You are on page 1of 449

Language,

Culture,
and Society
F I F T H E D I T I O N

Language,
Culture,
and Society
An Introduction to
Linguistic Anthropology

ZDENEK SALZMANN,
J A M E S M . S TA N L A W,
N O B U KO A DAC H I

".FNCFSPGUIF1FSTFVT#PPLT(SPVQ
8FTUWJFX1SFTTXBTGPVOEFEJOJO#PVMEFS $PMPSBEP CZOPUBCMFQVCMJTIFS
BOEJOUFMMFDUVBM'SFE1SBFHFS8FTUWJFX1SFTTDPOUJOVFTUPQVCMJTITDIPMBSMZUJUMFT
BOEIJHIRVBMJUZVOEFSHSBEVBUFBOEHSBEVBUFMFWFMUFYUCPPLTJODPSFTPDJBM
TDJFODFEJTDJQMJOFT8JUICPPLTEFWFMPQFE XSJUUFO BOEFEJUFEXJUIUIFOFFETPG
TFSJPVTOPOGJDUJPOSFBEFST QSPGFTTPST BOETUVEFOUTJONJOE 8FTUWJFX1SFTT
IPOPSTJUTMPOHIJTUPSZPGQVCMJTIJOHCPPLTUIBUNBUUFS

$PQZSJHIUCZ8FTUWJFX1SFTT

1VCMJTIFECZ8FTUWJFX1SFTT
".FNCFSPGUIF1FSTFVT#PPLT(SPVQ

"MMSJHIUTSFTFSWFE1SJOUFEJOUIF6OJUFE4UBUFTPG"NFSJDB/PQBSUPGUIJTCPPL
NBZCFSFQSPEVDFEJOBOZNBOOFSXIBUTPFWFSXJUIPVUXSJUUFOQFSNJTTJPOFYDFQU
JOUIFDBTFPGCSJFGRVPUBUJPOTFNCPEJFEJODSJUJDBMBSUJDMFTBOESFWJFXT'PS
JOGPSNBUJPO BEESFTT8FTUWJFX1SFTT $FOUSBM"WFOVF #PVMEFS $0
'JOEVTPOUIF8PSME8JEF8FCBUXXXXFTUWJFXQSFTTDPN

&WFSZFGGPSUIBTCFFONBEFUPTFDVSFSFRVJSFEQFSNJTTJPOTGPSBMMUFYU JNBHFT
NBQT BOEPUIFSBSUSFQSJOUFEJOUIJTWPMVNF

8FTUWJFX1SFTTCPPLTBSFBWBJMBCMFBUTQFDJBMEJTDPVOUTGPSCVMLQVSDIBTFT
JOUIF6OJUFE4UBUFTCZDPSQPSBUJPOT JOTUJUVUJPOT BOEPUIFSPSHBOJ[BUJPOT'PS
NPSFJOGPSNBUJPO QMFBTFDPOUBDUUIF4QFDJBM.BSLFUT%FQBSUNFOUBUUIF1FSTFVT
#PPLT(SPVQ $IFTUOVU4USFFU 4VJUF 1IJMBEFMQIJB 1" PSDBMM

 FYU PSFNBJMTQFDJBMNBSLFUT!QFSTFVTCPPLTDPN

-JCSBSZPG$POHSFTT$BUBMPHJOHJO1VCMJDBUJPO%BUB
4BM[NBOO ;EFOFL
-BOHVBHF DVMUVSF BOETPDJFUZBOJOUSPEVDUJPOUPMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHZ
;EFOFL4BM[NBOO +BNFT.4UBOMBX /PCVLP"EBDIJUIFE
Q  DN
*ODMVEFTCJCMJPHSBQIJDBMSFGFSFODFTBOEJOEFY
*4#/ BMLQBQFS
*4#/ FCPPL

"OUISPQPMPHJDBMMJOHVJTUJDT  *4UBOMBX +BNFT  **"EBDIJ /PCVLP  ***5JUMF
14
ED



CONTENTS

Preface ix

1 Introducing Linguistic Anthropology 1


8IZ4IPVME8F4UVEZ-BOHVBHF -BOHVBHFJO%BJMZ-JGF 
.PEFSO.ZUIT$PODFSOJOH-BOHVBHFT 
#SJFG)JTUPSZPG"OUISPQPMPHZ 
"OUISPQPMPHZ -JOHVJTUJDT BOE-JOHVJTUJD"OUISPQPMPHZ 
4VNNBSZBOE$PODMVTJPOT 

2 Methods of Linguistic Anthropology 17


$POUSBTUJOH-JOHVJTUJDTXJUI-JOHVJTUJD"OUISPQPMPHZ 
5IF'JFMEXPSL$PNQPOFOU 
"$IFDLMJTUGPS3FTFBSDIJOUIF'JFME 
4VNNBSZBOE$PODMVTJPOT 

3 Language Is Sound: Phonology 31


5IF"OBUPNZBOE1IZTJPMPHZPG4QFFDI 
"SUJDVMBUJPOPG4QFFDI4PVOET 
'SPN1IPOFTUP1IPOFNFT 
1IPOFNFTPG&OHMJTI 
1SPTPEJD'FBUVSFT 
&UJDTBOE&NJDT 
4VNNBSZBOE$PODMVTJPOT 

4 Structure of Words and Sentences 53


.PSQIFNFTBOE"MMPNPSQIT 
.PSQIPMPHJDBM1SPDFTTFT 
.PSQIPQIPOFNJDT 

v
vi CONTENTS

5IF4FOUFODFBTB6OJUPG"OBMZTJT 
*OGMFDUJPOTBOE8PSE0SEFS 
$IPNTLZBOE5SBOTGPSNBUJPOBM(FOFSBUJWF(SBNNBS 
4VNNBSZBOE$PODMVTJPOT 

5 Nonverbal Communication 73
1BSBMJOHVJTUJDT 
,JOFTJDT 
1SPYFNJDT 
8IJTUMFi-BOHVBHFT w
4JHO-BOHVBHFT 
4VNNBSZBOE$PODMVTJPOT 

6 The Development and Evolution of Language 87


$PNNVOJDBUJPOBOE*UT$IBOOFMT 
$PNNVOJDBUJPO"NPOH4PDJBM*OTFDUT 
$PNNVOJDBUJPO"NPOH/POIVNBO1SJNBUFTBOE0UIFS7FSUFCSBUFT 
8IFO%PFTB$PNNVOJDBUJPO4ZTUFN#FDPNF-BOHVBHF 
.JMFTUPOFTJO)VNBO&WPMVUJPO 
%FTJHO'FBUVSFTPG-BOHVBHF 
-BOHVBHFBTBO&WPMVUJPOBSZ1SPEVDU 
.POPHFOFTJT7FSTVT1PMZHFOFTJT 
&TUJNBUJOHUIF"HFPG-BOHVBHF-JOHVJTUJD$POTJEFSBUJPOT 
&TUJNBUJOHUIF"HFPG-BOHVBHF5IF7JFXGSPN1SFIJTUPSZ 
&TUJNBUJOHUIF"HFPG-BOHVBHF&WJEFODFGSPN"OBUPNZ 
4VNNBSZBOE$PODMVTJPOT 

7 Acquiring Language(s): Life with First Languages,


Second Languages, and More 119
5IF'JSTU4UFQTPG-BOHVBHF"DRVJTJUJPOJO$IJMEIPPE 
5IFPSJFTPG-BOHVBHF"DRVJTJUJPO 
-BOHVBHFBOEUIF#SBJO 
#JMJOHVBMBOE.VMUJMJOHVBM#SBJOT 
5IF4PDJBM"TQFDUTPG.VMUJMJOHVBMJTN 
$PEF4XJUDIJOH $PEF.JYJOH BOE%JHMPTTJB 
4VNNBSZBOE$PODMVTJPOT 

8 Language Through Time 141


)PX-BOHVBHFT"SF$MBTTJGJFE 
CONTENTS vii

*OUFSOBMBOE&YUFSOBM$IBOHFT 
)PXBOE8IZ4PVOE$IBOHFT0DDVS 
3FDPOTUSVDUJOH1SPUPMBOHVBHFT 
3FDPOTUSVDUJOHUIF"ODFTUSBM)PNFMBOE 
3FDPOTUSVDUJOHB1SPUPDVMUVSF 
5SZJOHUP%BUFUIF1BTU(MPUUPDISPOPMPHZ 
5JNF1FSTQFDUJWFJO$VMUVSF 
4VNNBSZBOE$PODMVTJPOT 

9 Languages in Variation and Languages in Contact 169


*EJPMFDUT 
%JBMFDUT 
4UZMFT 
-BOHVBHF$POUBDU 
1JEHJOT 
'SPN1JEHJOTUP$SFPMFT 
-BOHVBHF$POUBDUJOUIF$POUFNQPSBSZ8PSME 
5IF8PSMEPG-BOHVBHFT 
4VNNBSZBOE$PODMVTJPOT 

10 Ethnography of Communication 185


4QFFDI$PNNVOJUZBOE3FMBUFE$PODFQUT 
6OJUTPG4QFFDI#FIBWJPS 
$PNQPOFOUTPG$PNNVOJDBUJPO 
4VCBOVO%SJOLJOH5BML 
"UUJUVEFT5PXBSEUIF6TFPG4QFFDI 
3FDFOU5SFOETJOUIF&UIOPHSBQIZPG4QFBLJOH 
4VNNBSZBOE$PODMVTJPOT 

11 Culture as Cognition, Culture as Categorization:


Meaning and Language in the Conceptual World 205
$PODFQUT 8PSET BOE$BUFHPSJFT 
5IF-FYJDBM/BUVSFPG$PODFQUT 
5IF3JTFBOE 3FMBUJWF
'BMMPG&UIOPTDJFODF 
4PVOE4ZNCPMJTNBOE4ZOFTUIFTJB 
4UVEJFTPG%JTDPVSTF 
4VNNBSZBOE$PODMVTJPOT 
viii CONTENTS

12 Language, Culture, and Thought 225


5IF4UJNVMVTPG4BQJST8SJUJOHT 
5IF8IPSG)ZQPUIFTJTPG-JOHVJTUJD3FMBUJWJUZBOE-JOHVJTUJD
%FUFSNJOJTN 
8IPSG T)ZQPUIFTJT3FDPOTJEFSFE 
$PMPS/PNFODMBUVSFBOE0UIFS$IBMMFOHFTUP-JOHVJTUJD3FMBUJWJUZ 
5IFPSFUJDBM"MUFSOBUJWFTUP-JOHVJTUJD3FMBUJWJUZ 
'VUVSF5FTUTPG-JOHVJTUJD3FMBUJWJUZBOE-JOHVJTUJD%FUFSNJOJTN 
4VNNBSZBOE$PODMVTJPOT 

13 Language and Ideology: Variations in Class, Gender, 257


Ethnicity, and Nationality
-BOHVBHF 4PDJBM$MBTT BOE*EFOUJUZ 
-BOHVBHFBOE(FOEFS 
-BOHVBHF i3BDF wBOE&UIOJDJUZ 
-BOHVBHFBOE/BUJPOBMJUZ 
4VNNBSZBOE$PODMVTJPOT 

14 Linguistic Anthropology in a Globalized World 291


-BOHVBHF1MBOOJOH 
-JUFSBDZ 8SJUJOH BOE&EVDBUJPO 
5IF-JGFBOE%FBUIPG-BOHVBHFT 
*OUFSDVMUVSBM$PNNVOJDBUJPOBOE5SBOTMBUJPO 
-BOHVBHFBOEUIF-BX 
&OHMJTIBTBO*OUFSOBUJPOBM-BOHVBHF 
"MXBZT0O/FX-JUFSBDJFTBOE-BOHVBHFJOBO0OMJOF(MPCBM8PSME 
&UIJDBM2VFTUJPOTBOE4UBOEBSETPG$POEVDU 
4VNNBSZBOE$PODMVTJPOT 

Resource Manual and Study Guide 327


Answers to the Objective Study Questions and Problems 371
Glossary 377
Bibliography 389
Languages Mentioned in the Text and Their Locations (Map) 419
Index 423
P R E FAC E TO T H E F I F T H E D I T I O N

*UHJWFTVTHSFBUQMFBTVSFUPXSJUFUIFQSFGBDFUPUIFGJGUIFEJUJPOPG-BOHVBHF
$VMUVSF BOE4PDJFUZ5PBMBSHFFYUFOU UIJTFEJUJPOSFQSFTFOUTBOFXCPPL
CFDBVTFJUDPOUBJOTUIFDPOUSJCVUJPOTPGUXPDPBVUIPST +BNFT4UBOMBXBOE
/PCVLP"EBDIJ5IBOLTUPUIFNUIFCPPLOPXJODPSQPSBUFTTPNFPGUIF
NPTUSFDFOUNBUFSJBMSFGMFDUJOHDIBOHFTJOJOGPSNBUJPOUFDIOPMPHZBOEEJH
JUBMDPNNVOJDBUJPO GFMUFWFOJOTVDIGJFMETBTMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHZ5IF
DIBOHFTJOUIFUFYUBSFBMTPSFGMFDUFEJOUIFFYQBOEFE3FTPVSDF.BOVBMBOE
4UVEZ(VJEFBTXFMMBTJOUIF/PUFTBOE4VHHFTUJPOTGPS'VSUIFS3FBEJOH
XIJDITVQQMFNFOUUIFUFYUPGBMMGPVSUFFODIBQUFST
8FBSFJOEFCUFEUPUIFFEJUPSJBMTUBGGBU8FTUWJFX1SFTTXIPIBWFTFFO
UIJTFEJUJPOUISPVHIUIFQSPDFTTPGFEJUJOHBOEQSPEVDUJPO JOQBSUJDVMBSFE
JUPS&WBO$BSWFSBOE4BOESB#FSJT XIPTFQBUJFODFBOETVQQPSUIBWFCFFO
WFSZWBMVBCMF8FIPQFUIBUUIFSFBEFSTBOEVTFSTPGUIJTOFXFEJUJPOXJMM
HBJOBTNVDIGSPNVTJOHUIFCPPLBTXF UIFBVUIPST EJEGSPNQSFQBSJOHJU

Zdenek Salzmann,
James M. Stanlaw, and
Nobuko Adachi

ix
1

Introducing Linguistic
Anthropology

5IFGJSTUUIJOHUIBUTPNFPOFSFBETJOBOZJOUSPEVDUPSZUFYUCPPLJTUIFBV
UIPSTDBQTVMFEFGJOJUJPOPGUIFTVCKFDUNBUUFSBUIBOE*OUIJTCPPL XFIBWF
UXPEJTDJQMJOFTUIBU BUGJSTUHMBODF NJHIUBQQFBSUPCFWFSZEJGGFSFOU4UFSFP
UZQJDBMMZ QFPQMFUIJOLPGBOUISPQPMPHJTUTJOQJUIIFMNFUTPVUJOBKVOHMF
TPNFQMBDFVODPWFSJOHCJ[BSSFUSJCBMDVTUPNT-JLFXJTF UIFZJNBHJOFBMJO
HVJTUBTTPNFPOFXIPDBOTQFBLBEP[FOMBOHVBHFTGMVFOUMZ PSFMTFBTB
TDIPMBSQPSJOHPWFSBODJFOUUFYUTEFDJQIFSJOHTFDSFUIJFSPHMZQIJDNFTTBHFT
*OSFBMJUZ UIFTFUXPGJFMETBSFIBSEMZMJLFUIBU CVUUIBUEPFTOPUNBLFUIFN
BOZMFTTFYDJUJOH5IJTCPPLJTBCPVUIPXUIPTFQFPQMFXIPDBMMUIFNTFMWFT
MJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHJTUTTUVEZUIFVOJWFSTBMQIFOPNFOPOPGIVNBOMBO
HVBHF#VUCFGPSFXFHPJOUPUIFTQFDJGJDTPGIPXUIFZEPUIBU XFTIPVMEBTL
PVSTFMWFTBOFWFONPSFCBTJDRVFTUJPO

Why Should We Study Language? Language in Daily Life


i8IZTIPVME*TUVEZMBOHVBHF wJTIBSEMZBSIFUPSJDBMRVFTUJPO.PTUQFPQMF
OFWFSGPSNBMMZTUVEZMBOHVBHFBOEUIFZTFFNUPHFUBMPOHGJOF#VUEPUIFZ
'PSFYBNQMF IBWFZPVFWFSBSSBOHFEUPNFFUTPNFPOFiOFYU5VFTEBZwPOMZ
UPGJOEUIBUZPVSGSJFOEXBTQMBOOJOHUPTIPXVQBXFFLMBUFSUIBOZPVIBE
BOUJDJQBUFE 0SXIZEPXFOFFEMBXZFSTUPUSBOTMBUFBDPOUSBDUGPSVTXIFO
UIFEPDVNFOUJTXSJUUFOJOBMBOHVBHFUIBUBMMQBSUJFTTIBSF %BWJE$SZTUBM

QPJOUTPVUUIBUDPNNVOJDBUJPOCFUXFFOQBUJFOUTBOEQIZTJDJBOT
DBOCFFYUSFNFMZEJGGJDVMUHJWFOUIFEJGGFSFODFTJOUSBJOJOHBOEQFSTQFDUJWFPG

1
2 Chapter 1: Introducing Linguistic Anthropology

UIFQFSTPOTJOWPMWFE5IFEPDUPSPGUFOIBTUPUBLFBHFOFSBMQISBTF TVDIBT
iBEVMMBDIFJONZTJEF wBOEGPSNVMBUFBEJBHOPTJTBOEUSFBUNFOUCBTFETPMFMZ
POUIJTEFTDSJQUJPO"OEXIFOSFTQPOEJOHUPXIBUUIFQBUJFOUIBTTBJE UIF
EPDUPS NVTU DIPPTF IFS XPSET DBSFGVMMZ 8IBU B EPDUPS DBMMT B iCFOJHO
HSPXUIwNJHIUCFIFBSEBTiDBODFSwCZUIFQBUJFOU
"UTDIPPMXFBSFDPOGSPOUFEXJUIMBOHVBHFQSPCMFNTUIFNJOVUFXFXBML
JOUIFEPPS4PNFBSFPCWJPVTi*DBOUVOEFSTUBOE4IBLFTQFBSF*UIPVHIU
IFTQPLF&OHMJTI8IZJTIFTPEJGGJDVMU w0UIFSQSPCMFNTBSFOPUTPPCWJPVT
i8IBUJTUIFEJGGFSFODFCFUXFFOXIPBOEXIPN %PFTOUPOFNBLFNF
TPVOE#SJUJTI wi8IZEP*IBWFUPTBZAZPVBOE*JOTUFBEPGANFBOEZPV w
4PNFQSPCMFNT TVDIBTUIFTVCUMFTFYJTNGPVOEJOTPNFUFYUCPPLT NBZCF
CFZPOEPVSFWFSZEBZQTZDIPMPHJDBMUISFTIPME1SPCMFNTPGFUIOJDJUZBOE
DPNNVOJUZJEFOUJUZDBOCFTFFOJOTVDIDPOUSPWFSTJBMJTTVFTBTCJMJOHVBMFE
VDBUJPOPSUIFUFBDIJOHPG&CPOJDT
-BOHVBHFJTJOWPMWFEJOBXJEFWBSJFUZPGIVNBOTJUVBUJPOT QFSIBQT
FWFSZ TJUVBUJPO*GTPNFUIJOHQFSNFBUFTFWFSZBTQFDUPGIVNBOMJGF BOEJT
TPDPNQMFYUIBUXFDBOOPUGBUIPNJUTJOGMVFODF XFTIPVMETUVEZJU5IF
TDJFOUJGJDTUVEZPGMBOHVBHFJTPOFPGUIFLFZTUPVOEFSTUBOEJOHNVDIPG
IVNBOCFIBWJPS
5IFTUVEZPGMBOHVBHFXJMMOPUJOJUTFMGTPMWFBMMUIFXPSMETQSPCMFNT*UJT
VTFGVMFOPVHIUPNBLFQFPQMFBXBSFUIBUUIFTFQSPCMFNTPGMBOHVBHFFYJTU
BOEUIBUUIFZBSFXJEFTQSFBEBOEDPNQMFY#FTJEFTCFJOHPGJOUFMMFDUVBMJO
UFSFTU UIFO UIFTUVEZPGMBOHVBHFPGGFSTBTQFDJBMWBOUBHFQPJOUPGiMJOHVJT
UJD TFOTJUJ[BUJPOw $SZTUBM 
 UP QSPCMFNT UIBU BSF PG DPODFSO UP
FWFSZPOF SFHBSEMFTTPGEJTDJQMJOFBOECBDLHSPVOE
4PNFPGUIFRVFTUJPOTXFXJMMBEESFTTJOUIFCPPL UIFO BSFCSPBECVU
GVOEBNFOUBMGPSFYBNQMF

 )PXDBOMBOHVBHFBOEDVMUVSFCFBEFRVBUFMZEFTDSJCFE
 %PPUIFSBOJNBMT TVDIBTDIJNQBO[FFTVTJOH"NFSJDBOTJHOMBOHVBHF
TIPXMJOHVJTUJDDBQBDJUJFT
 )PXEJEMBOHVBHFPSJHJOBUF )PXEJEJUDPOUSJCVUFUPIVNBOFWPMV
UJPOBOEUIFEFWFMPQNFOUPGDVMUVSF
 )PXBSFMBOHVBHFTBDRVJSFE
 )PXDBOMBOHVBHFTCFDMBTTJGJFEJOPSEFSUPTIPXUIFSFMBUJPOTIJQT
BNPOHUIFN
 8IBUJTUIFSFMBUJPOTIJQCFUXFFOMBOHVBHFBOEUIPVHIU
Modern Myths Concerning Languages 3

 8IBUJTNFBOJOH )PXJTJUCFTUPXFE )PXJTJUMFBSOFE


 8IBUEPFTJUNFBOUPCFIVNBO

Modern Myths Concerning Languages


5IJTNBZCFBHPPEQMBDFUPQSPWJEFJOGPSNBUJPOBCPVUMBOHVBHFTJOHFOFSBM
JOPSEFSUPTFUTPNFCBTJDNBUUFSTTUSBJHIU&WFSZIVNBOCFJOHTQFBLTBMBO
HVBHF CVUXIBUQFPQMFUIJOLBCPVUMBOHVBHFTQBSUJDVMBSMZUIPTFBCPVU
XIJDIUIFZLOPXMJUUMFPSOPUIJOHJTRVJUFBOPUIFSNBUUFS$POTJEFSUIFGPM
MPXJOHTUBUFNFOUT8IJDIPOFTEPZPVUIJOLBSFUSVF

.PTUFWFSZXIFSFJOUIFXPSMEFWFSZPOFJTNPOPMJOHVBMPSNPOPEJBMFDUBM
KVTUMJLFJO"NFSJDB
4QFMMJOHJO&OHMJTIJTCBTJDBMMZQIPOFUJD BOEHPWFSOFECZDMFBSSVMFT
.PTUXSJUJOHTZTUFNTJOUIFXPSMEBSFCBTFEPOTPNFLJOEPGBMQIBCFU
*GZPVSFBMMZXBOUUPMFBSO4QBOJTI EPOUUBLFBDMBTTJOTDIPPM*UJTCFUUFS
UPKVTUHP TBZ UP.FYJDPGPSBNPOUIPSUXP
4PNFMBOHVBHFTBSFOBUVSBMMZIBSEFSUPMFBSOUIBOPUIFST
4PNFMBOHVBHFTBSFOBUVSBMMZNPSFiQSJNJUJWFwUIBOPUIFST
-BOHVBHFJUTFMGJTOPUBNCJHVPVTJUJTQFPQMFXIPNJTJOUFSQSFUUIJOHTUIBU
DBVTFQSPCMFNT
4PNFEJBMFDUTBSF XFll... TUVQJE EFNPOTUSBUJOHUIBUBQFSTPOJTVOF
EVDBUFE
5IFVTFPGMBOHVBHFTPNFIPXSFGMFDUTPOFTJOUFMMJHFODF
1FPQMFXIPBSFGMVFOUJOBOPUIFSMBOHVBHFNBZOPUIBWFDPNQMFUFNBTUFSZ
PGUIFJSOBUJWFMBOHVBHF
5IFBCJMJUZUPMFBSOBGPSFJHOMBOHVBHFJTBTQFDJBMLJOEPGTLJMMUIBUTPNF
PGVTIBWF BOEPUIFSTEPOU
"TPVSHSBEFTDIPPMUFBDIFSTUBVHIUVT JGZPVXBOUUPHFUJUSJHIU HPUPUIF
EJDUJPOBSZ
1FPQMFXIPVTFEPVCMFOFHBUJWFT i*EPOUOFFEOPBOUISPQPMPHZDMBTTFTw

BSFSFBMMZOPUUIJOLJOHMPHJDBMMZ
*UJTFBTJFSUPMFBSO$IJOFTFJGZPVDPNFGSPNB$IJOFTFGBNJMZCBDL
HSPVOEUIBOGSPNB&VSPQFBOGBNJMZ
-BOHVBHFTTFFNUPIBWFTQFDJBMDIBSBDUFSJTUJDTPSQFSTPOBMJUJFT FH 'SFODI
JTSPNBOUJD (FSNBOJTTDJFOUJGJD 3VTTJBOJTTPVMGVM 4QBOJTIJTIPU
CMPPEFE *UBMJBOJTFNPUJPOBM $IJOFTFJTTJNQMFBOETUSBJHIUGPSXBSE
4 Chapter 1: Introducing Linguistic Anthropology

+BQBOFTFJTNZTUFSJPVT TQJSJUVBM BOE;FOMJLF &OHMJTIJTMPHJDBM (SFFL


JTQIJMPTPQIJDBM FUD
"MM/BUJWF"NFSJDBOTHFOFSBMMZTQFBLUIFTBNFMBOHVBHFUIBUTXIZUIFZ
DPVMEDPNNVOJDBUFXJUIFBDIPUIFSVTJOHTJHOMBOHVBHF MJLFJOUIF
NPWJFT

5IFNPSFXPSETZPVLOPX UIFCFUUFSZPVLOPXZPVSMBOHVBHF

.PTUBOUISPQPMPHJTUTBOEMJOHVJTUTXPVMETBZUIBUBMMPGUIFBCPWFTUBUF
NFOUTBSFTVTQFDU JGOPUPVUSJHIUXSPOH-FUVTCSJFGMZDPOTJEFSBGFXPGUIFTF
NJTDPODFQUJPOTDPODFSOJOHMBOHVBHFTJONPSFEFUBJM CFDBVTFUIFZBQQFBS
UPCFXJEFTQSFBE FWFOBNPOHUIPTFXIPBSFPUIFSXJTFXFMMFEVDBUFEBOE
LOPXMFEHFBCMF5IFTFNJTDPODFQUJPOTXFDBOSFGFSUPBTNZUIT JOUIFTFOTF
PGCFJOHVOGPVOEFE GJDUJUJPVT BOEGBMTFCFMJFGTPSJEFBT
5IFNPTUDPNNPONJTDPODFQUJPOJTUIFCFMJFGUIBUVOXSJUUFOMBOHVBHFT
BSFiQSJNJUJWF wXIBUFWFSUIBUNBZNFBO5IPTFXIPUIJOLUIBUiQSJNJUJWFw
MBOHVBHFTTUJMMFYJTUJOWBSJBCMZBTTPDJBUFUIFNXJUITPDJFUJFTUIBUMBZQFPQMF
SFGFSUPBTiQSJNJUJWFwFTQFDJBMMZUIFWFSZGFXSFNBJOJOHCBOETPGIVOUFS
HBUIFSFST5IFSFBSFPGDPVSTFEJGGFSFODFTJODVMUVSBMDPNQMFYJUZCFUXFFO
IVOUJOHBOEDPMMFDUJOHCBOETBOETNBMMUSJCBMTPDJFUJFTPOUIFPOFIBOEBOE
NPEFSOJOEVTUSJBMTPDJFUJFTPOUIFPUIFS CVUOPIVNBOCFJOHTUPEBZBSF
iQSJNJUJWFwJOUIFTFOTFPGCFJOHMFTTCJPMPHJDBMMZFWPMWFEUIBOPUIFST0OF
XPVMECFKVTUJGJFEJOUBMLJOHBCPVUBQSJNJUJWFMBOHVBHFPOMZJGSFGFSSJOHUP
UIFMBOHVBHFPG GPSFYBNQMF UIFFYUJODUGPSFSVOOFSPG)PNPTBQJFOT PGB
IBMGNJMMJPOZFBSTBHP&WFOUIPVHIXFEPOPULOPXPOEJSFDUFWJEFODFUIF
OBUVSFPGUIFTZTUFNPGPSBMDPNNVOJDBUJPOPG)PNPFSFDUVT JUJTTBGFUPBT
TVNFUIBUJUNVTUIBWFCFFONVDITJNQMFSUIBOMBOHVBHFTPGUIFQBTUTFWFSBM
UIPVTBOEZFBSTBOEUIFSFGPSFQSJNJUJWFJOUIBUJUXBTSVEJNFOUBSZ PSSFQSF
TFOUFEBOFBSMJFSTUBHFPGEFWFMPQNFOU
8IZBSFDFSUBJOMBOHVBHFTNJTUBLFOMZUIPVHIUUPCFQSJNJUJWF 5IFSFBSF
TFWFSBMSFBTPOT4PNFQFPQMFDPOTJEFSPUIFSMBOHVBHFTVHMZPSiQSJNJUJWF
TPVOEJOHwJGUIFMBOHVBHFTNBLFVTFPGTPVOETPSTPVOEDPNCJOBUJPOTUIFZ
GJOEJOEJTUJODUPSiJOBSUJDVMBUFwCFDBVTFUIFTPVOETBSFHSFBUMZEJGGFSFOUGSPN
UIPTFPGUIFMBOHVBHFTUIFZUIFNTFMWFTTQFBL4VDIBWJFXJTCBTFEPOUIF
FUIOPDFOUSJDBUUJUVEFUIBUUIFDIBSBDUFSJTUJDTPGPOFTPXOMBOHVBHFBSFPC
WJPVTMZTVQFSJPS#VUXPSETUIBUTFFNVOQSPOPVODFBCMFUPTQFBLFSTPGPOF
MBOHVBHFBOE BSF UIFSFGPSF DPOTJEFSFE PCTDVSF  JOEJTUJODU  PS FWFO
HSPUFTRVFBSFFBTJMZBDRVJSFECZFWFOUIFZPVOHFTUOBUJWFTQFBLFSTPGUIF
Modern Myths Concerning Languages 5

MBOHVBHFJOXIJDIUIFZPDDVS5PBOBUJWFTQFBLFSPG&OHMJTI UIF$[FDIXPSE
TDWSOLMT AZPVGMJDLFEPGG TPNFUIJOH
XJUIZPVSGJOHFSMPPLTRVJUFTUSBOHF
BOEJUTQSPOVODJBUJPONBZTPVOEPEEBOEFWFOJNQPTTJCMFCFDBVTFUIFSFJT
OP WPXFM BNPOH UIF FJHIU DPOTPOBOUT GPS OBUJWF TQFBLFST PG $[FDI  PG
DPVSTF TDWSOLMT JTKVTUBOPUIFSXPSE8IJDITQFFDITPVOETBSFVTFEBOEIPX
UIFZBSFDPNCJOFEUPGPSNXPSETBOEVUUFSBODFTWBSZGSPNPOFMBOHVBHFUP
UIFOFYU BOETQFBLFSTPGOPMBOHVBHFDBODMBJNUIBUUIFJSMBOHVBHFIBTEPOF
UIFTFMFDUJOHBOEDPNCJOJOHCFUUFSUIBOBOPUIFS
"OPUIFSNZUIIBTUPEPXJUIHSBNNBS4PNFUIJOLUIBUMBOHVBHFTPGQFP
QMFTXIPTFTPDJFUJFTBSFOPUVSCBOJ[FEBOEJOEVTUSJBMJ[FEIBWFiMJUUMFHSBN
NBS wNFBOJOHUIBUTVDIMBOHVBHFTIBWFGFX JGBOZ PGUIFTPSUPGHSBNNBS
SVMFTTUVEFOUTMFBSOJOTDIPPM"DDPSEJOHUPUIJTNJTDPODFQUJPO NFNCFST
PGTJNQMFTPDJFUJFTVTFMBOHVBHFJOSBUIFSSBOEPNGBTIJPO XJUIPVUEFGJOJUF
QBUUFSO5PQVUJUEJGGFSFOUMZ HSBNNBSJOUIFTFOTFPGSVMFTHPWFSOJOHUIF
QSPQFSVTFPGDBTFT UFOTFT NPPET BTQFDUT BOEPUIFSHSBNNBUJDBMDBUFHPSJFT
JTFSSPOFPVTMZUIPVHIUUPCFDIBSBDUFSJTUJDPGiDJWJMJ[FEwMBOHVBHFTPOMZ0ODF
BHBJO OPUIJOHDPVMECFGVSUIFSGSPNUIFUSVUI4PNFMBOHVBHFTIBWFMFTT
iHSBNNBSwUIBOPUIFST CVUUIFEFHSFFPGHSBNNBUJDBMDPNQMFYJUZJTOPUB
NFBTVSFPGIPXFGGFDUJWFBQBSUJDVMBSMBOHVBHFJT
8IBUTPSUTPGHSBNNBST UIFO DIBSBDUFSJ[FMBOHVBHFTTQPLFOCZNFN
CFSTPGUSJCBMTPDJFUJFT 4PNFPGUIFTFMBOHVBHFTIBWFBGBJSMZMBSHFBOEDPN
QMJDBUFE HSBNNBUJDBM BQQBSBUVT  XIFSFBT PUIFST BSF MFTT HSBNNBUJDBMMZ
DPNQMFYBEJWFSTJUZTJNJMBSUPUIBUGPVOEJO*OEP&VSPQFBOMBOHVBHFT&E
XBSE4BQJSTEFTDSJQUJPOPGUIFNPSQIPMPHZPG5BLFMNB CBTFEPONBUFSJBM
DPMMFDUFEJO UBLFTVQQBHFT 4BQJS
*O5BLFMNB UIFOPXFY
UJODUMBOHVBHFTQPLFOBUPOFUJNFJOTPVUIXFTUFSO0SFHPO WFSCTXFSFQBS
UJDVMBSMZIJHIMZJOGMFDUFE NBLJOHVTFPGQSFGJYFT TVGGJYFT JOGJYFT WPXFM
DIBOHFT DPOTPOBOUDIBOHFT BOESFEVQMJDBUJPO GVODUJPOBMSFQFUJUJPOPGB
QBSUPGBXPSE
&WFSZWFSCIBEGPSNTGPSTJYUFOTFNPEFT JODMVEJOHQPUFO
UJBM A*DBn... PSA*DPVld... 
JOGFSFOUJBM AJUTFFNTUIBU... PSA*QSFTVNF
UIBU
BOEQSFTFOUBOEGVUVSFJNQFSBUJWFT UIFGVUVSFJNQFSBUJWFFY
QSFTTJOHBDPNNBOEUPCFDBSSJFEPVUBUTPNFTUBUFEPSJNQMJFEUJNFJOUIF
GVUVSF
"NPOHUIFPUIFSHSBNNBUJDBMDBUFHPSJFTBOEGPSNTNBSLFEJOWFSCT
XFSFQFSTPO OVNCFS WPJDF BDUJWFPSQBTTJWF
DPOEJUJPOBM MPDBUJWF JOTUSV
NFOUBM BTQFDU EFOPUJOHSFQFBUFE DPOUJOVJOH BOEPUIFSUZQFTPGUFNQPSBM
BDUJWJUZ
BOEBDUJWFBOEQBTTJWFQBSUJDJQMFT4BQJSTEFTDSJQUJPOPGWFSC
NPSQIPMPHZGJMMTNPSFUIBOQBHFTZFUJTOPUUPCFUBLFOBTFYIBVTUJWF
6 Chapter 1: Introducing Linguistic Anthropology

"MUIPVHI UIF CSJFG DIBSBDUFSJ[BUJPO IFSF JT GBS GSPN SFQSFTFOUBUJWF PG


5BLFMNBWFSCNPSQIPMPHZ JUDMFBSMZJOEJDBUFTUIBU5BLFMNBHSBNNBSXBT
BOZUIJOHCVUTJNQMF"TJNJMBSBOENPSFEFUBJMFEEFNPOTUSBUJPOPGNPS
QIPMPHJDBMDPNQMFYJUZDPVMEFBTJMZCFQSPWJEFEGPSIVOESFETPGPUIFSTP
DBMMFEQSJNJUJWFMBOHVBHFT
8IFOJUDPNFTUPUIFWPDBCVMBSZPGMBOHVBHFT JTJUUSVF BTTPNFTVQQPTF
UIBUUIFWPDBCVMBSJFTPGTPDBMMFEQSJNJUJWFMBOHVBHFTBSFUPPTNBMMBOEJO
BEFRVBUFUPBDDPVOUGPSUIFOVBODFTPGUIFQIZTJDBMBOETPDJBMVOJWFSTFTPG
UIFJSTQFBLFST )FSFUIFBOTXFSJTTPNFXIBUNPSFDPNQMJDBUFE#FDBVTFUIF
WPDBCVMBSZPGBMBOHVBHFTFSWFTPOMZUIFNFNCFSTPGUIFTPDJFUZXIPTQFBL
JU UIFRVFTUJPOUPCFBTLFETIPVMECF *TBQBSUJDVMBSWPDBCVMBSZTVGGJDJFOUUP
TFSWFUIFTPDJPDVMUVSBMOFFETPGUIPTFXIPVTFUIFMBOHVBHF 8IFOQVUMJLF
UIJT JUGPMMPXTUIBUUIFMBOHVBHFBTTPDJBUFEXJUIBSFMBUJWFMZTJNQMFDVMUVSF
XPVMEIBWFBTNBMMFSWPDBCVMBSZUIBOUIFMBOHVBHFPGBDPNQMFYTPDJFUZ TFF
#PY
8IZ GPSFYBNQMF TIPVMEUIF&TLJNPIBWFXPSETGPSDIMPSPGMVP
SPNFUIBOF EVOFCVHHZ MBNCEBQBSUJDMF PSUBFLXPOEPXIFOUIFTFTVC
TUBODFT PCKFDUT DPODFQUT BOEBDUJWJUJFTQMBZOPQBSUJOUIFJSDVMUVSF #ZUIF
TBNFUPLFO IPXFWFS UIFMBOHVBHFPGBUSJCBMTPDJFUZXPVMEIBWFFMBCPSBUF
MFYJDBMEPNBJOTGPSQSPNJOFOUBTQFDUTPGUIFDVMUVSFFWFOUIPVHIUIFTFEP
OPUFYJTUJODPNQMFYTPDJFUJFT5IF"HUBPGUIF1IJMJQQJOFT GPSFYBNQMF BSF
SFQPSUFEUPIBWFOPGFXFSUIBOUIJSUZPOFWFSCTSFGFSSJOHUPUZQFTPGGJTIJOH
)BSSJT

'PS"HVBSVOB UIFMBOHVBHFTFSWJOHBNBOJPDDVMUJWBUJOHQFPQMFPGOPSUI
XFTUFSO1FSV #SFOU#FSMJO 
JTPMBUFETPNFOBNFTSFGFSSJOHUPUIFHFO
FSBPGQMBOUTJOUIFUSPQJDBMSBJOGPSFTUBSFBJOXIJDIUIFZMJWF.BOZPGUIFTF
HFOFSBBSFGVSUIFSTVCEJWJEFEUPEJTUJOHVJTIBNPOHTQFDJFTBOEWBSJFUJFT
GPSFYBNQMF UIFHFOFSJDUFSNJQL ABDIJPUFPSBOOBUUPUSFF #JYBPSFMMBOB

FODPNQBTTFTCB ipk, Oam ipk, hmpe ipk, and  ipk SFGFSSJOHSF
TQFDUJWFMZUPALJEOFZBDIJPUF AZFMMPXBDIJPUF AIVNNJOHCJSEBDIJPUF BOE
AHFOVJOFBDIJPUF7FSZGFX"NFSJDBOT VOMFTTUIFZBSFCPUBOJTUT GBSNFST PS
OBUVSFMPWFST LOPXUIFOBNFTPGNPSFUIBOBCPVUGPSUZQMBOUT
-FYJDBMTQFDJBMJ[BUJPOJOOPOTDJFOUJGJDEPNBJOTJTPGDPVSTFUPCFGPVOE
JODPNQMFYTPDJFUJFTBTXFMM5IF(FSNBOTXIPMJWFJO.VOJDIBSFLOPXO
UPFOKPZUIFJSCFFS BOEBDDPSEJOHMZ UIFUFSNJOPMPHZGPSUIFMPDBMWBSJFUJFTPG
CFFSJTRVJUFFYUFOTJWF1FS)BHF 
EFGJOFEUFOiDPSFwUFSNTGPS.VOJDI
CFFSTBDDPSEJOHUPTUSFOHUI DPMPS GJ[[JOFTT BOEBHJOH#VUXIFOMPDBMDPO
OPJTTFVST BMTP XJTI UP BDDPVOU GPS UIF EFHSFF PG DMBSJUZ DMFBS BT BHBJOTU
Modern Myths Concerning Languages 7

DMPVEZ
BOEUIF.VOJDICSFXFSZUIBUQSPEVDFEBQBSUJDVMBSCFFS UIFGVMMMJTU
OPXFYDFFETTFWFOUZUFSNT4VDIBEJTDSJNJOBUJOHDMBTTJGJDBUJPOPGMPDBMCFFST
JTMJLFMZUPJNQSFTTFWFOUIFNPTUFYQFSJFODFEBOEFOUIVTJBTUJD"NFSJDBO
CFFSESJOLFS
)PXFWFS FWFOUIPVHIOPMBOHVBHFTTQPLFOUPEBZNBZCFMBCFMFEQSJN
JUJWF UIJTEPFTOPUNFBOUIBUBMMMBOHVBHFTBSFUIFTBNF EPBMMUIJOHTJOUIF
TBNFXBZ PSBSFFRVBMMZJOGMVFOUJBMJOUIFNPEFSOUSBOTOBUJPOBMXPSME5IF
MJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHJTU%FMM)ZNFTDMBJNTUIBUMBOHVBHFTBSFOPUGVOD
UJPOBMMZFRVJWBMFOUCFDBVTFUIFSPMFPGTQFFDIWBSJFTGSPNPOFTPDJFUZUPUIF
OFYU0OFPGIJTFYBNQMFTJTUIFMBOHVBHFPGUIF.F[RVJUBM0UPNJ XIPMJWF
JOQPWFSUZJOPOFPGUIFBSJEBSFBTPG.FYJDP"UUIFUJNFPG)ZNFTTXSJUJOH
NPTUPGUIFTFQFPQMFXFSFNPOPMJOHVBM TQFBLJOHPOMZ0UPNJ UIFJSOBUJWF
MBOHVBHF&WFOUIPVHIUIFZBDDFQUFEUIFPVUTJEFKVEHNFOUPGUIFJSMBOHVBHF
BTJOGFSJPSUP4QBOJTI UIFZNBJOUBJOFE0UPNJBOEDPOTFRVFOUMZXFSFBCMFUP
QSFTFSWF UIFJS DVMUVSF  CVU BU B QSJDF -BDL PG QSPGJDJFODZ JO 4QBOJTI  PS
LOPXMFEHFPG0UPNJPOMZ JTPMBUFEUIFQFPQMFGSPNUIFOBUJPOBMTPDJFUZBOE
LFQUUIFNGSPNJNQSPWJOHUIFJSMPU"DDPSEJOHUP)ZNFT OPLOPXOMBO
HVBHFTBSFQSJNJUJWF BOEBMMiIBWFBDIJFWFEUIFNJEEMFTUBUVT<PGGVMMMBO
HVBHFT CVU OPU> UIF BEWBODFE TUBUVT <PG> XPSME MBOHVBHFT BOE TPNF
PUIFSs...<#VUUIPVHI>BMMMBOHVBHFTBSFQPUFOUJBMMZFRual..BOEIFODFDB
QBCMFPGBEBQUBUJPOUPUIFOFFETPGBDPNQMFYJOEVTUSJBMDJWJMJ[BUJPO wPOMZ
DFSUBJOMBOHVBHFTIBWFBDUVBMMZEPOFTP )ZNFT
5IFTFMBOHVBHFT
BSFNPSFTVDDFTTGVMUIBOPUIFSTOPUCFDBVTFUIFZBSFTUSVDUVSBMMZNPSFBE
WBODFECVUCFDBVTFUIFZIBQQFOUPCFBTTPDJBUFEXJUITPDJFUJFTJOXIJDIMBO
HVBHFJTUIFCBTJTPGMJUFSBUVSF FEVDBUJPO TDJFODF BOEDPNNFSDF
5IF0UPNJFYBNQMFJTOPUBOJTPMBUFEDBTFJO.FYJDP"OJNQPSUBOUGBD
UPSUIBUDPOUSJCVUFTUPUIFTVDDFTTPGBMBOHVBHFJTUIFMJUFSBDZPGJUTTQFBL
FST *O DPVOUSJFT XIFSF NBOZ MBOHVBHFT BSF TQPLFO  UIF MBOHVBHF PS
MBOHVBHFTUIBUQFPQMFMFBSOUPSFBEBOEXSJUFBSFBTTPDJBUFEXJUILOPXM
FEHF BOE UIFSFGPSF BMTP XJUI QPMJUJDBM BOE FDPOPNJD QPXFS *O .FYJDP
XIPTFPGGJDJBMMBOHVBHFJT4QBOJTI NPSFUIBOJOEJHFOPVTMBOHVBHFTPS
SFHJPOBMEJBMFDUTBSFTQPLFO -FXJT
5IFTFJODMVEF/BIVBUM TFWFSBM
EJBMFDUTPGB6UP"[UFDBOMBOHVBHF
BOE:VDBUFD B.BZBOMBOHVBHF
FBDI
TQPLFOCZNPSFUIBOBNJMMJPOTQFBLFST BOEBCPVUGPVSUFFOPUIFSTUIBUBSF
VTFECZNPSFUIBOB TQFBLFSTFBDI%VSJOHUIFMBTUTFWFOUZZFBST
IPXFWFS UIFQFSDFOUBHFPGNPOPMJOHVBMBOECJMJOHVBM.FYJDBO*OEJBOTIBT
CFFOTUFBEJMZEFDMJOJOHJOGBWPSPG4QBOJTI GSPNQFSDFOUJOUP
8 Chapter 1: Introducing Linguistic Anthropology

BCPVUQFSDFOUJO
"MUIPVHITQFBLFSTPG*OEJBOMBOHVBHFTVTFUIFN
JOGBNJMZMJGF JOUIFGJFMET BUUSBEJUJPOBMSJUVBMHBUIFSJOHTBOEDVSJOHDFSF
NPOJFT BOEJOWJMMBHFNBSLFUTBOEPUIFSMPDBMTFUUJOHT BOJODSFBTJOHOVN
CFSVTF4QBOJTIJOTDIPPMT BHSJDVMUVSBMPSPUIFSUSBJOJOH IPTQJUBMTBOE
DMJOJDT BOEQPMJUJDBMBOEBENJOJTUSBUJWFNFFUJOHTPSHBOJ[FECZSFQSFTFOUB
UJWFTPGUIFTUBUFPSGFEFSBMHPWFSONFOU4QFBLJOHLOPXMFEHFBOEMJUFSBDZJO
4QBOJTIIBWFDPNFUPCFWJFXFEBTBNBSLPGiDVMUVSBMBEWBODFNFOUwBOE
TFMGDPOGJEFODFUIFVTFPGPOMZBOJOEJHFOPVTMBOHVBHFJTWJFXFEBTBTJHO
PGJHOPSBODF CBDLXBSEOFTT BOEBQBTTJWFBUUJUVEF "MUIPVHIUIFBCTFODF
PGXSJUJOHJOOPXBZJNQMJFTJOGFSJPSJUZPGBMBOHVBHF JUJTQBSUJDVMBSMZJSPOJD
UIBUJOQSF$PMVNCJBOUJNFTBOVNCFSPG.FTPBNFSJDBOQFPQMFTEJEIBWF
XSJUJOHTZTUFNT
5PEBZ i4QBOJTIisFYFSUJOHBUSFNFOEPVTQSFTTVSF
QBSUJDVMBSMZBNPOHUIFZPVOH BOEUIFSFKFDUJPOPGUIF*OEJBOMBOHVBHFIBT
CFFOBGJSTUTUFQUPXBSEBTTVNJOHBNFTUJ[P<NJYFE&VSPQFBOBOE"NFSJ
DBO*OEJBOBODFTUSZ>JEFOUJUZ AQBTTJOHPWFSGSPNPOFFUIOJDHSPVQUPBO
PUIFSw ,JOH 
 #VU DBO POF UBML BCPVU VOTVDDFTTGVM MBOHVBHFT
XIFOUIFJSTVCPSEJOBUFTUBUVTJTCFJOHBTTJHOFEUPUIFNCZPVUTJEFSTBOE
BDDFQUFECZUIFJSPXOTQFBLFST
5PTBZ IPXFWFS UIBUTPNFMBOHVBHFTNBZCFDPOTJEFSFENPSFTVDDFTTGVM
UIBOPUIFSTNVTUOPUCFUBLFOBTKVTUJGZJOHMJOHVJTUJDQSPGJMJOH UIBUJT KVEH
JOHUIFXPSUIPGQFSTPOTPOUIFCBTJTPGUIFJSTQFFDI5IJTNBZIBQQFO BOE
JTIBQQFOJOH
XIFOFWFSPOFPGUXP PSTFWFSBM
MBOHVBHFTTQPLFOJOBQBS
UJDVMBSBSFBPGUIFXPSMEJTUIPVHIUUPIBWFNPSFQSFTUJHFUIBOBOPUIFS4VDI
WBMVBUJPONBZFBTJMZMFBEUPMBOHVBHFQSFKVEJDFBOESFTVMUJOBOJSSBUJPOBM
BUUJUVEFPGTVQFSJPSJUZUPXBSEBOJOEJWJEVBM BHSPVQ PSBQPQVMBUJPOVTJOH
UIBUMBOHVBHF"OETUSBOHFBTJUNBZTFFN MBOHVBHFQSFKVEJDFDBOFYJTUFWFO
JOTJUVBUJPOTXIFSFUXP PSNPSF
MBOHVBHFTJORVFTUJPOIBWFFRVBMMZMPOH
IJTUPSJFTBOEEJTUJOHVJTIFEMJUFSBSZUSBEJUJPOT"DBTFJOQPJOUNBZCFUIFBU
UJUVEFJOUIFFBTUFSO6OJUFE4UBUFTPGTPNFXIJUF"NFSJDBOTUPXBSE1VFSUP
3JDBOT5IFVTFPGiHPPEw&OHMJTI XIBUFWFSiHPPEwNBZNFBOJOUIJTDPO
UFYU
JTBTTPDJBUFECZUIFTFXIJUF"NFSJDBOTXJUIQPMJUJDBMBOEFDPOPNJD
QSFTUJHF CVU4QBOJTI PS&OHMJTI UIFTFDPOEMBOHVBHFPGUIF1VFSUP3JDBOT
JGTQPLFOXJUIEFDJEFEBDDFOUBOEHSBNNBUJDBMNJTUBLFT
JTFRVBUFEXJUI
QPWFSUZ BMPXFSDMBTTTUBUVT MPXFSJOUFMMJHFODF BOEUIFMJLF*OPUIFSXPSET
MBOHVBHFT EJBMFDUT DIPJDFPGXPSET BOEBDDFOUTCFDPNFUIFNFBOTCZXIJDI
QFPQMFBSFDMBTTJGJFEBOEUIFOUSFBUFEBDDPSEJOHMZ-JOHVJTUJDQSFKVEJDFBOE
SBDJBMQSFKVEJDFBSFDMPTFSFMBUJWFT
Brief History of Anthropology 9

