anlise de alguns manuais de instruo.
Instruction Manual udio Signal Generator
Model OF 992 Arthur Systems
Description
The Arthur Audio Signal Generator Model 0F992 is a frequency generator with low distorcion output and
large frequency response, that covers the frequencies from 1 Hz to 100KHz in five ranges. It provides
square wave and sine wave signals, with an output amplitude of 20 Vpp into an open circuit or 10 Vpp
across a 600 ohms impedance.
Specifications.

49
Exerccios de Interpretao de texto
1. A qual equipamento referem-se estas especificaes?

2. Faa a verso para o portugus do item denominado Description.

3. Descreva as especificaes desse equipamento quanto a:


a) faixa de freqncias;
b) amplitude CA e CC da tenso de sada;
c) impedncia de sada.

4. Descreva as especificaes desse equipamento quanto ao:


a) sinal senoidal
b) sinal quadrado

Os textos informativos seguintes foram extrados do catlogo americano Radio Snack


Americas Techonolohgy Store.
Headphone I
Realistic LV 10. Electroacoustical design and 2 dynamic elements for clear, clean sound.
Foam earcushions. 20 20,000 Hz. 10 ft, coiled cord, plug.
Headphone II
Realistic New 45. Efficient rareerth magnets deliver deep, solid bass. Ideal for portable CD players. Weigh
just 3.3 ounces. 20 20,000 Hz. Light, flexible, 6 -ft, cord, 1/8 plug.
With 1/8 to adpter.

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Exerccios de Interpretao de Texto
1. Como esses dispositivos so chamados no Brasil?
2. Leia os textos e associe os dispositivos com os modelos descritos.
3. Qual o significado da frase clear, clean sound no primeiro texto?
4. Qual o significado da frase Light, flexible no segundo texto?
5. Quais so as dimenses dos cabos dos dois dispositivos?
6. Em relao ao plugue, qual a diferena entre os dispositivos?

Os textos informativos seguintes foram extrados do catlogo americano Radio Snack


Americas Technology Store.

80 Watt Stereo Amplifier


40 Watt Per Channel 20 25,000 Hz.
Delivers plenty of power and clean sound. Features auto power-on with LED, built-in DC-to-DC switching
power supply and high/low impedance noise-isolated input jacks. Overload protected, 1 x 7 x 67/8.

160-Watt Stereo Amplifier


80 Watt Per channel 20 30,000 Hz. Input level control, auto power-on with LED. DC-to-DC switching
power supply. Gold-plated, high/low impedance noise-isolated inputs. Overload protected, 11/2 x 83/4 x
71/2.

Exerccios de Interpretao de Texto


1. Quais so as diferenas entre os amplificadores em relao potncia e resposta em
frequncia?
2. Qual o significado da frase auto power-on with LED?
3. Qual o significado da frase DC-to-DC switching power supply?
4. Esses amplificadores foram projetados para serem instalados em que local?

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O anncio de propaganda seguinte foi extrado da revista americana Electronics.

Staggered fingers let case-mounted semis work harder in less space

Now you can safely operate such devices as TO-3, TO-6, TO-66, and plastics, at many times their bare
case power rating using our patented Staggered Finger dissipators. Weve got over 70 different models with
dissipation capabilities ranging from 3 to 35 watts in natural convenction, up to 125 watts in forced air. Why
are they better? Staggered Finger design increases dissipating surface, cuts re-radiation, and produces
turbulence in forced air. Send for catalog. IERC, 135 W, Magnolia Blvd., Burbank, Calif. 91502, a subsidiary
of Dynamics Corporation of America.

Exerccios de Interpretao de Texto:


1. Essa propaganda refere-se a qual dispositivo?
2. Quantos modelos desse dispositivo essa empresa fabrica?
3. Se voc tivesse de visitar essa empresas nos Estados Unidos, para que estado, cidade
e endereo voc iria?

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Abaixo encontramos alguns termos tcnicos em ingls. Vamos aprender o que significa
cada termo, tentando traduzi-los.

Amplitude Modulation (AM)


The baseband signal is caused to vary the amplitude or height of the carrier wave to create the
desired information content.

Amplifier
A device used to boost the strength of an electronic signal.

Analog
A form of transmitting information characterized by continuously variable quantities, as opposed to digital
transmission, which is characterized by discrete bits of information in numerical steps. An analog signal is
responsive to changes in light, sound, heat and pressure.

Analog-to-Digital Conversion (ADC)


Process of converting analog signals to a digital representation. DAC represents the reverse translation.

Antenna
A device for transmitting and receiving radio waves. Depending on their use and operating frequency,
antennas can take the form of a single piece of wire, a di-pole a grid such as a yagi array, a horn, a helix, a
sophisticated parabolic-shaped dish, or a phase array of active electronic elements of virtually any flat or
convoluted surface.

Cable
Transmission medium of copper wire or optical fiber wrapped in a protective cover.

Carrier Frequency
The main frequency on which a voice, data, or video signal is sent. Microwave and satellite communications
transmitters operate in the band from 1 to 14 GHz (a GHz is one billion cycles per second).

Cassegrain Antenna
The antenna principle that utilizes a sub reflector at the focal point which reflects energy to or from a feed
located at the apex of the main reflector.

Channel
A frequency band in which a specific broadcast signal is transmitted. Channel frequencies are specified in
the United States by the Federal Communications Commission. Television signals require a 6 MHz
frequency band to carry all the necessary picture detail.

Coaxial Cable
Cable consisting of a single copper conductor in the center surrounded by a plastic layer for insulation and
a braided metal outer shield.

Antenna
Any structure or device used to collect or radiate electromagnetic waves

Frequency
For a periodic function, the number of cycles or events per unit time.