B OX 1 . 1 S A P I R O N L I N G U I S T I C A N D
C U LT U R A L C O M P L E X I T Y

All attempts to connect particular types of linguistic morphology with cer-


tain correlated stages of cultural development are vain. Rightly under-
stood, such correlations are rubbish. . . . Both simple and complex types
of language of an indefinite number of varieties may be found spoken at
any desired level of cultural advance. When it comes to linguistic form,
Plato walks with the Macedonian swineherd, Confucius with the head-
hunting savage of Assam.
It goes without saying that the mere content of language is intimately
related to culture. A society that has no knowledge of theosophy need
have no name for it; aborigines that had never seen or heard of a horse
were compelled to invent or borrow a word for the animal when they
made his acquaintance. In the sense that the vocabulary of a language
more or less faithfully reflects the culture whose purposes it serves it is
perfectly true that the history of language and the history of culture move
along parallel lines. But this superficial . . . kind of parallelism is of no
real interest to the linguist except in so far as the growth or borrowing of
new words incidentally throws light on the formal trends of the language.
The linguistic student should never make the mistake of identifying a lan-
guage with its dictionary.
from Edward Sapir, Language (1921), 234

Brief History of Anthropology


5IJTCPPLJTBUFYUPOMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHZ TPMFUVTOPXEJTDVTTXIBU
UIFTFUXPEJTDJQMJOFTBOUISPQPMPHZBOEMJOHVJTUJDTFOUBJM8FXJMMCFHJO
XJUIBOUISPQPMPHZ"WFSZTJNQMFEFGJOJUJPOPGBOUISPQPMPHZJTiUIFIPMJTUJD
TUVEZPGIVNBOLJOE wCVUUIJTNBZOPUCFFTQFDJBMMZFOMJHIUFOJOH.PSFJO
TJHIUGVMNJHIUCFUIFTFQSPQPTJUJPOT XIJDITVNNBSJ[FUIFPWFSBMMTDPQFPG
BOUISPQPMPHZ 1J4VOZFSBOE4BM[NBOO


 #FDBVTFNFNCFSTPGUIFTQFDJFT)PNPTBQJFOT BSFCJPMPHJDBMPSHBO
JTNT UIFTUVEZPGIVNBOCFJOHTNVTUUSZUPVOEFSTUBOEUIFJSPSJHJO
BOEOBUVSFJOUIFBQQSPQSJBUFDPOUFYU
10 Chapter 1: Introducing Linguistic Anthropology

 "TIPNJOJET UIBUJT SFDFOUIVNBOTBOEUIFJSFYUJODUBODFTUPST


TUSPWF
UPBEBQUUPBHSFBUWBSJFUZPGOBUVSBMBOETFMGNBEFDPOEJUJPOT UIFZFO
HBHFEJOBMPOHTFSJFTPGJOOPWBUJPOTSFGFSSFEUPCZUIFUFSNDVMUVSF
 *OUIFDPVSTFPGUIFJSDVMUVSBMFWPMVUJPOEVSJOHUIFQBTUNJMMJPOZFBST
IVNBOTXFSFJNNFBTVSBCMZBJEFECZUIFEFWFMPQNFOUPGBOFGGFDUJWF
NFBOTPGDPNNVOJDBUJPO UIFNPTUSFNBSLBCMFBOEDSVDJBMDPNQP
OFOUPGXIJDIJTIVNBOMBOHVBHF

.BOZ PUIFS GJFMET  PG DPVSTF  BSF BMTP DPODFSOFE XJUI BTQFDUT PG UIF
IVNBODPOEJUJPO"NPOHUIFTFGJFMETBSFBOBUPNZ QIZTJPMPHZ IJTUPSZ QP
MJUJDBMTDJFODF FDPOPNJDT BSUIJTUPSZ MJUFSBUVSF BOETPDJPMPHZ8JUIBMMUIFTF
TQFDJBMJ[FEBSFBTGPDVTJOHPOUIFIVNBOFYQFSJFODF XIZXPVMEUIFSFCFB
OFFEGPSTVDIBCSPBEEJTDJQMJOFBTBOUISPQPMPHZ
8IFO)FSPEPUVT B(SFFLIJTUPSJBOPGUIFGJGUIDFOUVSZ#$ XSPUFCSJFGMZ
BCPVUUIFFUIOJDPSJHJOPGUIF$BSJBOTBOE$BVOJBOTPGTPVUIXFTUFSO"TJB
.JOPSBOEUPPLJOUPDPOTJEFSBUJPOUIFEJBMFDUTUIFZTQPLF IFFOHBHFEJO
TUSFUDIJOHUIFQPJOUBCJU
XIBUDPVMECFDBMMFEMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHZ%VS
JOHUIF"HFPG%JTDPWFSZ &VSPQFBOTDIPMBSTCFDBNFJOUSJHVFECZUIFNBOZ
EJGGFSFOUQFPQMFTPGUIF"NFSJDBODPOUJOFOUTBOEUIFMBOHVBHFTUIFZTQPLF
/FWFSUIFMFTT MJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHZJOUIFNPEFSOTFOTFJTBSFMBUJWFMZSF
DFOUGJFMEPGTUVEZUIBUEFWFMPQFEJOUIF6OJUFE4UBUFTBOEIBTCFFOQSBD
UJDFEQSFEPNJOBOUMZCZ/PSUI"NFSJDBOBDBEFNJDT
5IFTUJNVMBUJPOGPSUIFFBSMJFTUQIBTFTPGXIBUXBTUPCFDPNFMJOHVJTUJD
BOUISPQPMPHZDBNFGSPNUIFFYQPTVSFPG&VSPQFBOJNNJHSBOUTUP/BUJWF
"NFSJDBOT5IFDVMUVSFTBOEMBOHVBHFTPGUIFTFQFPQMFTXFSFTUVEJFECZFE
VDBUFE"NFSJDBOTPGWBSZJOHQSPGFTTJPOTQIZTJDJBOT OBUVSBMJTUT MBXZFST
DMFSJDT BOEQPMJUJDBMMFBEFST"NPOHUIFTFBNBUFVSMJOHVJTUT GPSFYBNQMF
XBT5IPNBT+FGGFSTPO o
XIPDPMMFDUFEUIFWPDBCVMBSJFTPG/B
UJWF"NFSJDBOMBOHVBHFT*OIJT/PUFTPOUIF4UBUFPG7JSHJOJB 
+FGGFS
TPOXSPUF i(SFBURVFTUJPOIBTBSJTFOGSPNXIFODFDBNFUIPTFBCPSJHJOBMT
PG"NFSJDBwBOEUIFOPGGFSFEUIFGPMMPXJOHTVHHFTUJPOi8FSFWPDBCVMBSJFT
GPSNFEPGBMMUIFMBOHVBHFTTQPLFOJO/PSUIBOE4PVUI"NFSica..BOEEF
QPTJUFEJOBMMUIFQVCMJDMJCSBSJFT JUXPVMEGVSOJTIPQQPSUVOJUJFTUPUIPTF
TLJMMFEJOUIFMBOHVBHFTPGUIFPMEXPSMEUPDPNQBSFUIFNXJUIUIFTF OPX
PSBUBOZGVUVSFUJNF BOEIFODFUPDPOTUSVDUUIFCFTUFWJEFODFPGUIFEFSJ
WBUJPOPGUIJTQBSUPGUIFIVNBOSBDFw +FGGFSTPOo
*OUIJTQBT
TBHF+FGGFSTPOSFGFSSFEUPNPSFUIBOKVTUUIFDPNQBSBUJWFTUVEZPGMBOHVBHFT
Brief History of Anthropology 11

IFNVTUIBWFIBEJONJOEVTJOHMJOHVJTUJDFWJEFODFUPBEESFTTRVFTUJPOTDPO
DFSOJOHUIFDVMUVSBMQSFIJTUPSZPGIVNBOLJOE
#ZUIFNJEEMFPGUIFOJOFUFFOUIDFOUVSZ UIFXPSMEXBTCBTJDBMMZBXFMM
LOPXOQMBDF CPUIHFPHSBQIJDBMMZBOEDVMUVSBMMZ5IFEFUBJMTDFSUBJOMZSF
NBJOFEUPCFGJMMFEJO CVUOPPOFFYQFDUFEUPGJOEBOFXIFNJTQIFSFPS
VODPWFSBOVOLOPXODJWJMJ[BUJPO8IBUQV[[MFETDIPMBST IPXFWFS XBTXIZ
XFGPVOETPNVDIIVNBOWBSJFUZ1FPQMFTMPPLFEWBTUMZEJGGFSFOU UIFZTQPLF
EJGGFSFOUMBOHVBHFT BOEUIFJSSFMJHJPOT NBSSJBHFQSBDUJDFT BOEPUIFSDVT
UPNTBMTPTFFNFEWFSZEJGGFSFOU0OFPGUIFNBJOJOUFMMFDUVBMBOETDJFOUJGJD
UBTLTPGUIFEBZXBTUPUSZUPFYQMBJOUIJTEJWFSTJUZPGSBDF MBOHVBHF BOEDVM
UVSF QBTUBOEQSFTFOU
.PEFSOBOUISPQPMPHZCFHBOBTUIFTUVEZPGTVCKFDUTUIBUXFSFOPUBMSFBEZ
DMBJNFECZTDIPMBSTJOPUIFSGJFMET#VUUPTBZUIBUBOUISPQPMPHZKVTUHBUIFSFE
UIFTFJOUFMMFDUVBMMFGUPWFSTJTOPURVJUFBDDVSBUF*UXBTUIPVHIUUIBUUIFTUVEZ
PGIVNBOCJPMPHJDBMBOEDVMUVSBMEFWFMPQNFOUXPVMETIFEMJHIUPOUIFQSFTT
JOHiSBDF MBOHVBHF BOEDVMUVSFwRVFTUJPO#FDBVTFBUUIBUUJNFiQSJNJUJWFTw
XFSFUIPVHIUUPCFUIFSFNOBOUTPGBOFWPMVUJPOBSZBODFTUSBMQBTU UIFTUVEZ
PGQSFJOEVTUSJBMTPDJFUJFTOBUVSBMMZCFDBNFBOUISPQPMPHZTNBJOEPNBJO
&BSMZBOUISPQPMPHJTUT UIFO GPDVTFEFTQFDJBMMZPOUIFOPOMJUFSBUFUSJCBMQFP
QMFTPUIFSTDPOTJEFSFEiQSJNJUJWFwPSiTBWBHFw5IFTFIVNCMFCFHJOOJOHTBSF
TUJMMSFGMFDUFEJOUIFQSFTFOUJOUIFQPQVMBSDPODFQUJPOPGBOUISPQPMPHJTUTBT
QFPQMFXIPTVQQMZNVTFVNTXJUIFYPUJDTQFDJNFOTGSPNTPDJFUJFTJOSFNPUF
QBSUTPGUIFXPSMEPSXIPEJHVQUIFSFNBJOTPGQBTUIVNBOMJGFBOEDVMUVSFT
.BOZNPEFSOBOUISPQPMPHJTUT IPXFWFS TUVEZUIFJSPXODVMUVSFTBTXFMM
BOETPNFPGUIFJSGJOEJOHTBOEDPNNFOUTPOUIFNBSFJMMVNJOBUJOH
%VSJOHUIFOJOFUFFOUIDFOUVSZ UIFTUVEZPG/BUJWF"NFSJDBOTBOEUIFJS
MBOHVBHFTPDDVQJFECPUIEJTUJOHVJTIFE"NFSJDBOTBOEBOVNCFSPG&VSP
QFBOFYQMPSFSTXIPUSBWFMFEJOUIFXFTUFSOQBSUPGUIF6OJUFE4UBUFT4PNF
PGUIFNDPMMFDUFEBOEQVCMJTIFEWBMVBCMFEBUBPO/BUJWF"NFSJDBOTBOEUIFJS
MBOHVBHFTUIBUXPVMEPUIFSXJTFIBWFCFFOMPTU4FSJPVTBOEQVSQPTFGVMTUVEZ
PG/BUJWF"NFSJDBOMBOHVBHFTBOEDVMUVSFT IPXFWFS EJEOPUCFHJOVOUJM
BGUFSUIFFTUBCMJTINFOUPGUIF#VSFBVPG "NFSJDBO
&UIOPMPHZPGUIF4NJUI
TPOJBO*OTUJUVUJPOJO+PIO8FTMFZ1PXFMM o
QFSIBQTCFUUFS
LOPXOBTUIFGJSTUQFSTPOUPSVOUIF$PMPSBEP3JWFSUISPVHIPVUUIFFOUJSF
MFOHUIPGUIF(SBOE$BOZPO CFDBNFJUTGJSTUEJSFDUPS*UXBT1PXFMMXIPJO
QVCMJTIFEBTUJMMSFTQFDUFEDMBTTJGJDBUJPOPG"NFSJDBO*OEJBOMBOHVBHFT
OPSUIPG.FYJDP
12 Chapter 1: Introducing Linguistic Anthropology

#FDBVTFUIFFBSMZBOUISPQPMPHJTUTXFSFJOUFSFTUFEJOQFPQMFTPUIFSTQFDJBM
JTUTOFHMFDUFE UIFZDPODFSOFEUIFNTFMWFTXJUIBMMBTQFDUTPGBTPDJFUZ5IF(FS
NBOCPSO'SBO[#PBT o
XBTBEPNJOBOUGJHVSFJOUIFFBSMZEBZTPG
"NFSJDBOBOUISPQPMPHZBOEIFMEUIFGJSTUBDBEFNJDQPTJUJPOJOBOUISPQPMPHZ
JOUIF6OJUFE4UBUFT BU$MBSL6OJWFSTJUZJO8PSDFTUFS .BTTBDIVTFUUT GSPN
UP
)FBVUIPSFE DPBVUIPSFE PSFEJUFENPSFUIBOTFWFOIVOESFE
QVCMJDBUJPOTSBOHJOHGSPNBSUJDMFTPO/BUJWF"NFSJDBONVTJD BSU GPMLMPSF
BOEMBOHVBHFTUPTUVEJFTJODVMUVSFUIFPSZ IVNBOCJPMPHZ BOEBSDIBFPMPHZ"T
FBSMZBT #PBTFEJUFEUIFGJSTUWPMVNFPG)BOECPPLPG"NFSJDBO*OEJBO
-BOHVBHFT GPMMPXFECZUXPPUIFSWPMVNFT BOEo
BOEQBSUPG
BGPVSUI 
&WFOUIPVHI#PBTFNQIBTJ[FEUIFXSJUJOHPGHSBNNBST UIF
DPNQJMJOHPGEJDUJPOBSJFT BOEUIFDPMMFDUJOHPGUFYUT SFTFBSDIDPODFSOJOHUIF
QMBDFPGMBOHVBHFTJO/BUJWF"NFSJDBOTPDJFUJFTBOEUIFSFMBUJPOPGMBOHVBHFT
UPDVMUVSFTCFHBOUPCFVOEFSUBLFOXJUIJODSFBTJOHGSFRVFODZ"GUFS8PSME
8BS** UIFTUVEZPGUIFSFMBUJPOTIJQCFUXFFOMBOHVBHF DVMUVSF BOETPDJFUZ
XBTGVMMZSFDPHOJ[FEBTJNQPSUBOUFOPVHIUPCFDPOTJEFSFEPOFPGUIFGPVS
TVCGJFMETPGBOUISPQPMPHZ#PBTTEJSFDUJOGMVFODFXBTGFMUVOUJMIJTEFBUIBUUIF
BHFPGFJHIUZGPVS BOEUIFDPVSTFPG"NFSJDBOBOUISPQPMPHZBGUFSIJNXBT
TIBQFEUPBHSFBUFYUFOUCZIJTTUVEFOUTBU$PMVNCJB6OJWFSTJUZ
#Z8PSME8BS** BOUISPQPMPHZXBTXFMMFTUBCMJTIFEBTBOBDBEFNJD
GJFMEBOEUBVHIUBUNBKPS64VOJWFSTJUJFT5IFGPVSNBJOTVCGJFMETUIFO
SFDPHOJ[FEJOMBSHFQBSUBMFHBDZPG#PBTXFSFCJPMPHJDBM PSQIZTJDBM

BOUISPQPMPHZ DVMUVSBMBOUISPQPMPHZ BSDIBFPMPHZ BOEMJOHVJTUJDBOUISP


QPMPHZ .PSF TQFDJBMJ[FE BSFBT PG DPODFSO BOE SFTFBSDI IBWF EFWFMPQFE
XJUIJOUIFTVCGJFMET BNPOHUIFNQPMJUJDBM FDPOPNJD VSCBO GFNJOJTU NFE
JDBM MFHBM OVUSJUJPOBM WJTVBM BOEQTZDIPMPHJDBMBOUISPQPMPHZ BOEUIFBO
UISPQPMPHZPGBSFBTUVEJFTTVDIPG-BUJO"NFSJDB "TJB "GSJDB BOE&VSPQF
UPNFOUJPOBGFX
5IFPOFDPNNJUNFOUUIBUBOUISPQPMPHJTUTQSPGFTTSFHBSEMFTTPGUIFJSTQF
DJBMJ[BUJPOJTUIFIPMJTUJDBQQSPBDI5IFUFSNIPMJTUJD SFGFSTUPDPODFSOXJUI
BTZTUFNBTBXIPMFSBUIFSUIBOXJUIPOMZTPNFPGJUTQBSUT#FDBVTFTUVEZ
JOHBOFOUJSFDVMUVSFJOGVMMEFUBJMDPVMEFBTJMZCFDPNFBMJGFUJNFQSPKFDU BO
UISPQPMPHJTUTGPDVTJOHPOPOMZDFSUBJOPGJUTBTQFDUTJOWBSJBCMZTUVEZBOE
EJTDVTTUIFNJOGVMMDVMUVSBMDPOUFYU*OUIFTUVEZPGIVNBOJUZ BQQMZJOHUIF
IPMJTUJDBQQSPBDINFBOTFNQIBTJ[JOHUIFDPOOFDUJPOTBNPOHUIFNBOZEJG
GFSFOUGBDFUTPGUIFIVNBODPOEJUJPOTPUIBUIVNBOLJOEDBOCFVOEFSTUPPE
JOJUTGVMMDPNQMFYJUZDVMUVSBM TPDJBM BOECJPMPHJDBM
Anthropology, Linguistics, and Linguistic Anthropology 13

0OFDIBSBDUFSJTUJDUIBUTFUTBOUISPQPMPHZBQBSUGSPNUIFPUIFSTPDJBMTDJ
FODFTJTBTUSPOHGJFMEXPSLDPNQPOFOU TPNFUJNFTBVHNFOUFE FTQFDJBMMZJO
BSDIBFPMPHZBOECJPMPHJDBMBOUISPQPMPHZ
CZXPSLJOUIFMBCPSBUPSZ"S
DIBFPMPHJTUTTVSWFZMBOEGPSTJUFTBOEFYDBWBUFBOEBOBMZ[FUIFSFNBJOTPG
QBTUDVMUVSFT#JPMPHJDBMBOUISPQPMPHJTUTTUVEZTVDIUPQJDTBTUIFSFMBUJPO
TIJQ CFUXFFO DVMUVSF BOE EJTFBTF  UIF CFIBWJPS PG OPOIVNBO QSJNBUFT
TVDIBTDIJNQBO[FFTBOEHPSJMMBT
HFOFQPPMGSFRVFODJFT BOEOVUSJUJPOBM
QBUUFSOT5IFZBMTPTFBSDIJOQBSUJDVMBSMPDBUJPOTPGUIFXPSMEGPSTLFMFUBM
SFNBJOTSFMBUJOHUPIVNBOFWPMVUJPO'PSTPNFUJNFOPX DVMUVSBMBOUISP
QPMPHJTUTIBWFOPUMJNJUFEUIFNTFMWFTUPUIFTUVEZPGUSJCBMTPDJFUJFT QFBTBOU
WJMMBHFT PSCBOETPGIVOUFSHBUIFSFSTJOSFNPUFQBSUTPGUIFXPSME.BOZ
UPEBZXPSLJOQPTUJOEVTUSJBMNPEFSOTPDJFUJFTTVDIBT+BQBOBOEUIF6OJUFE
4UBUFT PSUIPTFGPVOEJO&VSPQF5IJTJTDFSUBJOMZBTJUTIPVMECF*GBOUISP
QPMPHZJTUSVMZUIFTUVEZPGIVNBOLJOE UIFOJUNVTUDPODFSOJUTFMGXJUIBMM
PGIVNBOLJOE

Anthropology, Linguistics, and Linguistic Anthropology


"OPUIFSEJTDJQMJOFUIBUBMTPGPDVTFTPOVOJRVFMZIVNBOBUUSJCVUFTJTMJO
HVJTUJDT UIFTDJFOUJGJDTUVEZPGMBOHVBHF-JOHVJTUJDT EPFTOPUSFGFSUPUIF
TUVEZ PG B QBSUJDVMBS MBOHVBHF GPS UIF QVSQPTF PG MFBSOJOH UP TQFBL JU
SBUIFS JUSFGFSTUPUIFBOBMZUJDBMTUVEZPGMBOHVBHF BOZMBOHVBHF UPSFWFBM
JUT TUSVDUVSFUIFEJGGFSFOULJOETPGMBOHVBHFVOJUT JUTTPVOET TNBMMFTU
NFBOJOHGVMQBSUTPGXPSET BOETPPO
BOEUIFSVMFTBDDPSEJOHUPXIJDI
UIFTFVOJUTBSFQVUUPHFUIFSUPQSPEVDFTUSFUDIFTPGTQFFDI5IFSFJTBEJWJ
TJPOPGMBCPS UIFO CFUXFFOMJOHVJTUTBOEMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHJTUT5IFJO
UFSFTUPGUIFMJOHVJTUJTQSJNBSJMZJOMBOHVBHFTUSVDUVSFUIFJOUFSFTUPGUIF
MJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHJTUJTJOTQFFDIVTFBOEUIFSFMBUJPOTUIBUFYJTUCFUXFFO
MBOHVBHFPOUIFPOFIBOEBOETPDJFUZBOEDVMUVSFPOUIFPUIFS BTTFFOJO
#PY
"TGPSUIFQSFSFRVJTJUFUSBJOJOH UIFMJOHVJTUEPFTOPUOFFEUPTUVEZ
BOUISPQPMPHZUPCFDPNFGVMMZQSPGJDJFOUJOMJOHVJTUJDTBMJOHVJTUJDBOUISP
QPMPHJTU JODPOUSBTU NVTUIBWFTPNFMJOHVJTUJDTPQIJTUJDBUJPOBOEBDRVJSF
UIFCBTJDTLJMMTPGMJOHVJTUJDBOBMZTJTUPCFBCMFUPEPTJHOJGJDBOUSFTFBSDIJO
MJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHZ
"UFSNJOPMPHJDBMOPUFJTBQQSPQSJBUFIFSF"MUIPVHIBOUISPQPMPHJDBMMJO
HVJTUJDT IBTGSFRVFOUMZCFFOFNQMPZFEUPSFGFSUPUIFTVCGJFMEPGBOUISPQPM
PHZPUIFSXJTFLOPXOBTMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHZ BOEBSFTQFDUFEKPVSOBM
14 Chapter 1: Introducing Linguistic Anthropology

B OX 1 . 2 L I N G U I S T I C S CO N T R A S T E D W I T H
L I N G U I S T I C A N T H R O P O LO G Y

Unlike linguists, [linguistic] anthropologists have never considered lan-


guage in isolation from social life but have insisted on its interdepend-
ence with cultural and social structures. In this sense, their technical
linguistic analyses are a means to an end, data from which it is possible
to make inferences about larger anthropological issues. Hence, under
the . . . label language and culture, anthropologists study topics such as
the relations between world views, grammatical categories and semantic
fields, the influence of speech on socialization and personal relationships,
and the interaction of linguistic and social communities. . . . As Hymes
has aptly remarked, language is not everywhere equivalent in commu-
nicative role and social value . . . [and] no normal person, and no normal
community is limited in repertoire to a single variety of [style], to an un-
changing monotony which would preclude the possibility of indicating
respect, insolence, mock-seriousness, humor, role-distance, etc., by
switching from one code variety to another. Consequently, the relation
between languages and social groups cannot be taken for granted, but is
a problem which must be ethnographically investigated.
from Pier Paolo Giglioli, ed., Language and Social Context (1972), 910

FYJTUTVOEFSUIBUOBNF "OUISPQPMPHJDBM-JOHVJTUJDT
UIFUFSNMJOHVJTUJDBO
UISPQPMPHZJTUPCFQSFGFSSFE BT,BSM75FFUFSBSHVFETPNFZFBSTBHP 

#SJFGMZ JGBOUISPQPMPHZJTUIFTUVEZPGIVNBOJUZ BOEMBOHVBHFJTPOFPGUIF
NPTUDIBSBDUFSJTUJDGFBUVSFTPGIVNBOLJOE UIFOUIFTUVEZPGMBOHVBHFJTBO
PCWJPVTBOEOFDFTTBSZBTQFDUPGBOUISPQPMPHZBTBXIPMF5PNPEJGZUIF
OPVOMJOHVJTUJDT CZUIFBEKFDUJWFBOUISPQPMPHJDBM JTDMFBSMZSFEVOEBOUCFDBVTF
FWFOUIPVHINFNCFSTPGBMMBOJNBMTQFDJFTDPNNVOJDBUF TPGBSBTJTLOPXO
OPPUIFSTQFDJFTVTFTBOZUIJOHDPNQBSBCMFUPIVNBOMBOHVBHF0OMZJG TBZ
NFNCFSTPGUIFDBUGBNJMZ 'FMJEBF
PSPGUIFDMBTTPGCJSET "WFT
IBETPNF
UIJOHMJLFIVNBOTQFFDI OPUKVTUTPNFTZTUFNPGDPNNVOJDBUJPO OPNBU
UFSIPXJOUSJDBUF
XPVMEJUNBLFTFOTFUPTQFBLPGBOUISPQPMPHJDBMMJOHVJTUJDT
UPEJTUJOHVJTIJUGSPNTPNFTVDIGJFMEPGTUVEZBTGFMJEPSBWJBOMJOHVJTUJDT
UIBUJT UIFTUVEZPGUIFMBOHVBHFPGDBUTPSCJSET
"TXFIBWFBMSFBEZTFFO
Summary and Conclusions 15

UIFSFBSFTFWFSBMTVCGJFMETPGBOUISPQPMPHZKVTUBTUIFTVCGJFMEDPODFSOFE
XJUIDVMUVSFJTSFGFSSFEUPBTDVMUVSBMBOUISPQPMPHZ UIFPOFDPODFSOFEXJUI
MBOHVBHFJTBQUMZSFGFSSFEUPBTMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHZ5IJTJTUIFUFSNVTFE
UISPVHIPVUUIJTCPPL*UTUBUFTFYBDUMZXIBUUIFTVCGJFMEJTBCPVUUIFTUVEZ
PGMBOHVBHF PSTQFFDI
XJUIJOUIFGSBNFXPSLPGBOUISPQPMPHZ

Summary and Conclusions


*OJUTNPEFSOGPSN MJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHZXBTUIFMBTUTVCGJFMEPGBOUISP
QPMPHZ UP CF EFWFMPQFE BOE SFDPHOJ[FE BOE XBT QSBDUJDFE QSJNBSJMZ CZ
/PSUI"NFSJDBOBOUISPQPMPHJTUT*UTCFHJOOJOHTHPCBDLUPUIFJOUFSFTUPG
OJOFUFFOUIDFOUVSZTDIPMBSTJOUIFHSFBUWBSJFUZPG/BUJWF"NFSJDBOTPDJ
FUJFTBOEUIFMBOHVBHFTUIFZTQPLF-JOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHJTUTWJFXMBOHVBHF
JOJUTDVMUVSBMGSBNFXPSLBOEBSFDPODFSOFEXJUIUIFSVMFTGPSJUTTPDJBMVTF
UIFBOBMZTJTPGJUTTUSVDUVSFJTUIFSFGPSFPOMZBNFBOTUPBOFOE#ZDPOUSBTU
MJOHVJTUTJOUIFJSTUVEZPGMBOHVBHFTFNQIBTJ[FMJOHVJTUJDTUSVDUVSFBOEUIF
IJTUPSJDBMEFWFMPQNFOUPGMBOHVBHFT
+VTUBTJOUIFSFTUPGBOUISPQPMPHZ UIFEBUBGPSMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHZBSF
GPSUIFNPTUQBSUPCUBJOFEJOUIFGJFME0WFSUIFEFDBEFT GJFMEXPSLFSTIBWF
EFWFMPQFEUFDIOJRVFTBOENFUIPETUPUIFQPJOUUIBUBOUISPQPMPHZEFQBSU
NFOUTXJUIBTJ[BCMFQSPHSBNJOMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHZOPXPGGFSDPVSTFTJO
MJOHVJTUJDGJFMENFUIPET
2

Methods of Linguistic
Anthropology

8IBUMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHZJTDPODFSOFEXJUIBSFUIFDPOTFRVFODFTPGUIF
QSPDFTTUIBUMFEUPMBOHVBHF#FDBVTFMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHJTUTUSZUPWJFX
MBOHVBHFGSPNUIFWFSZCSPBECBTFPGBOUISPQPMPHZ UIFJSSFTFBSDIJOUFSFTUT
BSFDPSSFTQPOEJOHMZDPNQSFIFOTJWFGSPNDPNNVOJDBUJPOBNPOHUIFQSJ
NBUFTUPMBOHVBHFPSJHJOTUPTUSVDUVSBMDIBSBDUFSJTUJDTPGMBOHVBHFUPOPO
WFSCBMUZQFTPGDPNNVOJDBUJPOUPMBOHVBHFJOTPDJBMDPOUFYU BOETPPOUPP
NBOZUPGVMMZFOVNFSBUFIFSF*GUIFTUVEZPGMBOHVBHFJTUIFNBJODPODFSO
PGMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHJTUT UIFOIPXEPFTMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHZEJGGFS
GSPNMJOHVJTUJDT

Contrasting Linguistics with Linguistic Anthropology


-JOHVJTUJDTJTUIFTDJFOUJGJDTUVEZPGMBOHVBHF5IFUFSNEPFTOPUSFGFSUP
UIFTUVEZPGBQBSUJDVMBSMBOHVBHFPSMBOHVBHFTGPSUIFQVSQPTFPGMFBSOJOH
UPTQFBLUIFNSBUIFS JUSFGFSTUPUIFBOBMZUJDBMTUVEZPGMBOHVBHF BOZMBO
HVBHF UPSFWFBMJUTTUSVDUVSFUIFEJGGFSFOULJOETPGMBOHVBHFVOJUT JUT
TPVOET TNBMMFTUNFBOJOHGVMQBSUTPGXPSET BOETPPO
BOEUIFSVMFTBD
DPSEJOH UP XIJDI UIFTF VOJUT BSF QVU UPHFUIFS UP QSPEVDF TUSFUDIFT PG
TQFFDI
5IFTVCKFDUNBUUFSPGMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHZ XIJDIDBOCFCSJFGMZEF
GJOFEBTUIFTUVEZPGMBOHVBHFJOJUTCJPMPHJDBMBOETPDJPDVMUVSBMDPOUFYUT JT
CFTUJMMVTUSBUFECZUIFUBCMFPGDPOUFOUTPGUIJTCPPL1FSIBQTPOMZUIFUFSN
TPDJPDVMUVSBMOFFETBDPNNFOU5IFUFSN TPDJFUZ JTGSFRVFOUMZVTFEBMNPTU

17
18 Chapter 2: Methods of Linguistic Anthropology

JOUFSDIBOHFBCMZXJUIUIFUFSNDVMUVSF BOEUIFDPNQPVOEiTPDJPDVMUVSBMw
QPJOUTPVUUIFJSJOUFSDPOOFDUJPO5IFSFJTBGJOFEJTUJODUJPO UIPVHI CFUXFFO
TPDJFUZBOEDVMUVSF BOEMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHJTUTEFBMXJUIBTQFDUTPGCPUI
DPODFQUTXIFOUIFZTUVEZBOEEFTDSJCFUIFDPNNVOJDBUJWFMJOLTCFUXFFO
JOEJWJEVBMNFNCFSTPGBHSPVQBOECFUXFFOHSPVQTXJUIJOBTPDJFUZ BOE
XIFOUIFZTUVEZBOEEFTDSJCFUSBEJUJPOBMMFBSOFECFIBWJPS DVMUVSF
BOEIPX
JUSFMBUFTUPUIFWBMVFTPGUIFNFNCFSTPGBHSPVQ UIFJSMJOLBHFTXJUIMBO
HVBHFBSFTPDJPDVMUVSBM
5PHJWFDPODSFUFFYBNQMFTPGUIFEJGGFSFODFCFUXFFOMJOHVJTUJDTBOEMJO
HVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHZ DPOTJEFSUIFGPMMPXJOHGPVSTUBUFNFOUTUIFGJSTUUXPJM
MVTUSBUFTUBUFNFOUTNBEFCZBMJOHVJTU UIFMBTUUXPTUBUFNFOUTCZBMJOHVJTUJD
BOUISPQPMPHJTU
5IFUXPMJOHVJTUJDTUBUFNFOUT

 *O&OHMJTI UIFOBTBMDPOTPOBOUO BTJOTJO BOE XSJUUFOBTOH


BTJO
TJOH BSFJODPOUSBTUCFDBVTFUIFZEJGGFSFOUJBUFUIFNFBOJOHTPGUXP
&OHMJTIXPSET
 5IF.PEFSO&OHMJTIXPSEXPNBO EFWFMPQFEPWFSUIFDFOUVSJFTGSPN
UIF0ME&OHMJTIXkGNBO

0OFXJMMOPUJDFUIBUUIFSFJTOPSFGFSFODFJOUIFTFTUBUFNFOUTBTUPUIF
TQFBLFST PSUIFDJSDVNTUBODFTVOEFSXIJDIUIFXPSETIBWFCFFOVTFE
4UBUFNFOUTGSPNMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHZ

 *O+BWBOFTF UIFDIPJDFPGXPSETJTEFUFSNJOFECZTVDIDIBSBDUFSJTUJDT
PGUIFTQFBLFSBOEUIFBEESFTTFFBTUIFJSBHF HFOEFS XFBMUI FEVDB
UJPO BOEPDDVQBUJPOBOEUIFNPSFSFGJOFEUIFMFWFMPGTQFFDI UIF
TMPXFS TPGUFS BOENPSFFWFOUIFQSFTFOUBUJPOXJMMCF
 5IFSFNBSLBCMFDBWFXBMMQBJOUJOHTBOEDBSWJOHTPGUIF6QQFS1BMF
PMJUIJD$SP.BHOPOTTFSWFBTBOJOEJSFDUQSPPGUIBUUIFTFQSFIJTUPSJD
QFPQMFIBEBGVMMGMFEHFEMBOHVBHF

5PTVNVQ UIFO BEJWJTJPOPGMBCPSFYJTUTCFUXFFOMJOHVJTUJDTBOEMJO


HVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHJTUT5IFJOUFSFTUPGUIFMJOHVJTUJTQSJNBSJMZJOMBOHVBHF
TUSVDUVSFBOEMFTTPGUFOJOMBOHVBHFDIBOHFTPWFSUJNFUIFJOUFSFTUPGUIF
MJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHJTUJTJOTQFFDIVTFBOEUIFSFMBUJPOTUIBUFYJTUCFUXFFO
MBOHVBHFPOUIFPOFIBOEBOEJUTVTFSTPOUIFPUIFS
The Fieldwork Component 19

The Fieldwork Component


3FTFBSDIDPODFSOJOHUIFDVMUVSFTBOEMBOHVBHFTPGDPOUFNQPSBSZTPDJFUJFT
JTGPSUIFNPTUQBSUDPOEVDUFEJOUIFGJFME&YQPTVSFPGBOUISPQPMPHJTUTUP
UIFTPDJFUJFTPSDPNNVOJUJFTUIFZXJTIUPTUVEZJTVTVBMMZOPUPOMZQSP
MPOHFE MBTUJOHBUMFBTUTFWFSBMNPOUIT BOEGSFRVFOUMZBGVMMZFBS
CVUBMTP
SFQFBUFE PODFBDDFQUFECZBHSPVQ BOUISPQPMPHJTUTUFOEUPSFUVSOGPSGPM
MPXVQSFTFBSDI
5IFJNNFSTJPOPGBOUISPQPMPHJDBMGJFMEXPSLFSTGPSBO
FYUFOEFEQFSJPEJOUIFEBZUPEBZBDUJWJUJFTPGUIFQFPQMFXIPNUIFZTUVEZ
JTSFGFSSFEUPBTQBSUJDJQBOUPCTFSWBUJPO5PCFBCMFUPDPNNVOJDBUFJO
UIFJSPXOMBOHVBHFXJUIUIFQFPQMFVOEFSTUVEZJTWFSZIFMQGVMUPUIFBO
UISPQPMPHJTU-BDLJOHTVDITLJMMT UIFBOUISPQPMPHJTUNVTUSFMZPOJOUFS
QSFUFSTXIP OPNBUUFSIPXFBHFSUIFZBSFUPIFMQ NBZVOXJUUJOHMZTJNQMJGZ
PSEJTUPSUXIBUJTCFJOHTBJECZUIPTFXIPTVQQMZDVMUVSBMPSMJOHVJTUJDEBUB
#FDBVTFNFNCFSTPGBTPDJFUZXIPBSFGMVFOUJOUXPMBOHVBHFTBSFTPNF
UJNFTDVMUVSBMMZNBSHJOBMQFPQMF UIFZTIPVMECFTFMFDUFEXJUIDBSF*OEJ
WJEVBMTXIPIBWFBEBQUFEUPPSCPSSPXFENBOZUSBJUTGSPNBOPUIFSDVMUVSF
DPVMEIBWFMPTUBTVCTUBOUJBMOVNCFSPGUSBJUTGSPNUIFJSPXO5PCFTVSF
TUVEJFTPGIPXBOEUPXIBUFYUFOUJOEJWJEVBMTPSXIPMFHSPVQTNBZIBWF
NPEJGJFEUIFJSDVMUVSFCZQSPMPOHFEPSWJHPSPVTDPOUBDUXJUIBOPUIFSTPDJ
FUZBSFPGHSFBUJNQPSUBODFBOEJOUFSFTU CVUUIFTFTUVEJFTDBOOPUCFDBSSJFE
PVU TBUJTGBDUPSJMZ VOMFTT UIF USBEJUJPOBM CBTF PG UIF DVMUVSF VOEFSHPJOH
DIBOHFJTXFMMVOEFSTUPPE
5IFBWBJMBCJMJUZPGTPNFPOFXIPDBODPNNVOJDBUFXJUIUIFBOUISPQPM
PHJTUEPFTOPUFYDVTFUIFSFTFBSDIFSGSPNOFFEJOHUPCFDPNFBDRVBJOUFE
XJUIUIFMBOHVBHFPGUIFHSPVQ5IFLOPXMFEHFPGBMBOHVBHFTFSWFTUIFBO
UISPQPMPHJTUBTBOJOWBMVBCMFUPPMGPSHBJOJOHBOJOGPSNFEVOEFSTUBOEJOHPG
UIFNBOZBTQFDUTPGBDVMUVSFGPSFYBNQMF FOBCMJOHUIFSFTFBSDIFSUPKVEHF
UIFSFMBUJWFTUBOEJOHPGNFNCFSTPGBDPNNVOJUZPOUIFCBTJTPGIPXUIFZ
BEESFTTPOFBOPUIFS"TFBSMZBT #PBTFNQIBTJ[FEUIJTQPJOUJOIJTJO
USPEVDUJPOUPUIFGJSTUWPMVNFPG)BOECPPLPG"NFSJDBO*OEJBO-BOHVBHFT
XIFO IF JOTJTUFE UIBU iB DPNNBOE PG UIF MBOHVBHF JT BO JOEJTQFOTBCMF
NFBOTPGPCUBJOJOHBDDVSBUFBOEUIPSPVHILOPXMFEHF<PGUIFDVMUVSFUIBUJT
CFJOHTUVEJFE> CFDBVTFNVDIJOGPSNBUJPODBOCFHBJOFECZMJTUFOJOHUP
DPOWFSTBUJPOTPGUIFOBUJWFTBOECZUBLJOHQBSUJOUIFJSEBJMZMJGF XIJDI UP
UIFPCTFSWFSXIPIBTOPDPNNBOEPGUIFMBOHVBHF XJMMSFNBJOFOUJSFMZJO
BDDFTTJCMFw #PBT

20 Chapter 2: Methods of Linguistic Anthropology

8IBU#PBTJOTJTUFEPOXBTVOEFSTDPSFECZ#SPOJTMBX.BMJOPXTLJ o

UIF1PMJTICPSOBOUISPQPMPHJTUXIPQJPOFFSFEQBSUJDJQBOUPCTFSWB
UJPOEVSJOHIJTGJFMEXPSLJO.FMBOFTJBBOE/FX(VJOFBCFUXFFOBOE
*OEJTDVTTJOHUIFBEWBOUBHFPGCFJOHBCMFUPTQFBLPOFPGUIFMPDBMMBO
HVBHFT IFXSPUFi0WFSBOEPWFSBHBJO *XBTMFEPOUPUIFUSBDLPGTPNFFY
USFNFMZJNQPSUBOUJUFNJOOBUJWFTPDJPMPHZPSGPMLMPSFCZMJTUFOJOHUPUIF
DPOWFSTBUJPOPG*HVB<IJTZPVOHIFMQFS>XJUIhis..GSJFOET XIPVTFEUP
DPNFGSPNUIFWJMMBHFUPTFFIJNw .BMJOPXTLJ
"OETFWFOZFBST
MBUFS JOIJTJOUSPEVDUJPOUP"SHPOBVUTPGUIF8FTUFSO1BDJGJD .BMJOPXTLJPG
GFSFEBEEJUJPOBMSFBTPOTXIZUIFDPNNBOEPGUIFOBUJWFMBOHVBHFJTVTFGVM
i*OXPSLJOHJOUIF,JSJXJOJBOMBOHVBHF<TQPLFOPOUIFJTMBOEPG,JSJXJOBJO
UIF5SPCSJBOE*TMBOET> *GPVOETUJMMTPNFEJGGJDVMUZJOXSJUJOHEPwn<B>
TUBUFNFOUEJSFDUMZJOUSBOTMBUJPn..<XIJDI>PGUFOSPCCFEUIFUFYUPGBMMJUT
TJHOJGJDBOUDIBSBDUFSJTUJDTSVCCFEPGGBMMJUTQPJOUTTPUIBUHSBEVBMMZ*XBT
MFEUPOPUFEPXODFSUBJOJNQPSUBOUQISBTFTKVTUBTUIFZXFSFTQPLFO JOUIF
OBUJWFUPOHVFw .BMJOPXTLJ
%FDBEFTMBUFS .BMJOPXTLJXBTTUJMM
CFJOHDJUFEGPSIJTFNQIBTJTPOQBSUJDJQBOUPCTFSWBUJPO #PY

'PSMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHJTUT SFBTPOBCMZHPPETQFBLJOHLOPXMFEHFPG
UIFMBOHVBHFPGUIFTPDJFUZCFJOHTUVEJFEJTJOEFFEJOEJTQFOTBCMF i3FBTPO
BCMZHPPEwTQFBLFSTBSFUIPTFXIPDBOFYQSFTTUIFNTFMWFTDPNGPSUBCMZPO
OPOUFDIOJDBMTVCKFDUTGMVFODZ JGJUSFGFSTUPOBUJWFMJLFDPNNBOEPGBMBO
HVBHF JTWFSZEJGGJDVMUUPBUUBJOFWFOBGUFSBOFYUFOEFEQFSJPEPGGJFMEXPSL

*UJTBMTPOFDFTTBSZGPSMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHJTUTUPMFBSOBHSFBUEFBMBCPVU
UIFDVMUVSFPGBGPSFJHOTPDJFUZ GPSNVDIPGXIBUUIFZTUVEZDPODFSOTUIF
TPDJPDVMUVSBMGVODUJPOTPGMJOHVJTUJDCFIBWJPS*OTIPSU CPUIBLOPXMFEHFPG
UIFMBOHVBHFBOEBGBJSBDRVBJOUBODFXJUIUIFDVMUVSFBSFDBMMFEGPSJGJO
RVJSJFTNBEFJOUIFGJFMEBSFUPCFSFMFWBOUBOETUBUFNFOUTBCPVUUIFSFMB
UJPOTIJQCFUXFFOMBOHVBHFBOEDVMUVSFPSTPDJFUZBDDVSBUFBOEWBMJE
5IFOBUJWFTQFBLFSGSPNXIPNUIFSFTFBSDIFSDPMMFDUTMJOHVJTUJD PSDVM
UVSBM
JOGPSNBUJPOJTSFGFSSFEUPBTBOJOGPSNBOU*OSFDFOUZFBST UIFUFSN
DPOTVMUBOU IBTCFFOVTFEXJUIJODSFBTJOHGSFRVFODZ JOQBSUCFDBVTFTPNF
NFNCFSTPGUIFQVCMJDDPOGVTFJOGPSNBOU XJUIUIFVODPNQMJNFOUBSZUFSN
JOGPSNFS.PSFJNQPSUBOU UIPVHI UIFUFSNDPOTVMUBOU HJWFTSFDPHOJUJPOUP
UIFJOUFMMFDUVBMDPOUSJCVUJPONBEFUPMJOHVJTUJDBOEBOUISPQPMPHJDBMTUVE
JFTCZUIPTFOBUJWFTQFBLFSTXIPXPSLXJUIBOUISPQPMPHJTUTPSMJOHVJTUT5IF
DPMMBCPSBUJPOCFUXFFONFNCFSTPGBTPDJFUZBOEPVUTJEFSTXIPTUVEZWBSJ
PVTBTQFDUTPGUIBUTPDJFUZJTSFGMFDUFEJOUIFHSPXJOHOVNCFSPGDPBVUIPSFE
The Fieldwork Component 21

BSUJDMFT"OPUIFSXBZPGVTJOHUPBEWBOUBHFUIFOBUJWFTQFBLFSTJOTJHIUTJOUP
UIFJSPXOMBOHVBHFJTUPFOBCMFJOUFSFTUFEJOEJWJEVBMTUPSFDFJWFUSBJOJOHJO
MJOHVJTUJDTBOEBOUISPQPMPHZBOEUIFOFODPVSBHFUIFNUPVTFUIFBDRVJSFE
TLJMMTBOELOPXMFEHFOPUPOMZGPSUIFCFOFGJUPGMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHZJO
HFOFSBMCVUGPSUIFCFOFGJUPGUIFJSPXOTPDJFUJFTBTXFMM1FSIBQTUIFNPTU
QSPNJOFOU BNPOH UIPTF XIP IBWF VSHFE UIBU MBOHVBHF JOGPSNBOUT CF
CSPVHIUGVMMZJOUPDPMMBCPSBUJPOXBT,FOOFUI-)BMF o
)FQJ
POFFSFEUIJTBQQSPBDIGPSNPSFUIBOBRVBSUFSPGBDFOUVSZ"TFBSMZBT
)BMFNBEFUIFQPJOUTUIBUiGPSTPNFMJOHVJTUJDQSPCMFNT<JUJTEPVCUGVM>
XIFUIFSUIFUSBEJUJPOBMBSSBOHFNFOU JOXIJDIUIFMJOHVJTUJDQSPCMFNJTGPS
NVMBUFEJOPOFNJOEBOEUIFDSVDJBMMJOHVJTUJDJOUVJUJPOTSFTJEFJOBOPUIFS
DBOXPSLBUBMMPS XIFSFJUBQQFBSTUPXPSL XIFUIFSJUDBOCFTBJEUIBU
UIFOBUJWFTQFBLFSJTOPU JOGBDU GVODUJPOJOHBTBMJOHVJTU wBOE BMJUUMFGBS
UIFS UIBU

UIFEJTUSJCVUJPOPGMJOHVJTUJDUBMFOUBOEJOUFSFTUXIJDIJTUPCFGPVOE<GPS
FYBNQMF>JOBO"NFSJDBO*OEJBODPNNVOJUZEPFTOPUOFDFTTBSJMZDPSSF
TQPOEJOBOZXBZUPUIFEJTUSJCVUJPOPGGPSNBMFEVDBUJPOJOUIF8FTUFSO
TFOTF*GUIJTUBMFOUJTUPGMPVSJTIBOECFCSPVHIUUPCFBSJOIFMQJOHEFUFS
NJOFUIFQBSUJDVMBSSFMFWBODFPGUIFTUVEZPGMBOHVBHFUPUIFDPNNVOJUJFT
JOXIJDIJUJTMPDBUFE UIFOXBZTNVTUCFGPVOEUPFOBCMFJOEJWJEVBMTXIP
GJUTVDIEFTDSJQUJPOs..UPSFDFJWFUSBJOJOHBOEBDDSFEJUBUJPOXIJDIXJMMFO
BCMFUIFNUPEFWPUFUIFJSFOFSHJFTUPUIFTUVEZPGUIFJSPXOMBOHVBHFT
)BMF 

%BUBGPSUIFBOBMZTJTPGBMBOHVBHFPSPGMBOHVBHFVTFDBOPGDPVSTFCF
DPMMFDUFEBXBZGSPNUIFBSFBXIFSFUIFMBOHVBHFJTTQPLFOJGBOJOGPSNBOU
MJWFTXJUIJOSFBDIPGUIFMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHJTU-JOHVJTUJDEBUBPCUBJOFEJO
TVDIBNBOOFSDBOCFRVJUFVTFGVMJGUIFJOGPSNBOUTOBUJWFMBOHVBHFTLJMMT
IBWFSFNBJOFEHPPEBOEUIFHPBMPGUIFSFTFBSDIJTUPNBLFBQSFMJNJOBSZ
BOBMZTJTPGUIFMBOHVBHF%FUFSNJOJOHIPXBMBOHVBHFGVODUJPOTJOBTPDJ
FUZ UIPVHI DBOOPUCFBDDPNQMJTIFEXJUIUIFIFMQPGPOMZPOFOBUJWFTQFBLFS
SFNPWFEGSPNUIPTFXJUIXIPNIFPSTIFXPVMEOPSNBMMZDPNNVOJDBUF
4QFDJBMDJSDVNTUBODFTNBZNFSJUFYDFQUJPOT5IFEFTDSJQUJPOPGUIFHSBN
NBSPG5VOJDB B/BUJWF"NFSJDBOMBOHVBHFGPSNFSMZTQPLFOJOOPSUIFSO
-PVJTJBOB XBTCBTFEPOUIFTQFFDIPGUIFPOMZJOEJWJEVBMXIPDPVMETUJMM
TQFBLUIFMBOHVBHFiXJUIBOZEFHSFFPGGMVFODZw5IFBVUIPSPGUIFHSBNNBS
22 Chapter 2: Methods of Linguistic Anthropology

.BSZ3)BBT<o> XIPEJENPTUPGIFSGJFMEXPSLJO OPUFE


UIBUIFSJOGPSNBOUiIBTIBEOPPDDBTJPOUPDPOWFSTFJO5VOJDBTJODFUIF
EFBUIPGIJTNPUIFSJOw<)BBT>*OUIJTDBTF UIFPOMZBWBJMBCMFJO
GPSNBOUXBTDMFBSMZQSFGFSBCMFUPOPOFBUBMM

*OUIFFBSMZUXFOUZGJSTUDFOUVSZUIFSFBSFMJLFMZUPSFNBJOPOMZBGFXMBO
HVBHFTJOUIFXPSMEBCPVUXIJDIOPUIJOHJTLOPXO)PXFWFS UIFSFBSFTUJMM
IVOESFETPGMBOHVBHFTBCPVUXIJDIMJOHVJTUTBOEBOUISPQPMPHJTUTLOPXSFMB
UJWFMZMJUUMF'PSUIFNPTUQBSUUIFTFMBOHVBHFTBSFJO*SJBO+BZB 8FTU*SJBO
BOE
1BQVB/FX(VJOFB UIFXFTUFSO *OEPOFTJBO BOEFBTUFSO JOEFQFOEFOU IBMWFT
PG/FX(VJOFB SFTQFDUJWFMZ
BOEUIFCBTJOPGUIF"NB[PO"DDPSEJOHUPSF
DFOUFTUJNBUFT TPNFMBOHVBHFTBSFSFQPSUFEGPS1BQVB/FX(VJOFB TPNF
GPS*OEPOFTJB BOEBCPVUGPS#SB[JMBUPUBMPGOFBSMZUISFFUFOUITPG
UIFXPSMETMBOHVBHFT ,SBVTT
"TBSFTVMUPGUIFHSFBUBNPVOUPGGJFME
XPSLEPOFUIFXPSMEPWFSGPMMPXJOH8PSME8BS** JUJTOPXJODSFBTJOHMZDPN
NPOGPSBOUISPQPMPHJTUTUPTUVEZDPNNVOJUJFTPSTPDJFUJFTXIPTFMBOHVBHFT
IBWFBMSFBEZCFFOEFTDSJCFEBUMFBTUUPTPNFFYUFOU BOEGPSXIJDIBTZTUFNPG
XSJUJOHNBZFWFOIBWFCFFOEFWJTFE BMUIPVHITQFBLFSTPGTVDIMBOHVBHFTNBZ
IBWFMJUUMF JGBOZ OFFEGPSXSJUJOH
4VDITDIPMBSTBSFGPSUVOBUFUPCFBCMFUPQSF
QBSFJOBEWBODFGPSUIFJSGJFMEXPSLCZSFBEJOHUIFSFMFWBOUQVCMJDBUJPOTPSVO
QVCMJTIFENBOVTDSJQUT MJTUFOJOHUPUBQFSFDPSEJOHTNBEFJOUIFGJFMECZPUIFST
PSFWFOTUVEZJOHUIFMBOHVBHFGSPNOBUJWFTQFBLFSTJGUIFZBSFSFBEJMZBWBJMBCMF
#VUPDDBTJPOTTUJMMBSJTFJOXIJDIUIFMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHJTUNVTU PSEPFT
TUBSUGSPNTDSBUDI5IFGPMMPXJOHEFTDSJQUJPO UIFO IBTUXPGVODUJPOTGJSTU UP
JOEJDBUFWFSZCSJFGMZIPXQPUFOUJBMGJFMEXPSLFSTXIPMBDLBOZLOPXMFEHFPG
UIFGJFMEMBOHVBHFTIPVMEQSPDFFEBOE TFDPOE UPJOEJDBUFIPXMJOHVJTUTBOE
BOUISPQPMPHJTUTIBWFDPQFEXJUIVOLOPXOMBOHVBHFTJOUIFQBTU
#FTJEFTCFJOHGMVFOUJOUIFJSOBUJWFMBOHVBHF JOGPSNBOUTTIPVMECFBDUJWF
QBSUJDJQBOUTJOUIFJSDVMUVSF*ONPTUJOTUBODFT JEFBMJOGPSNBOUTBSFPMEFS
NFOBOEXPNFOOPUTJHOJGJDBOUMZBGGFDUFECZPUIFSMBOHVBHFTBOEPVUTJEF
DVMUVSBMJOGMVFODFT4VDIQFPQMFBMNPTUBMXBZTLOPXUIFJSMBOHVBHFCFUUFS
UIBOUIFZPVOHFSNFNCFSTPGUIFTPDJFUZ XIPBSFMJLFMZBMTPUPVTFUIFMBO
HVBHFPGXIBUFWFSEPNJOBOUDVMUVSFNBZTVSSPVOEUIFN5IFTJUVBUJPOPG
DPVSTFWBSJFTGSPNPOFQBSUPGUIFXPSMEUPBOPUIFS*ONBOZ/BUJWF"NFS
JDBOTPDJFUJFTJOUIF6OJUFE4UBUFT GPSFYBNQMF ZPVOHQBSFOUTBSFOPMPOHFS
BCMFUPTQFBLUPUIFJSDIJMESFOJOUIFMBOHVBHFUIBUXBTOBUJWFUPUIFJSPXO
QBSFOUTPSHSBOEQBSFOUT/PUPOMZEPPMEFSNFNCFSTPGBTPDJFUZUFOEUPSF
NFNCFSUSBEJUJPOBMOBSSBUJWFT XIJDIJOWBSJBCMZQSFTFSWFHSBNNBUJDBMGPSNT
The Fieldwork Component 23

XPSET BOEQISBTFTUIBUEPOPUPDDVSJOFWFSZEBZDPOWFSTBUJPO CVUUIFZBMTP


BSF LOPXMFEHFBCMF BCPVU UIF USBEJUJPOBM BTQFDUT PG UIFJS DVMUVSFDFSF
NPOJFT SVMFTPGLJOTIJQ BSUJGBDUT GPPET BOEUIFMJLFBOEUIFSFGPSFIBWFB
HPPEDPNNBOEPGUIFDPSSFTQPOEJOHWPDBCVMBSZ
*OGPSNBOUTTIPVMECFBCMFUPFOVODJBUFDMFBSMZ5IFTQFFDIPGNFOBOE
XPNFONJTTJOHNPTUPSBMMPGUIFJSGSPOUUFFUINBZCFEJTUPSUFEUPUIFQPJOU
UIBUBEFTDSJQUJPOPGUIFTPVOETPGUIFJSTQFFDIXPVMEOPUCFSFQSFTFOUBUJWFPG
UIFUZQJDBMQSPOVODJBUJPOPGUIFTPDJFUZTNFNCFST.PTUDPNNPOMZ NBMFBO
UISPQPMPHJTUTVTFNBMFJOGPSNBOUTJOUIFJOJUJBMTUBHFTPGUIFJSGJFMEXPSLGF
NBMF BOUISPQPMPHJTUT VTF XPNFO TJNQMZ CFDBVTF JOEJWJEVBMT PG UIF TBNF
HFOEFSVTVBMMZXPSLNPSFDPNGPSUBCMZXJUIFBDIPUIFS FTQFDJBMMZJOUSBEJ
UJPOBMTPDJFUJFT"UTPNFQPJOUEVSJOHUIFGJFMESFTFBSDI IPXFWFS JUJTFTTFO
UJBMUPPCUBJOEBUBGSPNJOGPSNBOUTPGUIFPQQPTJUFHFOEFSBTXFMM CFDBVTFJO
TPNFTPDJFUJFTUIFMBOHVBHFPGXPNFODPOUBJOTDFSUBJOTPVOETPSXPSETUIBU
EJGGFSGSPNUIPTFIFBSEJONFOTTQFFDI"MMTVDIEJGGFSFODFTTIPVMECFBD
DPVOUFEGPSBOEEFTDSJCFE*UJTBMTPJNQPSUBOUUPJODMVEFZPVOHFSNFNCFSTPG
BTPDJFUZBNPOHUIFJOGPSNBOUTJOPSEFSUPGJOEPVUXIFUIFSBOEIPXMJOHVJT
UJDWBSJBUJPOJTSFMBUFEUPBHF BOEUPXIBUFYUFOUTQFBLFSTNBZCFJOGMVFODFECZ
PUIFSMBOHVBHFTPSEJBMFDUTVTFEJOUIFBSFBPSCZUIFPGGJDJBMMBOHVBHFPGUIF
DPVOUSZJOXIJDIUIFHSPVQJTMPDBUFE'PSFYBNQMF FWFOUIPVHIUZQJDBM"NFS
JDBOUFFOBHFSTBOEUIFJSHSBOEQBSFOUTTQFBLUIFTBNFMBOHVBHF UIFJSEJBMFDUT
EJGGFSTPNFXIBU FTQFDJBMMZBTGBSBTWPDBCVMBSZJTDPODFSOFEPMEFSTQFBLFST
BSFOPUMJLFMZUPCFBDRVBJOUFEXJUIUFFOBHFSTMBOHBOE FWFOJGUIFZBSF NBZ
OPUXBOUUPVTFJU4QFBLFSTPG#BEBHB B%SBWJEJBOMBOHVBHFPGTPVUIFSO*OEJB

XIPMFBSOFEUPTQFBLUIFMBOHVBHFQSJPSUPUIFTNBLFVTFPGUXFOUZEJT
UJODUJWFWPXFMTPVOET XIFSFBTUIFZPVOHFS#BEBHBVTFPOMZUIJSUFFO 4BNBSJO

5IFSFTVMUPGUIJTTJNQMJGJDBUJPOPGUIF#BEBHBWPXFMTZTUFNJTBOJO
DSFBTFEOVNCFSPGIPNPOZNT XPSETQSPOPVODFEBMJLFCVUEJGGFSFOUJONFBO
JOH MJLFUIF&OHMJTIXPSETTQFMMFENFFU BOENFBU SPEF BOESPXFE BOETPVM
BOETPMF
*OHFOFSBM WBSJBUJPOTJOTQFFDINBZCFJOGMVFODFECZ EJGGFSFODFTJO
BHF HFOEFS TPDJPFDPOPNJDDMBTT DBTUF SFMJHJPO BOEWBSJPVTPUIFSGBDUPST
*OFMJDJUJOHEBUBUIBUJT JOPCUBJOJOHGSPNJOGPSNBOUTXPSET VUUFSBODFT
UFYUT BOEKVEHNFOUTDPODFSOJOHUIFJSMBOHVBHFUIFGJFMEXPSLFSTIPVME
TUSJWFUPDPMMFDUNBUFSJBMUIBUJTEJBMFDUBMMZVOJGPSNBOETQPLFOJOBOBUVSBM
UPOFPGWPJDFBOEBUBOPSNBMSBUFPGTQFFE6OOBUVSBMMZTMPXTQFFDIVTFE
CZBOJOGPSNBOUUPFOBCMFUIFMJOHVJTUUPUSBOTDSJCFVUUFSBODFTNPSFFBTJMZ
UFOETUPEJTUPSUTPVOET TUSFTT BOEUIFMFOHUIPGWPXFMTXIFOTFOUFODFTBSF
24 Chapter 2: Methods of Linguistic Anthropology

TQPLFOUPPSBQJEMZ UIFSFJTBUFOEFODZUPMFBWFPVUTPVOET PSFWFOUPDIBOHF


UIFN DPOTJEFSUIF&OHMJTI(PUDIB A*HPUZPVBOE#FUDIB A*CFUZPV
#F
DBVTFEJBMFDUTPGBMBOHVBHFNBZIBWFTPNFXIBUEJGGFSFOUSFQFSUPSJFTPG
TPVOET BOE XPSET  VTJOH JOGPSNBOUT XIP TQFBL EJGGFSFOU EJBMFDUT DPVME
QSPWFDPOGVTJOHGPSUIFGJFMEXPSLFSJOUIFJOJUJBMTUBHFTPGSFTFBSDI&WFO
UVBMMZ PGDPVSTF EJBMFDUBMWBSJBUJPOJTXPSUIOPUJOH BTBSFUIFTPVOENPEJ
GJDBUJPOTUIBUXPSETVOEFSHPXIFOUIFZBSFQSPOPVODFESBQJEMZ
%VSJOHUIFJOJUJBMTUBHFTPGGJFMEXPSL FMJDJUJOHJTBDDPNQMJTIFECZBTLJOH
UIFJOGPSNBOUSFMBUJWFMZTJNQMFRVFTUJPOTTVDIBTi)PXEPZPVTBZA*BNIVO
HSZJOZPVSMBOHVBHF wi8IBUEPFT NFBOJOZPVSMBOHVBHF wi"N*SF
QFBUJOHDPSSFDUMZUIFXPSEZPVIBWFKVTUTBJE wBOEUIFMJLF0ODFUIFMJOHVJTUJD
BOUISPQPMPHJTUIBTCFDPNFBDDVTUPNFEUPIFBSJOHUIFMBOHVBHFBOEXPSLJOH
XJUIJU NPSFTQPOUBOFPVTBOESJDIFSEBUBDBOCFPCUBJOFE*OGPSNBOUTBSF
UIFOBTLFEUPUBML VOQSPNQUFE BCPVUUPQJDTPGQFSTPOBMJOUFSFTUUPUIFN
GPSFYBNQMF i1MFBTFUFMMNFIPXZPVSGBUIFSUBVHIUZPVUPIVOUXIFOZPVXFSF
ZPVOHwPSi8IFOZPVXFSFBDIJME XIBUXBTZPVSGBWPSJUFXBZPGIFMQJOHZPVS
NPUIFS wPSUPHJWFBOFZFXJUOFTTBDDPVOUPGTPNFNFNPSBCMFFYQFSJFODF
OBSSBUFBUSBEJUJPOBMUBMF PSFOHBHFJOBDPOWFSTBUJPOXJUIBOPUIFSOBUJWF
TQFBLFS6UUFSBODFTMPOHFSUIBOKVTUBGFXTFOUFODFTBSFCFTUSFDPSEFEPOUBQF
5IFSFDPSEJOHTDBOMBUFSCFSFQMBZFEBTNBOZUJNFTBTOFFEFEUPFOTVSFBDDV
SBUFUSBOTDSJQUJPO8IFOGJSTUVTFE UIFUBQFSFDPSEFSNBZJOIJCJUJOGPSNBOUT
TPNFXIBUCVUJGJUJTVTFEPGUFOFOPVHI JOGPSNBOUTCFDPNFBDDVTUPNFEUPJU
BOEUIFJSTQFFDITIPVMEOPUCFBQQSFDJBCMZBGGFDUFE
*GGJFMEXPSLFSTXJTIUPJODMVEFJOUIFJSTUVEJFTTPDBMMFECPEZMBOHVBHF
FZFNPWFNFOUT HFTUVSFT BOETISVHT
XIJDINBZCFBWFSZJNQPSUBOUDPN
QPOFOUPGDPNNVOJDBUJWFCFIBWJPS WJEFPDBTTFUUFSFDPSEFSTBSFVTFGVM5IFZ
SFDPSEOPUPOMZUIFTPVOETPGTQFFDIBOEUIFCPEZNPUJPOTPGUIFJOEJWJE
VBMTTQFBLJOHCVUBMTPUIFSFBDUJPOTPGUIFBVEJFODFBOEUIFPWFSBMMTFUUJOH
NBLJOHJUQPTTJCMFGPSUIFMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHJTUUPBSSJWFBUBOBDDVSBUF
BOEDPNQSFIFOTJWFEFTDSJQUJPOPGUIFDPNNVOJDBUJWFCFIBWJPSDIBSBDUFSJT
UJDPGDFSFNPOJFT DPOWFSTBUJPOT BOEFODPVOUFSTPGPUIFSLJOET
8IBUTIPVMECFUIFTJ[FPGBDPSQVT UIFDPMMFDUJPOPGMBOHVBHFEBUBBWBJM
BCMFUPUIFMJOHVJTU "DPSQVTJTBEFRVBUFGPSTUVEZJOHUIFTPVOETBOEHSBN
NBSPGBMBOHVBHFPODFTFWFSBMEBZTPGSFDPSEJOHBOEBOBMZTJTIBWFQBTTFE
XJUIOPOFXTPVOETPSHSBNNBUJDBMGPSNTOPUFE"TGPSWPDBCVMBSZ JUXPVME
CFJNQSBDUJDBMPSJNQPTTJCMFUPDPMMFDUFWFSZXPSEUIBUNFNCFSTPGBTPDJFUZ
LOPXPSVTF2VJUFDPNNPOMZ XPSETIFBSEJOFWFSZEBZDPOWFSTBUJPOBNPOH
The Fieldwork Component 25

UIFNFNCFSTPGBHSPVQEPOPUJODMVEFXPSETIFBSEJOTVDIUSBEJUJPOBMDPO
UFYUTBTUIFUFMMJOHPGNZUIT QSBZJOH DPOEVDUJOHDFSFNPOJFT BOEUIFMJLF"
DPNQSFIFOTJWFEFTDSJQUJPOPGBMBOHVBHF JUTTPVOETZTUFN HSBNNBS BOE
TFOUFODFGPSNBUJPO
TIPVMEUIFSFGPSFCFCBTFEPOEBUBESBXOGSPNCPUIDB
TVBMBOEOPODBTVBMTQFFDIUIBUJT TQFFDIPGEJGGFSFOUTUZMFTFWFSZEBZDPO
WFSTBUJPOT  TQFFDI PG ZPVOH BOE PME BOE XPNFO BOE NFO  TQFFDI PG
USBEJUJPOBMTUPSZUFMMJOH MBOHVBHFVTFEJOGPSNBMBGGBJST BOETPPO
-JOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHJTUTBSFPGDPVSTFJOUFSFTUFEJONVDINPSFUIBOKVTU
UIFTPVOET HSBNNBS BOEWPDBCVMBSZPGBMBOHVBHF BTUIFGPMMPXJOHDIBQUFST
PGUIJTCPPLTIPX)PXFWFS QSBDUJDBMTQFBLJOHTLJMMTBOELOPXMFEHFPGBMBO
HVBHFTTUSVDUVSFBSFQSFSFRVJTJUFGPSUIFGVMMVOEFSTUBOEJOHPGUIFSFMBUJPOTCF
UXFFOBMBOHVBHFPOUIFPOFIBOEBOEUIFTPDJFUZBOEJUTDVMUVSFPOUIFPUIFS
'SPNXIBUIBTKVTUCFFOTBJE JUXPVMEBQQFBSUIBUEPJOHBOUISPQPMPHJDBM
GJFMEXPSLJTBDIBMMFOHJOHCVUJOUFSFTUJOHVOEFSUBLJOH5IFBOUISPQPMPHJTU
NBLFTNBOZGSJFOETJOBOFOWJSPONFOUUIBUJTVTVBMMZBUMFBTUJOUIFJOJUJBM
TUBHFTFYDJUJOH FWFONZTUFSJPVT BOECFDPNFTDBVHIUVQJOBEJTDPWFSZ
QSPDFEVSFUIBUCVJMETGSPNUIFGJSTUEBZVOUJMUIFQSPKFDUJTDPNQMFUFE5IF
PWFSXIFMNJOHNBKPSJUZPGBOUISPQPMPHJTUTFOHBHFJOGJFMEXPSLSFQFBUFEMZ
CFDBVTFUIFZFOKPZCFJOHBXBZGSPNUIFQBQFSXPSLBOESPVUJOFPGUFBDIJOH
BOECFJOHBNPOHUIPTFXIPNUIFZBSFFBHFSUPMFBSOBCPVUBOEMFBSOGSPN
.BOZEFNBOET UIBUSFRVJSFBEKVTUJOHUP IPXFWFS BSFQMBDFEVQPOGJFME
XPSLFST 5IF DPNNPO SFTQPOTF UP FYQPTVSF UP VOGBNJMJBS DVMUVSBM TVS
SPVOEJOHTBOEQFPQMFXIPTQFBLBEJGGFSFOUMBOHVBHFJTDVMUVSFTIPDL*U
NBOJGFTUTJUTFMG BUMFBTUJOJUJBMMZ JOEJTPSJFOUBUJPOBOETPNFEFHSFFPGBOYJ
FUZPOUIFQBSUPGUIFGJFMEXPSLFS QBSUJDVMBSMZJGIFPSTIFJTUIFPOMZPVU
TJEFSJOBOPUIFSXJTFDMPTFLOJUDPNNVOJUZ BOEBDPOTQJDVPVTPVUTJEFSBU
UIBU5IFSFBSFNBOZUIJOHTUPBEKVTUPSDPOGPSNUPEJGGFSFOUGPPET BMNPTU
JOWBSJBCMZUIFBCTFODFPGQFSTPOBMQSJWBDZ QPPSIZHJFOF BOEUIFMBDLPG
QIZTJDBMDPNGPSU5IFSFDBOBMTPCFBWBSJFUZPGUISFBUTUPBGJFMEXPSLFST
XFMMCFJOH FYDFTTJWF IFBU  IVNJEJUZ  PS DPME FWFSQSFTFOU JOTFDUT TPNF
BMBSNJOHJOTJ[FPSOVNCFS
MBSHFSBOJNBMTUPCFXBSFPG TOBLFT GPSFYBN
QMF
BOECBDUFSJBBOEWJSVTFTUPXIJDIUIFWJTJUPSJTOPUJNNVOF XJUIOP
QIZTJDJBOUPDPOTVMUJGUIFOFFEBSJTFT5IFO UPP JUDBOCFGSVTUSBUJOHUPIBWF
OPPOFXJUIXIPNUPEJTDVTTUIFQV[[MJOHJTTVFTUIBUGSFRVFOUMZEFWFMPQJO
UIFDPVSTFPGSFTFBSDI#VUFWFOJGUIFQJDUVSFJTTPNFXIBUNJYFE NPTUBO
UISPQPMPHJTUTTUVEFOUTBOEDPMMFBHVFTBMJLFVTVBMMZDPOTJEFSUIFJSUJNFTJO
UIFGJFMEUPCFBNPOHUIFNPTUNFNPSBCMFFYQFSJFODFTPGUIFJSMJWFT
26 Chapter 2: Methods of Linguistic Anthropology

B O X 2 . 1 PA R T I C I PA N T O B S E R VAT I O N

During [Malinowskis] trip to do his first fieldwork, World War I broke out.
When he landed in Australia, he learned that he was now the enemy, and
the Australians informed him that he was stuck for the duration. But he
convinced them that they should let him go and wander the territories,
do a little ethno-exploring. He spent two extensive periods of time on a lit-
tle string of atolls called the Trobriand Islands.
Malinowski became the patron saint of ethnography. He dived right in,
lived with the natives, and learned their language as they spoke it while
they went about their everyday business. He talked about the goal of it
all in romantic tonesto grasp the natives point of view, his relation to
life, to realize his vision of his world, or, as he sometimes put it, to get
inside the natives skin.
The name for this approach to fieldwork, a name that is now enshrined
in the jargon, is participant observation. You dont just stand around and
watch like a parody of a lab technician; you jump in and do everyday life
with people to get a firsthand feel for how things go. At the same time, you
keep a third eye at an altitude of several feet above the action and watch
whats going on in a more distant way.
Never mind that this is difficult, to passionately commit to the flow of
experience and keep your distance at the same time. The concept ex-
presses the right contradiction. Besides, participant observation hides Ma-
linowskis secret about culture. Like Boas and Whorf, he wrote about
culture as what those people have. But participant observation carries
with it a commitment to connect, to put your body and mind on the line,
to engage what those people are doing and figure out why, at first, you
didnt understand. Participant observation signals that culture has to get
personal.
Given the gregarious nature in general and his devotion to participant
observation in particular, its no surprise that Malinowski[s . . . ] first love
was the real situations that made up the daily life of the Trobriand Is-
landers. Language wasnt an isolated object that consisted of words and
the rules for stringing them together into sentences. Language was the way
that people came together in those situations and got things done.
from Michael Agar, Language Shock (1994), 92
A Checklist for Research in the Field 27

A Checklist for Research in the Field


#PPLTIBWFCFFOXSJUUFOBCPVUNFUIPETPOGJFMEXPSLJOBOUISPQPMPHZ CVU
POFNVTUSFBMJ[FUIBUFBDIGJFMESFTFBSDIFYQFSJFODFJTVOJRVF FWFOXIFO
UIFMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHJTUSFWJTJUTBHSPVQIFPSTIFIBTQSFWJPVTMZTUVE
JFE$VMUVSFTPGBMMTPDJFUJFT HSPVQT WJMMBHFT
OPXFYQFSJFODFDIBOHFFWFO
NPSFSBQJEMZUIBOJOUIFQBTU BOEBOBOUISPQPMPHJTUTFBSMJFSWJTJUDPVMEFWFO
IBWFJOUSPEVDFEDIBOHFTIFPSTIFNBZOPUIBWFCFFOBXBSFPG
1SBDUJDBMBEWJDFUPQPUFOUJBMGJFMEXPSLFST IPXFWFS DBOCFPGTPNFVTF
BOEUIJTJTXIZJODMVEFEJOUIJTFEJUJPOPGUIFCPPLJTBDIFDLMJTUGPSSFTFBSDI
JOUIFGJFME QSFTVNBCMZJOBGPSFJHODPVOUSZ
5IFDIFDLMJTUDBOOPUCFFY
IBVTUJWF PGDPVSTF PSGJUFWFSZQBSUJDVMBSGJFMETJUVBUJPO CVUJUNBZSFNJOE
UIFBOUISPQPMPHJTUBTUPXIBUOFFETUPCFUIPVHIUBCPVUCFGPSFCFHJOOJOH
UIFGJFMEXPSL XIJMFJOUIFGJFME BOEBGUFSSFUVSOJOHIPNF

" 1SFQBSBUPSZTUBHF XIFOUIFMPDBUJPOBOEUIFTVCKFDUPGUIFTUVEZIBWF


CFFOEFDJEFEVQPO

TFBSDIGPSFYJTUJOHSFMBUFEQVCMJDBUJPOT
ESBGUJOHPGBDPODSFUFQSPKFDUQMBO
QSFQBSBUJPOPGBCVEHFU
XSJUFVQPGBOBQQMJDBUJPOGPSBSFTFBSDIHSBOU UPJODMVEF
BQQMJDBOUTDVSSJDVMVNWJUBF
UJUMFBOEEFTDSJQUJPOPGQSPKFDU
KVTUJGJDBUJPO
NFUIPEPMPHZ
FYQFDUFEDPOUSJCVUJPOXIFOGJOJTIFE
CFTQFDJGJDQPPSMZPSWBHVFMZEFTDSJCFEQSPKFDUTBSFOPUBDDFQUBCMF

BOUJDJQBUFEDPTU
USBWFMFYQFOTFT
NBJOUFOBODFJOUIFGJFME GPPEBOEiIPVTJOHw

JOGPSNBOUTTFSWJDFT NPOFZPSHJGUT

FRVJQNFOU DPNQVUFS DBNFSB FUD

NJOPSJODJEFOUBMT
SFMBUFEBDBEFNJDXPSL
QSJPSUPEFQBSUVSFGPSUIFGJFME
VQPOSFUVSO
QVCMJDBUJPOQMBOT
28 Chapter 2: Methods of Linguistic Anthropology

DPODSFUFQSFQBSBUJPOGPSUSBWFMUPBGPSFJHODPVOUSZ
WBMJEQBTTQPSU
OFDFTTBSZWJTB T

SFMFWBOUJOPDVMBUJPOT
TNBMMEJDUJPOBSJFTPGUIFMBOHVBHFTPGUIFBSFB
JOGPSNBUJPOBCPVUUIFMPDBMGBVOB GMPSB DMJNBUF FUD
HMBTTFT UXPQBJST

QFSTPOBMNFEJDJOFT
GJSTUBJELJU
BOUJCJPUJD
BOUJIJTUBNJOF
NFEJDJOBMQSFQBSBUJPOTVTFEJOUSFBUJOH
EZTFOUFSZ
NBMBSJB
HFOFSBMCPEZQBJO
BTQJSJO
UBCMFUTUPEJTJOGFDUXBUFSGPSESJOLJOH
CBOEBHJOHGPSXPVOET
DBNFSBBOEBDDFTTPSJFT
QBQFS QFODJMT
NPTRVJUPOFU FUD

# GJFMESFTFBSDITUBHF
BDDMJNBUJ[BUJPOUPUIFFOWJSPONFOU QFPQMF DMJNBUF IZHJFOJD
DPOEJUJPOT FUD

PWFSDPNJOHDVMUVSFTIPDL
FGGPSUTUPHBJODPOGJEFODFPGNFNCFSTPGUIFHSPVQ
DVMUJWBUJOHGSJFOEMZQFSTPOBMSFMBUJPOT
GJOEJOHBMPDBMQBUSPO BOPMEFSBOEEJTUJOHVJTIFENFNCFSPGUIF
HSPVQ

GJOEJOHSFMJBCMFJOUFSQSFUFST JGBOZ

GJOEJOHHPPEJOGPSNBOUT NFOBOEXPNFO

TUBCJMJ[JOHEBJMZSPVUJOF
BQQMZJOHJNQMJDJUBOEFYQMJDJUSVMFTGPSCFIBWJOHJOBGPSFJHODVMUVSF

$ GJFMESFTFBSDINFUIPET
UBMLMJUUMF MJTUFODBSFGVMMZ
A Checklist for Research in the Field 29

SFDPSEEBUBBTTPPOBTQPTTJCMFBGUFSSFDFJWJOHJOGPSNBUJPO
BWPJERVFTUJPOTBOTXFSBCMFCZiZFTwPSiOPw
BTLTJNQMFUPUIFQPJOURVFTUJPOT
PCUBJOEJBMPHTCFUXFFOOBUJWFQFPQMF
PCUBJOUSBEJUJPOBMOBSSBUJWFT
CFBQBSUJDJQBOUPCTFSWFS
DPMMFDUEBUBVTJOHCPUIUIFFNJDBQQSPBDI JOGPSNBUJPOFMJDJUFE
GSPNJOGPSNBOUT
BOEUIFFUJDBQQSPBDI PCUBJOFECZiPCKFDUJWFw
PCTFSWBUJPO

DBSSZPVUJOUFSWJFXT
TQPOUBOFPVT
XJUIRVFTUJPOTQSFQBSFECFGPSFIBOE
QSPEVDFBTNBMMTDBMFEFNPHSBQIJDTVSWFZ
NBQUIFUFSSJUPSZ GPSFYBNQMF UIFWJMMBHFBOEJUTTVSSPVOEJOHT

DPOEVDUDBTFTUVEJFT
FYQMPSFUIFMFYJDPOTPGOBUJWFDVMUVSBMEPNBJOT

% QPTTJCMFTPVSDFTPGUFOTJPOBOETUSFTT
MBDLPGQSJWBDZ
TUSJLJOHMZEJGGFSFOUMJWJOHDPOEJUJPOT
GPPE
CFWFSBHFT
IZHJFOF
QBSBTJUFT
JOTFDUT
EJTFBTFT
CFDBSFGVMOPUUPCFDPNFUIFMPDBMQIZTJDJBOMBDLPGTVDDFTTDPVME
QPTFEBOHFS

& UIFQPTUGJFMEUSJQTUBHF
PSHBOJ[JOHBOEJOEFYJOHPGGJFMEOPUFT
BOBMZTJTPGEBUB
XSJUJOHVQPGSFTVMUT
QSFQBSJOHQVCMJDBUJPOT
FUIJDBMBTQFDUTPGQVCMJDBUJPOT DPVMETPNFQVCMJTIFEJOGPSNBUJPO
QPTFSJTLUPNFNCFSTPGUIFHSPVQPSUIFJOGPSNBOUT

SFQPSUJOHPOUIFVTFPGHSBOUGVOETUPUIFGVOEJOHPSHBOJ[BUJPO
30 Chapter 2: Methods of Linguistic Anthropology

NBJOUBJOJOHGSJFOEMZDPOUBDUT JGQPTTJCMF
XJUIUIFNFNCFSTPGUIF
HSPVQTUVEJFE

Summary and Conclusions


-JOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHJTUTWJFXMBOHVBHFJOJUTDVMUVSBMGSBNFXPSLBOEBSF
DPODFSOFEXJUIUIFSVMFTGPSJUTTPDJBMVTFUIFBOBMZTJTPGJUTTUSVDUVSFJTUIFSF
GPSFPOMZBNFBOTUPBOFOE#ZDPOUSBTU MJOHVJTUTJOUIFJSTUVEZPGMBOHVBHFT
FNQIBTJ[FMJOHVJTUJDTUSVDUVSFBOEUIFIJTUPSJDBMEFWFMPQNFOUPGMBOHVBHFT
+VTUBTJOUIFSFTUPGBOUISPQPMPHZ UIFEBUBGPSMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHZBSF
GPSUIFNPTUQBSUPCUBJOFEJOUIFGJFME0WFSUIFEFDBEFT GJFMEXPSLFSTIBWF
EFWFMPQFEUFDIOJRVFTBOENFUIPETUPUIFQPJOUUIBUTPNFBOUISPQPMPHZEF
QBSUNFOUT XJUI B TJ[BCMF QSPHSBN JO MJOHVJTUJD BOUISPQPMPHZ OPX PGGFS
DPVSTFTJOMJOHVJTUJDGJFMENFUIPET'PSUIFCFOFGJUPGUIPTFXIPEPOPUIBWF
BDDFTTUPTVDIQSPHSBNT BDIFDLMJTUGPSSFTFBSDIJOUIFGJFMEIBTCFFOJO
DMVEFEJOUIJTDIBQUFS
3

Language Is Sound:
Phonology

5IFOBUVSFPGFUIOPHSBQIJDGJFMEXPSLNBLFTJUFTTFOUJBMGPSBOUISPQPMPHJTUTUP
BDRVJSFBXPSLJOHLOPXMFEHFPGUIFMBOHVBHFPGUIPTFXIPNUIFZTUVEZ UPMFBSO
TPNFUIJOHBCPVUJUTTUSVDUVSF BOEUPCFBCMFUPXSJUFJUEPXOUPSFDPSEXPSET
VUUFSBODFT PSUSBEJUJPOBMOBSSBUJWFT"NFSJDBOBOUISPQPMPHJTUTIBWFMPOHCFFO
DPODFSOFEXJUIMBOHVBHF JOMBSHFQBSUCFDBVTFPGUIFHSFBUOVNCFSBOEWBSJFUZ
PG/BUJWF"NFSJDBOMBOHVBHFTTQPLFOJOUIFJSPXOMJOHVJTUJDCBDLZBSE
&BDIMBOHVBHFSFQSFTFOUTBQBSUJDVMBSWBSJFUZPGUIFHFOFSBMMBOHVBHFDPEF
JOPUIFSXPSET OPUXPMBOHVBHFTBSFBMJLF BMUIPVHITPNFBSFTUSVDUVSBMMZTJN
JMBSXIFSFBTPUIFSTBSFRVJUFEJGGFSFOU6OEFSTUBOEJOHUIFXPSLJOHTPGBGPSFJHO
MBOHVBHFSBUIFSUIBOTJNQMZMFBSOJOHUPTQFBLJUSFRVJSFTTPNFBDRVBJOUBODF
XJUIUIFQMBOBDDPSEJOHUPXIJDIBQBSUJDVMBSMBOHVBHFDPEFJTDPOTUSVDUFE
4VDIBDRVBJOUBODFDBOOPUCFHBJOFECZVTJOHUIFUSBEJUJPOBMHSBNNBSPG&OH
MJTI PSTPNFPUIFSMBOHVBHFUBVHIUJOTDIPPMT BTBGSBNFXPSL5IFSFBSFTFW
FSBMJNQPSUBOUSFBTPOTGPSBNPSFTZTUFNBUJDBOETQFDJBMJ[FEBQQSPBDI
0OFNBKPSSFBTPOIBTUPEPXJUIDPOWFSUJOHUPXSJUUFOGPSNBMBOHVBHF
UIBUQSFWJPVTMZIBTPOMZCFFOTQPLFO5PBDDPNQMJTIUIJTUBTL POFNVTU
MFBSOUIFQSJODJQMFTPGQIPOFUJDUSBOTDSJQUJPO5IFVTFPGUIFDPOWFOUJPOBM
TQFMMJOHTZTUFNPGUIFBOUISPQPMPHJTUTPXOMBOHVBHFJTJOWBSJBCMZPVUPGUIF
RVFTUJPO/PUPOMZTIPVMEPOFFYQFDUUIFTPVOETPGPOFMBOHVBHFUPEJGGFS
GSPNUIPTFPGBOPUIFS CVUUIFTPVOETBOEUIFPSUIPHSBQIJDDPOWFOUJPOTUIBU
SFQSFTFOUUIFNJOUIFXSJUUFOMBOHVBHFBSFOPUMJLFMZUPDPSSFTQPOEUPFBDI
PUIFSPOBPOFUPPOFCBTJT&OHMJTITQFMMJOHJTOPUPSJPVTGPSJUTMBDLPGDPS
SFMBUJPOXJUITQPLFO&OHMJTI'PSFYBNQMF UIFTPVOETI PGTIZ JTXSJUUFOJO

31
32 Chapter 3: Language Is Sound: Phonology

&OHMJTIJOUXFMWFBEEJUJPOBMXBZT BTJODIFG DPOTDJFODF GVDITJB JTTVF NBO


TJPO OBVTFPVT PDFBO QPUJPO QTIBX TDIJTU TVHBS BOETVTQJDJPO5IFUXP
TFOUFODFTi5IFTVOTSBZTNFFUwBOEi5IFTPOTSBJTFNFBUwTPVOEFYBDUMZ
BMJLFEFTQJUFUIFJSEJGGFSFOUNFBOJOHTBOEPSUIPHSBQIJDSFQSFTFOUBUJPOT BOE
JOi8IFSFEPUIFTFMFBEQJQFTMFBE wUIFUXPXPSETXSJUUFOBTMFBE BSFQSP
OPVODFEEJGGFSFOUMZEFQFOEJOHPOUIFJSNFBOJOH*UTIPVMECFPCWJPVTUIBU
UIFXSJUJOHTZTUFNTPGMBOHVBHFTXJUIBMJUFSBSZUSBEJUJPO &OHMJTIJOQBSUJD
VMBS BSFOPUTVJUBCMFGPSDBSFGVMMJOHVJTUJDXPSL
5IF TFDPOE NBKPS SFBTPO GPS B TQFDJBMJ[FE BQQSPBDI IBT UP EP XJUI
HSBNNBUJDBMTUSVDUVSF&BDIMBOHVBHFIBTBTUSVDUVSFPGJUTPXOUIBUDBO
OPUCFBOBMZ[FEPSHSBTQFEJOUFSNTPGUIFJOWFTUJHBUPSTPXOMBOHVBHF
.BOZMBOHVBHFT GPSFYBNQMF EPOPUQPTTFTTUIFEFGJOJUFBOEJOEFGJOJUF
BSUJDMFTDPSSFTQPOEJOHUPUIF&OHMJTIUIF BOEB O
 "OE&OHMJTIEPFTOPU
EJTUJOHVJTIJOUIFGJSTUQFSTPOPGUIFQMVSBMCFUXFFOUIFFYDMVTJWFBOEJO
DMVTJWFGPSNTUIBUBSFDPNNPOJOPUIFSMBOHVBHFT GPSFYBNQMF UIF"MHP
ORVJBOMBOHVBHFTPG/BUJWF/PSUI"NFSJDBOT8IFSFJO&OHMJTIPOFXPVME
TJNQMZTBZXF VT PSPVS TQFBLFSTPGUIFTFMBOHVBHFTNVTUTQFDJGZXIFUIFS
CPUIUIFBEESFTTFF IFBSFS
BOEQFSIBQTPUIFSTBSFJODMVEFE BTXIFOB
CPZUBMLTUPIJTTJTUFSBCPVUiPVSNPUIFSw
PSXIFUIFSPUIFSTBSFJODMVEFE
CVUUIFBEESFTTFF IFBSFS
JTFYDMVEFE BTXIFOBNPUIFSUBMLTUPBWJTJUPS
BCPVUiPVSDIJMESFO wSFGFSSJOHUPUIPTFCFMPOHJOHUPIFSBOEIFSIVTCBOE

*OTVN FBDIMBOHVBHFIBTJUTPXOEJTUJODUJWFTUSVDUVSBMDIBSBDUFSJTUJDT
BOE UIFTF BSF MJLFMZ UP CF PWFSMPPLFE JG JUT TUSVDUVSF JT BDDPVOUFE GPS
UISPVHIUIFHSBNNBUJDBMDBUFHPSJFTPGUIFJOWFTUJHBUPSTNPUIFSUPOHVFPS
TPNFPUIFSMBOHVBHFTFSWJOHBTBNPEFM.BOZHSBNNBSTPG"NFSJDBO*O
EJBOMBOHVBHFTDPNQJMFEJOFBSMJFSDFOUVSJFTCZXFMMNFBOJOHNJTTJPOBSJFT
TUSPOHMZSFTFNCMFE-BUJOPS(SFFL FWFOUIPVHIUIF/BUJWF"NFSJDBOMBO
HVBHFTDPVMEOPUIBWFCFFONPSFEJGGFSFOUUIFEFTDSJQUJPOTCFUSBZFEUIFJS
BVUIPSTUIPSPVHIHSPVOEJOHJOUIFDMBTTJDBMMBOHVBHFTBOEUIFSFTVMUJOH
EFQFOEFODFPOUIFJSTUSVDUVSFT
5IFSFBSFNBOZCFOFGJUTUPVOEFSTUBOEJOHUIFTUSVDUVSFPGBTZTUFN OPU
POMZXJUISFTQFDUUPCFDPNJOHBDRVBJOUFEXJUIBGPSFJHOMBOHVBHFCVUJOSF
HBSEUPPUIFSMFBSOJOHTJUVBUJPOTBTXFMM0OFQSBDUJDBMCFOFGJUJTUIBUJGXFBSF
BCMFUPVOEFSTUBOEIPXUIFQBSUTPGBTZTUFNGVODUJPOBOEXIBULJOETPGSF
MBUJPOTIJQTFYJTUBNPOHUIFN XFBSFUIFOTQBSFEIBWJOHUPNFNPSJ[F PSBU
MFBTUQBZVOEVFBUUFOUJPOUP EFUBJMTUIBUNBZXFMMCFUSJWJBM5PJMMVTUSBUFUIJT
QPJOU MFUVTVTFBTJNQMFFYBNQMF
The Anatomy and Physiology of Speech 33

#POUPLJTBMBOHVBHFTQPLFOCZBQFPQMFJOUIFNPVOUBJOTPGOPSUIFSO
-V[POJOUIF1IJMJQQJOFT"NPOHUIFNBOZXPSETDPSSFTQPOEJOHUP&OHMJTI
OPVOTBOEBEKFDUJWFTBSFUIFGPMMPXJOHGPVSTUFNTGJLBT ATUSPOH LJMBE ASFE 
CBUP ATUPOF BOEGVTVM AFOFNZ5PFYQSFTTUIFJEFBUIBUTPNFPOFJTCFDPNJOH
XIBUUIFOPVOPSBEKFDUJWFSFGFSTUP UIF#POUPLXPVMEVTFUIFGPMMPXJOH
XPSETEFSJWFEGSPNUIFGPVSTUFNTBCPWFGVNJLBT AIFJTCFDPNJOHTUSPOH 
LVNJMBE AIFJTCFDPNJOHSFE CVNBUP AIFJTCFDPNJOHTUPOF BTJOBNZUI

BOEGVNVTVM AIFJTCFDPNJOHBOFOFNZ5IPTFOPUUSBJOFEJOMJOHVJTUJDTNBZ
GJOEUIFTFGPSNTBCJUDPOGVTJOH QFSIBQTFYQFDUJOH BTBSFTVMUPGCFJOHOBUJWF
TQFBLFSTPG&OHMJTI UIBUJOFBDIFYBNQMFTFWFSBMXPSETXPVMECFOFFEFEUP
JOEJDBUFUIBUBOJOEJWJEVBMJTVOEFSHPJOHTPNFTPSUPGDIBOHFCFDPNJOH
TUSPOH SFE TUPOF PSBOFOFNZ"OFYBNJOBUJPOPGUIF#POUPLEBUBSFWFBMTB
TJNQMFSVMFUIBUBDDPVOUTGPSUIFNFBOJOHAIFJTCFDPNJOH JOTUBUJOH
UIFSVMF XFBSFBWPJEJOHUFSNJOPMPHZUIBUNJHIUCFVOGBNJMJBSUPSFBEFST

*OTFSUUIFTPVOET XSJUUFOIFSFBTVN
BGUFSUIFJOJUJBMDPOTPOBOUPGUIFTUFN
5IJTSVMFQSPEVDFTGVNJLBT GSPNGJLBT BOETPPO/PXUIBUXFLOPXUIJT
QBSUJDVMBSQJFDFPG#POUPLTUSVDUVSF XFDBOHVFTTBUUIFXPSEUIBUXPVME
NPTU MJLFMZ NFBO AIF JT CFDPNJOH XIJUF JG XF BSF HJWFO QVLBX AXIJUF
OBNFMZQVNVLBXDPOWFSTFMZ XFDBOHVFTTXIBUUIFTUFNNFBOJOHAEBSL
XPVMECFGSPNUIFXPSEVNJUBE AIFJTCFDPNJOHEBSLOBNFMZJUBE
'PDVTJOHPOSFDVSSJOHQBUUFSOTPGCFIBWJPSPGNFNCFSTPGBTPDJFUZJO
PUIFSXPSET USZJOHUPEJTDPWFSUIFTUSVDUVSFPGBDVMUVSBMTZTUFNIFMQTVT
CFDPNFGBNJMJBSXJUIIPXUIFTZTUFNPQFSBUFT5IJTJTQBSUJDVMBSMZUSVFPG
UIFUIPVTBOETPGDPNNVOJDBUJWFTZTUFNTXFDBMMMBOHVBHFT

The Anatomy and Physiology of Speech


5IFDBQBDJUZGPSTQFBLJOHBOETQFFDIJUTFMGBSFUBLFOTPNVDIGPSHSBOUFE
UIBUGFXJOEJWJEVBMTFWFSTUPQUPXPOEFSIPXTPVOETBSFQSPEVDFEBOEXIZ
UIFZWBSZBTNVDIBTUIFZEP"MUIPVHIJUJTUSVFUIBUTQFBLFSTVTFUIFJS
NPUIFSUPOHVFBVUPNBUJDBMMZ XJUIPVUDPODFOUSBUJOH JUJTFRVBMMZUSVFUIBU
UIFQSPEVDUJPOPGBEP[FOUPBTDPSFPGTQFFDITPVOETQFSTFDPOESFRVJSFT
FYUSFNFMZXFMMDPPSEJOBUFEBOEQSFDJTFNPWFNFOUTBOEQPTJUJPOJOHTPGWBS
JPVTQBSUTPGUIFTQFFDIBQQBSBUVTMPDBUFECFUXFFOUIFEJBQISBHNBOEUIF
MJQT TFF'JHVSF

5IFFYUFOUPGUIFTFFMBCPSBUFHZNOBTUJDTJTBMMUIFNPSFSFNBSLBCMFXIFO
XFSFNJOEPVSTFMWFTUIBUUIFQSJNBSZGVODUJPOTPGUIFWBSJPVTQBSUTPGUIF
34 Chapter 3: Language Is Sound: Phonology