Time
1. An epoch, i.e., the designation of an instant on a selected time scale, astronomical or atomic. It is used in
the sense of time of day. 2. On a time scale, the interval between two events, or the duration of an event. 3.
An apparently irreversible continuum of ordered events.

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Time scale
1. A time measuring system defined to relate the passage of temporal events since a selected epoch. Note:
The internationally recognized time interval is the second. Time scales are graduated in intervals such as
seconds, minutes, hours, days, and years, and in fractions of a second, such as milliseconds,
nanoseconds, and picoseconds. 2. Time coordinates placed on the abscissa (x-axis) of Cartesian-
coordinate graphs used for depicting waveforms and similar phenomena.

Frequency modulation (FM)


Modulation in which the instantaneous frequency of a sine wave carrier is caused to depart from the center
frequency by an amount proportional to the instantaneous value of themodulating signal. Note 1: In FM, the
carrier frequency is called the center frequency. Note 2: FM is a form of angle modulation. Note 3: In optical
communications, even if the electrical baseband signal is used to frequency-modulate an electrical carrier
(an "FM" optical communications), it is still the intensity of the lightwave that is varied (modulated) by the
electrical FM carrier. In this case, the information,as far as the lightwave is concerned, is the electrical FM
carrier. The lightwave is varied in intensity at an instantaneous rate corresponding to the instantaneous
frequency of the electrical FM carrier.

Frequency
For a periodic function, the number of cycles or events per unit time.

Modulation
The process, or result of the process, of varying a characteristic of a carrier, in accordance with an
information-bearing signal.

Information
1. The meaning that a human assigns to data by means of the known conventions used in their
representation. 2. In intelligence usage, unprocessed data of every description which may be used in the
production of intelligence.

Signal
1. Detectable transmitted energy that can be used to carry information. 2. A time-dependent variation of a
characteristic of a physical phenomenon, used to convey information. 3. As applied to electronics, any
transmitted electrical impulse. 4. Operationally, a type of message, the text of which consists of one or more
letters, words, characters, signal flags, visual displays, or special sounds, with prearranged meaning and
which is conveyed or transmitted by visual, acoustical, or electrical means.

Communications
1.Information transfer, among users or processes, according to agreed conventions. 2. The branch of
technology concerned with the representation, transfer, interpretation, and processing of data among
persons, places, and machines. Note: The meaning assigned to the data must be preserved during these
operations.

Telephony
1. The branch of science devoted to the transmission, reception, and reproduction of sounds, such as
speech and tones that represent digits for signaling. Note 1: Transmission may be via various media, such
as wire, optical fibers, or radio. Note 2: Analog representations of sounds may be digitized, transmitted,
and, on reception, converted back to analog form. Note 3: "Telephony" originally entailed only the
transmission of voice and voice-frequency data currently; it includes new services, such as the transmission
of graphics information 2. A form of telecommunication set up for the transmission of speech or, in some
cases, other sounds.

Transmission
1. The dispatching, for reception elsewhere, of a signal, message , or other form of information.
2. The propagation of a signal, message, or other form of information by any means, such as by telegraph,
telephone, radio, television , or facsimile via any medium, such as wire, coaxial cable, microwave, optical

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fiber , or radio frequency. 3. In communication systems, a series ofdata units, such as blocks, messages, or
frames. 4. The transfer of electrical power from one location to another via conductors.

Propagation
The motion of waves through or along a medium. Note: For electromagnetic waves, propagation may occur
in a vacuum as well as in material media.

As respectivas definies abaixo so referentes aos componentes encontrados no Kit


Didtico de Microondas. Traduza as especificaes de cada componente.

Techinical descriptions of components used in ED-3000

1. Gunn Oscillator: is connected to a 8~10 V DC power source. The power out put of the Gunn oscillator
ranges from 5 to 20 milliwatts, depending upon the supply voltage.
2. PIN-diode modulator: utilizes the property of a PIN diode which is placed across a waveguide.
3. Frequency meter: The basic principle of frequency meter is to join the frequency to a waveguide.
4. Variable attenuator: provides na attenuation by varying the degree of insertion of a matched resistive strip
into a waveguide.
5. Slotted line: is used to probe the amplitude and the phase of the standing wave pattern.
6. Reflecting sheet; a mean of reflecting electrmagnetic waves in free space when measuring the
wavelength of a signal.
7. Waveguide: used in measurements of the wavelength and the phase velocity inside a waveguide.

D o significado dos termos tcnicos abaixo:


Remote interface- cellphone-
Control- slot-
Process- phonecard-
Sensor- buttons-
Reference output- pliers-
Contorller- screw-
Focus- screwdriverfloppy
disk- generatorkeyboard-
socketmemory-
plugcable-
pinmobile
phone- electrode
Referncias

BOECKNER, Keith & BROWN, P. Charles. Oxford English for Computing.Oxford:Oxford University Press, 1996.
CASTLEMAN, R. K. Digital Image Processing. USA: Prentice Hall, 2000.
CRUZ, Dcio Torres & SILVA, Alba Valria & ROSAS, Marta. Ingls.com.textos para informtica. Salvador: O Autor ,
2001.
GALANTE, T. P. Ingls para Processamento de Dados. So Paulo: Atlas, 1996.
MARTINS, Elisabeth P. & PASQUALIN, Ernesto & AMOS, Eduardo. Graded English. So Paulo: Moderna,1993.
MUNHOZ, Rosngela. Ingls Instrumental Estratgias de Leitura. Mdulo I. So Paulo: TEXTO NOVO, 2000.
________.Ingls Instrumental Estratgias de Leitura. Mdulo II. So Paulo: TEXTO NOVO, 2001.
Internet: sites diversos

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