TQFFDIBQQBSBUVTBSFOPUUIPTFBTTPDJBUFEXJUIQSPEVDJOHTPVOET'PSFY
BNQMF UIFUPOHVF SJDIJOUBDUJMFTFOTPSZOFSWFFOEJOHT JTUIFTFBUPGUIF
TFOTFPGUBTUFBOEIFMQTJOTXBMMPXJOHGPPEBOEUIFNBJOQVSQPTFPGUFFUI
JTUPCJUFPGGGPPE JODJTPST
BOEUIFODIFXJU NPMBST
*OTIPSU TQFFDIJTB
TFDPOEBSZGVODUJPOGPSXIBUXFSFGFSUPBTUIFWPDBMUSBDU PSWPDBMPSHBOT
5IFQSPEVDUJPOPGTQFFDITPVOET XIJDIJTBDPNQMFYQSPDFTTJOWPMWJOH
BCPVUPOFIVOESFENVTDMFTBTXFMMBTPUIFSUJTTVFT SFRVJSFTQSFDJTFDPPSEJ
OBUJPO8IFOPOFTQFBLT BJSJTUBLFOJOUPUIFMVOHTNPSFSBQJEMZUIBOJO
UIFOPSNBMDPVSTFPGJOCSFBUIJOHBOEUIFOFYIBMFEJOBTMPXBOETUFBEZ
TUSFBN*UJTGPSDFEGSPNUIFMVOHTUISPVHIUIFUSBDIFB XJOEQJQF
BOEVO
EFSHPFTJNQPSUBOUNPEJGJDBUJPOTJOUIFMBSZOY MPDBUFEBUUIFVQQFSFOEPG
UIFUSBDIFB5IFMBSZOY UIFQPTJUJPOPGXIJDIJTNBSLFEFYUFSOBMMZCZUIF
"EBNTBQQMF IPVTFTUXPCBOETPGNVTDVMBSUJTTVFLOPXOBTUIFWPDBMDPSET
PSWPDBMGPMET5IFWPDBMGPMETTUSFUDIGSPNGSPOUUPCBDLBOESFHVMBUFUIF
TJ[FPGUIFFMPOHBUFEPQFOJOHCFUXFFOUIFN UIFHMPUUJT%VSJOHTXBMMPXJOH
JOBEEJUJPOUPCFJOHQSPUFDUFECZUIFGPMEFEFQJHMPUUJTGSPNBCPWF UIFWPDBM
DPSETBSFESBXOUPHFUIFS XJUIUIFHMPUUJTDMPTFE UPQSFWFOUMJRVJETPSGPPE
QBSUJDMFTGSPNFOUFSJOHUIFMVOHTGPSUIFQSPEVDUJPOPGWPJDFE TPVOET TVDI
BTUIPTFNBLJOHVQUIFXPSECV[[ UIFDPSETBSFESBXOUPHFUIFSBOENBEF
UPWJCSBUFBTUIFBJSTUSFBNGPSDFTJUTXBZCFUXFFOUIFNJOXIJTQFSJOH UIFZ
BSFCSPVHIUDMPTFUPHFUIFS XJUIUIFHMPUUJTOBSSPXFEGPSUIFQSPEVDUJPOPG
WPJDFMFTT TPVOET TVDIBTUIPTFIFBSEBUUIFCFHJOOJOHBOEFOEPGUIFXPSE
TIJQ UIFZBSFTQSFBEBQBSUCVUUFOTFEBOEEVSJOHOPSNBMCSFBUIJOH UIFZBSF
SFMBYFEBOETQSFBEBQBSU5IFUFOTJPOPGUIFWPDBMDPSETEFUFSNJOFTUIFGSF
RVFODZPGUIFJSWJCSBUJPOBOEUIFSFGPSFUIFQJUDI XIFSFBTUIFGPSDFPGUIF
PVUHPJOHBJSSFHVMBUFTUIFMPVEOFTTPGTPVOET
)BWJOHQBTTFEUISPVHIUIFMBSZOY UIFBJSQSPDFFETPVUUISPVHIUIFQIBS
ZOYUPXBSETUIFPSBMBOEOBTBMDBWJUJFT8IFOUIFTPGUQBMBUF WFMVN
JOUIF
SFBSVQQFSQBSUPGUIFNPVUI KVTUBCPWFUIFVWVMB JTMPXFSFEBOEUIFMJQTBSF
DMPTFE UIFBJSJTSFMFBTFEUISPVHIUIFOPTF QSPEVDJOHOBTBMTPVOET TVDIBT
UIFUISFFEJGGFSFOUPOFTJOUIF4QBOJTIXPSENBBOB AUPNPSSPXPSUIFGJOBM
POFJOUIF&OHMJTIXPSELJOH *GUIFTPGUQBMBUFJTMPXFSFECVUUIFBJSBMMPXFE
UPFTDBQFTJNVMUBOFPVTMZUISPVHICPUIUIFOPTFBOEUIFNPVUI OBTBMJ[FE
TPVOETBSFUIFSFTVMU BTJOUIF'SFODICPO AHPPE5IFNBKPSJUZPGTPVOETJO
UIFMBOHVBHFTPGUIFXPSMEBSFPSBM XJUIUIFBJSFTDBQJOHPOMZUISPVHIUIF
NPVUICFDBVTFUIFTPGUQBMBUFJTGVMMZSBJTFE NBLJOHDPOUBDUXJUIUIFCBDL
XBMMPGUIFQIBSZOYBOETIVUUJOHPGGUIFFOUSBODFUPUIFOBTBMDBWJUZ
35

F I G U R E 3 . 1 The Speech Apparatus. (a) A cross-section of the human head showing the
principal parts of the vocal tract. The lungs and the diaphragm below them are not shown.
E esophagus (gullet) 5 velum (soft palate)
L larynx (voice box) 6 uvula
N nasal cavity 7 molars
O oral cavity 8 lower lip
P pharynx 9 lower teeth (incisors)
T trachea 10 tongue tip
1 upper lip 11 tongue blade
2 upper teeth (incisors) 12 tongue root
3 alveolar ridge 13 epiglottis
4 (hard) palate 14 vocal cords
15 direction of outgoing air
(b) A view of the glottis (16), with a vocal cord on each side, during normal breathing. (c) The same
view, but with vocal cords vibrating during speech. Adapted from Bohuslav Hla: Uveden do
fonetiky c1 estiny, Prague, 1962, p. 63.
36 Chapter 3: Language Is Sound: Phonology

"TUIFBJSQBTTFTUISPVHIUIFVQQFSQBSUPGUIFTQFFDIUSBDU OVNFSPVT
NPEJGJDBUJPOTPGUIFWPDBMDIBOOFM JOWPMWJOHTVDIBSUJDVMBUPSTBTUIFTPGU
QBMBUF UPOHVF BOEMJQT NBLFQPTTJCMFUIFUSFNFOEPVTWBSJFUZPGTPVOET
IFBSEJOUIFTFWFSBMUIPVTBOEPGUIFXPSMETMBOHVBHFT5IFTFTPVOETBSFDVT
UPNBSJMZDMBTTJGJFEBDDPSEJOHUPUIFNBOOFSBOEQMBDFPGBSUJDVMBUJPOBOE
USBOTDSJCFECZNFBOTPGQIPOFUJDTZNCPMT XIJDIBSFFODMPTFEJOTRVBSF
CSBDLFUT<>

Articulation of Speech Sounds


5IFUXPNBJODMBTTFTPGTQFFDITPVOETBSFWPXFMT BOEDPOTPOBOUT TFF
/PUFTBOE4VHHFTUJPOTGPS'VSUIFS3FBEJOHVOEFS$IBQUFSJOUIF3FTPVSDF
.BOVBMBOE4UVEZ(VJEF
*OUIFQSPEVDUJPOPGWPXFMT UIFBJSUIBUFTDBQFT
UISPVHIUIFNPVUI GPSPSBMWPXFMT
BTXFMMBTUISPVHIUIFOPTF GPSOBTBM
J[FEWPXFMT
JTSFMBUJWFMZVOJNQFEFE7PXFMTBSFDMBTTJGJFEBDDPSEJOHUPUIF
QBSUPGUIFUPOHVFUIBUJTSBJTFE UIFDPOGJHVSBUJPOPGUIFMJQT BOEUIFFYUFOU
UPXIJDIUIFUPOHVFBQQSPBDIFTUIFQBMBUFBCPWFJU TFF5BCMF
"OPUIFS
WBSJBCMFJTUIFEFHSFFPGNVTDVMBSFGGPSUBOENPWFNFOUUIBUHPFTJOUPUIF
QSPEVDUJPOPGWPXFMTPVOET*GUIFUFOTJPOJOUIFUPOHVFNVTDMFTJTQSPNJ
OFOU WPXFMTBSFTBJEUPCFUFOTF BTJOCFBU PSCPPUJGJUJTMBDLJOHPSTDBSDFMZ
OPUJDFBCMF UIFZBSFTBJEUPCFMBY BTJOCJU PSCPPL
&WFOUIPVHIBOVUUFSBODFNBZCFWJFXFEBTBTVDDFTTJPOPGJOEJWJEVBM
TPVOET NPTUTQFBLFSTUFOEUPTVCEJWJEFVUUFSBODFTOBUVSBMMZJOUPTPNFXIBU
MBSHFSVOJUTTZMMBCMFT5PCFGVMMZTFSWJDFBCMF UIFUFSNTZMMBCMF OFFETUPCFEF
GJOFETFQBSBUFMZGPSFBDIMBOHVBHF CVUJOHFOFSBMPOFNBZTBZUIBUBTZMMBCMF
DPOTJTUTPGBOVDMFVTVTVBMMZCVUOPUBMXBZTBWPXFM 7
XJUIPSXJUIPVUB
DPOTPOBOU $
 PS DPOTPOBOUT CFGPSF PS BGUFS JU 5IF GPMMPXJOH &OHMJTI
XPSETB PO NF QJO TQJO ESJGU BOETUSFOHUITBMMDPOTJTUPGPOFTZMMBCMF
BOE NBZ CF SFQSFTFOUFE BT 7  7$  $7  $7$  $$7$  $$7$$  BOE
$$$7$ $
$$ SFTQFDUJWFMZ*OUIFXPSECVUUPO UIFOVDMFVTPGUIFTFDPOE
TZMMBCMFJTUIFOBTBM<O> CFDBVTFUIFPSUIPHSBQIJDWPXFMP JTOPUQSPOPVODFE
"DPOTPOBOUGVODUJPOJOHBTUIFDFOUFSPGBTZMMBCMFJTTBJEUPCFTZMMBCJD
5IFWPXFMTPG"NFSJDBO&OHMJTIEJBMFDUTPDDVSGPSUIFNPTUQBSUTJOHMZ BT
JOUIFXPSETMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHZ <***J>)PXFWFS TPNFUJNFT
UIFSFJTBDIBOHFJOWPXFMRVBMJUZXJUIJOBTZMMBCMF BTJOUIFXPSETCJUF CPVU
BOECPZ 8IBUPDDVSTJOFBDIPGUIFTFUISFFXPSETBOEPUIFSTMJLFUIFNJTB
NPWFNFOUGSPNUIFGJSTU NPSFQSPNJOFOUWPDBMJDQBSUUPUIFTFDPOE XIJDI
TA B L E 3 . 1 Types of Vowels According to Place and Manner of Articulation
Place and Manner
of Articulation Vowel Types
If the air excapes oral
through the mouth
If the air escapes nasal(ized)
also through the nose
According to the part of front central back
the tongue that is raised
According to the unrounded rounded unrounded unrounded rounded
position of the lips (spread)

According to the position high (close) i beat German khl  Russian occurs in u boot
of the highest point cool to be Turkish
of the tongue in the lower high I bit I as in just (you u book
mouth (according to the wait)
closeness of the tongue mid e bait; German German schn the second o boat; French
to the roof of the mouth) See sea lovely vowel of sofa beau beautiful
lower mid bet French peur  butt bought
fear
low (open) bat a body pot; in London
English, not
It is not easy to illustrate various vowel types by examples from English because of wide dialect variation. For example, people native to eastern
New England, the central Atlantic seaboard, and the coastal South pronounce the words Mary, marry, and merry differently, whereas in the rest
of the United States, these three words are usually pronounced alike.
37
38 Chapter 3: Language Is Sound: Phonology

JTTIPSUFSBOEMFTTEJTUJODU"DIBOHFJOWPXFMRVBMJUZXJUIJOUIFTBNFTZMMB
CMFJTSFGFSSFEUPBTBEJQIUIPOH
*OUIFQSPEVDUJPOPGDPOTPOBOUT QMBDFTPGBSUJDVMBUJPOSBOHFBMMUIFXBZ
GSPNUIFHMPUUJTUPUIFMJQT UIFMBTUQMBDFJOUIFWPDBMUSBDUXIFSFUIFPVUHP
JOHBJSDBOCFNPEJGJFE TFF5BCMF
5IFNBOOFSPGBSUJDVMBUJPOSFGFSTUP
UIFTFWFSBMLJOETPGDPOTUSJDUJPOUIBUNBZCFTFUVQBUTPNFQPJOUBMPOHUIF
TQFFDIUSBDUCZUIFBSUJDVMBUPST TFF5BCMF

5IFWPXFMBOEDPOTPOBOUUZQFTTVSWFZFEIFSFJODMVEFPOMZUIFCBTJDPOFT
+VTUBTTPVOETDBOVOEFSHPMFOHUIFOJOHPSOBTBMJ[BUJPO UIFZDBOCFNPEJ
GJFECZTFDPOEBSZBSUJDVMBUJPOT5IFTFHJWFSJTFUPMBCJBMJ[FE QBMBUBMJ[FE WF
MBSJ[FE QIBSZOHFBMJ[FE BOEPUIFSXJTFNPEJGJFETPVOET4PNFDPOTPOBOUT
NBZBMTPCFGPMMPXFECZBTQJSBUJPO UIBUJT BDDPNQBOJFECZBOBVEJCMFCSFBUI
3FMBUJWFMZSBSFBSFDMJDLT TIBSQTVDUJPOTPVOETNBEFCZUIFMJQTPSUIFUPOHVF
BOEJOHSFTTJWFTPVOET UIPTFQSPEVDFEPOUIFJOCSFBUISBUIFSUIBOUIFPVU
CSFBUI5IFNPTUDPNNPOTQFFDITPVOETBOEUIFJSNPEJGJDBUJPOTBSFSFQSF
TFOUFECZUIFQIPOFUJD TZNCPMTBOEEJBDSJUJDTPGUIF*OUFSOBUJPOBM1IPOFUJD
"MQIBCFU *1"
*UTWBSJPVTTZNCPMTBOEEJBDSJUJDTDBOCFVTFEUPSFQSFTFOUB
HSFBUNBOZ CVUCZOPNFBOTBMM
TPVOETPDDVSSJOHJOUIFXPSMETMBOHVBHFT
#FDBVTFUIFTQFDJBMDIBSBDUFSTBOEEJBDSJUJDBMNBSLTVTFECZUIF*1"BSFOPU
BMXBZTSFBEJMZBWBJMBCMF GPSUIFTBLFPGFDPOPNZBOEDPOWFOJFODFNBOZ64
MJOHVJTUTBOEBOUISPQPMPHJTUTVTFTPNFTZNCPMTUIBUEPOPUDPSSFTQPOEUP
UIPTFPGUIF*1"0OFTIPVMESFNFNCFS JOUIJTDPOOFDUJPO UIBUQIPOFUJD
TZNCPMTBSFBSCJUSBSZUIFSFGPSF JOQSJODJQMFPOFQIPOFUJDBMQIBCFUVTFEGPS
USBOTDSJQUJPOJTKVTUBTBDDFQUBCMFBTBOPUIFSTPMPOHBTFBDITPVOEJTSFQSF
TFOUFECZPOFTZNCPMPOMZBOEBMMUIFTZNCPMTBSFDBSFGVMMZEFGJOFE
"SUJDVMBUPSZQIPOFUJDT UIFTUVEZPGUIFQSPEVDUJPOPGTQFFDITPVOETCZ
UIFWPDBMPSHBOT JTOPUUIFPOMZXBZUPFYBNJOFUIFSBXNBUFSJBMPGMBOHVBHF
*UJTBMTPQPTTJCMFUPFYBNJOFTQFFDITPVOETGPSUIFJSQIZTJDBMQSPQFSUJFT UIBU
JT GSPNUIFQFSTQFDUJWFPGBDPVTUJDQIPOFUJDT 5IJTBQQSPBDISFRVJSFTUIF
TPVOE TQFDUSPHSBQI  B EFWJDF UIBU WJTVBMMZ SFQSFTFOUT BDPVTUJD GFBUVSFT PG
TQFFDITPVOETJOUIFGPSNPGTQFDUSPHSBNT PSWPJDFQSJOUT4QFDUSPHSBNTTIPX
UISFFEJNFOTJPOTPGTPVOET%VSBUJPO UJNF
JTEJTQMBZFEIPSJ[POUBMMZ GSF
RVFODZWFSUJDBMMZ BOEJOUFOTJUZCZUIFEFHSFFPGEBSLOFTT'PSFYBNQMF FBDI
WPXFMJTDIBSBDUFSJ[FECZTFWFSBMSFTPOBODFCBOET SFGFSSFEUPBTGPSNBOUT
XIJDISFQSFTFOUUIFPWFSUPOFTUSVDUVSFPGBWPXFMQSPEVDFECZUIFTIBQFPG
UIFWPDBMUSBDU#FDBVTFUIFQPTJUJPOPGUIFUPOHVFDIBOHFTXJUIUIFQSPEVDUJPO
PGEJGGFSFOUWPXFMT UIFGPSNBOUTWBSZDPSSFTQPOEJOHMZ TFF#PY

TA B L E 3 . 2 Types of Consonants According to Place of Articulation
Place of
Articulation General Description Consonant Type Example(s)
Glottis Vocal folds are positioned so as to cause a Glottal glottal stop that in some dialects
closure or friction. of English replaces the t sound (-tt-)
in such words as bottle
Pharynx Back wall of the pharynx articulates with the Pharyngeal common in Arabic
root of the tongue.
Uvula Back of the tongue articulates with the uvula. Uvular the r sound frequently heard in German
(voiced variety) or French (voiceless)
Velum, or Back of the tongue articulates with the soft Velar initial sound of calf
soft palate palate.
(Hard) palate Front of the tongue articulates with the hard Palatal the nal sound of the German
palate. ich I
Area where the Blade of the tongue (and sometimes the tip) Palato-alveolar initial sound of ship
palate and the articulates with the palato-alveolar area.
alveolar ridge Tip of the tongue, curled back, articulates Retroex typically, t and d sounds in
meet with the palato-alveolar area. English as spoken by East Indians
Alveolar ridge Front of the tongue articulates with the Alveolar the initial sound of sit
alveolar ridge.
Teeth Tongue tip articulates with the upper teeth. Dental t and d sounds of Irish English

Tongue tip is positioned between the upper Interdental the initial sounds of thin and this
and lower teeth.
Lower lip and Lower lip articulates with the upper teeth. Labiodental the initial sounds of fan and van
upper teeth
Lips Both lower and upper lips articulate. Bilabial the initial and nal sound of bob
39
40
TA B L E 3 . 3 Types of Consonants According to Manner of Articulation
Type of Subtype of Consonant
Constriction Constriction General Description Type Examples with Description
CLOSURE Total complete closure at some point in the Plosive, the initial sound of pick; closure
vocal tract, with soft palate raised; or stop at the lips
sudden release of air pressure
Total complete closure at some point in the Nasal the initial and nal sound of mom;
mouth, with soft palate lowered and air closure at the lips
escaping through the nose
Total complete closure at some point in the Affricate the initial and nal sound of judge;
mouth, with soft palate raised; gradual the tongue blade forms closure with
release of air pressure the front of the hard palate
Intermittent an articulator apping loose or one Trill the r sound in Scottish pronunciation
articulator tapping against another or in the Spanish perro dog; the
tongue vibrates against the alveolar ridge
Intermittent a single tap by one articulator against the Flap the r sound in British English
roof of the mouth pronunciation of very or in the Spanish
pero but; the tongue taps the
alveolar ridge
Partial partial closure in the mouth allowing the Lateral the initial sound of law; the middle
air to escape around one or both sides part of the tongue touches the top
of the closure of the mouth
NARROWING at some point in the vocal tract the Fricative the initial and nal sounds of fuss;
opening is narrowed so as to produce air is forced between the lower lip
audible friction and upper teeth, and between the
front of the tongue and the alveolar
ridge, respectively
From Phones to Phonemes 41

B O X 3 . 1 A C R O B AT I C S O F S P E A K I N G

The sounds that we hear when spoken to and that we emit when speak-
ing are produced by complex gymnastics executed by our lips, tongue,
velum, larynx, and lungs. The activities of these independent anatomical
structures are coordinated with a precision that should be the envy of the
most highly trained ballet dancer; yet this truly remarkable exercise is per-
formed at the drop of a hat by even the clumsiest person. In contrast, even
the most adroit primates have never been able to master it, despite inten-
sive training. These facts suggest that the ability to speak is linked to our
genetic endowment, that it is one of the aspects in which humans differ
from all other mammals.
The gymnastic feats involved in speaking are clearly not the whole
story. Speech is not just some noise that humans are capable of emitting;
it is a noise that is produced to convey meaning. And how speech conveys
meaning is surely one of the great puzzles that has intrigued thinkers for
centuries.
from Morris Halle, The Rules of Language (1980), 54

From Phones to Phonemes

5IFTNBMMFTUQFSDFQUJCMFEJTDSFUFTFHNFOUPGTQFFDIJTBQIPOF BTQFFDI
TPVOEDPOTJEFSFEBQIZTJDBMFWFOU"TVDDFTTJPOPGQIPOFTJOBQBSUJDVMBS
MBOHVBHFNBLFTVQBTUSFUDIPGTQFFDI PSBOVUUFSBODF&BDIVUUFSBODFJT
VOJRVF PDDVSSJOHJGOPUVOEFSEJGGFSFOUDJSDVNTUBODFTBUMFBTUBUBEJGGFSFOU
UJNF:FUQFPQMFEPOPUSFTQPOEUPFBDIJOTUBODFPGTQFFDIBTUIPVHIJUXFSF
EJGGFSFOUGSPNBMMPUIFST4VDIVUUFSBODFTBTi8IFSFIBWFZPVCFFO wPSi*
IBWFOPUJNFKVTUOPXwBSFUSFBUFEBTJGUIFZXFSFNVDIUIFTBNFFWFSZUJNF
UIFZBSFTBJESFHBSEMFTTPGXIFUIFSUIFWPJDFCFMPOHTUPBXPNBO NBO PS
DIJME PSIBQQFOTUPCFDMFBSPSIPBSTF#FDBVTFUIFSFJTTPNVDIMJLFOFTTJO
XIBUJTPCKFDUJWFMZEJGGFSFOU JUJTQPTTJCMFUPSFQSFTFOUTQFFDITPVOET QIPOFT
UISPVHIUIFXSJUUFOTZNCPMTPGBTVJUBCMFQIPOFUJDBMQIBCFU-JOHVJTUJDBO
UISPQPMPHJTUTNBLFQIPOFUJDUSBOTDSJQUJPOTPGXPSETPSVUUFSBODFTXIFOFWFS
UIFZXJTIUPPCUBJOBTBNQMFPGTQFFDIGPSTVCTFRVFOUBOBMZTJT
-FUVTOPXDPOTJEFSUIF&OHMJTIXPSETXSJUUFOBTQBQBZB QFQQFS QJO TQJO
VQ BOEVQPO 5IFQ TPVOEPGQJO JTGPMMPXFECZBEJTUJODUQVGGPGBJS XIJDI
42 Chapter 3: Language Is Sound: Phonology

JTDPNQMFUFMZ BCTFOUJOTQJO 5IFEJGGFSFODFCFUXFFOUIFUXPQ TPVOETDBOCF


FBTJMZEFNPOTUSBUFEJGPOFIPMETBTIFFUPGQBQFSWFSUJDBMMZCFUXFFOUIVNCBOE
GJOHFSBCPVUUXPJODIFTGSPNPOFTMJQTBOETBZTUIFUXPXPSET5IFQVGGPGBJS
PSBTQJSBUJPO GPMMPXJOHUIFQ TPVOEPGQJO TFOETBSJQQMFUISPVHIUIFTIFFU
XIFSFBTUIFXPSETQJO MFBWFTUIFTIFFUNPUJPOMFTT8FGJOEUIBUUIFTBNFEJG
GFSFODFPCUBJOTCFUXFFOUIFQTPGQBJS QFDL QFFS BOEQJLF POUIFPOFIBOE
BOEUIPTFPGTQBSF TQFDL TQFBS BOETQJLF POUIFPUIFS
*OUIFXPSEVQPO UIFQ TPVOEJTBCPVUBTEJTUJODUMZBTQJSBUFEBTJOQJO *O
QBQBZB IPXFWFS JUJTPOMZUIFTFDPOEQ UIBUJTTUSPOHMZBTQJSBUFE UIFGJSTU
POFBTQJSBUFEPOMZTMJHIUMZ JGBUBMMJOQFQQFS JUJTUIFPUIFSXBZBSPVOE*O
UIFXPSEVQ FTQFDJBMMZJGJUTUBOETBUUIFFOEPGBTFOUFODF BTJOi-FUTHP
VQ wUIFQ TPVOENBZSFNBJOVOSFMFBTFE UIBUJT UIFMJQTTJNQMZTUBZDMPTFE
JOBOUJDJQBUJPOPGUIFTJMFODFUIBUGPMMPXT
5PHFOFSBMJ[FBCPVUUIFPDDVSSFODFPGUIFTFQIPOFUJDBMMZTJNJMBSTFHNFOUT
XFNBZTBZUIBUJO&OHMJTIUIFSFBSFBUMFBTUGPVSWBSJFUJFTPGUIFQ TPVOEBO
BTQJSBUFE<QI>CFGPSFBTUSFTTFEWPXFMVOMFTTQSFDFEFECZBOT BTUIFTFDPOE
Q JOQBQBZB UIFGJSTUJOQFQQFS BOEJOQJO BOEVQPO
BWFSZTMJHIUMZBTQJ
SBUFE<Q>CFGPSFBXFBLMZTUSFTTFEWPXFM UIFGJSTUJOQBQBZB UIFTFDPOEJO
QFQQFS
BOVOBTQJSBUFE<1>XJUIBSFMBUJWFMZTNBMMEFHSFFPGNVTDVMBSFGGPSU
BOECSFBUIGPSDF BGUFSBOT PGUIFTBNFTZMMBCMFBOECFGPSFBWPXFM TQJO

BOEBOVOSFMFBTFE<Q>JOUIFTFOUFODFGJOBMQPTJUJPO XIFSF<QI>PS<Q>NBZ
BMTPPDDVS 5PJMMVTUSBUFBQSJODJQMFSBUIFSUIBOBDDPVOUGPSOVNFSPVTPUIFS
EFUBJMT UIFEFTDSJQUJPOPGUIFWBSJFUJFTPGUIF&OHMJTIQ TPVOEBOEUIFJSPD
DVSSFODFIBTCFFOTJNQMJGJFE

-FUVTOFYUDPOTJEFSUIFXPSETQJO TQJO BOECJO XIJDIXFNBZUSBOTDSJCF


QIPOFUJDBMMZBT<QI*O> <T1*O> BOE<C*O>5IFEJGGFSFODFCFUXFFOUIFQ PGQJO
BOEC PGCJO JTDMFBSMZPGBOPUIFSLJOEUIBOUIBUCFUXFFO<QI>BOE<Q>PS<QI>
BOE<1>#ZDIPPTJOHFJUIFSC PSQ GPSUIFJOJUJBMTPVOE UIFTQFBLFSJTEJT
UJOHVJTIJOHCFUXFFOUXPNFBOJOHGVMJUFNTPGUIF&OHMJTIWPDBCVMBSZ CJO
BOEQJO&WFOJGPOFXFSFUPJOUFSDIBOHFUIFQSPOVODJBUJPOPGUIFQ TPVOET
JOQJO BOETQJO BOETBZ<1*O>BOE<TQI*O>JOTUFBE POFXPVMEOPEPVCUCFVO
EFSTUPPE UIPVHIUIFMJTUFOFSXPVMEQSPCBCMZTVTQFDUUIBUFJUIFS&OHMJTIJT
OPUUIFTQFBLFSTOBUJWFMBOHVBHFPSUIFTQFBLFSJTUSZJOHUPJNJUBUFBGPSFJHO
BDDFOU"TBNBUUFSPGGBDU OBUJWFTQFBLFSTPG&OHMJTIOFWFSIBWFUPDIPPTF
DPOTDJPVTMZCFUXFFO<1>BOE<QI>5IFZFNQMPZBVUPNBUJDBMMZUIFGPSNFSCF
GPSFBWPXFMXIFOFWFSUIFTPVOET QSFDFEFTXJUIJOUIFTBNFTZMMBCMF BOE
UIFMBUUFSJGJUPDDVSTCFGPSFBTUSPOHMZTUSFTTFEWPXFM
From Phones to Phonemes 43

8JUITQFDJGJDSFGFSFODFUP&OHMJTICFDBVTFBMMMBOHVBHFTNVTUCFFYBN
JOFEBOEBOBMZ[FEPOMZPOUIFJSPXOUFSNTMJOHVJTUTFTUBCMJTIUIFC TPVOE
PGCJO BOEUIFQ TPVOEPGQJO BTUXPDPOUSBTUJWFTPVOEVOJUT PSQIPOFNFT
BOE UIFZ DMBTTJGZ UIF TFWFSBM WBSJFUJFT PG UIF Q TPVOE<QI>  <1>  <Q>
BOE<Q>BTBMMPQIPOFT PGUIFQIPOFNFQ /PUFUIFVTFPGTMBOUMJOFT
BSPVOEUIFTZNCPMUPJOEJDBUFJUTQIPOFNJDTUBUVT
5PQVUJUEJGGFSFOUMZ
XIFOQ JTVTFEUPSFQSFTFOUUIF&OHMJTIQIPOFNFQ JUTFSWFTBTBDPWFS
TZNCPMGPSBDMBTTPGQIPOFUJDBMMZTJNJMBSTPVOETUIBUBSFJODPNQMFNFOUBSZ
EJTUSJCVUJPOPSGSFFWBSJBUJPO1IPOFTBSFJODPNQMFNFOUBSZEJTUSJCVUJPOJG
UIFZOFWFSPDDVSJOUIFTBNFQIPOFUJDFOWJSPONFOUGPSFYBNQMF TJNQMJ
GJFE <1>JTGPVOEBMXBZTBGUFST XIFSF<QI>OFWFSPDDVST1IPOFTBSFJOGSFF
WBSJBUJPOJGTVCTUJUVUJOHPOFGPSBOPUIFSEPFTOPUDBVTFBDIBOHFJONFBOJOH
#VUJGUXPQIPOFTDPOUSBTU BTEPFT<C>JOCJO XJUI<QI>JOQJOUIBUJT JGTVC
TUJUVUJOHPOFGPSBOPUIFSDBVTFTBDIBOHFJONFBOJOHUIFZBSFBTTJHOBCMF
UPUXPEJGGFSFOUQIPOFNFT PS QISBTFEEJGGFSFOUMZ UIFZBSFBMMPQIPOFTPG
UXPEJGGFSFOUQIPOFNFT

5IFTJNQMFTUXBZUPFTUBCMJTIQIPOFNJDDPOUSBTUTJOBMBOHVBHFJTCZ
NFBOTPGNJOJNBMTFUT JOXIJDIFBDIXPSEIBTBEJGGFSFOUNFBOJOHCVU
WBSJFTGSPNUIFSFTUJOPOFTPVOEPOMZ'SPNUIFGPVSTPNFPGXPSETCJU CFU
CBU BOECVUU XFFTUBCMJTIQIPOFNJDDPOUSBTUBNPOHBMMGPVSWPXFMT"TGPS
DPOTPOBOUT BMMUIFJOJUJBMTPVOET OPUMFUUFST
PGUIFGPMMPXJOHTFUPGXPSET
DPOUSBTUXJUIPOFBOPUIFSBOEBSFUIFSFGPSFBTTJHOBCMFUPEJGGFSFOU&OHMJTI
QIPOFNFTCZ EJF GJF HVZ IJHI MJF NZ OJHI QJF SZF TIZ TJHI UIJHI UIZ
UJF WJF BOEXIZ ZJFMEJOHC E G H I M N O Q S T    U W X
5PEFNPOTUSBUFUIFGVOEBNFOUBMQSJODJQMFTVOEFSMZJOHQIPOFNJDBOBMZTJT
XFIBWF GPSPCWJPVTSFBTPOT VTFE&OHMJTI#VUMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHJTUT
UZQJDBMMZGBDFBEJGGFSFOUTJUVBUJPOXIFOUIFZTUVEZQFPQMFTXIPTFMBOHVBHFT
IBWFOFWFSCFGPSFCFFOXSJUUFO"UIPSPVHIQIPOFNJDBOBMZTJTPGBMBOHVBHF
JOWPMWFTNPSFUIBOKVTUDPNQJMJOHNJOJNBMTFUTJUUBLFTXFFLTPGQBJOTUBL
JOHMJTUFOJOHGPSDPOUSBTUJOHTPVOET SFQFBUJOHXPSETBOEVUUFSBODFTBOE
SFDPSEJOHUIFNPOUBQF BOEQIPOFUJDBMMZUSBOTDSJCJOHBHPPEEFBMJOUIFJOJ
UJBMTUBHFTPGXPSL5IFGPMMPXJOHOFFEUPCFFTUBCMJTIFEUIFEJTUJODUJWFTPVOET
PSQIPOFNFT PGBMBOHVBHFUIFQSPTPEJDGFBUVSFTUIBUDIBSBDUFSJ[FJUTVUUFS
BODFTUIFNBJOBMMPQIPOFTPGFBDIQIPOFNFBOEUIFQIPOFUJDFOWJSPONFOU
JOXIJDIUIFZPDDVSUIFQBUUFSOPGQIPOFNFTWPXFMT DPOTPOBOUT BOEUIFJS
TVCDMBTTFTBOEUIFSVMFTGPSUIFJSDPNCJOBUJPOTBNPOHFBDIPUIFSBOEJO
IJHIFSMFWFMVOJUT/FYU UIFQSBDUJDBMUBTLGPSUIFMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHJTU
44 Chapter 3: Language Is Sound: Phonology

JTUPEFWJTFBOBQQSPQSJBUFBMQIBCFUTPUIBUUIFMBOHVBHFDBOCFUSBOTDSJCFE
QIPOFNJDBMMZ XJUIPVUUIFNBOZQIPOFUJDEFUBJMTPGUIFJOJUJBMUSBOTDSJQUJPO
UIBUIBWFOPXCFDPNFFBTJMZSFUSJFWBCMF8IFOXFXSJUFQJO&OHMJTI XF
LOPXVOEFSXIBUDJSDVNTUBODFTUIJTQIPOFNFJTQIZTJDBMMZSFBMJ[FEBTPOF
PGJUTGPVSBMMPQIPOFT <QI> <Q> <1> BOE<Q>
*UJTJNQPSUBOUUPSFNFNCFSUIBUUIFTBNFQIPOFNFTEPOPUOFDFTTBSJMZ
DIBSBDUFSJ[FFWFSZTQFBLFSPG&OHMJTI*UJTDPNNPOLOPXMFEHFUIBU#SJUJTI
"VTUSBMJBO BOEPUIFSGPSNTPG&OHMJTIEJGGFSGSPN"NFSJDBO&OHMJTI BOE
UIBUFBDIPGUIFTFFYJTUTJOTFWFSBMEJBMFDUBMWBSJFUJFT QBSUJDVMBSMZBTGBSBT
WPXFMTBSFDPODFSOFE*OHFOFSBM UIPVHI FBDIMBOHVBHFDPOUBJOTJUTPXO
QBSUJDVMBSPWFSBMMTZTUFNPGEJTUJODUJWFTPVOET*O4QBOJTI GPSFYBNQMF B
DFSUBJOWPXFMTPVOEBQQSPYJNBUFTUIBUIFBSEJOUIF&OHMJTIXPSECFBU CVU
UIFSFJTOP4QBOJTIQBSBMMFMUPUIF&OHMJTIWPXFMTPVOEPGCJU 5IJTBOETJN
JMBSEJGGFSFODFTBSFUIFTPVSDFPGUIFiOBUVSBMwNJTQSPOVODJBUJPOTPGOBUJWF
TQFBLFSTPG4QBOJTIMFBSOJOH&OHMJTI BTXIFOUIFZQSPOPVODFUIFXPSENJMM
BTUIPVHIJUXFSFNFBM 5IFJS4QBOJTITQFFDIIBCJUTDBSSZPWFSJOUPBMBO
HVBHFUIFZBSFMFBSOJOHPSBSFOPUGBNJMJBSXJUI
5IFTUVEZPGUIFQIPOFUJDTBOEQIPOFNJDTPGBMBOHVBHFBOEPGUIFTPVOE
DIBOHFTUIBUUBLFQMBDFPWFSUJNFJOBMBOHVBHFPSJOTFWFSBMSFMBUFEMBO
HVBHFTJTSFGFSSFEUPBTQIPOPMPHZ
"OE POF NPSF SFNBSL BCPVU XSJUJOHUIJT UJNF BCPVU EFWFMPQJOH B
XSJUJOHTZTUFNGPSMBOHVBHFTUIBUBSFTQPLFOCVUOPUXSJUUFO XIJDINFBOT
QSJNBSJMZGPSMBOHVBHFTPGTNBMMUSJCBMTPDJFUJFT5PEBZNPTUNFNCFSTPG
TVDITPDJFUJFTJOFWJUBCMZBMTPTQFBLUIFMBOHVBHFPGUIFMBSHFSTPDJFUZUIBU
TVSSPVOETUIFN BOENBOZBSFOPMPOHFSTVGGJDJFOUMZQSPGJDJFOUJOUIFJSOB
UJWFMBOHVBHFUPTQFBLJU0OFNBZBTL 8IZHJWFBXSJUUFOGPSNUPBMBO
HVBHF UIBU JT EFTUJOFE UP CFDPNF FYUJODU JO B HFOFSBUJPO PS UXP  0OF
SFBTPOXPVMECFUPFOBCMFUIFMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHJTU PSMJOHVJTU
UP
SFDPSEUIFTPDJFUZTUBMFT QSBZFST SJUVBMTQFFDIFT BOEFWFSZEBZMBOHVBHFJO
UIFPSJHJOBMGPSNXIJMFJUJTTUJMMQPTTJCMF#VUUIFO UPP UIFBWBJMBCJMJUZPG
BXSJUUFOGPSNIFMQTUPCPMTUFSUIFWJBCJMJUZPGBUISFBUFOFEMBOHVBHFCZ
HJWJOHJUQSFTUJHFJOUIFPVUTJEFXPSME*UNBZCFQPTTJCMF GPSFYBNQMF UP
JODMVEFMFTTPOTJOUIFOBUJWFMBOHVBHFJOUIFFMFNFOUBSZTDIPPMTZTUFN
TFSWJOHUIFHSPVQ0OFPGUIFBVUIPSTPGUIJTUFYU 4BM[NBOO
GPSFYBN
QMF DPNQJMFEJOB%JDUJPOBSZPG$POUFNQPSBSZ"SBQBIP6TBHF UPIFMQ
"SBQBIPUFBDIFSTSFNFNCFSBOEVTFUIFMBOHVBHFPGUIFJSHSBOEQBSFOUT
#VUUIFOBQSPCMFNBSPTFOBNFMZ IPXUPSFQSFTFOUTPNFPGUIFTPVOETPG
Phonemes of English 45

UIFMBOHVBHF XIJDIJOMJOHVJTUJDMJUFSBUVSFXPVMECFEPOFCZNFBOTPGQIP
OFUJDTZNCPMT 5PVTF&OHMJTITQFMMJOHXPVMECFWFSZDPOGVTJOHGPSSFB
TPOT FYQMBJOFE FMTFXIFSF JO UIJT CPPL
 )FSF UIF BEWJDF PG JOGPSNBOUT
DPVMECFWFSZWBMVBCMF"OFYBNQMF0OFPG4BM[NBOOTJOGPSNBOUTTVH
HFTUFEUIBUUIFTPVOEVTVBMMZSFQSFTFOUFECZUIF(SFFLMFUUFSUIFUB UIBUJT
CZ DPVMECFSFQSFTFOUFECZBHSBQIJDTZNCPMGPVOEPOUIFLFZCPBSEPG
"NFSJDBOUZQFXSJUFST UIFSFCZFOBCMJOHBUFBDIFSUPUZQF"SBQBIPMFTTPOT
GPSTUVEFOUT5IJTTBNFJOGPSNBOUTVHHFTUFEVTJOHUIFOVNFSJDTZNCPM
CFDBVTFUIF&OHMJTIXPSEUISFF CFHJOTXJUIUIJTQBSUJDVMBSTPVOE XSJUUFO
JO&OHMJTIBTUI
4BM[NBOOBDDFQUFEUIJTQSBDUJDBMBOEJOHFOJPVTTVHHFT
UJPO BOETPUIF"SBQBIPXPSEGPSEPHJOUIFEJDUJPOBSZJTXSJUUFOBTIF
SBUIFSUIBOQIPOFUJDBMMZ QIPOFNJDBMMZ
BTI

Phonemes of English
5IFEJBMFDUTPG&OHMJTIWBSZTPNFXIBUXJUISFTQFDUUPWPXFMT FWFOXJUIJO
UIF6OJUFE4UBUFT5IFSFQFSUPSZPGWPXFMQIPOFNFTJO5BCMFJTSFQSF
TFOUBUJWFPGBHSFBUNBOZTQFBLFSTPG"NFSJDBO&OHMJTI UIPVHIOPUBMM5IF
MJTUJTTVQQMFNFOUFECZUISFFEJQIUIPOHT
5IFMJTUPGDPOTPOBOUQIPOFNFTJO"NFSJDBO&OHMJTIJTTIPXOJO5BCMF
 XIFOFWFSQPTTJCMF UIFPDDVSSFODFPGFBDIQIPOFNFJTFYFNQMJGJFEGPS
UIFXPSEJOJUJBM XPSENFEJBM BOEXPSEGJOBMQPTJUJPOT

)PXEPFTUIFQIPOFNJDTZTUFNPG&OHMJTIDPNQBSFXJUIUIFTZTUFNTPG
PUIFSMBOHVBHFT *OUIFOVNCFSPGTFHNFOUT JUCFMPOHTUPUIFNJEEMFSBOHF
BMPOHXJUIUIFMBSHFNBKPSJUZPGUIFXPSMETMBOHVBHFT"DDPSEJOHUPBTVSWFZ
CBTFEPOUIFQIPOFNJDJOWFOUPSJFTPGBTBNQMFPGMBOHVBHFT .BEEJFTPO

TPNFMBOHVBHFTDPOUBJOOPNPSFUIBOBEP[FOTFHNFOUBMQIPOFNFT
GPSUIFNPTUQBSUUIFZBSFNFNCFSTPGUIF*OEP1BDJGJDBOE"VTUSPOFTJBO
MBOHVBHFGBNJMJFT
XIJMFBGFXMBOHVBHFTBSFSFQPSUFEUPIBWFJOFYDFTTPG
POFIVOESFE NFNCFSTPGUIF,IPJTBOGBNJMZJOTPVUIFSO"GSJDB
5IFNFBO
OVNCFSPGDPOTPOBOUTQFSQIPOFNJDJOWFOUPSZJTJOUIFMPXUXFOUJFT 

UIBUPGWPXFMTDMPTFUPOJOF 
*ONPTUMBOHVBHFT UIFUPUBMOVNCFSPG
DPOTPOBOUTJTNPSFUIBOUXJDFBTMBSHFBTUIFOVNCFSPGWPXFMT5IFNPTU
DPNNPO DPOTPOBOUBM TVCTZTUFN JODMVEFT GSPN GJWF UP FMFWFO QMPTJWFT
TUPQT
JODMVEJOHBGGSJDBUFTPOFUPGPVSGSJDBUJWFTUXPUPGPVSOBTBMTBOE
GPVSDPOTPOBOUTPGPUIFSUZQFT5IFNPTUDPNNPOWPXFMTBSFUIPTFDMBTTJ
GJFEBTIJHIGSPOUVOSPVOEFE IJHICBDLSPVOEFE NJEGSPOUVOSPVOEFE NJE
46

TA B L E 3 . 4 Typical Vowel Phonemes in American English


Phonemic Symbol Example
Single vowels
/i/ bead
/i/ bid
/e/ bade (rhyming with made)
// bed
// bad
// (unstressed = //) bud
/a/ body
/u/ boot
/u/ book
/o/ bode
// bought
Diphthongs
/ai/ bite
/au/ bout
/i/ boy

TA B L E 3 . 5 Consonant Phonemes in American English


Phonemic Symbol Examples
/p/ pit, supper, rip
/b/ bit, ber, rib
/t/ tip, meaty, kit
/d/ dip, odor, kid
/k/ cap, locker, pick
/g/ gap, soggy, pig
/O/ chin, itchy, rich
/j/ gin, pudgy, ridge
/f/ fat, gopher, belief
/v/ vat, ivy, believe
// thin, ether, breath
// then, either, breathe
/s/ seal, icy, hiss
/z/ zeal, cozy, his
/s/ show, potion, rush
// , leisure, rouge
/h/ hasp, ahoy,
/m/ moon, simmer, loom
/n/ noon, sinner, loon
// , singer, king
/l/ limb, miller, reel
/r/ rim, mirror, rear
/w/ wet, lower,
/y/ yet, layer,
Prosodic Features 47

CBDL SPVOEFE  BOE MPX DFOUSBM VOSPVOEFE 5IF JOWFOUPSZ PG TFHNFOUBM
QIPOFNFTJO&OHMJTIBQQFBSTUPCFNVDIMJLFUIFTZTUFNTDIBSBDUFSJTUJDPG
UIFCVMLPGUIFXPSMETMBOHVBHFT5IJTJTOPUUPTBZ IPXFWFS UIBU&OHMJTIJT
BUZQJDBMMBOHVBHF"MUIPVHIBMMOBUVSBMMBOHVBHFTBSFJOEFFEEJTUJODUWBSJB
UJPOTPOBDPNNPOUIFNFIVNBOMBOHVBHFFBDIIBTJUTPXOQFDVMJBSGFB
UVSFTPGTUSVDUVSFUIBUNBLFJUVOJRVF

Prosodic Features
7PXFMT BOE DPOTPOBOUT UIBU DPNCJOF JOUP XPSET BOE TFOUFODFT NBZ CF
UIPVHIUPGBTTFHNFOUT PSTFHNFOUBMVOJUT UIBUJT BTEJTDSFUFVOJUTUIBUDBO
CFJEFOUJGJFEJOUIFTUSFBNPGTQFFDIBOETFQBSBUFEGSPNPUIFSTVDIVOJUT
BTJOQBSU QBSU BOETMFQU TMFQU
#VUUIFSFJTNPSFUPTQFFDIUIBO
KVTUPSEFSJOHUIFTFTFHNFOUTBDDPSEJOHUPUIFSVMFTPGBQBSUJDVMBSMBOHVBHF
"EEJUJPOBMGFBUVSFTBSFFTTFOUJBMGPSBOVUUFSBODFUPTPVOEOBUVSBMBOEUPCF
GVMMZNFBOJOHGVM FTQFDJBMMZTUSFTTBOEQJUDI UIFTFUXPTPNFUJNFTMVNQFE
UPHFUIFSVOEFSUIFUFSNBDDFOU 5IFTFPUIFSGFBUVSFTBSFDBMMFEQSPTPEJD
GFBUVSFT*UJTJNQPSUBOUUPOPUFUIBUQSPTPEJDGFBUVSFTDBOCFEJTUJODUJWFJO
TPNFMBOHVBHFT
4USFTTSFGFSTUPUIFEFHSFFPGGPSDF PSQSPNJOFODF BTTPDJBUFEXJUIBTZM
MBCMF*OUIFXPSEVOEFS UIFQSPNJOFOUTUSFTTJTPOUIFGJSTUTZMMBCMF XIFSFBT
JOCFMPX JUJTPOUIFTFDPOE*OUIFTFOUFODFi8JMMZPVQFSNJUNFUPVTFZPVS
QFSNJU wUIFXPSEQFSNJU GVODUJPOJOHBTBWFSCJTTUSFTTFEEJGGFSFOUMZGSPN
QFSNJU VTFEBTBOPVO4PNFMJOHVJTUTDMBJNUIBUUPEFTDSJCF&OHMJTIBEF
RVBUFMZ BTNBOZBTGPVSEFHSFFTPGTUSFTTBSFOFFEFE SBOHJOHGSPNQSJNBSZ

UPXFBL 
BTJOEJDUJPOBSZ 
BOEFMFWBUPSPQFSBUPS 

*O&OHMJTIUIFQMBDJOHPGTUSFTTJTOPUDPNQMFUFMZQSFEJDUBCMF BTJUJTJO
$[FDI XIFSFBTBSVMFUIFNBJOTUSFTTGBMMTPOUIFGJSTUTZMMBCMF PSJO1PMJTI
XIFSFJUGBMMTPOUIFQFOVMUJNBUF PSOFYUUPUIFMBTU TZMMBCMF
"EJTUJODUJWFQJUDI MFWFMBTTPDJBUFEXJUIBTZMMBCMFJTSFGFSSFEUPBTUPOF
"NPOHUIFTFWFSBMEJBMFDUHSPVQTJO$IJOB .BOEBSJO$IJOFTFQSPWJEFTB
HPPEFYBNQMFPGBUPOFTZTUFN4JNQMFSUIBOUIFTZTUFNTPGPUIFS$IJOFTF
UPOFMBOHVBHFTPSEJBMFDUT .BOEBSJOFNQMPZTGPVSSFMBUJWFQJUDIDPOUPVST PS
UPOFT UPEJTUJOHVJTIBNPOHOPSNBMMZTUSFTTFETZMMBCMFTUIBUBSFPUIFSXJTF
JEFOUJDBM TFF5BCMF

#ZDPOUSBTU UIFVTFPGQJUDIJO&OHMJTIJTOPUBTTPDJBUFEXJUIJOEJWJEVBMTZM
MBCMFTCVUXJUIVUUFSBODFTJOBWBSJFUZPGJOUPOBUJPOQBUUFSOT 5IFJOUPOBUJPO
48 Chapter 3: Language Is Sound: Phonology

TA B L E 3 . 6 The Four Distinctive Tones of Mandarin Chinese


Tone Tone Pitch Pinyin
Syllable Number Description Letter Contour Transcription Meaning
ma 1 high and 55 mother
level

ma 2 rising 35 hemp

ma 3 falling, 214 horse


then rising

ma 4 high 51 to scold
falling
The tone letter provides a simplied time-pitch graph of each syllable under nor-
mal stress. The time-pitch graph is drawn from left to right, with the vertical line
serving as a reference scale for pitch range. Similarly, the pitch contour represents
pitches by numbers from 1 to 5, with 5 being the highest.

UIBUBDDPNQBOJFTUIFRVFTUJPOi8IPSBOPGG .PUIFS wBEESFTTFEUPUIF


TQFBLFSTNPUIFS NBZFMJDJUTPNFTVDIBOTXFSBTi:PVSTJTUFSw8JUIUIFBQ
QSPQSJBUFMZEJGGFSFOUJOUPOBUJPO UIFRVFTUJPOi8IPSBOPGG.PUIFS wBE
ESFTTFEUPTPNFPUIFSNFNCFSPGUIFGBNJMZNBZFMJDJUTPNFTVDIBOTXFSBT
i:FT XJUIPVUFWFOMFBWJOHBOPUFw
5IFQIZTJDBMEVSBUJPOPGBTPVOEJTSFGFSSFEUPBTJUTRVBOUJUZ PSMFOHUI
*O&OHMJTIUIFEJGGFSFODFCFUXFFOUIFTIPSUWPXFMJOCJU BOEUIFMPOHFSPOF
JOCFBU JTOPUTUSJDUMZPSQSJNBSJMZBEJGGFSFODFJOMFOHUICFDBVTFUIFUXPWPX
FMTWBSZJOPUIFSSFTQFDUT:FUUIFDPOTPOBOUXSJUUFOBTUUJODBUUBJM JTTPNF
XIBUMPOHFSUIBOUIBUXSJUUFOBTUUJODBUUMF *O$[FDI UIPVHI MFOHUIJT
DPOUSBTUJWFTVDIXPSEQBJSTBTMBL AWBSOJTIBOEML AQJDLMF CSJOF
PSEBM AIF
HBWFBOEEM AGBSUIFSBSFBMJLFFYDFQUGPSUIFDPOTJEFSBCMFMFOHUIFOJOHPGUIF
WPXFM JO UIF TFDPOE XPSE PG FBDI QBJS NBSLFE JO DPOWFOUJPOBM $[FDI
TQFMMJOHCZUIFEJBDSJUJD}PWFSUIFWPXFM

4PNFMJOHVJTUTBMTPEJTUJOHVJTIQIPOFUJDGFBUVSFTUIBUNBSLUIFKPJOJOHPG
POFHSBNNBUJDBMVOJUUPBOPUIFSTPDBMMFEKVODUVSFT &OHMJTIFYBNQMFTJO
DMVEFUIFBVEJCMFEJGGFSFODFCFUXFFOUIFNFNCFSTPGTVDIQBJSTBTOJUSBUF
BOEOJHIUSBUF *TDSFBN BOEJDFDSFBN BOEBOBJN BOEBOBNF
Etics and Emics 49

Etics and Emics


-FUVTGJSTUCSJFGMZSFWJFXUIFEJTUJODUJPOCFUXFFOQIPOFUJDTBOEQIPOFNJDT
"QIPOFUJDUSBOTDSJQUJPO PSEFTDSJQUJPO
PGBQBSUJDVMBSMBOHVBHFJTBOBU
UFNQUUPBDDPVOUGPSBMMUIFBVEJCMFPSQFSDFJWBCMFEJGGFSFODFTBNPOHUIF
TPVOETPGUIBUMBOHVBHF'PSFYBNQMF UIFQIPOFUJDUSBOTDSJQUJPOPG&OHMJTI
XPSETXPVMESFHJTUFSUIFEJGGFSFODFCFUXFFOUIFQ TPVOETPGQJLF BOETQJLF
UIFGJSTU <QI> JTBTQJSBUFEXIFSFBTUIFTFDPOE <Q> JTOPU
PSCFUXFFOUIF
JOJUJBMDPOTPOBOUTPGTIPPU BOETIFFU CPUIDPOWFOUJPOBMMZXSJUUFOBTTI UIF
GJSTU <> JTQSPOPVODFEXJUIUIFMJQTSPVOEFEJOBOUJDJQBUJPOPGBSPVOEFE
WPXFMUIFTFDPOE <> JTQSPOPVODFEXJUIUIFMJQTTQSFBEJOBOUJDJQBUJPOPG
BOVOSPVOEFEWPXFM
#ZDPOUSBTU UIFQIPOFNJDUSBOTDSJQUJPOPGUIFTFGPVS
TPVOETJOUIFUXPQBJSTPGXPSETXPVMECFTJNQMZQBOETCFDBVTFJO&OH
MJTIOFJUIFS<QI>BOE<Q>OPS<>BOE<>EJTUJOHVJTINFBOJOHJOUIFXBZO
BOE EP GPSFYBNQMF JOTJO BOETJOH XPSETHJWFOEJGGFSFOUNFBOJOHCZ
WJSUVFPGOWFSTVT 5IFUFSNTFUJD BOEFNJD BOEUIFDPSSFTQPOEJOH
OPVOTFUJDT BOEFNJDT
XFSFEFSJWFEGSPNQIPOFUJD T
BOEQIPOFNJD T
BOE
DPJOFECZUIFMJOHVJTU,FOOFUI-1JLF o
JOBXPSLJOXIJDIIFBU
UFNQUFEUPSFMBUFUIFTUVEZPGMBOHVBHFUPBVOJGJFEUIFPSZPGUIFTUSVDUVSFPG
IVNBOCFIBWJPS 
"DDPSEJOHUP1JLF 
UIFSFBSFTFWFSBMJNQPS
UBOUEJGGFSFODFTCFUXFFOUIFFUJDBOEFNJDBQQSPBDIFTUPMBOHVBHFBOEDVM
UVSF'PSFYBNQMF TPDJBMTDJFOUJTUTXIPTUVEZCFIBWJPS JODMVEJOHMBOHVBHF

GSPNPVUTJEFBQBSUJDVMBSTZTUFNBSFGPMMPXJOHUIFFUJDBQQSPBDICFDBVTFUIF
VOJUTUIFZVTFBSFBWBJMBCMFJOBEWBODF BTBSFUIFOVNFSPVTQIPOFUJDTZN
CPMTSFQSFTFOUJOHUIFHSFBUWBSJFUZPGTPVOETPDDVSSJOHJOUIFNBOZMBO
HVBHFTPGUIFXPSME

#ZDPOUSBTU UIFFNJDBQQSPBDIJOWPMWFTBTUVEZGSPNXJUIJO5IFFNJD
VOJUTNVTUCFEJTDPWFSFECZTVCKFDUJOHBQBSUJDVMBSTZTUFNUPBOBMZTJT BMJO
HVJTUBSSJWFTBUUIFQIPOFNFTPGBMBOHVBHFPOMZBTBSFTVMUPGBOBOBMZTJT

.PSFPWFS UIFFUJDBQQSPBDIJTQPUFOUJBMMZDSPTTDVMUVSBMBOEDPNQBSBUJWFJO
UIBUJUNBZCFBQQMJFEUPTFWFSBMMBOHVBHFTPSDVMUVSFTBUBUJNFUIFFNJDBQ
QSPBDIJTMBOHVBHFoPSDVMUVSFTQFDJGJDCFDBVTFJUDBOCFBQQMJFEPOMZUPPOF
BUBUJNF'VSUIFSNPSF FUJDDSJUFSJBBSFEJSFDUMZNFBTVSBCMFBOENBZCFDPO
TJEFSFEBCTPMVUF'PSFYBNQMF CPUI&OHMJTIBOE$[FDIJODMVEFTPVOETUIBU
BSFQIPOFUJDBMMZSFQSFTFOUFEBT<N> <O> BOE< >&NJDDSJUFSJB IPXFWFS BSF
SFMBUJWFUPPOFQBSUJDVMBSTZTUFN*O&OHMJTIN O BOE BSFQIPOFNJ
DBMMZEJTUJODU BTJOTVN TVO BOETVOH CVUJO$[FDIPOMZNBOEOBSF
50 Chapter 3: Language Is Sound: Phonology

F I G U R E 3 . 2 Deetzs Facteme and Allofacts Illustrated


on Arrowheads

CFDBVTF< >JO$[FDIJTBOBMMPQIPOFPGO JUPDDVSTCFGPSFWFMBSDPOTP


OBOUT
/BUJWFTQFBLFSTPGBMBOHVBHF PGDPVSTF EPOPULOPXBOEEPOPU
IBWFUPLOPXUIFQIPOFNJDTZTUFNPGUIFJSNPUIFSUPOHVFUIFZJOUFSOBMJ[F
JUXIFOUIFZMFBSOUIFJSMBOHVBHFJOFBSMZDIJMEIPPE
"OPUIFSXBZUPFYFNQMJGZUIFEJGGFSFODFCFUXFFOFUJDTBOEFNJDTJTUP
QPJOUPVUUIBUOBUJWFTQFBLFSTPG&OHMJTIFODPEFUIFJSNFTTBHFTFUJDBMMZ
BMUIPVHIVOBXBSFUIBUUIFZBTQJSBUFTPNFQTTUSPOHMZ PUIFSTXFBLMZ BOE
TUJMMPUIFST BGUFSBOT PGUIFTBNFTZMMBCMF
OPUBUBMMCVUVODPOTDJPVTMZEF
DPEFUIFNFNJDBMMZ QBZJOHBUUFOUJPOPOMZUPEJTUJODUJWFGFBUVSFT TVDIBTUIF
WPJDJOHUIBUEJTUJOHVJTIFTCGSPNQJOCVODI BOEQVODI CFTU BOEQFTU BOE
PUIFSTVDIQBJST

1JLFTFYUFOTJPOPGUIFDPODFQUTPGFUJDTBOEFNJDTUPUIFTUVEZPGDVMUVSF
TUJNVMBUFEPUIFSTDIPMBSTUPBQQMZUIFTFDPODFQUTUPUIFGJFMETPGUIFJSPXO
TQFDJBMJ[BUJPO+BNFT'%FFU[ o
BOBSDIBFPMPHJTU TVHHFTUFE
o
UIBUJOBSDIBFPMPHZPOFNBZXJTIUPEJTUJOHVJTIBNPOHGBDUT
GBDUFNFT BOEBMMPGBDUT BOEBNPOHGPSNT GPSNFNFT BOEBMMPGPSNT
5PJM
MVTUSBUFXIBU%FFU[NFBOUCZUIFTFUFSNT MFUVTVTFIJTFYBNQMFDPODFSO
JOHBSSPXIFBET TFF'JHVSF
4PNFIBWFTUSBJHIUTJEFT XIFSFBTPUIFST
IBWFOPUDIFTOFBSUIFCBTF#FDBVTFUIFOPUDIFTBSFVTFEUPBUUBDIUIFBS
SPXIFBEUPUIFTIBGU UIFZIBWFBGVODUJPOBMTJHOJGJDBODFBOENBZCFTBJE
UPDPOTUJUVUFBGBDUFNF CZBOBMPHZUPQIPOFNF
#VUUIFOPUDIFTWBSZJO
GPSN4PNFBSFTRVBSJTI PUIFSTUSJBOHVMBS TUJMMPUIFSTSPVOEFE BOETPPO
5IFTF WBSJBUJPOT JO OPUDIJOHT DPOTUJUVUF BMMPGBDUT CZ BOBMPHZ UP BMMP
QIPOFT
BOEBOZJOEJWJEVBMOPUDIJOH SFHBSEMFTTPGTIBQF DBOCFUFSNFE
B GBDU CZ BOBMPHZ UP QIPOF
 *O UIJT UFSNJOPMPHZ  GBDU JT BO FUJD VOJU
GBDUFNFJTBOFNJDVOJU BOEBMMPGBDUSFQSFTFOUTBHSPVQXIPTFFUJDNFN
CFSTDPOTUJUVUFBOFNJDVOJU
*OTJNJMBSGBTIJPO UIFGPMLMPSJTU"MBO%VOEFT o
DPJOFEUIF
UFSNTNPUJGFNF BOEBMMPNPUJG UPTVQQMFNFOUUIFFTUBCMJTIFEUFSNNPUJG
Etics and Emics 51

'PSFYBNQMF GPMLOBSSBUJWFTGSPNBMMQBSUTPGUIFXPSMEDPOUBJOBNPUJGFNF
UIBUDPVMECFEFTDSJCFEBTiUIFIFSPJTTVCKFDUFEUPBEJGGJDVMUPSEBOHFSPVT
UFTUw5IFUFTUDBOUBLFBHSFBUNBOZGPSNT FBDIPGXIJDIXPVMECFBOBMMP
NPUJGPGUIFNPUJGFNFGPSFYBNQMF TXBMMPXJOHSFEIPUTUPOFT USJDLJOHB
XPNBOXIPLJMMTIFSIVTCBOETBOEMPWFSTCZNFBOTPGIFSUPPUIFEWBHJOB
IBUDIJOHCPJMFEFHHT DBSSZJOHXBUFSJOBTJFWF BOEIVOESFETPGPUIFSNFBOT
PGUFTUJOHUIFIFSP&BDIBDUVBMUFMMJOHPGBIFSPTUFTUXPVMESFQSFTFOUUIFPD
DVSSFODFPGBNPUJGJOUIFOBSSBUJWF %VOEFT

)PXJTUIFTUVEZPGOPOWFSCBMCFIBWJPSUPCFBQQSPBDIFEFUJDBMMZ FNJ
DBMMZ PSCPUIBOEXIJDIPGUIFTFQPTTJCMFBQQSPBDIFTJTNPTUBQQSPQSJBUF
GPSEFTDSJCJOHDVMUVSF 5IBUUIFTFBOESFMBUFERVFTUJPOTBSFGBSGSPNIBWJOH
CFFOTFUUMFEBNPOHBOUISPQPMPHJTUTJTFWJEFOUGSPNBDPOUSPWFSTZUIBUIBT
QFSTJTUFEGPSNPSFUIBOBRVBSUFSPGBDFOUVSZ"EFCBUFPOUIFTVCKFDUUPPL
QMBDFEVSJOHUIFBOOVBMNFFUJOHPGUIF"NFSJDBO"OUISPQPMPHJDBM"TTPDJ
BUJPOJO XIFOFJHIUTDIPMBSTSFQSFTFOUJOHTFWFSBMGJFMETDPOUSJCVUFEUP
BOFUJDTFNJDTTZNQPTJVN UIFJSQBQFSTXFSFMBUFSQVCMJTIFETFF)FBEMBOE
1JLF BOE)BSSJT

5IFDSVYPGUIFDPOUSPWFSTZIBTUPEPXJUIUIFTUBUVTPGFUJDT*TFUJDEF
TDSJQUJPOOPNPSFUIBOBQSFSFRVJTJUFGPSEJTDPWFSJOHBOFNJDTZTUFN PSBSF
UIFFUJDBOEFNJDBOBMZTFTPGFRVBMJNQPSUBODF 'SPNUIFDVMUVSBMNBUFSJBM
JTUSFTFBSDITUSBUFHZJOBOUISPQPMPHZ PGXIJDI.BSWJO)BSSJT o

XBTUIFGPSFNPTUQSPQPOFOU iFUJDBOBMZTJTisBTUFQQJOHTUPOe..<POMZ>UP
UIFEJTDPWFSZPGFUJDTUSVDUVSFT5IFJOUFOUJTOFJUIFSUPDPOWFSUFUJDTUPFNJDT
OPSFNJDTUPFUJDT CVUSBUIFSUPEFTDSJCFCPUIBOEJGQPTTJCMFUPFYQMBJOPOF
JOUFSNTPGUIFPUIFSw )BSSJT
"OEGVSUIFS iFUJDT GPS1JLF FWFOBU
UIFQIPOFUJDMFWFM JTJOQBSUUIFPCTFSWFSTFNJDTJODPSSFDUMZBQQMJFEUPBGPS
FJHOTZTUem...*G1JLFIBENFBOUCZFUJDTOPUIJOHCVUUIFFNJDTPGUIFPC
TFSWFS XIZEJEIFCPUIFSUPJOUSPEVDFUIFUFSNFUJDT 8IZOPUTJNQMZCF
DPOUFOUXJUIUIFPQQPTJUJPOAFNJDTPGUIFPCTFSWFSWFSTVTAFNJDTPGUIFOB
UJWFQBSUJDJQBOU w )BSSJT
"HPPEBOUISPQPMPHJDBMSFQPSU BDDPSE
JOH UP )BSSJT  TIPVME EJTUJOHVJTI CFUXFFO  PO UIF POF IBOE  XIBU UIF
PCTFSWFSIBTTFFOBOEIFBSEUPUIFCFTUPGIJTPSIFSPCKFDUJWFBCJMJUZ BOE
XIJDIDBOUIFSFGPSFCFJOEFQFOEFOUMZWFSJGJFE
BOE POUIFPUIFSIBOE XIBU
JTJOUIFIFBETPGUIFOBUJWFJOGPSNBOUTXIFOUIFZDPNNFOUPOUIFJSPXO
DVMUVSF&UJDBOBMZTJTJTUIFSFGPSFUPCFDPOTJEFSFEBOFOEJOJUTFMG
5IFGJOFSQPJOUTPGUIFFUJDTFNJDTEFCBUFBSFRVJUFUFDIOJDBMBOEUIFSFGPSF
PVUTJEF UIF TDPQF PG BO JOUSPEVDUJPO UP MJOHVJTUJD BOUISPQPMPHZ 0O UIF
52 Chapter 3: Language Is Sound: Phonology

XIPMF JUTFFNTUIBUUIFEJTUJODUJPOCFUXFFOUIFFUJDBOEFNJDBQQSPBDIFTJT
NPSFFBTJMZBQQMJDBCMFUPMJOHVJTUJDEBUBUIBOUPOPOWFSCBMDVMUVSBMCFIBWJPS

Summary and Conclusions


'PSFUIOPHSBQIJDSFTFBSDIUPCFDPOEVDUFEBTQBSUJDJQBOUPCTFSWBUJPO BO
UISPQPMPHJTUTTIPVMEIBWFBXPSLJOHLOPXMFEHFPGUIFMBOHVBHFTQPLFOCZ
UIFQFPQMFUIFZTUVEZ'PSBMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHJTU BDRVBJOUBODFXJUIUIF
NFUIPET PG MJOHVJTUJD BOBMZTJT BOE BQQSFDJBUJPO PG TUSVDUVSBM EJGGFSFODFT
BNPOHMBOHVBHFTBSFFTTFOUJBM
4QFFDITPVOETBSFQSPEVDFECZWBSJPVTNPEJGJDBUJPOTPGUIFWPDBMDIBO
OFMBTUIFPVUHPJOHBJSTUSFBNQBTTFTCFUXFFOUIFWPDBMDPSETBOEUIFMJQT
5IFUXPNBJODMBTTFTPGTQFFDITPVOETBSFWPXFMTBOEDPOTPOBOUT FBDIDPO
TJTUJOHPGWBSJPVTUZQFTBDDPSEJOHUPUIFQMBDFBOENBOOFSPGBSUJDVMBUJPO
7PXFMTBSFVTVBMMZBTTPDJBUFEXJUIBDDFOU XIJDINBZUBLFUIFGPSNPGTUSFTT
QJUDI PSBDPNCJOBUJPOPGCPUI-BOHVBHFTUIBUNBLFVTFPGEJTUJODUJWFQJUDI
MFWFMTBSFSFGFSSFEUPBTUPOFMBOHVBHFT TPNFPGUIPTFTQPLFOJO$IJOBCFJOH
UIFCFTULOPXOFYBNQMFT
"OBMZTJTPGUIFTPVOETPGBMBOHVBHFJOWPMWFTEFUFSNJOJOHXIJDIQIP
OFUJDEJGGFSFODFTBSFDPOUSBTUJWF EJTUJODUJWF TJHOJGJDBOU
UIBUJT QIPOFNJD
GPSFYBNQMF <C>BOE<QI>JO&OHMJTI EJGGFSFOUJBUJOHCFUXFFOCVMM BOEQVMM

BOEXIJDIBSFQSFEJDUBCMF PSBMMPQIPOJD GPSFYBNQMF <1>BOE<QI>PGTQBO
BOEQBO
&BDIMBOHVBHFIBTBDIBSBDUFSJTUJDQIPOFNJDTZTUFN4PVOETUIBU
BSFBTTJHOBCMFUPUXPPSNPSFEJTUJODUQIPOFNFTJOPOFMBOHVBHFNBZCFBM
MPQIPOFTPGBTJOHMFQIPOFNFJOBOPUIFS"MUIPVHIQIPOFNFTIBWFCFFOEF
GJOFEUSBEJUJPOBMMZBTUIFNJOJNBMVOJUTJOUIFTPVOETZTUFNPGBMBOHVBHF
UIFZ DBO CF GVSUIFS BOBMZ[FE JOUP EJTUJODUJWF GFBUVSFT  PG XIJDI FBDI
QIPOFNFJTBCVOEMF5IFOVNCFSPGTFHNFOUBMQIPOFNFTQFSMBOHVBHF
WBSJFTGSPNBNFSFEP[FOUPBTNBOZBTPOFIVOESFEPSNPSF CVUUIFJO
WFOUPSJFT PG UIF HSFBU NBKPSJUZ PG MBOHVBHFT  QFSDFOU
 SBOHF CFUXFFO
UXFOUZBOEUIJSUZTFWFOTFHNFOUT
5IFQIPOFUJDBOEQIPOFNJDBOBMZUJDBMBQQSPBDIFTIBWFCFFOFYUFOEFE
GSPNUIFTUVEZPGMBOHVBHFUPOPOMJOHVJTUJDBTQFDUTPGDVMUVSFVOEFSUIF
UFSNTFUJD BOEFNJD "MUIPVHIUIFUFDIOJRVFTPGFUJDTBOEFNJDTIBWFCFFO
FNQMPZFEGPSTFWFSBMEFDBEFT OPUBMMTDIPMBSTBHSFFPOUIFJSTUBUVTBOENV
UVBMSFMBUJPOTIJQ
4

Structure of Words
and Sentences

#FDBVTFNBOZPGUIFMBOHVBHFTUIFZFODPVOUFSIBWFPOMZCFFOTQPLFO OFWFS
XSJUUFO BOUISPQPMPHJTUTNVTUBEFRVBUFMZJEFOUJGZBMMUIFTPVOETCFGPSFUIFZ
DBOUSBOTDSJCFBOEMBUFSBOBMZ[FXIBUTQFBLFSTPGUIFTFMBOHVBHFTIBWFTBJE
4JODFBDDVSBUFUSBOTDSJQUJPODBOOPUCFNBEFBUUIFTQFFEBUXIJDIQFPQMF
UBML NBHOFUJDUBQFSFDPSEFSTIBWFCFFOPGHSFBUIFMQJONPEFSOGJFMEXPSL
8IFOFUIOPHSBQIJDSFQPSUTBSFQVCMJTIFEJOXIJDIOBUJWFXPSETPSUFYUTBSF
UPCFDJUFE BSFMJBCMFNFUIPEPGXSJUJOHEPXOUIFMBOHVBHFNVTUCFEFWJTFE
1IPOFNJDUSBOTDSJQUJPOJTUIFNPTUFDPOPNJDBOEBUUIFTBNFUJNFBDDVSBUF
XBZPGSFDPSEJOHVUUFSBODFTSBOHJOHGSPNTIPSUDPNNFOUTUPMPOHDFSFNP
OJBMTQFFDIFT
"HPPEUSBOTDSJQUJPOJTFTTFOUJBMGPSBOBOBMZTJTCFDBVTFPOMZXJUIBSFMJ
BCMFUFYUJOIBOEDBOUIFMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHJTUEFUFSNJOFBMBOHVBHFT
HSBNNBUJDBMTUSVDUVSFBOEFYBDUNFBOJOH'VMMVOEFSTUBOEJOHSFRVJSFTUIF
JEFOUJGJDBUJPOPGFWFOUIFTNBMMFTUNFBOJOHGVMTFHNFOUT NPSQIFNFT
UIBU
NBLF VQ UIF UFYU &WFSZ MBOHVBHF IBT JUT PXO TUPDL PG NPSQIFNFT BOE
BSSBOHFTUIFNJOUPXPSET QISBTFT BOETFOUFODFTJOBQBSUJDVMBSXBZ BOE
FWFSZMBOHVBHFIBTJUTPXOHSBNNBUJDBMDBUFHPSJFTUIBUWBSZGSPNPOFMBO
HVBHFUPUIFOFYU
*OXIBUVOJUTEPQFPQMFDPNNVOJDBUF 5IFBOTXFSEFQFOETPOUIFBQ
QSPBDIPOFUBLFTUPUIFTUVEZPGTQFFDI"OJNQPSUBOUVOJUPGMJOHVJTUJD
BOBMZTJTJTUIFTFOUFODF XIJDIJTJOUVSOTVCEJWJEBCMFJOUPTNBMMFSDPO
TUJUVFOUTGPSFYBNQMF OPVOQISBTFTBOEWFSCQISBTFTPSUIFTVCKFDU WFSC
BOEPCKFDU5IFQSJODJQBMBOBMZUJDBMVOJUPGDPNNVOJDBUJWFCFIBWJPSJO

53
54 Chapter 4: Structure of Words and Sentences

MJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHZJTEJTDPVSTF 5IFDPODFQUPGEJTDPVSTFJTOPUFBTZUP
EFGJOFCFDBVTFJOEJWJEVBMTDIPMBSTVTFJUEJGGFSFOUMZ%JTDPVSTFNBZCFBT
TIPSUJOEVSBUJPOBTBHSFFUJOHPSBTMPOHBTBQSPUSBDUFEBSHVNFOUPSUIF
UFMMJOHPGBUSBEJUJPOBMOBSSBUJWFJUDBOCFPSBMPSXSJUUFO QMBOOFEPSVO
QMBOOFE QPFUJDPSCVTJOFTTMJLF BOEJUDBOCFFYFNQMJGJFECZBOZPOFPGUIF
HFOSFTDIBSBDUFSJTUJDPGUIFTQFFDICFIBWJPSPGBQBSUJDVMBSDVMUVSF"HSFBU
EFBMPGBOZDVMUVSFJTUSBOTNJUUFECZNFBOTPGEJTDPVSTF BOEEJTDPVSTFNBZ
CFTBJEUPDPOTUJUVUFBTJHOJGJDBOUQBSUPGBOZDVMUVSF"T+PFM4IFS[FSQVUJU

%JTDPVSTFJTUIFCSPBEFTUBOENPTUDPNQSFIFOTJWFMFWFMPGMJOHVJTUJDGPSN
DPOUFOU BOEVTe..<BOE>UIFQSPDFTTPGEJTDPVSTFTUSVDUVSJOHJTUIFMPDVT
PGUIFMBOHVBHFDVMUVSFSFMBUJPOTIJQ...*UJTJODFSUBJOLJOETPGEJTDPVSTF JO
XIJDITQFFDIQMBZBOEWFSCBMBSUBSFIFJHIUFOFE BTDFOUSBMNPNFOUTJOQP
FUSZ NBHJD QPMJUJDT SFMJHJPO SFTQFDU JOTVMU BOECBSHBJOJOH UIBUUIFMBO
HVBHFDVMUVSFEJTDPVSTF SFMBUJPOTIJQ DPNFT JOUP TIBSQFTU GPDVT BOE UIF
PSHBOJ[JOHSPMFPGEJTDPVSTFJOUIJTSFMBUJPOTIJQJTIJHIMJHIUFE 4IFS[FS
o

-JOHVJTUJDUIFPSJFTBOENFUIPETVOEFSXFOUHSFBUDIBOHFTEVSJOH UIF
UXFOUJFUI DFOUVSZ  UIF USBOTGPSNBUJPOBMHFOFSBUJWF BQQSPBDI PG SFDFOU
EFDBEFTSBQJEMZHBJOJOHGPMMPXFST"OEBMUIPVHIMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHJTUT
BSFNPSFDPODFSOFEXJUIUIFSFMBUJPOTIJQCFUXFFOMBOHVBHFBOEDVMUVSFBOE
TPDJFUZUIBOXJUIMJOHVJTUJDTUSVDUVSFJOBOEPGJUTFMG UIFZOFWFSUIFMFTTGPMMPX
DVSSFOUMJOHVJTUJDSFTFBSDIXJUIJOUFSFTUBOEXIFOBQQMJDBCMFVTFJUTSFTVMUTJO
UIFJSPXOXPSL

Morphemes and Allomorphs


"O PWFSWJFX PG QIPOFUJDT BOE UIF GVOEBNFOUBM QSJODJQMFT PG QIPOFNJD
BOBMZTJTXBTQSFTFOUFEJOUIFQSFWJPVTDIBQUFS-FUVTOPXTIJGUUPUIFMFWFM
PG BOBMZTJT DPOWFOUJPOBMMZ SFGFSSFE UP BT HSBNNBS $POTJEFS UIF QISBTF
TIPDLJOHMZEJTHSBDFGVMBDUT XIJDIDBOCFTVCEJWJEFEJOUPUIFGPMMPXJOHNFBO
JOHGVMTFHNFOUT UPTJNQMJGZNBUUFST DPOWFOUJPOBMTQFMMJOHJOTUFBEPGQIPOF
NJDUSBOTDSJQUJPOJTVTFECFMPX


TIPDL NFBOJOHiUPTUBSUMF PGGFOE EJTUSFTT w


JOH BOBEKFDUJWBMTFHNFOUNFBOJOHiDBVTJOHUP w
Morphemes and Allomorphs 55

MZ BOBEWFSCJBMTFHNFOUNFBOJOHiJOa..NBOOFS w
EJT NFBOJOHiOPU PQQPTJUFPG w
HSBDF NFBOJOHiQSPQSJFUZ EFDFODZ w
GVM NFBOJOHiDIBSBDUFSJ[FECZ w
BDU NFBOJOHiEFFE wBOE
T NFBOJOHiNPSFUIBOPOF wUIBUJT NBSLJOHUIFQMVSBM

*UBQQFBSTUIBUUIFUISFFXPSEQISBTFDPOTJTUTPGFJHIUNFBOJOHGVMTFH
NFOUTPG&OHMJTI OPOFPGXIJDIDBOCFGVSUIFSTVCEJWJEFEXJUIPVUUIFMPTT
PGUIFPSJHJOBMNFBOJOH JUDBOOPUCFDMBJNFE GPSFYBNQMF UIBUUIFXPSE
HSBDF JTNBEFVQPGHQMVTSBDF
-JOHVJTUJDVOJUTUIBUIBWFBNFBOJOHCVU
DPOUBJOOPTNBMMFSNFBOJOHGVMQBSUTBSFUFSNFENPSQIFNFT 5PQVUJUEJG
GFSFOUMZ BNPSQIFNFJTUIFTNBMMFTUDPOUSBTUJWFVOJUPGHSBNNBS5IFTFBSDI
GPSTVDIVOJUTJOBQBSUJDVMBSMBOHVBHFJTDBMMFENPSQIFNJDBOBMZTJT"OEUIF
TUVEZPGXPSETUSVDUVSF JODMVEJOHDMBTTJGJDBUJPOPGBOEJOUFSSFMBUJPOTIJQT
BNPOHNPSQIFNFT JTSFGFSSFEUPBTNPSQIPMPHZ
5IFSFBSFNBOZUIPVTBOETPGNPSQIFNFTJOBOZMBOHVBHF5IFMBSHFNB
KPSJUZBSFDPNNPOMZGSFFNPSQIFNFT CFDBVTFUIFZNBZPDDVSVOBUUBDIFEUP
PUIFSNPSQIFNFT UIBUJT UIFZDBOTUBOEBMPOFBTJOEFQFOEFOUXPSETJO
UIFFYBNQMFBCPWF HSBDF TIPDL BOEBDU 4PNFNPSQIFNFT CVUVTVBMMZSFM
BUJWFMZGFX BSFCPVOENPSQIFNFTCFDBVTFUIFZOPSNBMMZEPOPUPDDVSPO
UIFJSPXOCVUPOMZJODPNCJOBUJPOXJUIBOPUIFSNPSQIFNFGPSFYBNQMF
EJT JOH MZ BOET 5IFTUFNJTUIBUQBSUPGUIFXPSEUPXIJDIJOGMFDUJPOBM
BGGJYFT TVDIBTUIFQMVSBM
BSFBUUBDIFE
*O&OHMJTIBOEPUIFSMBOHVBHFT CPVOENPSQIFNFTPDDVSJOMJNJUFE
OVNCFST 5IFSF BSF MBOHVBHFT  UIPVHI  JO XIJDI NPTU NPSQIFNFT BSF
CPVOE&TLJNPJTVTVBMMZDJUFEBTBOFYBNQMFPGTVDIBMBOHVBHF*OTUJMM
PUIFSMBOHVBHFT UIPTFOPVOTUFNTUIBUTUBOEGPSPCKFDUTXIJDIBSFUZQJ
DBMMZQPTTFTTFEEPOPUPDDVSBTGSFFNPSQIFNFT5IJTJTUSVF GPSFYBNQMF
PG"SBQBIPOPVOTSFGFSSJOHUPCPEZQBSUT LJOTIJQSFMBUJPOTIJQT BOEBGFX
PUIFSSFGFSFOUT *O"SBQBIP UIFBDVUFBDDFOU<}>NBSLTTUSFTTFEWPXFMT
XJUIIJHIFSQJUDIMPOHWPXFMTBSFXSJUUFOEPVCMZ
&YBNQMFTPGEFQFOE
FOU OPVOT BSF CUFF A TPNFPOFT
 IFBSU  XPOPUOP A TPNFPOFT
 FBS 
OPUOF ANZEBVHIUFS CUFI A TPNFPOFT
GSJFOE BOECFU AMPVTF GMFB 
CFDBVTFUIFSFJTOPTVDIUIJOHBTBIFBSUPSBOFBSBQBSUGSPNBIVNBOPS
BOBOJNBM BEBVHIUFSXJUIPVUBNPUIFSPSGBUIFS BGSJFOEVOBUUBDIFEUP
BOPUIFSCZBGGFDUJPO PSBMPVTFPSGMFBUIBUDPVMETVSWJWFXJUIPVUEFSJWJOH
56 Chapter 4: Structure of Words and Sentences

CFOFGJUTGSPNBIPTU5IFGPSNTCUFF XPOPUOP OPUOF CUFI BOE


CFU DPOTJTUPGFJUIFSUIFGJSTUQFSTPOQPTTFTTJWFNPSQIFNFOJOOPUOF
PSUIFJOEFGJOJUFQFSTPOBMQPTTFTTPSNPSQIFNFCPSXJOUIFPUIFSGPVS
OPVOT/POFPGUIFTFGPVSPSTPNFUXPIVOESFEPUIFSOPVOTFWFSPDDVST
BTBGSFF VOQPTTFTTFE
TUFN
4PNFCVUOPUBMMCPVOENPSQIFNFTJOBMBOHVBHFBSFBGGJYFTBUUBDIFEUP
PUIFSNPSQIFNFT UIFZNPEJGZNFBOJOHJOTPNFXBZBOENBLFNPSFDPN
QMFYXPSET*GBOBGGJYJTBUUBDIFECFGPSFBTUFN JUJTDBMMFEBQSFGJY JGJUGPM
MPXTBTUFN JUJTBTVGGJY BOEJGJUJTQMBDFEXJUIJOBOPUIFSNPSQIFNF JUJT
DBMMFEBOJOGJY *O&OHMJTIPOMZUIFGJSTUUXPUZQFTPGBGGJYFTPDDVS&YBNQMFT
PGQSFGJYFTBSFCF EF JO QSF SF BOEVOBTJOCFGSJFOE EFCVH JOMBZ QSF
XBTI SFXSJUF BOEVOEPFYBNQMFTPGTVGGJYFTBSFFO FS IPPE JTI J[F
BOEXBSE BTJOPYFO TNBMMFS DIJMEIPPE CPPLJTI FRVBMJ[F BOETLZXBSE "O
FYBNQMFPGBOJOGJYNBZCFUBLFOGSPN$IPOUBM BMBOHVBHFTQPLFOCZBQFP
QMFJOTPVUIFSO0BYBDB .FYJDPBLO AXPNBO LO AHSBOEDIJME TFX
ANBHQJF BOETFWFSBMPUIFSTUFNTGPSNUIFQMVSBMCZJOTFSUJOHBOJOGJYJOUIF
GPSNPG  BWPJDFMFTTMBUFSBMDPOUJOVBOU
CFGPSFUIFTFDPOEDPOTPOBOU
ZJFMEJOHak n women, k n grandchildren, and se w magpies
*OGJYBUJPO JT GBJSMZ DPNNPO JO /BUJWF "NFSJDBO  4PVUIFBTU "TJBO  BOE
"GSJDBOMBOHVBHFT
8IBUBCPVUTVDIiJSSFHVMBSwQMVSBMTJO&OHMJTIBTGFFU HFFTF NFO BOE
NJDF  3BUIFS UIBO CZ BEEJOH B TVGGJY UP UIF TUFNT GPPU HPPTF NBO  BOE
NPVTF UIFQMVSBMJTGPSNFECZDIBOHJOHUIFTUFNWPXFMGPSFYBNQMF JO
GPPU m GFFU BOEHPPTF m HFFTFCZGSPOUJOHBOEVOSPVOEJOHJU TFF#PY

1MVSBMJ[BUJPOJOTVDIXPSETJTFGGFDUFECZXIBUJTTPNFUJNFTSFGFSSFEUPBTB
QSPDFTTNPSQIFNFBOEJTRVJUFEJGGFSFOUGSPNUIFBEEJUJPOPGBTVGGJYBGUFS
UIFTUFN BTJODBU QMVTT

"QBSUJDVMBSNPSQIFNFEPFTOPUIBWFUPIBWFUIFTBNFTIBQFFWFSZUJNF
JUPDDVST5IFQMVSBMPG&OHMJTIOPVOTPGGFSTBOFYDFMMFOUFYBNQMFPGUIFDPO
TJEFSBCMFWBSJBUJPOJOUIFQIPOFNJDTIBQFPGBNPSQIFNF/PVOTUFNTFOE
JOHJOBTPDBMMFETJCJMBOU BOTMJLFPSTIMJLFGSJDBUJWF
GPSNUIFJSQMVSBMCZ
BEEJOHBWPXFMQMVTB[ TPVOE WFSZDPNNPOMZ<[> BTJOCPYFT QBTTFT
CV[[FT CVTIFT HBSBHFT QBUDIFT BOEKVEHFT5IFHSFBUNBKPSJUZPGOPVO
TUFNTFOEJOHJOWPJDFEOPOTJCJMBOUTPVOETBEEBWPJDFE<[> XIFSFBTUIPTF
FOEJOHJOWPJDFMFTTOPOTJCJMBOUTPVOETBEEBWPJDFMFTT<T> BTJOCFBST DBOT
DPNNBT MBUIFT QBET QJMMT SJCT SJHT BOETPOHT POUIFPOFIBOE BOE
DBUT MBVHIT MJQT BOEUJDLT POUIFPUIFS#VUBOVNCFSPGOPVOTUFNTGPSN
Morphemes and Allomorphs 57

B OX 4 . 1 W H Y E N G L I S H I S S O H A R D

Compared to other Indo-European languages, English has few grammatical


affixes. But as in all natural languages, there are some irregular forms, as
this anonymous poem points out. All the italicized words were used in
English before the twelfth century except vow and booth (thirteenth cen-
tury), boot (fourteenth century), and moose (earliest recorded date of use
is 1603). They are old words, not likely to become regularized.

Well begin with a box, and the plural is boxes,


But the plural of ox should be oxen, not oxes.
Then one fowl is goose, but two are called geese,
Yet the plural of moose should never be meese.

You may find a lone mouse or a whole lot of mice,


But the plural of house is houses, not hice.
If the plural of man is always called men,
Why shouldnt the plural of pan be called pen?

The cow in the plural may be cows or kine,


But the plural of vow is vows, not vine.
And I speak of a foot, and you show me your feet,
But I give you a bootwould a pair be called beet?

If one is a tooth and a whole set are teeth,


Why shouldnt the plural of booth be called beeth?
Then one may be that, and three may be those,
Yet the plural of hat would never be hose.

We speak of a brother and also of brethren,


But though we say mother, we never say methren.
So our English, I think you will agree,
Is the trickiest language you ever did see.

UIFQMVSBMEJGGFSFOUMZBNPOHUIFNBMVNOB BMVNOVT DIJME DSJTJT DSJUFSJPO


EBUVN LJCCVU[ BOEPYUIFJSQMVSBMTBSF SFTQFDUJWFMZ BMVNOBF BMVNOJ DIJM
ESFO DSJTFT DSJUFSJB EBUB LJCCVU[JN BOEPYFO "OEUIFOUIFSFBSFBSFMBUJWFMZ
GFXOPVOTUFNTUIFQMVSBMTPGXIJDIBSFOPUPWFSUMZNBSLFE GPSFYBNQMF
TIFFQ BOETXJOF 5IFTFBOEPUIFSTVDIOPVOTBSFTBJEUPIBWFUIFJSQMVSBMT
58 Chapter 4: Structure of Words and Sentences

NBSLFECZB[FSP XSJUUFOBT
UIBUJT CZUIFBCTFODFPGBOPWFSUMJOHVJT
UJDGFBUVSF5IFWBSJBOUGPSNTPGBQBSUJDVMBSNPSQIFNFBSFSFGFSSFEUPBTJUT
BMMPNPSQIT KVTUBTUIFWBSJFUJFTPGBQIPOFNFBSFDBMMFEBMMPQIPOFT
PS
NPSQIFNFBMUFSOBUT"MMPNPSQITPGBHJWFONPSQIFNF UIFO BSFEJGGFSFOU
GPSNTPGUIFNPSQIFNF EFQFOEJOHPOUIFDPOUFYUJOXIJDIUIFZPDDVS
*OTVNNBSZ UIFO POFNBZTBZUIBUUIFQMVSBMNPSQIFNFJO&OHMJTIIBT
BOVNCFSPGBMMPNPSQIT SBOHJOHGSPNUIFNPTUDPNNPOPOFTPG[ T
BOE[ UISPVHITFWFSBMPUIFSTBTTPDJBUFEFTQFDJBMMZXJUIMPBOXPSET UP
[FSP"OEJOUIFDBTFPGQMVSBMJ[JOHUIFOPVONBO UPNFO POFXPVMESFQSF
TFOUUIFQMVSBMBMMPNPSQIBTm5IFQMVSBMNPSQIFNFJO&OHMJTIJTCZ
OPNFBOTBOFYDFQUJPOJOUIBUJUIBTNPSQIFNFBMUFSOBOUT'PSFYBNQMF UIF
TUFNDIJME IBTBEJGGFSFOUQIPOFNJDTIBQFJOJUTQMVSBMGPSN DIJMESFO
GSPN
XIFOJUPDDVSTCZJUTFMGPSXIFOJUJTTVGGJYFECZIPPE JTI BOEMJLF JO
DIJMEIPPE DIJMEJTI BOEDIJMEMJLF

.PSQIFNFTBMTPWBSZDPOTJEFSBCMZJOMFOHUI4PNFDPOTJTUPGBTJOHMF
QIPOFNF'PSFYBNQMF UIFUISFF&OHMJTINPSQIFNFTNBSLJOHUIFQMVSBM
UIFQPTTFTTJWF BOEUIFUIJSEQFSTPOTJOHVMBS BTJOBQFT BQFT BOE<IF>BQFT
<TPNFPOF>
IBWFTBTPOFPGUIFJSTFWFSBMBMMPNPSQIT0UIFST MJLFDBUFSQJM
MBS PSIJQQPQPUBNVT DPOTJTUPGTFWFSBMTZMMBCMFT8PSET UPP JO&OHMJTIWBSZ
JOMFOHUIB JTUIFTIPSUFTU CVUJUJTJNQPTTJCMFUPMJTUUIFMPOHFTU4VQQPTF
ZPVXJTIUPSFGFSUPBMJOFBMQBUFSOBMNBMFSFMBUJWFGSPNUIFTJYUFFOUIDFO
UVSZ)FXPVMECFZPVSHSFBUHSFBU......HSFBUHSBOEGBUIFS

Morphological Processes
+VTUBTMBOHVBHFTEJGGFSJOUIFJSQIPOFNJDTZTUFNT UIFZEJGGFSJOUIFJSNPS
QIPMPHJFT 4PNF NPSQIPMPHJDBM QSPDFTTFT  IPXFWFS  BSF RVJUF DPNNPO
UISPVHIPVUUIFXPSMEFWFOUIPVHIUIFZNBZCFBQQMJFEEJGGFSFOUMZJOTQFDJGJD
MBOHVBHFT0OFTVDIQSPDFTTJTEFSJWBUJPO CZNFBOTPGXIJDIOFXXPSETBSF
GPSNFEGSPNFYJTUJOHPOFT GSFRVFOUMZCZDIBOHJOHUIFNGSPNPOFXPSEDMBTT
UPBOPUIFS*O&OHMJTIUIJTQSPDFTTPGXPSEGPSNBUJPOJTGSFRVFOUMZBDDPN
QMJTIFECZUIFVTFPGEFSJWBUJPOBMBGGJYFT'PSFYBNQMF BGGJYFTDIBOHFUIFBE
KFDUJWFNPEFSO UPUIFWFSCNPEFSOJ[F UIFOPVOGSJFOE UPUIFBEKFDUJWFGSJFOEMZ
UIFWFSCTQFBL UPUIFOPVOTQFBLFS BOEUIFBEKFDUJWFBCSVQU UPUIFBEWFSC
BCSVQUMZ 5IFZBMTPQSPEVDFTVDIXPSETBTLJOHEPN PVUCJE BOEEFTQJUF
5IFPUIFSDPNNPONPSQIPMPHJDBMQSPDFTTJTJOGMFDUJPO UIFVTFPGBGGJYFT
UPJOEJDBUFHSBNNBUJDBMSFMBUJPOTIJQT OVNCFS DBTF QFSTPO UFOTF BOEPUI
Morphological Processes 59

FST
 *O&OHMJTIBMMJOGMFDUJPOBMBGGJYFTBSFTVGGJYFTBOEBSFMJNJUFEUPUIFQMVSBM
BOEQPTTFTTJWFNBSLFSTJOOPVOT BTJONPUIFST BOENPUIFST
DPNQBSBUJWF
BOETVQFSMBUJWFNBSLFSTJOBEKFDUJWFT BTJOUBMMFS BOEUBMMFTU
BOEUIFUIJSE
QFSTPOTJOHVMBSQSFTFOUUFOTFNBSLFSBOEUIFQBTUUFOTF QSPHSFTTJWF BOEQBTU
QBSUJDJQMFNBSLFSTJOWFSCT BTJOXBJUT XBJUFE <JT>TJOHJOH BOECFBUFO

%FSJWBUJPOBMBOEJOGMFDUJPOBMNPSQIFNFTNBZIBWFUIFTBNFQIPOFNJD
TIBQF0OFJOH JO&OHMJTITFSWFTBTUIFEFSJWBUJPOBMTVGGJYDIBOHJOHBWFSC
JOUPBOPVOBTJOi&YDFTTJWFFBUJOHJTIBSNGVM wXIFSFBTBOPUIFSJOH JTBO
JOGMFDUJPOBMTVGGJYNBSLJOHUIFQSPHSFTTJWFWFSCGPSNBTJOi5IFZXFSFFBU
JOHWPSBDJPVTMZw*O&OHMJTIJOGMFDUJPOBMTVGGJYFTBMXBZTGPMMPXEFSJWBUJPOBM
TVGGJYFT BTJOSFBEFST PSHBOJ[FST BOEGSJFOEMJFTU SFBEFST PSHBOJ[ F
FST
BOEGSJFOEMJFTU

"T MBOHVBHFT HP  &OHMJTI IBT WFSZ GFX JOGMFDUJPOBM BGGJYFT DPNQBSFE
XJUI GPSFYBNQMF -BUJO"TBHBJOTUUIFIBOEGVMPGEJGGFSFOUGPSNTPGBO
&OHMJTIWFSC TQFBL TQFBLT TQFBLJOH TQPLF BOETQPLFO
B-BUJOWFSCIBT
TDPSFT3FHBSEJOHOVNCFS &OHMJTIEJTUJOHVJTIFTGPSNBMMZPOMZCFUXFFO
UIFTJOHVMBSBOEUIFQMVSBM XIFSFBTTPNFMBOHVBHFTIBWFTQFDJBMGPSNT
BMTPGPSUIFEVBMUPSFGFSUPUXPPGBLJOE BOEFWFOGPSNTUPSFGFSUPUISFF
BOEGPVSPGBLJOE0ME&OHMJTINBSLFEUIFEVBMOVNCFSJOJUTQFSTPOBM
QSPOPVOT#FTJEFTJD A*BOEX [ AXF UIFSFXBTXJU AXFUXPCFTJEFTN[ A UP

NFBOET A UP
VT UIFSFXBTVOD A UP
UIFUXPPGVTBOETPPO5IFTF
EVBMGPSNTHSBEVBMMZEJTBQQFBSFEEVSJOHUIFTFDPOEQBSUPGUIFUIJSUFFOUI
DFOUVSZ IBMGXBZUISPVHIUIF.JEEMF&OHMJTIQFSJPE)PXFWFS EFSJWBUJPOBM
TVGGJYFTJO&OHMJTIBSFQMFOUJGVMBCMF BTJOSFBTPOBCMF
BEF CMPDLBEF

BHF CSFBLBHF
BM DPBTUBM
BODF BTTJTUBODF
BOU TFSWBOU
BS MJOFBS

BSE ESVOLBSE
BSZ CVEHFUBSZ
BUF BDUJWBUF
BUJD QSPCMFNBUJD
BOE
TDPSFTPGPUIFST
4PNFMBOHVBHFTEJTUJOHVJTIOPVOTBDDPSEJOHUPTFWFSBMHFOEFST FBDIPG
XIJDINBZSFRVJSFDPSSFTQPOEJOHGPSNTJOQSPOPVOT BEKFDUJWFT BOEFWFO
WFSCT'SFRVFOUMZUIFSFJTOPDPSSFMBUJPOCFUXFFOHSBNNBUJDBMBOEOBUVSBM
HFOEFS*O&OHMJTIBMMJOBOJNBUFPCKFDUTBSFSFGFSSFEUPCZUIFQSPOPVOJU JO
(FSNBO IPXFWFS EFS-GGFM ATQPPOJTNBTDVMJOF EJF(BCFM AGPSLJTGFNJ
OJOF BOEEBT.FTTFS ALOJGFJTOFVUFS BTBSFBMTPEBT8FJC AXPNBOBOEEBT
.EDIFO AHJSM*O0ME&OHMJTI TUGO ATUPOFBOEXkGNBO AXPNBOXFSFNBT
DVMJOF  EVSV AEPPS BOE TVOOF ATVO GFNJOJOF  BOE XPSE AXPSE BOE XkG
AXPNBO XJGFOFVUFS5IFTVCTUJUVUJPOPGOBUVSBMGPSHSBNNBUJDBMHFOEFS
BMTPUPPLQMBDFEVSJOHUIF.JEEMF&OHMJTIQFSJPE
60 Chapter 4: Structure of Words and Sentences

"OPUIFSHSBNNBUJDBMDBUFHPSZUIBUNBZTFSWFBTBOFYBNQMFJTDBTF "M
UIPVHI0ME&OHMJTIIBEUISFFDBTFGPSNTGPS TBZ TUGO ATUPOFJOUIFTJOHVMBS
OPNJOBUJWFBOEBDDVTBUJWFTUGO HFOJUJWFTUGOFT BOEEBUJWFTUGOF
BOEUISFF
JOUIFQMVSBM TUGOBT TUGOB BOETUGOVN SFTQFDUJWFMZ
.PEFSO&OHMJTINBO
BHFTRVJUFXFMMXJUIPOMZUXPGPSNT OBNFMZTUPOF BOETUPOFT*UIBTSFUBJOFE
DBTFGPSNTPOMZJOUIFJOUFSSPHBUJWFQSPOPVOXIP UIBUJTXIPN
BOEJOTFW
FSBMQFSTPOBMQSPOPVOTNF UIFPCKFDUJWFDBTFGPSNPG* BOEIJN IFS VT
BOEUIFN*OPUIFSMBOHVBHFT IPXFWFS DBTFTBSFBOJNQPSUBOUBOEFMBCP
SBUFHSBNNBUJDBMGFBUVSF'PSFYBNQMF UIF$[FDIMBOHVBHFIBTTFWFODBTFTJO
CPUITJOHVMBSBOEQMVSBMBQQMJFEOPUPOMZUPOPVOTCVUBMTPUPQSPOPVOT BE
KFDUJWFT BOEOVNFSBMT
'JOOJTIIBTBQBSUJDVMBSMZSJDIDBTFTZTUFN8IBUJO&OHMJTIJTVTVBMMZFY
QSFTTFECZNFBOTPGQSFQPTJUJPOT 'JOOJTIEPFTXJUIDBTFT"NPOHUIFTF
DBTFTNPEJGZJOH GPSFYBNQMF UIFOPVOUBMP AIPVTF JTUIFBEFTTJWF DBTF

NFBOJOHABU OFBS BQMBDF
BTJOUBMPMMB ABUUIFIPVTF FMBUJWF NFBOJOHAPVUPG
BQMBDF
BTJOUBMPTUB AGSPN JOTJEF
UIFIPVTF JOFTTJWFAJO XJUIJO BQMBDF

BTJOUBMPTTB AJOUIFIPVTF JMMBUJWFAJOUP BQMBDF
BTJOUBMPPO AJOUPUIFIPVTF 
BMMBUJWFAUP XBSET
 BQMBDF
BTJOUBMPMMF AUP XBSET
UIFIPVTF BOETFWFSBM
PUIFST
"TQFDU JTBHSBNNBUJDBMDBUFHPSZFYQSFTTJOHIPXBDUJWJUJFTEFOPUFECZ
WFSCTBSFSFMBUFEUPUJNF5IJTDBUFHPSZJTQBSUJDVMBSMZXFMMEFWFMPQFEJO
4MBWJDMBOHVBHFT BTTPNFPGUIFGPMMPXJOHFYBNQMFTGSPN$[FDIXJMMTIPX
$[FDIWFSCTBSFQFSGFDUJWF FYQSFTTJOHBDUJPOBTDPNQMFUFPSDPODMVEFE BT
JOUIFTVQQMFUJWFQJFM iIFIBTDPNF BSSJWFEwGSPNUIFJOGJOJUJWFQJKU PS
JNQFSGFDUJWF FYQSFTTJOHBDUJPOBTJODPNQMFUFPSSFQFBUFE BTJOFM AIFXFOU
GSPNKU AUPHP5IFNVMUJQMJDJUZPGWFSCBMBDUJPOJTFYQSFTTFEJOUIFJUFSBUJWF
GPSNOPTJM AIFDBSSJFEBOEUIFNPSFJOUFOTJWFGSFRVFOUBUJWFGPSNOPTWBM
AIFVTFEUPDBSSZ"QBSUJDVMBSQIBTFPGBWFSCBMBDUJPONBZCFTQFDJGJFEBT
BOJOJUJBUPSZPOF BTJOWZCZIM AIFSBOPVU BDPNQMFUFEPOF BTJOEPCZIM AIF
SFBDIFE<BQMBDF>CZSVOOJOH BOEBUFSNJOBUJWFPOF BTJOQSPCZIM TF AIFIBE
SVO5IFFYUFOUPGBWFSCBMBDUJPONBZCFNPNFOUBSZ BTJOTUFMJM AIFUPPL
BTIPU PSEVSBUJWF FYQSFTTJWFDPOUJOVJUZ BTJOTUMFM AIFGJSFEBXBZPSUIF
FYUFOUJTTNBMM BTJOVTNMTF AIFHBWFBTNJMF wPSMBSHF BTJOOBTNMTF AIF
IBEBHPPEMBVHI
"OJOUFSFTUJOHNPSQIPMPHJDBMQSPDFTTJTSFEVQMJDBUJPO UIFEPVCMJOHPS
SFQFUJUJPOPGBQIPOFNFPSQIPOFNFT*O*TUINVT/BIVBU BEJBMFDUPG/BIV
BUMTQPLFOCZ/BUJWF"NFSJDBOTJOFBTUFSO.FYJDP WFSCTUFNTBSFEFSJWFE
Morphophonemics 61

CZSFEVQMJDBUJPOUPNBSLEJGGFSFOULJOETPGSFQFUJUJWFBDUJPOLBLBMBLJ AFOUFS
BIPVTFNBOZUJNFTGSPNLBMBLJAFOUFSQBIQBOPAQBTTCZNBOZUJNFT
GSPNQBOPAQBTTCZQPQPTUFLJACSFBLNBOZUJNFTPSACSFBLJOUPNBOZ
QJFDFTGSPNQPTUFLJACSFBLQBQBLB AXBTINBOZUJNFTBOEQBIQBLB
AXBTINBOZUIJOHTGSPNQBLBAXBTIBOEUIFMJLF5IFDPNQPVOEHPPEZ
HPPEZ  IFMUFSTLFMUFS  UFFOZXFFOZ  BOE XJTIZXBTIZ BSF SFEVQMJDBUJPOT PG
TPSUT CVUUIFQSPDFTTJO&OHMJTIJTRVJUFMJNJUFE
0OFDPVMEHPPOJMMVTUSBUJOHWBSJPVTPUIFSHSBNNBUJDBMDBUFHPSJFTGPVOE
JOUIFUIPVTBOETPGUIFXPSMETMBOHVBHFT BTQFDU NPPE UFOTF WPJDF BOE
TPPO
BOEUIFQSPDFTTFTCZXIJDIUIFZBSFNBSLFE CVUUIFFYBNQMFTBMSFBEZ
HJWFOTIPVMETVGGJDF)PXFWFS POFJNQPSUBOUQPJOUNVTUCFNBEF8IFUIFS
PSOPUBMBOHVBHFGPSNBMMZNBSLTBQBSUJDVMBSHSBNNBUJDBMDBUFHPSZEPFTOPU
NBLFJUTVQFSJPS PSJOGFSJPS
UPPUIFST*GJUXFSFTP 0ME&OHMJTIXPVMEIBWF
UPCFSBUFEBTNVDITVQFSJPSUP.PEFSO&OHMJTITPNFUIJOHOPPOFDBOTF
SJPVTMZNBJOUBJO"MMMBOHVBHFTBSFGVMMZBEFRVBUFCFDBVTFUIFZFOBCMFOB
UJWFTQFBLFSTUPFYQSFTTBMMUIBUUIFZXJTIUPTBZBCPVUUIFTPDJFUZBOEDVMUVSF
JOXIJDIUIFZMJWF

Morphophonemics
4PVOEBMUFSOBUJPOTMJLFUIFPOFCFUXFFOGBOEWJOLOJGF BOELOJWFT MJGF
BOEMJWFT MPBG BOEMPBWFT BOEXJGF BOEXJWFT BSFDPNNPOJO&OHMJTIBOE
PUIFSMBOHVBHFT"MUFSOBUJPOTPGUIJTLJOEBSFDIBOHFTJOUIFQIPOFNJDTIBQF
PGUIFBMMPNPSQITPGBNPSQIFNF BOEBTTVDIUIFZSFQSFTFOUJNQPSUBOU
QSPDFTTFTJOUIFTUSVDUVSFPGMBOHVBHF5IFTUVEZPGUIFSFMBUJPOTCFUXFFO
NPSQIPMPHZBOEQIPOPMPHZPS UPQVUJUJOPUIFSXPSET UIFTUVEZPGUIF
QIPOFNJDEJGGFSFODFTBNPOHBMMPNPSQITPGUIFTBNFNPSQIFNF JTSFGFSSFE
UPBTNPSQIPQIPOFNJDT PSNPSQIP QIP
OPMPHZ BOEUIFHFOFSBMJ[BUJPOT
DPODFSOJOHUIFPDDVSSFODFPGUIFWBSJPVTTIBQFTPGNPSQIFNFTBSFDBMMFE
NPSQIPQIPOFNJDSVMFT5PGPSNVMBUFTVDIBSVMFPOFVTVBMMZTFMFDUTBQBS
UJDVMBSBMMPNPSQIBTUIFCBTFGPSNBOEUIFOEFTDSJCFTUIFDPOEJUJPOTVOEFS
XIJDIPUIFSBMMPNPSQITPGUIFTBNFNPSQIFNFPDDVS5PSFGFSUPBOFYBN
QMFVTFEFBSMJFSJOUIJTDIBQUFS OPVOTJO&OHMJTI FYDFQUGPSUIPTFTQFDJGJ
DBMMZFYFNQU
GPSNUIFQMVSBMCZBEEJOH[UPUIFJSTUFN BTJOMFH MFHT
CVU
JOTFSUCFGPSFUIFQMVSBMTVGGJYJGUIFTUFNFOETJOBTJCJMBOU T [  
O PS BTJOLJTT LJTTFT
PSDIBOHFUIFWPJDFE[UPWPJDFMFTTTJGUIF
TUFNUFSNJOBUFTJOBWPJDFMFTTOPOTJCJMBOU BTJOOFDL OFDLT

62 Chapter 4: Structure of Words and Sentences

.PSQIPQIPOFNJDSVMFTJOBOZMBOHVBHFBSFTUBUBCMFFWFOJGUIFZBSF
GBJSMZDPNQMFY'PSFYBNQMF JO"SBQBIP BO"MHPORVJBOMBOHVBHFTQPLFO
CZ/BUJWF"NFSJDBOTJO8ZPNJOHBOE0LMBIPNB UIFXPSEO JCIF ANZ
HSBOENPUIFSJTSFHVMBSMZDIBOHFEUPIJO JJXIP UPNFBOAIJTIFSHSBOE
NPUIFS 5IFFYQMBOBUJPOPGXIZUIJTDIBOHFUBLFTQMBDFJTGBJSMZDPNQMFY
CVUUPTBUJTGZUIFDVSJPVT IFSFJUJT*OBEEJUJPOUPUIFUXPDPNNPOXPSE
JOJUJBMQSFGJYFTNBSLJOHQPTTFTTJPO<ANZBOEAIJTIFS> UIFEJGGFSFODFTCF
UXFFOUIFUXPGPSNTBSFBMTPSFHVMBS5IFGJOBMP JOIJO JJXIP JTUIF
PCWJBUJWFTVGGJY<BNPSQIFNFUIBUNBSLTUIFTPDBMMFEGPVSUIQFSTPOXIFO
UXPUIJSEQFSTPOTBSFSFGFSSFEUP JOUIJTDBTFBHSBOENPUIFSBOEUIFQFS
TPOXIPDMBJNTIFSBTHSBOENPUIFS>5IFWPXFMPGUIFPCWJBUJWF P JOGMV
FODFTUIFTFMFDUJPOPGBMJLFWPXFMJOUIFEJNJOVUJWFTVGGJYCFGPSFJU BOEC
SFHVMBSMZDIBOHFTJOUPX CFGPSFBCBDLWPXFM<JOUIJTDBTFP>5IFXPSEBQ
QBSFOUMZNFBOTAIJTIFSMJUUMFPOF<NPUIFS>BSBUIFSHFOUMFXBZPGSFGFS
SJOHUPPOFTHSBOENPUIFS

"OPUIFSFYBNQMFPGBNPSQIPQIPOFNJDSVMFJTGPVOEJO5VSLJTI POFPG
UIFMBOHVBHFTXJUIWPXFMIBSNPOZ UIFSFRVJSFNFOUUIBUWPXFMTXJUIJOB
XPSEIBWFBDFSUBJOTJNJMBSJUZ8JUISFMBUJWFMZGFXFYDFQUJPOT 5VSLJTITVG
GJYFTDPOUBJOJOHIJHIWPXFMTIBWF

J JPSF GSPOUVOSPVOEFEWPXFMT


 
V
^\
JGUIFQSFDFEJOHTZMMBCMFIBT
PS GSPOUSPVOEFE

 PSB CBDLVOSPVOEFE

VPSP CBDLSPVOEFE

XIFSFBTTVGGJYFTDPOUBJOJOHMPXWPXFMTIBWF

F J F  PS GSPOUWPXFMT

B ^\
JGUIFQSFDFEJOHTZMMBCMFIBT
  B V PSP CBDLWPXFMT

)PXFWFS  PO PDDBTJPO NPSQIPQIPOFNJD DIBOHFT BSF JSSFHVMBS JO UIF


TFOTFUIBUUIFZBSFMJNJUFEUPPOFNPSQIFNFBOEBSFOPUSFQFBUFEFMTFXIFSF
JOUIFMBOHVBHF&YBNQMFTBSFUIFGPSNTBN BSF JT GSPN UP
CF UIFQBTU
UFOTFGPSNXFOU GSPN UP
HP BOEUIFDPNQBSBUJWFGPSNCFUUFS PSTVQFSMB
UJWFCFTU GSPNHPPE 5IFPDDVSSFODFPGQIPOFNJDBMMZVOSFMBUFEBMMPNPSQIT
PGBNPSQIFNFJTSFGFSSFEUPBTTVQQMFUJPO BOEUIFTQFDJGJDJOTUBODFTPGJU
TVQQMFUJWFGPSNT 4VQQMFUJPOTFFNTUPPDDVSJOBMMOBUVSBM BTPQQPTFEUP
The Sentence as a Unit of Analysis 63

BSUJGJDJBM
MBOHVBHFTIPXFWFS JUJTOFWFSFYUFOTJWFCFDBVTFJSSFHVMBSJUZPOB
MBSHFTDBMFXPVMEUFOEUPIJOEFSDPNNVOJDBUJPO

The Sentence as a Unit of Analysis


+VTUBTTQFFDITPVOETOPSNBMMZEPOPUPDDVSJOJTPMBUJPO OFJUIFSEPXPSET
"TBSVMF IVNBOVUUFSBODFTBSFNBEFVQPGMBSHFSVOJUTQISBTFTBOETFO
UFODFT*UJTOPUFBTZUPEFGJOFUIFTFUXPUFSNTSJHPSPVTMZGPSPVSQVSQPTFT
MFUVTTBZUIBUBTFOUFODFJTUIFMBSHFTUTUSVDUVSBMVOJUPGUIFHSBNNBSPGB
MBOHVBHFBOEUIBUBQISBTFGPSFYBNQMF UPNPSSPXFWFOJOH JOUIFTLZ UIF
XJDLFEXJUDIJTBTUSVDUVSBMVOJUMBSHFSUIBOBTJOHMFXPSECVUTNBMMFSUIBO
BDMBVTF
5IFOVNCFSPGEJGGFSFOUTFOUFODFTUIBUDBOCFQSPEVDFEJOBOZMBOHVBHF
JTJOGJOJUF'PSFYBNQMF JUJTNPTUVOMJLFMZUIBUUIFTFOUFODFi8IFOFWFSUIF
NPPOJTGVMM CBUTHBUIFSUPEJTDVTTUIFTUBUFPGUIFMPDBMFDPOPNZwIBTFWFS
CFFOTBJECFGPSF0OFDPVMEFBTJMZHFOFSBUFOPWFMTFOUFODFTCZUIFUIPV
TBOET)PXJTJUQPTTJCMFUIBUTQFBLFSTPGBMBOHVBHFDBOBOEEPQSPEVDFBOE
VOEFSTUBOETFOUFODFTDPOGPSNJOHUPUIFSVMFTPGHSBNNBSFWFOUIPVHIUIFZ
IBWFOFWFSCFFOTBJEPSIFBSECFGPSF 5IFBOTXFSJTTJNQMF/BUJWFTQFBLFST
LOPXUIFTZOUBY PGUIFJSMBOHVBHFUIFJOUFSOBMTUSVDUVSFPGTFOUFODFTBOE
UIFJOUFSSFMBUJPOTIJQTCFUXFFOUIFWBSJPVTTFOUFODFFMFNFOUT
"MMTQFBLFSTIBWFBMBSHFMZVODPOTDJPVTLOPXMFEHFPGUIFTZTUFNPGHSBN
NBUJDBMSVMFTUIBUDIBSBDUFSJ[FTUIFJSOBUJWFMBOHVBHFPSBMBOHVBHFJOXIJDI
UIFZBSFUSVMZGMVFOU5IJTLOPXMFEHFJTSFGFSSFEUPBTDPNQFUFODF8IBUMBO
HVBHFVTFSTBDUVBMMZEPXJUIUIJTLOPXMFEHFJOTQFBLJOHPSDPNQSFIFOEJOH
TQFFDI IPXFWFS JTTPNFXIBUEJGGFSFOUBOEJTSFGFSSFEUPBTQFSGPSNBODF
"MUIPVHIBOJOEJWJEVBMTDPNQFUFODFNBZCFFYQFDUFEUPSFNBJOGBJSMZTUB
CMFGPSBMPOHUJNF QFSGPSNBODFUFOETUPTVGGFSXIFOBTQFBLFSJTTMFFQZ
UJSFE JMM QSFPDDVQJFE PSVOEFSUIFJOGMVFODFPGBMDPIPM4FOUFODFTUIBUDPO
GPSNUPUIFTZOUBDUJDSVMFTPGBMBOHVBHFBSFHSBNNBUJDBMTFOUFODFTUIPTF
UIBUEPOPUBSFVOHSBNNBUJDBM BTXIFOBTQFBLFSTQFSGPSNBODFIBTOP
UJDFBCMZTVGGFSFE
(SBNNBUJDBMTFOUFODFTNBZCFNFBOJOHMFTT BTJOi+BC
CFSXPDLZ wUIFQPFN"MJDFXBTBCMFUPSFBECZVTJOHUIFNJSSPSJO-FXJT
$BSSPMMT5ISPVHIUIF-PPLJOH(MBTT

5XBTCSJMMJH BOEUIFTMJUIZUPWFT
%JEHZSFBOEHJNCMFJOUIFXBCF
64 Chapter 4: Structure of Words and Sentences

NP VP

Art N V NP

Art N

The stream carries the boat.


F I G U R E 4 . 1 A Simple Sentence Diagrammed in Tree Form

:FUTPNFVOHSBNNBUJDBMTFOUFODFTNBZCFNFBOJOHGVM BTXIFOBGPS
FJHOFSTBZT  i*OPUTQFBL&OHMJTIHPPEw BOBTUFSJTLJTQMBDFECFGPSFBTFO
UFODFUPTIPXUIBUJUJTVOHSBNNBUJDBMPSVOBDDFQUBCMF
5IFOUIFSFBSF
TFOUFODFTUIBUBSFHSBNNBUJDBMCVUTUSVDUVSBMMZBNCJHVPVT UIBUJT IBWJOH
NPSFUIBOPOFNFBOJOHGPSFYBNQMF i7JTJUJOHJOMBXTDBOCFWFSZUSZJOHw
*TJUWFSZUSZJOHUPWJTJUJOMBXT PSBSFJOMBXTXIPWJTJUWFSZUSZJOH
5PHBJOTPNFVOEFSTUBOEJOHPG&OHMJTITFOUFODFTUSVDUVSFXFNJHIUMPPLBU
UIFTFOUFODFi5IFTUSFBNDBSSJFTUIFCPBUw5IJTTFOUFODF 4
IBTUXPNBKPS
DPOTUJUVFOUT5IFGJSTU DPSSFTQPOEJOHUPUIFUSBEJUJPOBMTVCKFDUPGUIFTFOUFODF
JTUIFOPVOQISBTF /1
iUIFTUSFBNwUIFTFDPOE DPSSFTQPOEJOHUPUIFUSBEJ
UJPOBMQSFEJDBUF JTUIFWFSCQISBTF 71
iDBSSJFTUIFCPBUw5IFTFDPOTUJUVFOUT
DPOTJTUVMUJNBUFMZPGMFYJDBMDBUFHPSJFTBOBSUJDMF "SU
BOPVO /
BOEBWFSC
7
5IFUSFFEJBHSBNPGUIFTFOUFODF TFF'JHVSF
HJWFTUISFFLJOETPGJO
GPSNBUJPOUIFMJOFBSPSEFSPGXPSETUIBUNBLFVQUIFTFOUFODF UIFMFYJDBMDBU
FHPSZPGFBDIXPSE BOEUIFHSPVQJOHPGUIFXPSETJOUPTUSVDUVSBMDPOTUJUVFOUT
5IJTTFOUFODFIBTUIFTUSVDUVSFUZQJDBMPGTJNQMF&OHMJTIEFDMBSBUJWFTFO
UFODFT UIBUJT TFOUFODFTVTFEUPFYQSFTTTUBUFNFOUT
#VUXIBUPGUIFDPSSF
TQPOEJOHJOUFSSPHBUJWFTFOUFODF i%PFTUIFTUSFBNDBSSZUIFCPBU w5IFSVMF
UIBUDIBOHFTUIFEFDMBSBUJWFTFOUFODFUPUIFDPSSFTQPOEJOHJOUFSSPHBUJWFTFO
The Sentence as a Unit of Analysis 65

UFODFSFRVJSFTDFSUBJODIBOHFT"OPQFSBUJPOUIBUBEET EFMFUFT PSDIBOHFTFM


FNFOUTJOPOFTUSVDUVSFUPQSPEVDFBOPUIFSJTSFGFSSFEUPBTUSBOTGPSNBUJPO
BOEUIFHFOFSBMTUBUFNFOUEFTDSJCJOHTVDIBOPQFSBUJPOBTBUSBOTGPSNB
UJPOBMSVMF *OUIFTFOUFODFBCPWF UIFBQQSPQSJBUFGPSNPGUIFWFSCEP JT
QMBDFEBUUIFCFHJOOJOHPGUIFTFOUFODFBOEBQQSPQSJBUFDIBOHFTBSFNBEFJO
UIFNBJOWFSC BTJOi.PUIFSLOPXTCFTUwm i%PFT.PUIFSLOPXCFTU w
5IJTJTPOMZBWFSZCSJFGJMMVTUSBUJPOPGIPXPOFBQQSPBDIFTUIFTUVEZPG
TFOUFODFTUSVDUVSF"DPNQMFUFEFTDSJQUJPOPGUIFHSFBUWBSJFUZPGTFOUFODF
UZQFTJO&OHMJTIBOEUIFQSPDFTTFTPGUIFJSEFSJWBUJPOXPVMEFBTJMZGJMMBTJ[
BCMFCPPL4VDIBEFTDSJQUJPOXPVMEJODMVEFUSBOTGPSNBUJPOTIBWJOHUPEP
XJUIDPNNBOET FYDMBNBUJPOT DPNQMFYTFOUFODFT DPOTJTUJOHPGBNBJO
DMBVTFBOEBUMFBTUPOFTVCPSEJOBUFDMBVTF
FNCFEEJOH BTJOi5IFNBOXIP
TVEEFOMZBQQFBSFEJOUIFEPPSXBTNZGJSTUDPVTJO wJOXIJDIi5IFNBOTVE
EFOMZBQQFBSFEJOUIFEPPSwJTFNCFEEFEJOUIFNBUSJYTFOUFODFi5IFNBO
XBTNZGJSTUDPVTJOw
BOENBOZPUIFSDPOTUSVDUJPOT
"TTIPXOJO'JHVSF BOBMZTJTJTNPUJWBUFECZFNQJSJDBMFWJEFODF UIBU
JT JUDBOCFWFSJGJFEPSSFKFDUFEPOUIFCBTJTPGPCTFSWBUJPOPSJORVJSZ/PU
POMZEPMJOHVJTUTSFKFDUVUUFSBODFT TFOUFODFT
OBUJWFTQFBLFSTDPOTJEFSVO
HSBNNBUJDBM CVUUIFZNBZPDDBTJPOBMMZBTLXIFUIFSUXPDMPTFMZTJNJMBSVU
UFSBODFTIBWFUIFTBNFNFBOJOH GPSFYBNQMF i%POUZPVXBOUTPNFTPVQ w
BOEi%POUZPVXBOUBOZTPVQ wNBOZTQFBLFSTXPVMEDPOTJEFSUIFNUP
CFTMJHIUMZEJGGFSFOU
PSBDDPVOUGPSTUSVDUVSBMBNCJHVJUJFT GPSFYBNQMF UIF
QISBTFi'SFODIIJTUPSZQSPGFTTPSwNBZNFBOiBIJTUPSZQSPGFTTPSXIPJT
'SFODIw PS iB QSPGFTTPS XIP UFBDIFT 'SFODI IJTUPSZ w BOE BDDPSEJOHMZ JU
XPVMECFSFQSFTFOUFEBT

F h p

PS

F h p

EFQFOEJOHPOXIBUUIFTQFBLFSIBEJONJOE

66 Chapter 4: Structure of Words and Sentences

Inflections and Word Order


&OHMJTIJTBXPSMEMBOHVBHF BOEGPSTFWFSBMSFBTPOT*UJTBOPGGJDJBMMBOHVBHF
JOTPNFDPVOUSZPSDPVOUSJFTPOFWFSZDPOUJOFOUUIF6OJUFE,JOHEPNJO&V
SPQF (IBOBJO"GSJDB *OEJBJO"TJB #FMJ[FJO$FOUSBM"NFSJDB (VZBOBJO
4PVUI"NFSJDB 'JKJJO0DFBOJB BOEJO"VTUSBMJB#VUUIFSFBSFBMTPGPSNBM
MJOHVJTUJDSFBTPOTXIZUIFVTFPG&OHMJTIJTTPXJEFTQSFBE"MUIPVHI&OHMJTI
IBTPOFPGUIFMBSHFTUWPDBCVMBSJFTBNPOHUIFXPSMETMBOHVBHFT JUTHSBNNBS
JTSFMBUJWFMZTJNQMF UPQVUJUCSJFGMZ
8IBUJTNFBOUCZUIBU $POTJEFSUXP
&OHMJTITFOUFODFTBOEUIFJSGPMMPXJOHUSBOTMBUJPOTJOUP-BUJOBOE$[FDI

&OHMJTI 
"IVOUFSUSBDLTBMJPO BOE 
"MJPOUSBDLTBIVOUFS
-BUJO 
7FOBUPSMFPOFNWFTUJHBU BOE 
-FPWFOBUPSFNWFTUJHBU
$[FDI 
-PWFDTUPQVKFMWB BOE 
-FWTUPQVKFMPWDF

"MUIPVHIUIFNFBOJOHTPGUIFUXP&OHMJTITFOUFODFTBSFRVJUFEJGGFSFOU
UIFGJWFXPSETPGFBDITFOUFODFBSFFYBDUMZUIFTBNF8IFUIFSUIFIVOUFSPS
UIFMJPOJTUIFHSBNNBUJDBMTVCKFDUPSUIFHSBNNBUJDBMPCKFDU UIBUJT UIF
HPBMPGUIFBDUJPOPGUIFXPSEiUSBDLTw
UIFTBNFGJWFXPSETBSFBMMUIBUBSF
OFFEFE8IPJTUSBDLJOHXIPNJTGVMMZJOEJDBUFECZUIFXPSEPSEFSUIBUJT
UIFBSSBOHFNFOUPGXPSET
0GUIFUXPPUIFSMBOHVBHFT -BUJOBOE$[FDIBSFSJDIMZJOGMFDUJPOBM UIBUJT
DIBOHJOHUIFGPSNPGUIFXPSETUPNBSLWBSJPVTHSBNNBUJDBMDBUFHPSJFT*O
-BUJO UIFGPSNPGUIFXPSEGPSUIFIVOUFSBTBHSBNNBUJDBMTVCKFDUJTWFOBUPS
BOEBTBHSBNNBUJDBMPCKFDUJTWFOBUPSFN6OMJLFJO&OHMJTI UIFXPSEPSEFS
EPFTOPUJOEJDBUFUIFSFMBUJPOTIJQPGUIFXPSETPGBTFOUFODF CVUJOTUFBETIPXT
FNQIBTJT*GB3PNBOIBETBJE7FOBUPSMFPOFNWFTUJHBU IFXPVMEIBWFNFBOU
TPNFUIJOHMJLF*UJTUIF)6/5&3XIPUSBDLTUIFMJPO CVUJGB3PNBOIBETBJE
-FPOFNWFOBUPSWFTUJHBU IF XPVMEIBWFNFBOUTPNFUIJOHMJLF*UJTUIF-*0/
XIPNUIFIVOUFSUSBDLT SBUIFSUIBO GPSFYBNQMF B%&&3PSB)034&

"TJNJMBSFYQMBOBUJPOPGUIFVTFPGJOGMFDUJPOBMGPSNTIPMETBMTPGPS$[FDI
BOENBOZPUIFSMBOHVBHFT*O&OHMJTI POMZBGFXFYBNQMFTPGUIFGPSNFSJO
GMFDUJPOTTUJMMTVSWJWFEJSFDUPCKFDUGPSNTNF IJN IFS VT BOEUIFN PGUIF
QFSTPOBMQSPOPVOT* IF TIF XF BOEUIFZ
5PTIPXUIFSJDIOFTTPGUIFJOGMFDUJPOBMTZTUFNJO-BUJO IFSFBSFUIFGPSNT
DBTFT
PGUIFOPVOWFOBUPS JOUIFTJOHVMBS JODMVEJOHUIFQMVSBMXPVMEJO
DSFBTFUIFOVNCFSPGGPSNTCZUISFF
WFOBUPS OPNJOBUJWF JOEJDBUJOHUIF
Chomsky and Transformational-Generative Grammar 67

TVCKFDUPGBWFSC
 WFOBUPSJT HFOJUJWF JOEJDBUJOHQPTTFTTJPO MJLFiPG wJO&OH
MJTI
WFOBUPSJ EBUJWF JOEJDBUJOHUIFJOEJSFDUPCKFDUPGBWFSC MJLFiUPwBTJO
iUISPXUIFCBMMUPIJNw
WFOBUPSFN BDDVTBUJWF JOEJDBUJOHUIFEJSFDUPCKFDU
PGBWFSC
WFOBUPS WPDBUJWF JOEJDBUJOHUIFQFSTPOCFJOHTQPLFOUPUIFGPSN
JTUIFTBNFBTUIFOPNJOBUJWF
BOEWFOBUPSF BCMBUJWF JOEJDBUJOHUIFJOTUSV
NFOUPSNFUIPECZXIJDITPNFUIJOHJTEPOF MJLFiCZwPSiXJUIwJO&OHMJTI

5IFEFTDSJQUJPOPGUIFGVODUJPOPGUIFTJY-BUJODBTFTIBTCFFOTJNQMJGJFE

5PSFUVSOUPUIFDMBJNJOUIFJOJUJBMQBSBHSBQIPGUIJTTFDUJPO MFBSOFSTPG
&OHMJTIBTBTFDPOEMBOHVBHFIBWFBUSFNFOEPVTBEWBOUBHFPWFSMFBSOFSTPG
BIJHIMZJOGMFDUFEMBOHVBHFBTBTFDPOEMBOHVBHF CFDBVTFMFBSOFSTPG&OHMJTI
EPOUIBWFUPSFNFNCFSBMBSHFOVNCFSPGHSBNNBUJDBMGPSNTUIFZXPVME
OFFEUPLOPXUPNBLFUIFNTFMWFTGVMMZVOEFSTUPPE5PDBSSZPOBTBUJTGBD
UPSZHFOFSBMDPOWFSTBUJPOJO&OHMJTI IPXFWFS BNPEFTUWPDBCVMBSZPG&OH
MJTIXPSETJTBMMPOFOFFET

Chomsky and Transformational-Generative Grammar


5IF TUVEZ PG MBOHVBHFT BOE MJOHVJTUJDT IBT CFFO EPDVNFOUFE GPS BODJFOU
(SFFDFBTFBSMZBTUXPBOEBIBMGNJMMFOOJBBHP"UBCPVUUIBUUJNF UIFFBSMJ
FTUQSFTFSWFETDJFOUJGJDHSBNNBSXBTDPNQJMFEJO*OEJB5IFXPSLJT1GyJOJT
HSBNNBSPG4BOTLSJU XSJUUFOBSPVOEUIFGJGUIDFOUVSZ #$ PSFWFOFBSMJFS
BOEEFTDSJCFECZBEJTUJOHVJTIFE"NFSJDBOMJOHVJTUBTiPOFPGUIFHSFBUFTU
NPOVNFOUTPGIVNBOJOUFMMJHFODFw #MPPNGJFME
/PUBHSFBUEFBMJT
LOPXOBCPVUUIFEFWFMPQNFOUPGMJOHVJTUJDTEVSJOHUIF.JEEMF"HFT CVUCPUI
QFEBHPHJDBMBOEQIJMPTPQIJDBMTUVEJFTPGMBOHVBHFTDPOUJOVFE*O&VSPQF BU
UFOUJPOXBTHJWFOBMNPTUFYDMVTJWFMZUPDMBTTJDBM-BUJOSBUIFSUIBOUPUIFMJW
JOHMBOHVBHFTTQPLFOCZUIFEJGGFSFOUQFPQMFT#ZDPOUSBTU "SBCHSBNNBSJBOT
GVSOJTIFEFYDFMMFOUEFTDSJQUJPOTPGUIFJSPXOMBOHVBHF
"MUIPVHIUIFSPPUTPGNPEFSOMJOHVJTUJDTHPCBDLUPUIFFOEPGUIFFJHI
UFFOUIDFOUVSZ NPTUPGUIFSFWPMVUJPOBSZEFWFMPQNFOUTEJEOPUDPNFBCPVU
VOUJMUIFCFHJOOJOHPGUIFUXFOUJFUI5PTJNQMJGZNBUUFSTDPOTJEFSBCMZ POF
NBZTBZUIBUUIFGJSTUIBMGPGUIFTXBTDIBSBDUFSJ[FEQSJNBSJMZCZTUSVD
UVSBMBOEEFTDSJQUJWFBQQSPBDIFTJOUIFTUVEZPGMBOHVBHFTUSVDUVSBM CFDBVTF
MBOHVBHFBOZMBOHVBHFXBTDPOTJEFSFEUPCFBDPNQMFYTZTUFNPGFMF
NFOUTUIBUXFSFJOUFSSFMBUFEBOEDPVMECFTUVEJFEBOEBOBMZ[FEPOMZBTTVDI
EFTDSJQUJWF CFDBVTFUIFBJNXBTUPEFTDSJCFBDUVBMVTBHFSBUIFSUIBOXIBU
BDDPSEJOHUPBUSBEJUJPOBMJTUWJFX VTBHFPVHIUUPCF%VSJOHUIFTFDPOEIBMG
68 Chapter 4: Structure of Words and Sentences

PGUIFT MJOHVJTUJDTEFQBSUFESBEJDBMMZGSPNUIFTFFBSMJFSBQQSPBDIFTBT
BSFTVMUPGUIFDPOUSJCVUJPOPGUIF"NFSJDBOMJOHVJTU/PBN$IPNTLZ XIPTF
UIFPSFUJDBMQFSTQFDUJWFBOENFUIPEPMPHZBSFSFGFSSFEUPBTHFOFSBUJWF PS
USBOTGPSNBUJPOBM PSUSBOTGPSNBUJPOBMHFOFSBUJWF
HSBNNBS
6TJOHUIFEFTDSJQUJWJTUBQQSPBDI MJOHVJTUJDBOBMZTUTXPVMECFHJOCZXSJU
JOHEPXOXPSETBOEQISBTFTPGBMBOHVBHFQIPOFUJDBMMZ BOEXIFOTVGGJDJFOU
QIPOFUJDEBUBIBECFFODPMMFDUFE QSPDFFEUPEFUFSNJOFUIFQIPOFNFTPGUIF
MBOHVBHF0ODFUIFZIBEDPNQMFUFEQIPOFNJDBOBMZTJTBOEEFWJTFEUSBO
TDSJQUJPO UIFBOBMZTUTXPVMEQIPOFNJDBMMZUSBOTDSJCFXPSET QISBTFT TFO
UFODFT BOEFOUJSFVUUFSBODFTJOPSEFSUPVOEFSTUBOEUIFNPSQIPMPHZPGUIF
MBOHVBHFBTXFMMBTUIFNFBOJOHTPGJUTEJGGFSFOUNPSQIFNFT4FOUFODFTUSVD
UVSFXPVMEVTVBMMZSFDFJWFPOMZTFDPOEBSZBUUFOUJPO
#ZDPOUSBTU MJOHVJTUTUSBJOFEJOUSBOTGPSNBUJPOBMHFOFSBUJWFHSBNNBS
QSPDFFEUIFPUIFSXBZBSPVOE GSPNUIFTFOUFODFUPJUTWBSJPVTDPOTUJUVFOUT
-FUVTDPOTJEFSUIFGPMMPXJOHQBJSPGTFOUFODFTi'BUIFSJTFBHFSUPQMFBTFw
BOEi'BUIFSJTFBTZUPQMFBTFw5IFTUSVDUVSFPGCPUITFOUFODFTBQQFBSTUPCF
UIFTBNF BOEJOBOBOBMZTJTDPODFSOFEXJUIMJTUJOHNPSQIFNFTBOEUIFJS
BSSBOHFNFOUTUIFUXPXPVMECFDPOTJEFSFEWFSZNVDIBMJLF:FUUIFZBSF
GVOEBNFOUBMMZEJGGFSFOU*OUIFGJSTUPOF JUJT'BUIFSXIPJTEPJOHUIFQMFBT
JOHBOEJTUIFTVCKFDUPGUIFTFOUFODF XIFSFBTJOUIFTFDPOE'BUIFSJTUIF
QFSTPOCFJOHQMFBTFEBOEUIFSFGPSFUIFVOEFSMZJOHPCKFDU*GPOFDIBOHFTUIF
TFOUFODFTGSPNBDUJWFUPQBTTJWFWPJDF i'BUIFSJTFBTJMZQMFBTFEwJTBDDFQU
BCMFBTHSBNNBUJDBMBOENFBOJOHGVM CVUi'BUIFSJTFBHFSMZQMFBTFEwJTDMFBSMZ
OPU"MUIPVHIUIFTVQFSGJDJBM PSTVSGBDF TUSVDUVSFPGUIFUXPPSJHJOBMTFO
UFODFTJTNVDIUIFTBNF UIFSFJTBCBTJDEJGGFSFODFCFUXFFOUIFN BOEJUDBO
POMZSFTVMUGSPNEJGGFSFODFTJOUIFJSEFFQTUSVDUVSF*UBQQFBST UIFO UIBUUIF
NFSFMJTUJOHPGNPSQIFNFTBOEUIFJSBSSBOHFNFOUJOTFOUFODFTJTOPUFOPVHI
UPBDDPVOUGPSUIFEJGGFSFODFTUIBUNBZPCUBJOCFUXFFOUIFN
5PXSJUFUIFHFOFSBUJWFHSBNNBSPGBMBOHVBHF UIFO JTUPEFWFMPQBGJ
OJUFEFWJDFDBQBCMFPGHFOFSBUJOHBOJOGJOJUFOVNCFSPGHSBNNBUJDBMTFO
UFODFTPGUIFMBOHVBHF5IBUJTBWFSZUBMMPSEFSFWFOGPSQSPGFTTJPOBMMJOHVJTUT
BOEJUJTPOFSFBTPOPVSDPWFSBHFPGUIJTUZQFPGHSBNNBSIBTCFFOTPCSJFG
5IFPUIFS BOENBJO SFBTPOJTUIBUBUUIJTQPJOUUSBOTGPSNBUJPOBMHFOFSBUJWF
HSBNNBSJTOPUBUPPMUIBUNPTUMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHJTUTBSFBCMFUPVTFPS
XPVMEQSPGJUGSPNVTJOH5IFTFNBOUJDDPNQPOFOUJOUSBOTGPSNBUJPOBM
HFOFSBUJWFHSBNNBSIBTOPUZFUCFFOGVMMZDIBSUFE)PXFWFS JGMFYJDBMTF
NBOUJD TUSVDUVSF DBO CF TJHOJGJDBOUMZ SFMBUFE UP UIF TUSVDUVSF PG UIF
Chomsky and Transformational-Generative Grammar 69

B OX 4 . 2 CO N T R A S T I N G T H E D E S C R I P T I V E
A N D G E N E R AT I V E A P P R O A C H E S

Consider the operation of a gas-powered automobile. Like a language, a car


that runs is a complex functioning whole. Like a language, too, it consists of
many different parts that make up various systems (the drive train, the electric
system, the cooling system, and others), each of which operates according to
specific principles. Applying the view of Chomsky and his followers to this ex-
ample, one can liken the descriptivist approach to the skills and operations of
a mechanic who is well acquainted with the various automobile parts and
their functions but who is not seriously concerned with how and why a car
runs. Very much like the descriptivist linguist, who restricts his or her analy-
sis to surface structures, the mechanic is familiar with the car only superfi-
cially, although capable of maintaining it in good running condition.
According to Chomsky, such an approach is not truly scientific because
it makes no effort to explain. A real understanding of what makes a car run
comes from the comprehension of such fundamental principles as those of
combustion, friction, application of force, and the like. Not until these prin-
ciples are grasped can one say significant things not only about a particu-
lar make of car but about cars in general, and about other conveyances that
utilize these principles (for example, snowmobiles). Consequently, the fun-
damental principles, like the rules of grammar, are prior; and the parts and
their arrangements, like the linguistic units and their arrangements, assume
secondary importance. . . . Nevertheless, for the anthropological field
worker, who is mainly concerned with recording native terms in a service-
able phonemic transcription and who rarely possesses intuitive knowledge
of the language he or she is dealing with, the descriptivist approach con-
tinues to be useful.
from Oriol Pi-Sunyer and Zdenek Salzmann,
Humanity and Culture (1978), 356357

DPSSFTQPOEJOHDVMUVSF UIFOGVUVSFSFTFBSDIJOUIJTBSFBXJMMCFPGTQFDJBMJO
UFSFTUUPMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHJTUT
)PXXPVMEPOFDPNQBSFUIFNFSJUTPGEFTDSJQUJWFBOETUSVDUVSBMMJOHVJT
UJDTXJUIUIPTFPGHFOFSBUJWFHSBNNBS BOEJOMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHZUPXIBU
FYUFOUIBTUSBOTGPSNBUJPOBMHFOFSBUJWFHSBNNBSSFQMBDFEUIFFBSMJFSBQ
QSPBDIFT 0OFXBZPGBOTXFSJOHUIFRVFTUJPOJTQSFTFOUFEJO#PY
70 Chapter 4: Structure of Words and Sentences

Summary and Conclusions


.PSQIPMPHZJTUIFTUVEZBOEEFTDSJQUJPOPGXPSEGPSNBUJPO5IFQSJODJQBM
VOJUPGNPSQIPMPHZJTUIFNPSQIFNF UIFTNBMMFTUNFBOJOHGVMQBSUPGMBO
HVBHF5IFSFBSFUIPVTBOETPGNPSQIFNFTJOBOZMBOHVBHF5IPTFUIBUNBZ
CFVTFECZUIFNTFMWFTBSFUFSNFEGSFFUIPTFUIBUPDDVSPOMZBUUBDIFEUP
PUIFSNPSQIFNFTBSFUFSNFECPVOE.BOZNPSQIFNFTIBWFNPSFUIBOPOF
QIPOFNJDTIBQFUIFWBSJBOUGPSNTPGBNPSQIFNFBSFJUTBMMPNPSQIT(SBN
NBSUIF WBSJPVT SVMFT UIBU HPWFSO UIF XPSLJOHT PG B MBOHVBHF BOE UIF
QSPDFTTFTUIBUJNQMFNFOUUIFTFSVMFTWBSJFTGSPNPOFMBOHVBHFUPUIFOFYU
4PNFMBOHVBHFTBSFDIBSBDUFSJ[FECZNBOZJOGMFDUJPOBMGPSNT GPSFYBNQMF
-BUJO
PUIFSTCZSFMBUJWFMZGFX GPSFYBNQMF &OHMJTI
5IFDPNQMFYJUZPG
HSBNNBS IPXFWFS EPFTOPUBEEUPUIFQSFTUJHFPGBMBOHVBHF5IFTUVEZPG
UIFQIPOFNJDEJGGFSFODFTBNPOHBMMPNPSQITPGUIFTBNFNPSQIFNFJTSF
GFSSFEUPBTNPSQIPQIPOFNJDT5IFQMVSBMNPSQIFNFPG&OHMJTIOPVOTIBT
BWBSJFUZPGBMMPNPSQITPOFNBZUIFSFGPSFTQFBLPGUIFNPSQIPQIPOFNJD
SVMFTPG&OHMJTIOPVOQMVSBMJ[BUJPO
4FOUFODFTBSFUIFMBSHFTUTUSVDUVSBMVOJUTPGBMBOHVBHF BOEUIFJSTUVEZJO
UIFUSBEJUJPOBMDPODFQUJPOJTDBMMFETZOUBY*OUSBOTGPSNBUJPOBMHFOFSBUJWF
HSBNNBS TZOUBYSFGFSTOPUPOMZUPTFOUFODFTUSVDUVSFCVUUPXPSETUSVDUVSF
BTXFMM*OUIJTBQQSPBDI UIFTZOUBDUJDDPNQPOFOUJTPOFPGUISFFNBKPSPS
HBOJ[BUJPOBMVOJUTPGBHSBNNBS UIFPUIFSTCFJOHUIFQIPOPMPHJDBMBOEUIF
TFNBOUJDDPNQPOFOUT)BWJOHUPEPXJUIUIFTUSVDUVSFPGNFBOJOH UIFTF
NBOUJDDPNQPOFOUIBTCFFOUIFMBTUUPCFTUVEJFEJONPEFSOMJOHVJTUJDTBOE
UIFPOFXPSLFEPVUJOMFBTUEFUBJM
5IFJOUFSFTUPGTUSVDUVSBMJTUTBOEEFTDSJQUJWJTUTJOMJOHVJTUJDWBSJFUZUIF
XPSME PWFS IBT MPOH CFFO TIBSFE CZ MJOHVJTUJD BOUISPQPMPHJTUT  NBOZ PG
XIPNEFBMXJUIVOXSJUUFOMBOHVBHFTPGMJUUMFLOPXOQFPQMFT#FGPSFUIFJO
USPEVDUJPOPGUSBOTGPSNBUJPOBMHSBNNBS UIFBQQSPBDIUPUIFTUVEZPGMBO
HVBHFXBTTPNFXIBUNFDIBOJDBMCFDBVTFJUXBTDPODFSOFEQSJNBSJMZXJUI
JUFNT VOJUT
BOEUIFJSBSSBOHFNFOU$IPNTLZ UIFGPVOEFSPGUSBOTGPSNB
UJPOBMHFOFSBUJWFHSBNNBS IBTCPUIQPTFEBOEBUUFNQUFEUPBOTXFSOFX
RVFTUJPOTDPODFSOJOHMBOHVBHF NBOZPGXIJDIBSFPGHSFBUJNQPSUBODF'PS
FYBNQMF IPXJTJUQPTTJCMFUIBUBMSFBEZBUBOFBSMZBHFJOEJWJEVBMTLOPXBT
NVDIBCPVUUIFJSOBUJWFMBOHVBHFTBTUIFZEPXJUIPVUBOZGPSNBMMFBSOJOH
"DDPSEJOH UP $IPNTLZ  POF NVTU BTTVNF UIBU DIJMESFO BSF CPSO XJUI B
LOPXMFEHFPGXIBUDBOCFUFSNFEVOJWFSTBMHSBNNBS JOPUIFSXPSET UIBU
Summary and Conclusions 71

VOJWFSTBMHSBNNBSJTQBSUPGPVSIVNBOCJPMPHJDBMFOEPXNFOU8IBUUIF
TQFBLFSTPGBQBSUJDVMBSMBOHVBHFNVTUMFBSO PGDPVSTF BSFUIFTQFDJGJDTPG
UIFMBOHVBHFUIFZBSFBDRVJSJOH GPSFYBNQMF UIFMFYJDPO

-JOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHJTUTBSFQSJNBSJMZJOUFSFTUFEJOVOEFSTUBOEJOHMBO
HVBHFXJUIJOUIFPWFSBMMNBUSJYPGDVMUVSF BOETQFFDIBTBOJOTFQBSBCMFMJOL
UPTPDJBMCFIBWJPS#VUFWFOUIPVHIUIFZBSFOPUTPNVDIDPODFSOFEXJUI
MJOHVJTUJDTUSVDUVSFBTTVDI UIFZBSFPCWJPVTMZJOGMVFODFECZUIFMBUFTUEF
WFMPQNFOUTJOMJOHVJTUJDUIFPSJFTBOENFUIPETCFDBVTFPGUIFJSJOUFSFTUJO
UIFTQFFDIPGUIPTFXIPTFDVMUVSFTUIFZTUVEZ
5

Nonve rbal
Communication

4QPLFO MBOHVBHFTQFFDIJT CZ GBS UIF NPTU DPNNPO BOE JNQPSUBOU


NFBOTCZXIJDIIVNBOTDPNNVOJDBUFXJUIPOFBOPUIFS CVUJUJTOPUUIF
POMZPOF5IFNBOZEJGGFSFOUXSJUJOHTZTUFNTVTFEUISPVHIPVUUIFXPSMEBSF
PGUSFNFOEPVTJNQPSUBODFGPSDPNNVOJDBUJPO IBWJOHJOTPNFSFTQFDUTBO
BEWBOUBHFPWFSTQPLFOMBOHVBHF FTQFDJBMMZUIFJSSFMBUJWFQFSNBOFODF
5IFUFSNOPOWFSCBMDPNNVOJDBUJPO UBLFOMJUFSBMMZ SFGFSTUPUIFUSBOT
NJTTJPOPGTJHOBMTBDDPNQMJTIFECZNFBOTPUIFSUIBOTQPLFOPSXSJUUFO
XPSET/PUFWFSZPOFBHSFFTPOXIBUUIFUFSNFODPNQBTTFT BOETPNFFWFO
RVFTUJPOXIFUIFSOPOWFSCBMDPNNVOJDBUJPOJTEFGJOBCMF6TFECSPBEMZ UIF
UFSNJODMVEFTCPEJMZHFTUVSFT GBDJBMFYQSFTTJPOT TQBDJOH UPVDI BOETNFMM
BTXFMMBTXIJTUMF TNPLFTJHOBM BOEESVNiMBOHVBHFT wBOETVDIPQUJPOBM
WPDBMFGGFDUTBTUIPTFUIBUBDDPNQBOZTQPLFOVUUFSBODFTBOEDBOCFDPOTJE
FSFEBQBSUGSPNBDUVBMXPSET
/POWFSCBMTZTUFNTPGDPNNVOJDBUJPONBZCFEJWJEFEJOUPUIPTFUIBUBSF
EFSJWFEGSPNTQPLFOMBOHVBHFBOEUIPTFUIBUBSFJOEFQFOEFOUPGJU8JUI
POMZBGFXFYDFQUJPOT XSJUJOHTZTUFNTCFMPOHUPUIFGJSTUDBUFHPSZ SFQSF
TFOUJOHBTUIFZEPUIFTPVOETPGTQFFDI*OUVSO XSJUJOHTZTUFNTNBZTFSWF
BTUIFTPVSDFPGPUIFSTZTUFNT5IF&OHMJTIXPSEXSJUUFOBTUSFF DBOCFUSBOT
NJUUFEJOUIF*OUFSOBUJPOBM.PSTF$PEFCZBVEJCMFPSWJTVBMTJHOBMTBTo r o r
r r XJUIo ror BOErSFQSFTFOUJOHSFTQFDUJWFMZUIFMFUUFSTU S BOEF4JNJMBSMZ
UIFCSBJMMFBMQIBCFU BTZTUFNPGXSJUJOHGPSUIFCMJOE NBLFTVTFPGSBJTFE
EPUTXJUIJOB NBUSJY5IFEJGGFSFOUBSSBOHFNFOUTPGSBJTFEEPUT t

SFQSFTFOUUIFMFUUFSTPGUIFBMQIBCFU BTJO

73
74 Chapter 5: Nonverbal Communication

DPSSFTQPOEJOHUPU S F F
0UIFSTZTUFNTPGDPNNVOJDBUJPOUIBUBSFCBTFEPOTQFFDIBSFESVNBOE
XIJTUMFiMBOHVBHFT w XIJDIJNJUBUFTPNFPGUIFSFQSPEVDJCMFEJTUJODUJWFGFB
UVSFTPGUIFTQPLFOMBOHVBHFTBMPOHXJUIXIJDIUIFZBSFVTFE
4PNFTJHOMBOHVBHFTBSFJOEFQFOEFOUPGTQFFDI#FDBVTFTPNFBSF JOEF
QFOEFOU JUXBTQPTTJCMFGPSUIF1MBJOT*OEJBOTUPVTFTJHOMBOHVBHFBTB
NFBOTPGFGGFDUJWFDPNNVOJDBUJPOBNPOHUSJCFTTQFBLJOHEJGGFSFOU BOE
NBOZUJNFTFWFOVOSFMBUFE MBOHVBHFT
"OPUIFSXBZPGDMBTTJGZJOHOPOWFSCBMDPNNVOJDBUJWFTZTUFNTJTBDDPSE
JOHUPDIBOOFM PSUIFNFEJVNCZXIJDITJHOBMTBSFDPOWFZFE5IFDIBOOFM
FNQMPZFEJOESVNiMBOHVBHFwJTBDPVTUJD XIFSFBTTJHOMBOHVBHFPSTNPLF
TJHOBMTVTFUIFPQUJDBMDIBOOFM*OEJWJEVBMTXIPBSFCMJOENBLFVTFPGUPVDI
XIFOUIFZGFFMUIFSBJTFEEPUTPGUIFCSBJMMFTZTUFN BOEUIPTFXIPBSFEFBG
BTXFMMBTCMJOENBZMFBSOUPNPOJUPSBSUJDVMBUPSZNPWFNFOUTCZQMBDJOHB
IBOEPOUIFTQFBLFSTGBDFBOEOFDL 5BEPNBNFUIPE
5IFPMGBDUPSZDIBO
OFMJTOPUVTFEJOUIFIJHIMZTUSVDUVSFENBOOFSPGUIFDIBOOFMTKVTUNFO
UJPOFE CVUJUTIPVMEOPUCFVOEFSFTUJNBUFE"TBSVMF "NFSJDBOTEPOPU
JOEVMHFJOFBUJOHGSFTIHBSMJDCFGPSFBTPDJBMPDDBTJPOPSBOJNQPSUBOUCVTJ
OFTTFOHBHFNFOUGPSGFBSPGTFOEJOHUIFXSPOHTJHOBMT
'PSUIFNPTUQBSU IVNBODPNNVOJDBUJPOJTBNVMUJDIBOOFMBGGBJSPQFS
BUJOHPOWFSCBMBOEOPOWFSCBMMFWFMT3FHBSEMFTTPGUIFTPDJFUZ JUJTOPUPOMZ
IPXQFPQMFUBMLBOEXIBUUIFZTBZCVUBMTPIPXUIFZQSFTFOUUIFNTFMWFTUP
PUIFSTUIBUTFFNTUPNBLFBEJGGFSFODFBTUPIPXUIFZBSFQFSDFJWFE5IF
TUVEZPGUIFQSPQFSUJFTPGTJHOTBOETZNCPMTBOEUIFJSGVODUJPOTJODPNNV
OJDBUJPOJTSFGFSSFEUPBTTFNJPUJDT #FDBVTFPGUIFJODSFBTJOHBUUFOUJPOHJWFO
UPBMMNPEFTPGDPNNVOJDBUJPOJOIVNBOTBOEPUIFSBOJNBMT UIFGJFMEPG
TFNJPUJDTIBTCFFOTUFBEJMZHSPXJOHJOWPMVNFBOEQPQVMBSJUZ"NPOHUIF
TVCGJFMETPGTFNJPUJDTBSFCJPTFNJPUJDT UIFTFNJPUJDTUVEZPGMJWJOHTZTUFNT
TFNJPUJDTPGGPPECFDBVTFUIFQSFQBSBUJPOPGGPPEUSBOTGPSNTJUTNFBOJOH
BOEBMTPCFDBVTFDFSUBJOGPPETDBOCFTZNCPMJDPGTQFDJGJDTPDJBMDPEFTBOE
TPDJBMTFNJPUJDT XIJDIJODMVEFTUIFJOUFSQSFUBUJPOPGTVDIDVMUVSBMDPEFTBT
GBTIJPOBOEBEWFSUJTJOH
Paralinguistics 75

Paralinguistics
$IBSBDUFSJTUJDTPGWPDBMDPNNVOJDBUJPODPOTJEFSFENBSHJOBMPSPQUJPOBM
BOEUIFSFGPSFFYDMVEBCMFGSPNMJOHVJTUJDBOBMZTJTBSFSFGFSSFEUPBTQBSB
MBOHVBHF 5IFNPTUDPNNPOQBSBMJOHVJTUJDGFBUVSFTBSFVTVBMMZBTTJHOFE
UPUISFFDBUFHPSJFT
7PJDFRVBMJGJFST IBWFUPEPXJUIUIFUPOFPGWPJDFBOEQBDJOHPGTQFFDI
BOEUIFZJODMVEFWBSJBUJPOTJOWPMVNFPSJOUFOTJUZ GPSFYBNQMF PWFSMPVE
PWFSTPGU
QJUDI OPUJDFBCMZIJHI OPUJDFBCMZMPX
UFNQP PWFSMZGBTU PWFSMZ
TMPX
BOEBSUJDVMBUJPO GPSFYBNQMF ESBXMJOH DMJQQJOH PSSBTQJOH

#FTJEFTUIFTFBOEPUIFSWPJDFRVBMJGJFST UIFSFBSFWBSJPVTWPJDFDIBSBD
UFSJ[FST UIBUBDDPNQBOZTQFFDIPS NPSFQSFDJTFMZ UISPVHIXIJDIPOFUBMLT
5IFTFSBOHFGSPNMBVHIJOHBOEHJHHMJOHUPDSZJOHBOETPCCJOHUPZFMMJOH
NPBOJOH HSPBOJOH XIJNQFSJOH BOEXIJOJOH
"OEUIFOUIFSFBSFUIFTPDBMMFEWPDBMTFHSFHBUFT SFQSFTFOUFEGPSUIFNPTU
QBSUCZTVDIFYUSBMJOHVJTUJDTPVOET UIBUJT TPVOETOPUQBSUPGUIFQIPOF
NJDTZTUFN
BTUIFPOFTHSBQIJDBMMZSFQSFTFOUFEJO&OHMJTIUFYUTBTVIIVI UP
JOEJDBUFBHSFFNFOUPSHSBUJGJDBUJPO VIVI UPJOEJDBUFEJTBHSFFNFOU UTLUTL
UPFYQSFTTNJMEEJTBQQSPWBM BOEPUIFSHSBQIJDBQQSPYJNBUJPOTPGEJGGFSFOU
LJOETPGTOPSUTBOETOJGGT
)FSFBSFTPNFDPODSFUFFYBNQMFTPGQBSBMJOHVJTUJDCFIBWJPS)JHIMZDPO
USPMMFEBSUJDVMBUJPOQSPEVDFTUIFDSJTQ QSFDJTFQSPOVODJBUJPOFYQFDUFEPGGPSNBM
QSPOPVODFNFOUTBEESFTTFEUPMBSHFBVEJFODFTCZDPOUSBTU TQFFDITPSFMBYFEBT
UPCFDPNFTMVSSFEJTIFBSEGSPNUIPTFXIPBSFWFSZUJSFE TMFFQZ PSVOEFSUIF
JOGMVFODFPGBMDPIPMPSPUIFSESVHT4QFBLFSTPG&OHMJTIBOEPUIFSMBOHVBHFT
UFOEUPBTTPDJBUFFYUSFNFQJUDIWBSJBUJPOXJUIIBQQJOFTTBOETVSQSJTFIJHIQJUDI
MFWFMPSGBTUUFNQPXJUIGFBS TVSQSJTF PSBOHFSBOEMPXQJUDIMFWFMPSTMPX
UFNQPXJUICPSFEPNBOETBEOFTT5IFSPVOEJOHPGMJQTJNQBSUTUPUIFWPJDF
UIFDPPJOHRVBMJUZUIBUJTGSFRVFOUMZVTFECZBEVMUTXIFOUBMLJOHUPBCBCZ
"TBOBEEJUJPOBMFYBNQMF DPOTJEFSXIJTQFSJOH"QFSTPONBZXIJTQFSUP
BWPJEXBLJOHVQPUIFSTXIPBSFOBQQJOHPSTMFFQJOH BOFYBNQMFPGUIPVHIU
GVMCFIBWJPS
UPBWPJECFJOHPWFSIFBSE DPOTJEFSBUJPOPGQSJWBDZ
UPDPO
WFZBTFDSFUPSBDPOTQJSBDZPSUPTQSFBESVNPSTPGBOJOUJNBUFOBUVSFBCPVU
TPNFPOF IFODFUIFQISBTFiXIJTQFSJOHDBNQBJHOw

*OUIFEJTDVTTJPOPGTQFFDI POFNBZCFUFNQUFEUPDPOTJEFSTJMFODF PS
GPSCFBSBODFGSPNTQFFDI OPUXPSUINFOUJPOJOH)PXFWFS UIBUXPVMECFB
76 Chapter 5: Nonverbal Communication

NJTUBLF%FQFOEJOHPOUIFDPOUFYU TJMFODFDBOJOEJDBUFBWBSJFUZPGNFBO
JOHTPSGFFMJOHT*OBUFOTFTJUVBUJPO TJMFODFDBOCFUISFBUFOJOHJGJUJTVTFEEF
MJCFSBUFMZJOTUFBEPGBOBQQFBTJOHSFNBSLCZDPOUSBTU JUNBZIFMQUPMFTTFO
UFOTJPOCZXJUIIPMEJOHBDPNNFOUUIBUDPVMEXPSTFOBTJUVBUJPO4JMFODF
NBZBMTPFYQSFTTPOFTVODFSUBJOUZDPODFSOJOHBOJTTVF PSIFMQUPBWPJEBO
BSHVNFOU*UNBZCFBHFOUMFTVCTUJUVUFGPSTBZJOHiOP wBTXIFOBZPVOHNBO
BTLTi8JMMZPVNBSSZNF wBOEOPSFTQPOTFJTGPSUIDPNJOH4PNFPGUIFTF
BOEPUIFSVTFTPGTJMFODFBSFCZOPNFBOTVOJWFSTBMUIFZNBZWBSZTPNF
XIBU PSFWFORVJUFEFFQMZ GSPNDVMUVSFUPDVMUVSF

Kinesics
+VTUBTBOZTQFFDIUIBUJTOPUOFVUSBMUFOETUPCFBDDPNQBOJFECZPOFPS
NPSFQBSBMJOHVJTUJDGFBUVSFT JUJTBMTPMJLFMZUPCFTVQQMFNFOUFECZWJTVBM
HFTUVSFT5IJTJTUIFTVCKFDUPGLJOFTJDT UIFTUVEZPGCPEZMBOHVBHF
5IFSFJTOPRVFTUJPOUIBUCPEJMZHFTUVSFT JOUIFCSPBEFTUTFOTF
TFSWFBT
BOJNQPSUBOUNFBOTPGDPNNVOJDBUJPO$PNFEJBOTBSFOPUBCMZBEFQUBU
TMBOUJOH DBODFMJOH PSDPNQMFUFMZUVSOJOHBSPVOEUIFNFBOJOHPGUIFJSTQP
LFOMJOFTXJUIBXFMMDIPTFOHSJNBDFPSHFTUVSFPGEJGGFSFOUDPNNVOJDBUJWF
DPOUFOU BOEQSPGFTTJPOBMNJNFTLOPXIPXUPNPWFUIFJSBVEJFODFTUPUFBST
PSMBVHIUFSXJUIPVUVUUFSJOHBTJOHMFXPSE#VUTQFFDISFMBUFECPEZNPUJPOT
BSFCZOPNFBOTMJNJUFEUPQFSGPSNFSTUIFZBSFBOJOUFHSBMQBSUPGFWFSZ
POFTEBJMZDPNNVOJDBUJWFBDUJWJUZ
5IFCBTJDBTTVNQUJPOTUIBUVOEFSMJFLJOFTJDTJTUIBUOPCPEZNPWFNFOUPS
GBDJBMFYQSFTTJPOJTMJLFMZUPMBDLNFBOJOHCFDBVTF KVTUMJLFPUIFSBTQFDUTPG
WPMVOUBSZIVNBOCFIBWJPS CPEZNPWFNFOUT QPTUVSF BOEGBDJBMFYQSFTTJPOT
BSFQBUUFSOFEBOEPDDVSUPHFUIFS'PSFYBNQMF BDDJEFOUBMNFFUJOHTPGHPPE
NBMFGSJFOETBSFDPNNPOMZDIBSBDUFSJ[FECZBCSJFGSBJTFPGIBOEGJSTU UIFO
BGJSNIBOETIBLF BCSJFGSJTJOHPGFZFCSPXT BOEBTNJMF
*OGMVFODFECZTUSVDUVSBMMJOHVJTUJDT 3BZ-#JSEXIJTUFMM o
JO
UIFTEFWFMPQFEBNFUIPEPGTUVEZJOHBOEEFTDSJCJOHUIFCPEZNPUJPO
BTQFDUTPGIVNBODPNNVOJDBUJWFCFIBWJPSCZNFBOTPGVOJUTUIBUQBSBMMFM
UIPTFFNQMPZFEJOMJOHVJTUJDBOBMZTJT0OFTVDIVOJU UIFLJOFNF BOBMPHPVT
UPUIFQIPOFNF
IBTCFFOEFGJOFEBTUIFTNBMMFTUEJTDSJNJOBCMFDPOUSBTUJWF
VOJUPGCPEZNPUJPO
4UVEFOUTPGLJOFTJDTUBLFOPUFPGTFWFSBMCBTJDDPNQPOFOUT BMMPGXIJDIBSF
BTTPDJBUFEGBDJBMFYQSFTTJPO FZFDPOUBDU CPEZQPTUVSF BOEIBOEHFTUVSFT
Kinesics 77

'BDJBM FYQSFTTJPOTTJHOBMBXJEFSBOHFPGFNPUJPOTGSPNQMFBTVSF IBQQJ


OFTT BOEQMFBTBOUTVSQSJTFUPTVTQJDJPO TBEOFTT GFBS BOHFS EJTBQQSPWBM
PSEJTHVTUUPMJTUPOMZUIFNPTUDPNNPOGFFMJOHT
5IFOBUVSFPGFZFDPOUBDUCFUXFFOQFPQMFJOGBDFUPGBDFJOUFSBDUJPOWBSJFT
OPUPOMZGSPNDVMUVSFUPDVMUVSFCVUBMTPXJUIJOUIFTBNFTPDJFUZ QBSUJDVMBSMZ
TVDIBMBSHFTPDJFUZBTPVSPXO
GSPNPOFJOEJWJEVBMUPUIFOFYUBDDPSEJOH
UPUIFFYQFSJFODF BHF TFMGDPOGJEFODF BOEJOUFOUJPOTPGUIFDPNNVOJDBUPS
&ZFDPOUBDUTUIFSFGPSFSBOHFBMMUIFXBZGSPNBWPJEBODFUPUIFMPPLPGBQFS
TPOXIPJTJOMPWF
5ZQFTPGIBOEHFTUVSFTBSFUPPNBOZUPDMBTTJGZJOUIJTCSJFGTVSWFZ BOE
UXPBSFNFOUJPOFEUPJMMVTUSBUF0OFQVSQPTFUIFZTFSWFJTUPFNQIBTJ[FXIBU
JTCFJOHTBJEBOE UXP IBOETIBLJOHBTBHSFFUJOHDBOCFBDDPNQMJTIFEJOB
WBSJFUZPGNFUIPET5IFIBOETDBOCFDPNCJOFEUPHFUIFSJOWBSJPVTXBZT
BOEPOFTTFDPOEIBOEDBOCFVTFEUPJNQBSUFNQIBTJTUPUIFIBOETIBLF
XJUIPOFIBOE)BOETIBLJOHNBZCFFMFWBUFEUPIBOEDMBTQJOH BSNDMBTQJOH
TIPVMEFSDMBTQJOH PSTIPVMEFSFNCSBDJOH"MMUIFTFHFTUVSFTJOWPMWFUPVDI
JOHCFIBWJPS BOEUIBUJTDVMUVSFTQFDJGJD
#PEZQPTUVSFDPOWFZTUIFJOEJWJEVBMTBUUJUVEFUPUIFGBDFUPGBDFJOUFSBD
UJPOIFPSTIFJTQBSUJDJQBUJOHJO*UDBOTJHOBMGFFMJOHTSBOHJOHGSPNJOUFSFTU
DPODFSO PSBOUJDJQBUJPOUPCPSFEPN EFQSFTTJPO PSJNQBUJFODF%VSJOH
TPNFSJUVBMPDDBTJPOT PGDPVSTF TQFDJGJDCPEZQPTUVSFTBSFFYQFDUFEPSSF
RVJSFEGPSFYBNQMF LOFFMJOH TUBOEJOH PSCPXJOH
0CTFSWBOUUSBWFMFSTOPUJDFEDFOUVSJFTBHPUIBUNFNCFSTPGTPDJFUJFTBMPOH
UIF.FEJUFSSBOFBO4FBVTFENBOZNPSFCPEJMZHFTUVSFTBOEGBDJBMFYQSFTTJPOT
UIBO TBZ UIPTFMJWJOHJO4DBOEJOBWJBPS+BQBO)PXFWFS OPUBMM*UBMJBOT GPSFY
BNQMF VTFUIFTBNFiCPEZMBOHVBHF wKVTUBTUIFZEPOPUBMMTQFBLUIFTBNFEJ
BMFDUPG*UBMJBO#JSEXIJTUFMMPGGFSFEBOJOUFSFTUJOHFYBNQMFJOTVQQPSUPGUIF
FYQFDUBUJPOUIBULJOFTJDCFIBWJPSJTMJLFMZUPCFKVTUBTDVMUVSFTQFDJGJDBTUIF
DPSSFTQPOEJOHMBOHVBHF)FSFQPSUFEUIBUFWFOXIFOUIFTPVOEJTSFNPWFE
GSPNGJMNTNBEFCBDLJOUIFTBOETPGUIFTQFFDIFTPGUIFMBUFQPMJUJ
DJBOBOENBZPSPG/FX:PSL$JUZ'JPSFMMP-B(VBSEJB JUJTQPTTJCMFUPUFMM
XIFUIFSIFJTTQFBLJOH&OHMJTI :JEEJTI PS*UBMJBO BTDIBSBDUFSJTUJDCPEZNP
UJPOTBSFBTTPDJBUFEXJUIFBDIMBOHVBHF #JSEXIJTUFMM
"MUIPVHIUIF
IPMJTUJDBOEDPOUFYUVBMBQQSPBDIUPDPNNVOJDBUJPOUIBU#JSEXIJTUFMMBEWP
DBUFEIBTCFFOVOJGPSNMZBDDFQUFE UIFFYUFOUUPXIJDIiCPEZMBOHVBHFwDBOCF
BOBMZ[FEJOUFSNTPGIJTVOJUTSFNBJOTDPOUSPWFSTJBM JOQBSUCFDBVTFUIFEF
UBJMFEUSBOTDSJQUJPOIFEFTJHOFEJTGBSUPPDPNQMJDBUFEBOEUJNFDPOTVNJOH
78 Chapter 5: Nonverbal Communication

TA B L E 5 . 1 The Four Distance Zones of Informal Interpersonal Space Among


Middle-Class Americans of North European Heritage
1IZTJDBM%JTUBODF "DPVTUJD"VEJUPSZ
%JTUBODF;POF BQQSPY JOGFFU
$IBOOFM 0MGBDUPSZ$IBOOFM
*OUJNBUF
$MPTF o HSVOUT HSPBOT
'BS o XIJTQFSTPSWFSZ
MPXWPJDF
1FSTPOBM
$MPTF o TPGUWPJDF BMNPTUBMMPEPST
'BS o NPEFSBUFWPJDF EJTBQQSPWFEPG
4PDJBMDPOTVMUBUJWF
$MPTF o OPSNBMWPJDF BMNPTUBMMPEPST
'BS o MPVEFSWPJDF EJTBQQSPWFEPG
1VCMJD
$MPTF o MPVEWPJDF BMNPTUBMMPEPST
'BS  GVMMWPMVNFWPJDF EJTBQQSPWFEPG
4PVSDF "EBQUFEGSPN5IF)JEEFO%JNFOTJPO CZ&EXBSE5)BMM$PQZSJHIU CZ&EXBSE
5)BMM6TFECZQFSNJTTJPOPG%PVCMFEBZ BEJWJTJPOPG#BOUBN%PVCMFEBZ%FMM1VCMJTIJOH(SPVQ *OD

Proxemics
*OUIFFBSMZT UIFJOUFSEFQFOEFODFCFUXFFODPNNVOJDBUJPOBOEDVM
UVSFTUJNVMBUFE&EXBSE5)BMMUPEFWFMPQQSPYFNJDT UIFTUVEZPGUIFDVM
UVSBMQBUUFSOJOHPGUIFTQBUJBMTFQBSBUJPOJOEJWJEVBMTNBJOUBJOJOGBDFUPGBDF
FODPVOUFST5IFUFSNIBTTVCTFRVFOUMZDPNFUPFNCSBDFTUVEJFTDPODFSOFE
XJUIQSJWBDZ DSPXEJOH UFSSJUPSJBMJUZ BOEUIFEFTJHOJOHPGCVJMEJOHT QSJWBUF
BTXFMMBTQVCMJD XJUIUIFWJFXPGNFFUJOHUIFEJGGFSFOUDVMUVSBMFYQFDUBUJPOT
PGUIFJSQSPTQFDUJWFVTFST
"DDPSEJOHUP)BMM UIFEJTUBODFTJOEJWJEVBMTNBJOUBJOGSPNPOFBOPUIFS
EFQFOEPOUIFOBUVSFPGUIFJSNVUVBMJOWPMWFNFOUBOEBSFDVMUVSFTQFDJGJD
'PSFYBNQMF VOEFSOPSNBMDJSDVNTUBODFT NJEEMFDMBTT"NFSJDBOBEVMUTPG
OPSUIFSO&VSPQFBOIFSJUBHFNBLFSFHVMBSVTFPGGPVSQSPYFNJD[POFT PS
EJTUBODFT SBOHJOHGSPNJOUJNBUFUPQVCMJD FBDIPGUIF[POFTDPOTJTUJOHPGB
DMPTFBOEBGBSQIBTF TFF5BCMF

*O UIF DMPTF QIBTF PG UIF JOUJNBUF EJTUBODF  UIF JOEJWJEVBMT BSF DMPTF
FOPVHIUPCFFODJSDMFECZFBDIPUIFSTBSNT"MMTFOTFTBSFFOHBHFE&BDI
JOEJWJEVBMSFDFJWFTUIFCPEZIFBUBTXFMMBTBOZPEPSPSTDFOUFNBOBUJOHGSPN
UIFPUIFSJOEJWJEVBM BOEUIFPUIFSQFSTPOTCSFBUIJTGFMUCFDBVTFPGUIF
Proxemics 79

DMPTFOFTT WJTJPONBZCFCMVSSFEPSEJTUPSUFEBOETQFBLJOHJTBUBNJOJNVN
"TJTPCWJPVT UIJTOBSSPXFTUPGBMMJOUFSQFSTPOBMEJTUBODFTJTTVJUFEUPMPWF
NBLJOH QSPUFDUJOH PSDPNGPSUJOH
#ZDPOUSBTU CVTJOFTTJTUSBOTBDUFEBUUIFTPDJBMDPOTVMUBUJWFEJTUBODF5IF
DMPTFQIBTFJTDIBSBDUFSJTUJDPGDPOUBDUBNPOHQFPQMFXIPXPSLUPHFUIFSPS
BSFQBSUJDJQBOUTBUDBTVBMTPDJBMHBUIFSJOHTUIFGBSQIBTFDIBSBDUFSJ[FTNPSF
GPSNBMCVTJOFTTUSBOTBDUJPOT TVDIBTJOUFSWJFXTPSTJUVBUJPOTJOXIJDIUXP
PSNPSFQFPQMFGJOEUIFNTFMWFTJOUIFTBNFTQBDFBOEEPOPUXBOUUPBQ
QFBSSVEFCZOPUDPNNVOJDBUJOH'PSJOTUBODF SFDFQUJPOJTUTXIPBSFBMTP
FYQFDUFEUPUZQFBOENBOBHFBTXJUDICPBSENVTUIBWFFOPVHITQBDFCF
UXFFOUIFNBOEUIFWJTJUPSTUPQFSNJUUIFNUPXPSLSBUIFSUIBOUPGFFMUIFZ
NVTUFOHBHFJOQPMJUFDPOWFSTBUJPOXJUIUIPTFXBJUJOHUPCFTFFO
5IFNBOOFSJOXIJDINFNCFSTPGEJGGFSFOUTPDJFUJFTTQBDFUIFNTFMWFTJO
FBDIPUIFSTQSFTFODFWBSJFTBMPOHBDPOUBDUOPODPOUBDUDPOUJOVVN'PSFY
BNQMF "SBCT PUIFS.FEJUFSSBOFBOQFPQMFT BOE-BUJO"NFSJDBOTQSFGFSTQB
UJBMMZDMPTFJOUFSBDUJPOTOPSUIFSO&VSPQFBOTQSFGFSUPLFFQUIFJSEJTUBODF
MJUFSBMMZBOEGJHVSBUJWFMZ TFF#PY

)PXFWFS TPNFEJGGFSFODFTJOQSPYFNJDBOEIBQUJD CFIBWJPS IBQUJDCF
IBWJPSSFMBUFTUPUIFTFOTFPGUPVDI
NBZCFOPUJDFBCMFFWFOBNPOHNFN
CFSTPGTPDJFUJFTXIPMJWFJODMPTFQSPYJNJUZ"DDPSEJOHUPBSFDFOUTUVEZ
%VUDIEZBET UXPJOEJWJEVBMT
NBJOUBJOHSFBUFSEJTUBODFTUIBO'SFODIBOE
&OHMJTIEZBET"OEPOFXPVMECFKVTUJGJFEJOVOEFSUBLJOHBTUVEZUPEFUFS
NJOFXIFUIFSQFPQMFCPSOBOESBJTFEJOTPVUIFSO'SBODFIBWFUIFTBNF
QSPYFNJDBOEIBQUJDCFIBWJPSTBTUIPTFXIPIBWFHSPXOVQBOENBEFUIFJS
IPNFTJOOPSUIFSO'SBODF
8JUIPVUCFJOHBDRVBJOUFEXJUI)BMMTQSPYFNJDNBUSJY QFPQMFBSFBXBSF
XIFO TPNFPOF FODSPBDIFT JOUP UIFJS QFSTPOBM [POF  PS JOUP UIF [POF PG
TPNFPOFGPSXIPNUIFZUIJOLUIFZIBWFBTQFDJBMDMBJN"OFYBNQMFPGUIF
MBUUFSXPVMECFBZPVOHNBMFTFFJOHIJTHJSMGSJFOECFJOHTQPLFOUPCZBO
PUIFSZPVOHNBMFXIPJTVTJOHUIFDMPTFQFSTPOBM[POFUIBUUPVDIFTUIFJO
UJNBUF[POF5IFNBMFXIPGFFMTiUISFBUFOFEwJTMJLFMZUPKPJOUIFUBMLJOH
DPVQMFUPBMUFSUIFQSPYFNJDTJUVBUJPO
'JOBMMZJUTIPVMECFNFOUJPOFEUIBUQFSTPOBMTQBDFJTPDDBTJPOBMMZNPEJ
GJFECZUIFDPOEJUJPOTJNQPTFECZUIFQIZTJDBMTJUVBUJPOJOXIJDIQFPQMFGJOE
UIFNTFMWFT'PSFYBNQMF UIFGJYFETQBDJOHPGDMBTTSPPNEFTLTNBZOPUCF
UIFNPTUQSPYFNJDBMMZTBUJTGBDUPSZGPSUIFUIPVTBOETPGGPSFJHOTUVEFOUTXIP
TUVEZJOUIF6OJUFE4UBUFT
80 Chapter 5: Nonverbal Communication

B OX 5 . 1 H A L L O N P ROX E M I C S I N
A C R O S S - C U LT U R A L C O N T E X T

In Latin America the interaction distance is much less than it is in the


United States. Indeed, people cannot talk comfortably with one another
unless they are very close to the distance that evokes either sexual or hos-
tile feelings in the North American. The result is that when they move
close, we withdraw and back away. As a consequence, they think we are
distant or cold, withdrawn and unfriendly. We, on the other hand, are
constantly accusing them of breathing down our necks, crowding us, and
spraying our faces.
Americans who have spent some time in Latin America without learn-
ing these space considerations make other adaptations, like barricading
themselves behind their desks, using chairs and typewriter tables to keep
the Latin American at what is to us a comfortable distance. The result is
that the Latin American may even climb over the obstacles until he has
achieved a distance at which he can comfortably talk.
from Edward T. Hall, The Silent Language (1959), 209

Many Americans feel that [older] Germans are overly rigid in their be-
havior, unbending and formal. Some of this impression is created by dif-
ferences in the handling of chairs while seated. The American doesnt
seem to mind if people hitch their chairs up to adjust the distance to the
situationthose that do mind would not think of saying anything, for to
comment on the manners of others would be impolite. In Germany, how-
ever, it is a violation of the mores to change the position of your chair. An
added deterrent for those who dont know better is the weight of most
German furniture. . . . To a German, light furniture is anathema, not only
because it seems flimsy but because people move it and thereby destroy
the order of things, including intrusions on the private sphere. In one
instance reported to me, a German newspaper editor who had moved to
the United States had his visitors chair bolted to the floor at the proper
distance because he couldnt tolerate the American habit of adjusting the
chair to the situation.
from Edward T. Hall, The Hidden Dimension (1966), 129
Whistle Languages 81

Whistle Languages
"NPOHUIFWBSJPVTTZTUFNTPGOPOWFSCBMDPNNVOJDBUJPO PGQBSUJDVMBSJO
UFSFTUBSFUIPTFTQFFDITVSSPHBUFTUIBUEFQFOEPOBOEBSFEFSJWFEEJSFDUMZGSPN
TQPLFOMBOHVBHF4PNFPGUIFTFiMBOHVBHFTwBSFQSPEVDFEJOUIFWPDBMUSBDU
UIFTPDBMMFEXIJTUMFTQFFDI
8IJTUMJOHBTBNFBOTPGTFSWJDFBCMFDPNNVOJDBUJPOJTOPUWFSZDPNNPO
CVUJUJTLOPXOUPPDDVSJOTVDIXJEFMZTFQBSBUFEBSFBTPGUIFXPSMEBT.ZBO
NBS GPSNFSMZ#VSNB
.FYJDP UIF$BOBSZ*TMBOET UIF'SFODI1ZSFOFFT
$BNFSPPO BOE/FX(VJOFB0OFPGUIFCFUUFSLOPXOJOTUBODFTPGXIJTUMF
TQFFDIDPODFSOTUIF.B[BUFDP*OEJBOTPGOPSUIFSO0BYBDB .FYJDP5IFMBO
HVBHFPGUIF.B[BUFDPJTBUPOFMBOHVBHF POFJOXIJDISFMBUJWFWBSJBUJPOTJO
QJUDIBSFVTFEUPEJTUJOHVJTIXPSETPGEJGGFSFOUNFBOJOHTUIBUXPVMEPUIFS
XJTFTPVOEBMJLF5IFSFBSFGPVSEJTUJODUJWFQJUDIMFWFMT PSUPOFNFT JO.B[B
UFDP SBOHJOHGSPNIJHI  UPMPX  XJUIUXPJOUFSNFEJBUFUPOFNFT BOE
XIFOUXPEJGGFSFOUUPOFTBSFBTTPDJBUFEXJUIPOFTZMMBCJDOVDMFVT UIFZ
GPSNBHMJEF"DDPSEJOHMZ UIFTQFBLFSTPG.B[BUFDPEJTUJOHVJTICFUXFFOUF
AIFXJMMEBODF UF AIFEBODFT UFo A*EBODF UFo AXJEF UF AUFO OJOUP ATMJQ
QFSZ OJOUPo AQJNQMF OJOUP ANPVOUBJO BOETPPO 1JLFBOE1JLF

6OEFSTQFDJBMDJSDVNTUBODFT BTXIFOUIFEJTUBODFCFUXFFOUXP.B[B
UFDPNFOJTUPPHSFBUGPSUIFNUPTIPVU UIFZVTFXIJTUMFTQFFDI#ZSFQSP
EVDJOH XJUIBGFXNPEJGJDBUJPOT UIFGPVSUPOFNFTBOEPUIFSXIJTUMFBCMF
GFBUVSFT HMJEFT EJGGFSFOUUZQFTPGTZMMBCJDVOJUT BOEQBVTFT
UIFZBSFBCMF
UPDBSSZPOBOFGGFDUJWFDPOWFSTBUJPODPODFSOJOHBWBSJFUZPGUPQJDT5IFGPM
MPXJOHFYDIBOHFXBTPCTFSWFECZ(FPSHF.$PXBO 
UPXIPNXF
BSFJOEFCUFEGPSUIFEFTDSJQUJPOPG.B[BUFDPXIJTUMFTQFFDI".B[BUFDP
TUBOEJOHJOGSPOUPGIJTIVUXIJTUMFEUPBOPUIFSNBOBDPOTJEFSBCMFEJTUBODF
BXBZPOBUSBJMCFMPX"GUFSTFWFSBMFYDIBOHFTJOXIJTUMFUBML UIFNBOPO
UIFUSBJMUVSOFEBSPVOEBOEXBMLFEVQUPUIFIVUXJUIUIFMPBEPGDPSOMFBWFT
IFIBECFFODBSSZJOHUPNBSLFU"UUIFIVU IFEVNQFEIJTMPBEPOUIF
HSPVOEBOESFDFJWFETPNFNPOFZGSPNUIFGJSTUNBO5IFFOUJSFUSBOTBD
UJPO JODMVEJOHUIFDVTUPNBSZCBSHBJOJOHPWFSQSJDF IBECFFODBSSJFEPOFY
DMVTJWFMZUISPVHIXIJTUMJOH
"MUIPVHI.B[BUFDPXPNFOEPOPUXIJTUMF UIFZVOEFSTUBOEXIJTUMFUBML
*OBEEJUJPOUPPWFSDPNJOHEJTUBODFJOUIFIJMMZUFSSBJOJOXIJDIUIFTFQFPQMF
MJWF XIJTUMJOHJTVTFEUPBUUSBDUUIFBUUFOUJPOPGBOPUIFSQFSTPOCZTPVOEJOH
IJTOBNFPSUPFYDIBOHFJOGPSNBUJPOXJUIPVUJOUFSGFSJOHXJUIBTJNVMUBOFPVT
82 Chapter 5: Nonverbal Communication

PSBMDPOWFSTBUJPODBSSJFEPOCZFMEFST&WFOUIPVHIJOQSJODJQMFUIFSFBSFOP
MJNJUBUJPOTPOXIBUDBOCFTJHOBMFECZXIJTUMJOH JEFOUJDBMUPOBMQBUUFSOTDBO
HJWFSJTFUPBNCJHVJUJFTPSDPOGVTJPO)PXFWFS UIFTVCKFDUUIBUJTDPNNVOJ
DBUFECZXIJTUMJOHJTVTVBMMZFBTJMZJEFOUJGJBCMFGSPNUIFDPOUFYU
8IFSFBT.B[BUFDPXIJTUMFTQFFDINBLFTVTFPGUIFQSPTPEJDGFBUVSFTPGUIF
MBOHVBHFGSPNXIJDIJUEFSJWFT UIFXIJTUMFTQFFDIFNQMPZFEPO-B(PNFSB
POFPGUIF$BOBSZ*TMBOET JTCBTFEPOBSUJDVMBUJPOT5IFSFBTPOGPSUIFEFWFM
PQNFOUPGUIFTJMCP 4QBOJTIGPSXIJTUMF
BTJUJTDBMMFE JTBQQBSFOUMZUIFJT
MBOET SVHHFE UFSSBJO  XIJDI BMUFSOBUFT CFUXFFO NPVOUBJOT BOE HPSHFT
"DDPSEJOHUP"OES$MBTTF 
BDDPNQMJTIFEVTFSTPGUIFTJMCP DBOCF
IFBSEBOEVOEFSTUPPEPWFSBEJTUBODFPGUISFFNJMFT BOEQFSIBQTFWFONPSF
5IFOBUJWFMBOHVBHFPGUIFJOIBCJUBOUTPG-B(PNFSBJTBEJBMFDUPG4QBO
JTI.BOZNFNCFSTPGUIFJTMBOETQFBTBOUDMBTT NFOBOEXPNFO BSFQSPGJ
DJFOUJOUIFTJMCP CZUIFUJNFUIFZIBWFSFBDIFEUIFJSUFFOZFBST5IFXIJTUMFE
TPVOETBQQSPYJNBUFUIFTPVOETPGUIFTQPLFOMBOHVBHF NBLJOHUIFTJMCP JO
FGGFDUXIJTUMFE4QBOJTI8IFUIFSPSOPUUIFXIJTUMFSVTFTPOFPSUXPGJOHFST
JOUIFNPVUI UIFEPSTBMQBSUPGUIFUPOHVFJTUIFPOMZBDUJWFBSUJDVMBUPSZ
PSHBO#FDBVTF4QBOJTIJTOPUBUPOFMBOHVBHF XIJTUMFEWPXFMTDBOCFEJG
GFSFOUJBUFECZWBSZJOHQJUDIFT BOENPTUPGUIFDPOTPOBOUTPGUIFSFMBUJWFMZ
TJNQMFTPVOETZTUFNPGUIFTQPLFOMBOHVBHFBSFIFBSEBTNPEJGJDBUJPOTPG
UIFXIJTUMFEWPXFMTUIBUDPNFCFGPSFPSBGUFSUIFN
$PNNVOJDBUJWFXIJTUMJOHJTDMPTFSUPIPNFUIBONPTUPGVTNBZSFBMJ[F
8IBUXFBSFSFGFSSJOHUPJTUIFTPDBMMFEXPMGXIJTUMF5ZQJDBMMZJUXBTBUXP
UPOFEXIJTUMF XJUIUIFTFDPOEUPOFBGBMMJOHHVJEF TPVOEFECZBCPZPS
NBOUPFYQSFTTIJTBQQSFDJBUJPOPGBHJSMPSXPNBOOFBSCZ"MUIPVHIOPUBT
QPQVMBSBTJUXBTBGFXEFDBEFTBHP JUJTTUJMMBTJHOBMSFDPHOJ[BCMFCZNPTU
"NFSJDBOT
5IBUUIFXIJTUMJOHCZUIF.B[BUFDPBOEUIFQFPQMFPG-B(PNFSBJTTPFG
GFDUJWFJTFYDFMMFOUQSPPGPGUIFIJHISFEVOEBODZUIBUDIBSBDUFSJ[FTBMMOBUV
SBMMBOHVBHFT&WFOXIFOTPNFGFBUVSFTBSFFMJNJOBUFEGSPNUIFDPEF UIFSF
JTOPBQQSFDJBCMFMPTTPGFTTFOUJBMJOGPSNBUJPO

Sign Languages
4JHOJOH UIBUJT DPNNVOJDBUJOHNBOVBMMZCZTJHOMBOHVBHF PGTPNFLJOE JT
VOEPVCUFEMZBUMFBTUBTPMEBTTQFFDI'SPNUIFXSJUJOHTPGBODJFOU(SFFLT
BOE3PNBOT XFLOPXUIBUUIFJSEFBGNBEFVTFPGTJHOT*UJT IPXFWFS SFB
Sign Languages 83

TPOBCMFUPBTTVNFUIBUFWFOBNPOHUIFFBSMJFTUIVNBOTUIPTFXIPXFSFOPU
BCMFUPDPNNVOJDBUFPSBMMZXPVMEIBWFVTFEUIFJSIBOETUPNBLFUIFNTFMWFT
VOEFSTUPPE4JHOMBOHVBHFTVTFEUPUIFFYDMVTJPOPGTQPLFOMBOHVBHFGPS
FYBNQMF CZQFPQMFCPSOEFBGBSFSFGFSSFEUPBTQSJNBSZ 4JHOMBOHVBHFT
GPVOEJODPNNVOJUJFTPGTQFBLFSIFBSFSTBTSFHVMBSPSPDDBTJPOBMTVCTUJUVUFT
GPSTQFFDIBSFUFSNFEBMUFSOBUF TJHOMBOHVBHFT
'PSNBOZZFBST TDIPMBSTOFHMFDUFEUIFTUVEZPGTJHOMBOHVBHFT DPOTJEFS
JOHUIFNBTMJUUMFNPSFUIBODSVEFTVCTUJUVUFTGPSTQFFDI4FSJPVTBUUFOUJPOUP
TJHOMBOHVBHFTEBUFTCBDLUPUIFMBUFTJUXBTBDDPNQBOJFECZSFOFXFE
JOUFSFTUJOUIFTJHOMBOHVBHFPGUIF*OEJBOTPGUIF(SFBU1MBJOT
*OUIF6OJUFE4UBUFT UIFIFBSJOHJNQBJSFEVTFBDPNCJOBUJPOPGUXPTJHO
JOHTZTUFNT0OFJTUIFNBOVBMBMQIBCFU XIJDIJTNBEFVQPGTJHOTSFQSF
TFOUJOHUIFUXFOUZTJYMFUUFSTPGUIF&OHMJTIBMQIBCFUBOEUIFBNQFSTBOE 

*UJTGJOHFSTQFMMFE VTJOHPOFIBOEPOMZ BOECPUIUIFTFOEFSBOESFDFJWFS
NVTUCFBDRVBJOUFEXJUIUIFPSUIPHSBQIZPGUIFMBOHVBHF #ZDPOUSBTU UIF
TJHOTPGUIFNBOVBMBMQIBCFUVTFEJO(SFBU#SJUBJOBOE/PSUIFSO*SFMBOEBSF
NBEFXJUICPUIIBOET
*OUIFPUIFSTJHOJOHTZTUFN TJHOMBOHVBHFQSPQFS B
QBSUJDVMBSTJHOTUBOETGPSBDPODFQU PS UPQVUJUJOUFSNTPGTQPLFOMBOHVBHF
BXPSEPSBNPSQIFNF"OVNCFSPGTJHOMBOHVBHFTBSFJOVTFJO&OHMJTI
TQFBLJOHDPVOUSJFT NPTUJOWPMWJOHTPNFNPEJGJDBUJPOPGFJUIFS"NFSJDBO
4JHO-BOHVBHF "4-PS"NFTMBO
PS#SJUJTI4JHO-BOHVBHF #4-
"NFTMBO
PGGFSTJUTVTFSTNPSFUIBO TJHOT XJUIOFXPOFTDPJOFEBTOFFEFE*U
NBLFTVTFPGUISFFEJNFOTJPOBMTJHOTQBDFUIBUGPSNTBiCVCCMFwBCPVUUIF
TJHOFSFYUFOEJOHSPVHIMZGSPNUIFXBJTUUPUIFUPQPGUIFIFBEBOEPVUXBSE
GSPNUIFFYUSFNFMFGUUPUIFFYUSFNFSJHIUBTGBSBTUIFTJHOFSDBOSFBDI
8JUIJOUIFTJHOTQBDF UIFVTFSDBOTQFDJGZUJNFSFMBUJPOTIJQT EJTUJOHVJTI
BNPOHTFWFSBMQFSTPOTCFJOHTJHOFEBCPVU TJHOBMRVFTUJPOTBOEFNCFEEFE
DMBVTFT BOEFYQSFTTBWBSJFUZPGHSBNNBUJDBMDBUFHPSJFTTVDIBTQMVSBMJUZBOE
EFHSFF BTJOHPPE CFUUFS CFTU
BTXFMMBTBTQFDUVBMEJGGFSFODFTPGBWFSCBMBD
UJPOTVDIBTIBCJUVBMJUZ SFQFUJUJPO JOUFOTJUZ BOEDPOUJOVJUZ)FBEUJMU FZF
CSPXBOEMJQDPOGJHVSBUJPO BOEPUIFSCPEZNPUJPOTBSFGSFRVFOUMZVTFEUP
BEEUPUIFFYQSFTTJWFDBQBDJUZPGNBOVBMHFTUVSFT
'MVFOUVTFPGTJHOTDBONBUDIUIFTQFFEPGBOVOIVSSJFEDPOWFSTBUJPO BT
DBOCFTFFOGSPNUFMFWJTJPOQSPHSBNTJOXIJDITQFFDIJTCFJOHUSBOTMBUFE
JOUP"4-GPSWJFXFSTXIPBSFIFBSJOHJNQBJSFE'JOHFSTQFMMJOHJTDPOTJEFS
BCMZTMPXFS CVUJUJTJOEJTQFOTBCMFGPSQSPQFSOBNFTPSDPODFQUTGPSXIJDI
UIFSFBSFOPTJHOT GPSFYBNQMF DIFNJDBMTVCTUBODFT

84 Chapter 5: Nonverbal Communication

5IFSFBSFNBOZEJGGFSFOUNBOVBMBMQIBCFUT KVTUBTUIFSFBSFNBOZEJGGFS
FOU XSJUJOH TZTUFNT GVSUIFS  TJHO MBOHVBHFT QSPQFS WBSZ JOUFSOBMMZ BOE
BNPOHUIFNTFMWFT KVTUBTEPUIFEJBMFDUTPGBTQPLFOMBOHVBHFBOEBTPOF
TQPLFOMBOHVBHFEJGGFSTGSPNBOPUIFS3FHBSEMFTTPGUIFQBSUJDVMBSTJHOMBO
HVBHFVTFE UIFNBKPSJUZPGTJHOTBSFOPUUSBOTQBSFOUMZJDPOJD UIBUJT UIFZ
DBOOPUCFJOUFSQSFUFECZUIPTFXIPIBWFOPUGJSTUMFBSOFEUIFJSNFBOJOHT
*GQSJNBSZTJHOMBOHVBHFTGVODUJPONVDIMJLFTQPLFOMBOHVBHFT EPUIFZ
BMTPIBWFEVBMJUZPGQBUUFSOJOH UIBUJT BSFUIFZBOBMZ[BCMFBUUXPMFWFMTPG
TUSVDUVSBMVOJUTDPNQBSBCMFUPQIPOFNFTBOENPSQIFNFT "DDPSEJOHUP
8JMMJBN$4UPLPF+S 
XIPEFWPUFENBOZZFBSTPGTUVEZUPUIFTJHO
MBOHVBHFPGUIF"NFSJDBOEFBG "NFTMBOHSBNNBSIBTUIFTBNFHFOFSBM
GPSNBTUIFHSBNNBSTPGTQPLFOMBOHVBHFT*UJTDIBSBDUFSJ[FECZBTNBMMTFU
PGDPOUSBTUJWFVOJUTNFBOJOHMFTTJOUIFNTFMWFT DIFSFNFT POUIFBOBMPHZ
XJUI QIPOFNFT
 UIBU DPNCJOF UP GPSN NFBOJOHGVM TJHO VOJUT  UIF NPS
QIFNFT$IFSFNFSFGFSTUPBTFUPGQPTJUJPOT DPOGJHVSBUJPOT PSNPUJPOTUIBU
GVODUJPOJEFOUJDBMMZJOBHJWFOTJHOMBOHVBHF"OEFBDINPSQIFNFPGBTJHO
MBOHVBHFNBZCFEFGJOFEBDDPSEJOHUPIBOETIBQF PSJFOUBUJPOPGUIFQBMN
BOEGJOHFST QMBDFPGGPSNBUJPO NPWFNFOUBOEJUTEJSFDUJPO QPJOUPGDPOUBDU
BOEPUIFSTQBUJBMBOEEZOBNJDGFBUVSFT6TFSTPG"NFTMBOBOEPUIFSOBUVSBM
TJHOMBOHVBHFTBSFOPNPSFBXBSFPGDIFSFNFTUIBOVTFSTPGTQPLFO&OHMJTI
BSFPGQIPOFNFT
5PTVNVQ DPOUSBSZUPQPQVMBSNJTDPODFQUJPOT QSJNBSZTJHOMBOHVBHFT
VTFECZUIFEFBGBSFIJHIMZTUSVDUVSFE DPNQMFUF BOEJOEFQFOEFOUDPN
NVOJDBUJWFTZTUFNT DPNQBSBCMFJODPNQMFYJUZUPTQPLFOBOEXSJUUFOMBO
HVBHFT PUIFSXJTF UIFZ DPVME OPU TVCTUJUVUF GPS TQPLFO MBOHVBHFT BT
FGGFDUJWFMZBTUIFZEP'VSUIFSNPSF UIFZBSFOBUVSBMMBOHVBHFTJOUIFTFOTF
UIBUUIFJSBDRVJTJUJPOJTUIFBVUPNBUJDSFTVMUPGJOUFSBDUJPOXJUIPUIFSTXIP
EFQFOEVQPOTJHOJOH
"MUFSOBUFTJHOMBOHVBHFTUBLFBWBSJFUZPGGPSNT SBOHJOHGSPNPDDVQB
UJPOBMTJHOMBOHVBHFT TVDIBTUIFPOFEFWFMPQFECZTBXNJMMXPSLFSTJOUIF
OPSUIXFTUFSO6OJUFE4UBUFTBOEXFTUFSO$BOBEB UPUIFQFSGPSNBODFTJHO
MBOHVBHFFNQMPZFEJOUIFDMBTTJDBM)JOEVEBODFUSBEJUJPOUPNPOBTUJDTJHO
MBOHVBHFTUIBUNBLFJUQPTTJCMFGPSUIFNFNCFSTPGPSEFSTXIPVTFUIFNUP
PCTFSWFUIFTFMGJNQPTFESVMFPGTJMFODF5IFCFTULOPXOBMUFSOBUFTJHOMBO
HVBHFT IPXFWFS BSFUIPTFVTFECZUIFBCPSJHJOBMQFPQMFTPGWBSJPVTQBSUTPG
"VTUSBMJB BOEFTQFDJBMMZUIFTZTUFNPGTJHOJOHEFWFMPQFECZUIFUSJCFTPGUIF
/PSUI"NFSJDBO1MBJOT UIFNPTUFMBCPSBUFJOUIF/FX8PSME
Sign Languages 85

'PSUIFFBSMJFTUNFOUJPOPGTJHOMBOHVBHFJO/PSUI"NFSJDBXFBSFJO
EFCUFEUP1FESPEF$BTUBFEBEF/KFSB UIFNPTUXJEFMZSFBEDISPOJDMFSPG
UIFo$PSPOBEPFYQFEJUJPOUPXIBUJTUPEBZUIF644PVUIXFTU
)JTSFQPSUEFTDSJCFEBOFODPVOUFSPGUIF4QBOJBSETXJUIXIBUQSPCBCMZXBT
BCBOEPG"QBDIFT IFSFGFSSFEUPUIFNBT2VFSFDIPT
BMPOHUIFQSFTFOUEBZ
/FX.FYJDP5FYBTCPSEFS

5IFTFQFPQMFXFSFTPTLJMMGVMJOUIFVTFPGTJHOTUIBUJUTFFNFEBTJGUIFZ
TQPLF5IFZNBEFFWFSZUIJOHTPDMFBSUIBUBOJOUFSQSFUFSXBTOPUOFDFTTBSZ
5IFZTBJEUIBUCZHPJOHEPXOJOUIFEJSFDUJPOJOXIJDIUIFTVOSJTFTUIFSF
XBTBWFSZMBSHFSJWFS UIBUUIFBSNZDPVMEUSBWFMBMPOHJUTCBOLUISPVHIDPO
UJOVPVTTFUUMFNFOUTGPSOJOFUZEBZT HPJOHGSPNPOFTFUUMFNFOUUPBOPUIFS
5IFZTBJEUIBUUIFGJSTUTFUUMFNFOUXBTDBMMFE)BYB UIBUUIFSJWFSXBTNPSF
UIBOPOFMFBHVFXJEF BOEUIBUUIFSFXFSFNBOZDBOPFT )BNNPOEBOE
3FZo

"MUIPVHIGSFRVFOUMZNFOUJPOFEJOUIFUSBWFMBDDPVOUTPGUIFFBSMZFY
QMPSFSTXFTUPGUIF.JTTJTTJQQJ 1MBJOT*OEJBOTJHOMBOHVBHFIBTOPUZFUSF
DFJWFEUIFBUUFOUJPOJUEFTFSWFT QBSUJDVMBSMZBTUIFSFSFNBJOPOMZBWFSZGFX
JOEJWJEVBMTXIPBSFTUJMMQSPGJDJFOUJOJU
'PSBTDPSFPGOPNBEJDUSJCFTXIPTFTQPLFOMBOHVBHFTXFSFFJUIFSDPN
QMFUFMZVOSFMBUFEPSSFMBUFECVUNVUVBMMZVOJOUFMMJHJCMF 1MBJOT*OEJBOTJHO
MBOHVBHFJTLOPXOUPIBWFCFFOBOFGGFDUJWFNFBOTPGJOUFSUSJCBMDPNNVOJ
DBUJPOJOUSBEFBOEPUIFSOFHPUJBUJPOT.PSFPWFS JUXBTDPNNPOQMBDFGPS
NFNCFSTPGBUSJCFUPSFDPVOUUIFJSXBSFYQMPJUTPSUPiOBSSBUFwBMPOHUSBEJ
UJPOBMUBMFFYDMVTJWFMZCZNFBOTPGNBOVBMTJHOT BOEJUJTBNBUUFSPGSFDPSE
UIBUUIF,JPXB*OEJBOTHBWF(FOFSBM)VHI-FOPY4DPUUBEFUBJMFEBDDPVOUPG
UIFJSTVOEBODFDFSFNPOZCZVTJOHTJHOT1MBJOT*OEJBOTJHOMBOHVBHFDPO
TJTUFEPGBMBSHFSFQFSUPSZPGDPOWFOUJPOBMJ[FEHFTUVSFTQFSGPSNFEXJUIPOF
PSCPUIIBOET5IFIBOETXFSFFJUIFSIFMETUBUJPOBSZJOWBSJPVTDPOGJHVSB
UJPOT PS NPWFE CFUXFFO UIF MFWFMT PG KVTU BCPWF UIF HSPVOE UP PWFS UIF
TJHOFSTIFBE'PSFYBNQMF UPTJHOTOPX PSTOPXJOH CPUIIBOETXFSFFY
UFOEFEJOGSPOUPGUIFGBDF BMMUFOGJOHFSTQPJOUJOHEPXOXBSE BOEUIFOMPX
FSFE JO XIJSMJOH NPUJPOT "CTUSBDU DPODFQUT XFSF DPOWFZFE XJUI FRVBM
GBDJMJUZ5IFDPODFQUPGDPME PSXJOUFS XBTDPOWFZFECZDMFODIFEIBOETXJUI
GPSFBSNTDSPTTFEJOGSPOUPGUIFDIFTU BDDPNQBOJFECZTIJWFSJOHNPWFNFOUT
5IFJEFBPGCBEOFTT XBTJOEJDBUFECZBNPUJPOTVHHFTUJOHTPNFUIJOHCFJOH
86 Chapter 5: Nonverbal Communication

UISPXOBXBZ5IFSJHIUGJTUIFMEJOGSPOUPGUIFDIFTUXBTTXVOHPVUBOE
EPXOUPUIFSJHIUBTUIFIBOEXBTPQFOJOHVQ
"MUIPVHIUIFCVMLPGUIFTJHOTNVTUIBWFCFFOTIBSFECZUIFUSJCFTPGUIF
OPSUIDFOUSBM1MBJOT UIFSFXFSFOPEPVCUiEJBMFDUBMwEJGGFSFODFTTJNJMBSUP
UIPTFGPVOEJOXJEFMZFYUFOEFETQPLFOMBOHVBHFT6OMJLFUIFXIJTUMFiMBO
HVBHFT wIPXFWFS TJHOMBOHVBHFTBSFJOEFQFOEFOUPGTQFFDIFWFOUIPVHI
UIFZIBWFPDDBTJPOBMMZCFFOVTFEJODPNCJOBUJPOXJUIJU0OMZJONBOVBMBM
QIBCFUTJTUIFSFBDPOOFDUJPO"NBOVBMBMQIBCFUSFQSFTFOUTUIFFMFNFOUTPG
BXSJUJOHTZTUFNUIBUJOUVSOEFSJWFTGSPNTQFFDI

Summary and Conclusions


"MUIPVHI TQPLFO MBOHVBHF JT VOEPVCUFEMZ UIF PMEFTU BOE NPTU FGGJDJFOU
NFBOTPGIVNBODPNNVOJDBUJPO UIFSFBSFNBOZPUIFSXBZTJOXIJDIQFP
QMFUSBOTNJUPSFYDIBOHFJOGPSNBUJPO*OGPSNBUJPO FNPUJPOT BOEGFFMJOHT
JOBEEJUJPOUPXSJUJOH DBOCFUSBOTNJUUFEOPOWFSCBMMZ/POWFSCBMTZTUFNT
PGDPNNVOJDBUJPOBSFCBTFEPOFJUIFSTQPLFOPSXSJUUFOMBOHVBHF PSBSFJO
EFQFOEFOUPGJU
5IF.PSTF$PEFBOECSBJMMFEFSJWFGSPNUIFXSJUUFOSFQSFTFOUBUJPOPGB
MBOHVBHFXIJTUMFiMBOHVBHFT wCZDPOUSBTU BSFCBTFEPODFSUBJOBDPVTUJDGFB
UVSFTPGTQFFDI7PDBMDPNNVOJDBUJPOJTJOWBSJBCMZFOIBODFEPSNPEJGJFE
CZTPDBMMFEQBSBMJOHVJTUJDGFBUVSFT TVDIBTFYUSBMPVEOFTT XIJTQFSJOH PS
TPVOETPUIFSUIBOUIPTFPGOPSNBMTQFFDI#PEZMBOHVBHFJODMVEFTGBDJBMFY
QSFTTJPOT IBOEHFTUVSFT BOEPUIFSCPEZNPUJPOT)FBSJOHJNQBJSFEJOEJ
WJEVBMT NBLF VTF PG TJHO TZTUFNT UIBU BSF WFSZ OFBSMZ BT FGGJDJFOU BOE
FYQSFTTJWFBTTQPLFOMBOHVBHFT5IF1MBJOT*OEJBOTPG/PSUI"NFSJDBVTFE
BOFMBCPSBUFTJHOMBOHVBHFUPDPNNVOJDBUFXJUINFNCFSTPGPUIFS1MBJOT
USJCFTXIPTFMBOHVBHFTUIFZDPVMEOPUVOEFSTUBOEBOECZNFBOTPGTJHOT
UIFZXFSFFWFOBCMFUPUFMMWFSZMPOHBOEFMBCPSBUFUSBEJUJPOBMNZUIT
6

The Development and


Evolution of Language

*UJTOPXHFOFSBMMZBDDFQUFEUIBUDPNNVOJDBUJPOBNPOHNFNCFSTPGBOJNBM
TQFDJFTJTXJEFTQSFBEBOEUIBUNPTUWFSUFCSBUFTUSBOTNJUJOGPSNBUJPOCZ
BDPVTUJDTJHOBMT5IFWBSJFUZBOEJOHFOVJUZPGUIFTFDPNNVOJDBUJWFTZTUFNT
IBWFTUJNVMBUFEBHSFBUEFBMPGSFTFBSDIJOBOJNBMDPNNVOJDBUJPOBOEJUT
DPNQBSJTPOXJUIIVNBOTQFFDI*GXFBDDFQUUIFTJOHMFNPEFSOIVNBO
TQFDJFT )PNPTBQJFOT
BTBWFSZSFDFOUSFTVMUPGUIFFWPMVUJPOMJWJOHPSHBO
JTNTIBWFVOEFSHPOFGPSNPSFUIBOBCJMMJPOZFBST UIFOXFNBZBMTPCFMJLFMZ
UPBTTVNFUIBUIVNBOTQFFDIJTUIFFOESFTVMUPGBMPOH DVNVMBUJWFFWPMV
UJPOBSZQSPDFTTUIBUTIBQFEDPNNVOJDBUJWFCFIBWJPSUISPVHIPVUUIFBOJNBM
LJOHEPN#VUIPXUIJTIBQQFOFEJTOPUFBTZUPEJTDPWFS*OUIJTDIBQUFSXF
XJMMFYBNJOFIPXUIFFWPMVUJPOPGMBOHVBHFNJHIUIBWFUBLFOQMBDF

Communication and Its Channels


$PNNVOJDBUJPOBNPOHNFNCFSTPGBOJNBMTQFDJFTJTVOJWFSTBMCFDBVTFJUJT
JNQPSUBOUUPUIFJSTVSWJWBMJUUBLFTQMBDFXIFOFWFSPOFPSHBOJTNSFDFJWFTB
TJHOBMUIBUIBTPSJHJOBUFEXJUIBOPUIFS"OFBSMZ GSPNUIFT
CVUTFSW
JDFBCMFNPEFMPGDPNNVOJDBUJPOVTFTGJWFDPNQPOFOUTUIFTFOEFS PSTPVSDF

UIFNFTTBHF UIFDIBOOFM UIFSFDFJWFS PSEFTUJOBUJPO
BOEUIFFGGFDU5IFTF
DPNQPOFOUTUBLFJOUPBDDPVOUUIFFOUJSFQSPDFTTPGUSBOTNJUUJOHJOGPSNBUJPO
OBNFMZ XIPJTUSBOTNJUUJOHXIBUCZXIBUNFBOTUPXIPNBOEXJUIXIBUFG
GFDU5IFNPEFMBQQFBSTUPCFSBUIFSTJNQMFBOETUSBJHIUGPSXBSE CVUCFDBVTF
DPNNVOJDBUJPOJTCZOPNFBOTVOJGPSN TPNFEJTDVTTJPOJTJOPSEFS

87
88 Chapter 6: The Development and Evolution of Language

"MUIPVHIDPNNVOJDBUJPOBNPOHNFNCFSTPGBOZQBSUJDVMBSTQFDJFTJTUP
CFFYQFDUFE JOUFSTQFDJGJDDPNNVOJDBUJPOUIBUJT USBOTNJTTJPOPGTJHOBMT
CFUXFFONFNCFSTPGEJGGFSFOUTQFDJFTJTGBSGSPNSBSF"OFYQFSJFODFE
IPSTFCBDLSJEFSUSBOTNJUTDPNNBOETUPBIPSTFBOEFYQFDUTUIFNUPCFSF
DFJWFEBOEGPMMPXFE"EPHXIJOJOHPVUTJEFJUTPXOFSTEPPSDPOWFZTJUTXJTI
UPCFMFUJO$PNNVOJDBUJPOCFUXFFOQFPQMFPOUIFPOFIBOEBOEUIFJSQFUT
PSXPSLBOEGBSNBOJNBMTPOUIFPUIFSJTWFSZDPNNPOBOEOPUMJNJUFEUP
TPVOET5PVDIJOH TUSPLJOH QBUUJOH IPMEJOH BOEHSPPNJOH
BOJNBMTJTGSF
RVFOUMZNPSFFGGFDUJWFUIBOUBMLJOHUPUIFN BOEUIFEPHUIBUXBHTJUTUBJM
BOEWJHPSPVTMZSVCTJUTNV[[MFBHBJOTUBIVNBOLOFFMFBWFTOPEPVCUBCPVU
JUT GFFMJOHT PG TBUJTGBDUJPO BOE QMFBTVSF 5IF NFBOT PG TFOEJOH NFTTBHFT
DMFBSMZWBSZBOEBSFOPUMJNJUFEUPTPVOET BTJOTQFFDI
PSWJTJCMFTJHOT BT
JOMPPLTPSIBOEHFTUVSFT
BMUIPVHIUIFTFUXPDIBOOFMT PSNFEJBTFMFDUFE
GPSDPNNVOJDBUJPO BSFUIFNFBOTIVNBOTNPTUGSFRVFOUMZFNQMPZ
5IFNPTUDPNNPOBOEFGGFDUJWFDIBOOFMPGIVNBODPNNVOJDBUJPOJTUIF
BDPVTUJDDIBOOFM VTFEXIFOFWFSQFPQMFTQFBLUPFBDIPUIFSBTXFMMBTJOTP
DBMMFEXIJTUMFTQFFDI EJTDVTTFEJO$IBQUFS
8SJUJOHT HFTUVSFT BOEQJDUP
SJBMTJHOTNBLFVTFPGUIFPQUJDBMDIBOOFM SFMBUJOHUPWJTJPO#SBJMMF BXSJUJOH
TZTUFNGPSUIFCMJOEUIBUVTFTDIBSBDUFSTDPOTJTUJOHPGSBJTFEEPUT JTSFDFJWFE
CZUIFTFOTFPGUPVDI UIFUBDUJMFDIBOOFM 5IFPMGBDUPSZDIBOOFM JTDIPTFO
XIFOFWFSPOFXJTIFTUPDPNNVOJDBUFCZUIFTFOTFPGTNFMM1FPQMFTPNF
UJNFTVTFSPPNEFPEPSJ[FSTCFGPSFSFDFJWJOHHVFTUTBOEQVUQFSGVNFPSEF
PEPSBOUPOUIFNTFMWFTXIFOUIFZFYQFDUUPTQFOEUJNFXJUIPUIFSJOEJWJEVBMT
BUBOJOUJNBUFEJTUBODF#ZUIFTBNFUPLFO NPTU"NFSJDBOTDPOTJEFSHBSMJDLZ
PSPOJPOZCSFBUIUPCFBTJHOBMUIBUSFGMFDUTVOGBWPSBCMZPOJUTTFOEFST
5IFPMGBDUPSZDIBOOFMJTFTQFDJBMMZJNQPSUBOUBNPOHTPDJBMJOTFDUT XIJDI
EPNVDIPGUIFJSDPNNVOJDBUJOHCZNFBOTPGPEPSTJOUIFTQFDJFTTQFDJGJD
TVCTUBODFTLOPXOBTQIFSPNPOFTUIFZTFDSFUF3FHBSEMFTTPGUIFDIBOOFM
VTFE BOJNBMTTFOEPVUNFTTBHFTGPSBWBSJFUZPGSFBTPOT TVDIBTUPHVJEF
JOEJWJEVBMPSHBOJTNTPGUIFTBNFTQFDJFTUPPOFBOPUIFSPSUPIFMQTZODISP
OJ[FUIFCFIBWJPSTPGUIPTFXIPBSFUPCSFFE*OPUIFSXPSET DPNNVOJDBUJPO
FOBCMFTPSHBOJTNTUPNBJOUBJODFSUBJOSFMBUJPOTIJQTUIBUBSFPGBEWBOUBHFUP
UIFNJOEJWJEVBMMZBTXFMMBTUPUIFJSTQFDJFTBTBXIPMF
.FNCFSTPGBOZBOJNBMTQFDJFTNBZVTFTFWFSBMLJOETPGTJHOBMJOHCF
IBWJPS5IFTJHOBMTGBNJMJBSUPIVNBOTBSFQBUUFSOTPGCFIBWJPSLOPXOBT
EJTQMBZT 5IFZNBZUBLFUIFGPSNPGCJSETPOHT DSPBLJOH BNPOHGSPHT

DIJSQJOH BNPOHDSJDLFUT
TQSFBEJOHGJOTPSDIBOHJOHDPMPS BNPOHDFSUBJO
Communication Among Social Insects 89

GJTI
DIFTUCFBUJOH BNPOHHPSJMMBT
BOETPPO4PNFTJHOBMVOJUTBSFDPPQ
FSBUJWF JOWPMWJOHBUMFBTUUXPJOEJWJEVBMTPUIFSTBSFSBUIFSGPSNBMJ[FE"
NBMFIBXGJODIUPVDIFTCJMMTXJUIBGFNBMF BOEEVSJOHDPVSUTIJQUIFNBMF
CPXFSCJSECVJMETBDIBNCFSPSQBTTBHFEFDPSBUFEXJUIDPMPSGVMPCKFDUTUIBU
XJMMBUUSBDUBNBUF4PNFBOJNBMT GPSFYBNQMF EPHTBOEXPMWFT
VTFVSJOF
NBSLJOHBTBDIFNJDBMTJHOBMEFMJNJUJOHUFSSJUPSZ XIFSFBTPUIFST TLVOLT
BOECPNCBSEJFSCFFUMFT UPNFOUJPOKVTUUXP
VTFDIFNJDBMTJHOBMTGPSEF
GFOTF4PNFPGUIFVOFYQFDUFEGJOEJOHTJOUIFGJFMEPGBOJNBMDPNNVOJDBUJPO
IBWFTUJNVMBUFEDPOUJOVFESFTFBSDI

Communication Among Social Insects


4PDJBMJOTFDUTJODMVEFDFSUBJOTQFDJFTPGCFFTBOEXBTQTBOEBMMBOUTBOEUFS
NJUFT"NPOHUIFNBOZTQFDJFTPGTPDJBMJOTFDUT UIFUFNQFSBUF[POFIPOFZ
CFF "QJTNFMMJGFSB
JTHFOFUJDBMMZFOEPXFEXJUIGBJSMZFMBCPSBUFDPNNVOJDBUJWF
CFIBWJPS'PSPVSVOEFSTUBOEJOHPGUIFTPDBMMFECFFEBODFMBOHVBHF XFBSFFT
QFDJBMMZJOEFCUFEUPUIF"VTUSJBO[PPMPHJTU,BSMWPO'SJTDI o
XIP
TQFOUNBOZZFBSTEPJOHQBJOTUBLJOHSFTFBSDIPOUIFTVCKFDUBOETIBSFEXJUI
UXPPUIFSTDIPMBSTUIF/PCFM1SJ[FJO1IZTJPMPHZPS.FEJDJOF
0OFPGTFWFSBMQIFSPNPOFTUIFRVFFOPGBIPOFZCFFDPMPOZTFDSFUFTJTJO
HFTUFE CZ CFFT UIBU DPOTUBOUMZ BUUFOE BOE HSPPN IFS 5IFTF CFFT TVCTF
RVFOUMZ TQSFBE UIF QIFSPNPOF UISPVHIPVU UIF CFFIJWF UP TVQQSFTT UIF
PWBSJBOEFWFMPQNFOUPGUIFXPSLFSCFFTBOEUIVTQSFWFOUUIFSFBSJOHPGOFX
RVFFOT"TUIFEJTUSJCVUJPOPGUIJTQIFSPNPOFCFHJOTUPMBHBTBSFTVMUPGUIF
RVFFOTEFBUIPSUIFDPMPOZTFYDFTTJWFTJ[F OFXRVFFOTBSFSFBSFEBOEQSFQB
SBUJPOTNBEFGPSTXBSNJOH8IFOUIFEFWFMPQJOHQPUFOUJBMRVFFOTDPN
NVOJDBUF GSPN UIFJS DFMMT UIFJS SFBEJOFTT UP BTTVNF UIFJS EVUJFT  UIFJS
WJCSBUJPOTBSFSFDFJWFECZEFUFDUPSTMPDBUFEJOUIFIPMMPXMFHTPGUIFCFFIJWF
QPQVMBUJPO CFFTGFFMSBUIFSUIBOIFBSUIFWJCSBUJPOTCFDBVTFUIFZIBWFOP
FBST
4XBSNJOHJUTFMGJTUSJHHFSFECZBOBDPVTUJDTJHOBMTFOUPVUCZBXPSLFS
CFF"TTPPOBTUIFGJSTUOFXBEVMURVFFOIBUDIFT TIFMPDBUFTUIFDFMMTDPO
UBJOJOHIFSQPUFOUJBMSPZBMSJWBMTBOEEFTUSPZTUIFN5IFOTIFMFBWFTUIFIJWF
UPNBUFXJUIESPOFT BUUSBDUJOHUIFNCZTFDSFUJOHBOPUIFSQIFSPNPOF
5IFNPTUJOUFSFTUJOHBTQFDUPGUIFDPNNVOJDBUJWFCFIBWJPSPGIPOFZCFFT
IBTUPEPXJUIGPSBHJOHGPSGPPE TFF'JHVSF
"TDPVUCFFDBODPNNV
OJDBUFUIFMPDBUJPOPGBOFTQFDJBMMZBCVOEBOUTPVSDFPGGPPECZNFBOTPGB
EBODFJOTJEFUIFIJWF5IFEJTUBODFPGUIFOFDUBSTPVSDFGSPNUIFIJWFJT
90 Chapter 6: The Development and Evolution of Language

JOEJDBUFECZUIFGPSNPGUIFEBODFUIFTDPVUCFFQFSGPSNTPOUIFWFSUJDBM
TVSGBDFPGUIFIPOFZDPNC*GUIFTPVSDFJTRVJUFDMPTFUPUIFIJWF UIFCFF
QFSGPSNTBSPVOEEBODF*GUIFTPVSDFJTGBSUIFSBXBZ BCPVUPOFIVOESFE
ZBSETPSTP UIFTDPVUCFFEBODFTJOUIFTIBQFPGBGJHVSFFJHIU%VSJOHUIJT
QFSGPSNBODF UIFCFFFMBCPSBUFTPOJUTSPVHIMZDJSDVMBSEBODFCZBEEJOHB
UBJMXBHHJOHXBMLBDSPTTUIFDJSDMF JUTBCEPNFONPWJOHGSPNTJEFUPTJEF
5IFMFOHUIPGUJNFHJWFOUIFUBJMXBHHJOHQPSUJPODPNNVOJDBUFTUIFEJT
UBODFPGUIFGPPETPVSDFGSPNUIFIJWFUIFHSFBUFSUIFEJTUBODF UIFMPOHFS
UIFEVSBUJPO5IFBOHMFCFUXFFOUIFEJSFDUJPOPGUIFUBJMXBHHJOHSVOBOE
BOJNBHJOBSZMJOFEJSFDUFEUPUIFDFOUFSPGFBSUITHSBWJUZDPSSFTQPOETUP
UIFBOHMFCFUXFFOUIFTVOBOEUIFOFDUBSTPVSDF UIFIJWFCFJOHBQPJOUPG
SFGFSFODF*GUIFTVOIBQQFOTUPCFBCPWFUIFGPPETPVSDFBOEJOEJSFDUMJOF
XJUIJU UIFUBJMXBHHJOHQPSUJPOPGUIFEBODFJTWFSUJDBMBOEUIFCFFEBODFT
VQXBSEJGUIFTVOJTJOMJOFXJUIUIFGPPETPVSDFCVUPOUIFPQQPTJUFTJEFPG
UIFIJWF UIFDSVDJBMQPSUJPOPGUIFEBODFJTBHBJOWFSUJDBMCVUJTEBODFE
EPXOXBSE0OQBSUMZDMPVEZEBZT UIFTDPVUCFFTBSFBCMFUPJOGFSUIFQPTJ
UJPOPGUIFTVOGSPNUIFQPMBSJ[BUJPOPGTLZMJHIU*OBEEJUJPOUPEJTUBODF
BOEEJSFDUJPOGSPNUIFIJWF UIFSJDIOFTTPGUIFGPPETPVSDFJTJOEJDBUFECZ
UIFBNPVOUPGMJWFMJOFTTUIBUDIBSBDUFSJ[FTUIFEBODF*UGVSUIFSBQQFBSTUIBU
UIFMFOHUIPGUIFTQFDJBMCV[[JOHTPVOEBCFFNBLFTEVSJOHUIFUBJMXBH
HJOHQPSUJPOPGUIFEBODFDPOUSJCVUFTUPUIFJOGPSNBUJPODPODFSOJOHEJT
UBODF&YQFSJNFOUTIBWFFTUBCMJTIFEUIBUUIFMPDBUJPOPGBGPPETPVSDFBT
EJTUBOU BT TFWFO NJMFT GSPN UIF IJWF DBO CF BDDVSBUFMZ DPNNVOJDBUFE
UISPVHIUIFCFFEBODF
5IFIPOFZCFFTDPNNVOJDBUJPOTZTUFNJTJOOBUF UIBUJT ZPVOHCFFTEP
OPUIBWFUPMFBSOIPXUPVTFJU)PXFWFS UIFNPSFFYQFSJFODFEUIFCFF UIF
NPSFQSFDJTFJTJUTSFQPSUJOH5IFO UPP UIFEBODFMBOHVBHFPGUIFIPOFZ
CFFTWBSJFTTPNFXIBUGSPNPOFWBSJFUZUPBOPUIFS'PSFYBNQMF CMBDL"VT
USJBOIPOFZCFFTQFSGPSNBTPNFXIBUEJGGFSFOUEBODFGSPNUIFIPOFZCFFTPG
*UBMZ5IFTFEJGGFSFODFTBSFTJNJMBSUPUIFEJBMFDUBMWBSJBUJPOJOIVNBOMBO
HVBHFT CVUXJUIPOFJNQPSUBOUEJGGFSFODF%JBMFDUTPGIVNBOMBOHVBHFTBSF
BTQFDUTPGBCFIBWJPSUIBUJTMFBSOFE XIFSFBTUIFWBSJBUJPOTJOUIFDPNNV
OJDBUJWFCFIBWJPSPGIPOFZCFFTBSFJOIFSJUFE
5IFDPNNVOJDBUJWFCFIBWJPSPGBOUTQFDJFTNBZOPUCFBTJOUSJDBUFBTUIBU
PGIPOFZCFFT CVUJUJODMVEFTBXJEFWBSJFUZPGTJHOBMT4FDSFUJOHQIFSPNPOFT
GSPNEJGGFSFOUHMBOETUPMBZEPXOTDFOUUSBJMTUIBUMFBEPUIFSBOUTUPGPPEPS
UPUSJHHFSBMBSNEFGFOTFCFIBWJPSJTDPNNPOUPTFWFSBMTQFDJFT.PSFTQFDJG
Communication Among Social Insects 91

F I G U R E 6 . 1 Communication of Honeybees
5IFCFFIJWFJTMPDBUFEBUUIFDFOUFS XJUIUISFFTPVSDFTPGOFDUBS
" # BOE$
BQQFBSJOHJOWBSJPVTEJSFDUJPOTGSPNUIFIJWF5IFUISFF
UBJMXBHHJOHEBODFEJBHSBNTBUCPUUPNSJHIUTIPXIPXUIFEJSFDUJPO
PGUIFGPPETPVSDFGSPNUIFIJWFJTDPNNVOJDBUFE VTJOHUIFTVOBTB
QPJOUPGSFGFSFODF

JDBMMZ BQIFSPNPOFTFDSFUFEGSPNUIFNBOEJCVMBSHMBOETPGNBMFDBSQFOUFS
BOUTTZODISPOJ[FTUIFOVQUJBMGMJHIUTPGNBMFTBOEGFNBMFTBGFNBMFQIBSBPI
BOUTFYVBMMZTUJNVMBUFTBNBMFCZBQIFSPNPOFBOECZUPVDIJOHIJNXJUIIFS
BOUFOOBFPSCZQSFTFOUJOHUIFFOMBSHFEQBSUPGIFSBCEPNFOUPIJNDFSUBJO
TQFDJFTPGBOUTUIBUDPOEVDUTMBWFSBJETPOPUIFSBOUTEJTDIBSHFQIFSPNPOFT
GPSWBSJPVTQVSQPTFT BNPOHUIFNUPEJTPSJFOUUIFBOUTVOEFSBUUBDLBOEUIF
XPSLFST PG TFWFSBM TQFDJFT NBLF UBDUJMF TJHOBMT XJUI UIFJS BOUFOOBF BOE
GPSFMFHTTPUIBUXPSLFSTSFUVSOJOHUPUIFOFTUXJMMSFHVSHJUBUFGPPEUPTIBSF
*OTFDUTBSFDPNNPOMZDPOTJEFSFEUPCFBNPOHUIFMPXFSPSHBOJTNTPGUIF
BOJNBMLJOHEPN CVUUIFJSDPNNVOJDBUJWFCFIBWJPSFTQFDJBMMZUIBUPGUIF
TPDJBMJOTFDUTJTIJHIMZTQFDJBMJ[FEBOEFGGJDJFOU
92 Chapter 6: The Development and Evolution of Language

Communication Among Nonhuman Primates


and Other Vertebrates
5IFBNPVOUPGSFTFBSDIDPODFSOJOHDPNNVOJDBUJWFCFIBWJPSPGWFSUFCSBUFT
PUIFSUIBOIVNBOTIBTCFFODPOTJEFSBCMFPOMZBGFXSFQSFTFOUBUJWFFYBN
QMFTDBOCFHJWFOIFSF JOCSJFGBOEWFSZHFOFSBMUFSNT
0GUIFTFWFSBMDIBOOFMTCZNFBOTPGXIJDICJSETDPNNVOJDBUF UIFWPDBM
DIBOOFMJTCFTULOPXOUPIVNBOT#JSEWPDBMJ[BUJPOTBSFPGUXPNBKPSDMBTTFT
TPOHTBOEDBMMT$POTJTUJOHPGTFWFSBMTVCQBSUT CJSETPOHTBSFUZQJDBMMZTVOH
POMZCZNBMFTBOEBSFMPOHFSBOENPSFDPNQMFYUIBODBMMT5IFJSUXPNBJO
GVODUJPOTBSFUPFTUBCMJTIBOEIPMEUFSSJUPSZCZSFQFMMJOHPUIFSNBMFTBOEUP
BUUSBDUGFNBMFTEVSJOHUIFCSFFEJOHTFBTPO%FQFOEJOHPOUIFTQFDJFT CJSE
TPOHTBSFFJUIFSJOOBUF MFBSOFE PSJOQBSUJOOBUFBOEJOQBSUMFBSOFE5IF
MFBSOJOHBCJMJUZPGNBOZTQFDJFTPGCJSETJTBUJUTNBYJNVNEVSJOHUIFJOEJ
WJEVBMTGJSTUGFXNPOUITPGMJGF CVUCJSETMFBSOPOMZUIFTPOHDIBSBDUFSJTUJD
PGUIFJSPXOTQFDJFT#JSEDBMMT JODPOUSBTU BSFTIPSU TJOHMFOPUFTPSTIPSU
TFRVFODFTPGOPUFT
BOEBSFVTFEUPTJHOBMBMBSN GFFEJOH EJTUSFTT JNNJOFOU
UBLFPGGPSMBOEJOH BOEUIFMJLF'PSUIFNPTUQBSU CJSEDBMMTBSFJOOBUF CVUJO
TPNFTQFDJFTBEFHSFFPGMFBSOJOHJTJOWPMWFE%JBMFDUBMEJGGFSFODFTFYJTU FT
QFDJBMMZJOCJSETPOHT
'PSTPNFUJNF NVDITDIPMBSMZBOEQPQVMBSBUUFOUJPOIBTCFFOGPDVTFE
POUIFDPNNVOJDBUJPOPGDFUBDFBOT BOPSEFSPGBRVBUJDNBNNBMTUIBUJO
DMVEFTEPMQIJOTBOEXIBMFT%FTQJUFUIFOVNCFSPGTUVEJFTDPODFSOJOHCPU
UMFOPTFE EPMQIJOT  PVS VOEFSTUBOEJOH PG UIFJS BDPVTUJD DPNNVOJDBUJWF
CFIBWJPSJTTUJMMJOTVGGJDJFOU.FNCFSTPGUIJTTQFDJFTPGEPMQIJOTQSPEVDF
DMJDLT CBSLT ZFMQT BOENPBOTBTXFMMBTXIJTUMFTBOETRVFBMT5IFGVODUJPO
PGUIFTFEJGGFSFOUWPDBMJ[BUJPOTJTOPUGVMMZVOEFSTUPPE4PNFBQQFBSUPFY
QSFTTFNPUJPOBMTUBUFT PUIFSTNBZCFVTFEGPSFDIPMPDBUJPOBOEOBWJHBUJPO
BOETUJMMPUIFSTNBZJEFOUJGZJOEJWJEVBMEPMQIJOT"TZFU IPXFWFS OPFWJ
EFODFTVHHFTUTUIBUEPMQIJOTDPNNVOJDBUFXJUIFBDIPUIFSUPBHSFBUFSFY
UFOUUIBOEPCJSET GPSFYBNQMF
*OBEEJUJPOUPWBSJPVTPUIFSTPVOET IVNQCBDLXIBMFTQSPEVDFiTPOHTw
DPOTJTUJOHPGTFWFSBMPSEFSFETVCQBSUTBOEMBTUJOHBTMPOHBTIBMGBOIPVS"MM
XIBMFTPGBQBSUJDVMBSBSFBTJOHUIFTBNFTPOH BMUIPVHIPWFSUJNFUIFTF
TPOHTNBZCFTPNFXIBUNPEJGJFE4POHTFTTJPOTPGXIBMFHSPVQTBSFLOPXO
UPIBWFMBTUFETFWFSBMIPVST0VSVOEFSTUBOEJOHPGXIBMFDPNNVOJDBUJPO
UPP JTTUJMMGBSGSPNBEFRVBUF
Communication Among Nonhuman Primates and Other Vertebrates 93

5IFHSFBUFTUBNPVOUPGSFTFBSDIPOBOJNBMDPNNVOJDBUJPOTJODF8PSME
8BS**IBTCFFOEFWPUFEUPOPOIVNBOQSJNBUFT FTQFDJBMMZUIFDIJNQBO[FFT
*O UIF XJME  CFTJEFT WJTVBM BOE PUIFS TJHOBMT  BQFT VTF B WBSJFUZ PG WPDBM
TPVOET JODMVEJOHHSVOUT QBOUT CBSLT XIJNQFST TDSFBNT TRVFBLT BOE
IPPUT&BDIWPDBMJ[BUJPOJTBTTPDJBUFEXJUIPOFPSTFWFSBMDJSDVNTUBODFT5IF
QIZTJDBMTJNJMBSJUZCFUXFFOUIFHSFBUBQFTBOEIVNBOTIBTMPOHJOUSJHVFE
PCTFSWFST TVHHFTUJPOTUIBUBQFTDPVMECFUBVHIUUPTQFBLIBWJOHCFFONBEF
TFWFSBMDFOUVSJFTBHP0GUIFWBSJPVTFYQFSJNFOUTUPUFBDIDIJNQBO[FFTUP
UBML UIFCFTUEPDVNFOUFEXBTUIFPOFCFHVOCZ,FJUI+)BZFTBOE$BUIFS
JOF)BZFTJOUIFMBUFT5IFZBEPQUFEBOFXCPSOGFNBMFDIJNQBO[FF
7JLJ BOECSPVHIUIFSVQJOUIFJSIPNFBTJGTIFXFSFBIVNBODIJME%F
TQJUFBMMUIF)BZFTFTFGGPSUTUPUFBDI7JLJUPTQFBL BGUFSTJYZFBST7JLJIBE
MFBSOFEUPBQQSPYJNBUFPOMZGPVSXPSET NBNB QBQB DVQ BOEVQ
BOE
QPPSMZBUUIBU*UBQQFBSTGSPNUIFEJTBQQPJOUJOHSFTVMUTPGUIJTBOETJNJMBS
FYQFSJNFOUTJOIPNFSBJTJOHDIJNQBO[FFTUIBUUIFBCJMJUZUPTQFBLJTVOJRVF
UPIVNBOTBOEUIBUUIFQSJODJQBMDIBOOFMPGDPNNVOJDBUJPOGPSBQFTJTUIF
PQUJDBMPOFQPTUVSFT GBDJBMFYQSFTTJPOT BOEHFTUVSFT
*OBNPSFSFDFOUFYQFSJNFOU 8BTIPF BOJOGBOUGFNBMFDIJNQBO[FF XBT
UBVHIUUIFGPSNPGHFTUVSBMMBOHVBHFVTFECZUIF"NFSJDBOEFBG5PXBSEUIF
FOEPGUIFTFDPOEZFBSPGUIFQSPKFDU 8BTIPFXBTSFQPSUFEMZBCMFUPVTFNPSF
UIBOTJHOTTQPOUBOFPVTMZ"GUFSGJWFZFBSTPGUSBJOJOH TIFXBTTBJEUPCFBD
UJWFMZQSPGJDJFOUJOBCPVUIBOETJHOT XBTBCMFUPVOEFSTUBOENPSFUIBO
UXJDFUIBUNBOZ BOEDPVMEVTFDPNCJOBUJPOTPGTFWFSBMTJHOT"UBCPVUUIF
TBNFUJNF BOPUIFSDIJNQBO[FF 4BSBI XBTUBVHIUUPXSJUFBOESFBECZNFBOT
PGQMBTUJDUPLFOTPGWBSJPVTTIBQFT TJ[FT BOEDPMPST FBDIUPLFOSFQSFTFOUJOH
BXPSE"DDPSEJOHUPBSFQPSUQVCMJTIFEJO 4BSBIBDRVJSFEBWPDBCVMBSZ
PGBCPVUUFSNTUIBUTIFVTFEXJUIBSFMJBCJMJUZPGCFUXFFOBOEQFS
DFOU)FSQFSGPSNBODFJODMVEFEUIFVTFPGBQMBTUJDTZNCPMUIBUTUPPEGPSUIF
DPOEJUJPOBMSFMBUJPOJGUIFO BTJOi*G4BSBIUBLFTBCBOBOB UIFO.BSZXPOU
HJWFDIPDPMBUFUP4BSBIw 1SFNBDLBOE1SFNBDL

4UVEJFTPGDPNNVOJDBUJWFCFIBWJPSBNPOHUIFHSFBUBQFTBSFDPOUJOVJOH
BOEJNQPSUBOUOFXGJOEJOHTIBWFCFFOSFQPSUFE4PNFPGUIFTFTUVEJFTDPO
DFSOUIFQZHNZDIJNQBO[FFT 1BOQBOJTDVT
XIPTFIBCJUBUJTUIFEFOTF
FRVBUPSJBMGPSFTUTPVUIPGUIF$POHP ;BJSF
3JWFSJO;BJSF#FDBVTFUIFJS
QPQVMBUJPOJTSFMBUJWFMZTNBMM UIFTQFDJFTNBZCFDPOTJEFSFEFOEBOHFSFE
5IFCFIBWJPSPGUIFQZHNZDIJNQBO[FFJTOPUJDFBCMZEJGGFSFOUGSPNUIBUPG
UIFDPNNPODIJNQBO[FF 1BOUSPHMPEZUFT
1ZHNZDIJNQBO[FFTBQQFBSUP
94 Chapter 6: The Development and Evolution of Language

CFNPSFJOUFMMJHFOUBOENPSFTPDJBCMFBOEBSFGBTUFSMFBSOFSTUIFSFJTBMTP
FWJEFODFUIBUUIFZBSFNPSFCJQFEBM MFTTBHHSFTTJWF BOENPSFXJMMJOHUP
TIBSFGPPE"EVMUNBMFTBOEGFNBMFTBTTPDJBUFNPSFDMPTFMZ BOEUIPTFJO
DBQUJWJUZTFFNUPFOKPZDPOUBDUXJUIIVNBOT0GJOUFSFTUJTBTUVEZCZ&4
4BWBHF3VNCBVHI 
CBTFEPOUXPQZHNZDIJNQBO[FFTPCTFSWFEBUUIF
-BOHVBHF3FTFBSDI$FOUFSPGUIF:FSLFT3FHJPOBM1SJNBUF3FTFBSDI$FOUFS
JO"UMBOUB (FPSHJB8IFOUIFTUVEZXBTDPOEVDUFE UIFDFOUFSIBEUXP
QZHNZ DIJNQBO[FFT  B UXFMWFZFBSPME GFNBMF CPSO JO UIF XJME BOE IFS
iBEPQUFEwTPO ,BO[J UIFOPOFBOEBIBMGZFBSTPME8IFO,BO[JXBOUFE
TPNFUIJOH IFJOUFOUJPOBMMZVTFEBDPNCJOBUJPOPGHFTUVSFTBOEWPDBMTPVOET
UPESBXUIFBUUFOUJPOPGBTUBGGNFNCFS)JTXJTIFTJODMVEFECFJOHUBLFO
GSPNPOFBSFBUPBOPUIFS CFJOHIFMQFEXJUIBUBTLIFDPVMEOPUQFSGPSN
BMPOF GPSFYBNQMF PQFOJOHBCPUUMF
BOEUIFMJLF)FXPVMEQPJOUUPTUSBOHF
PCKFDUTXJUIBOFYUFOEFEJOEFYGJOHFS TPNFUJNFTBDDPNQBOZJOHTVDIQPJOU
JOHTXJUIWPDBMTJHOBMTBOEWJTVBMDIFDLJOHIFXPVMEBMTPMFBEIJTUFBDIFST
CZUIFIBOEUPXIFSFIFXBOUFEUIFNUPHP QVMMJOHPOUIFJSIBOETJGIF
XBOUFEUIFNUPTJUEPXO0OPDDBTJPO ,BO[JFYQSFTTFEGSVTUSBUJPOCZGVTT
JOHBOEXIJOJOH*GXFKVEHFGSPNUIFCFIBWJPSPGUIFTNBMMTBNQMFPGQZHNZ
DIJNQBO[FFTBUUIFDFOUFSBOEFMTFXIFSF UIFZBQQFBSUPCFCFUUFSBCMFUP
DPNQSFIFOETPDJBMTJUVBUJPOTUIBOBSFDPNNPODIJNQBO[FFT BOEDPNNV
OJDBUFDPSSFTQPOEJOHMZ*OPUIFSXPSET UIFJSCFIBWJPSJTNPSFSFNJOJTDFOU
PGIVNBOCFIBWJPSUIBOJTUIFCFIBWJPSPGPUIFSTQFDJFTPGBQFT
*OBOPUIFSQSPKFDU SFTFBSDIBTTJTUBOUTXFSFSFRVFTUFEUPUFBDITJHOTGPS
PCKFDUTUPUIFZPVOHDIJNQBO[FF/JNUIFZXFSFUPSFXBSEIJNGPSDPSSFDU
SFTQPOTFTCVUOPUUSFBUIJNMJLFBIVNBODIJME*ODPOUSBTUUPBIVNBO
DIJME /JNQSFGFSSFEUPBDUVQPOIJTTPDJBMFOWJSPONFOUQIZTJDBMMZSBUIFS
UIBODPNNVOJDBUJWFMZBOEXBTMJUUMFJOUFSFTUFEJONBLJOHTJHOTTJNQMZGPS
UIFTBLFPGDPOUBDU4FWFSBMZFBSTMBUFS BOFYQFSJNFOUXBTQFSGPSNFEUP
UFTUUIFIZQPUIFTJTUIBUTPDJBMDPOUFYUDBOJOGMVFODFUIFDPNNVOJDBUJWF
QFSGPSNBODFPGBTJHOVTJOHDIJNQBO[FF5IFSFTVMUTPGUIFFYQFSJNFOUFT
UBCMJTIFEUIBU/JNBEKVTUFEIJTDPOWFSTBUJPOBMTUZMFBDDPSEJOHUPXIFUIFS
UIFJOUFSBDUJPOXJUIIVNBOTXBTTPDJBMPSJOTUSVDUJPOBM BTJOESJMMTFT
TJPOT
'PSFYBNQMF JOBTPDJBMDPOUFYU /JNNBEFNPSFUIBOGPVSUJNFTBT
NBOZTQPOUBOFPVTDPOUSJCVUJPOTJOTJHOMBOHVBHFUIBOIFEJEXIFOIFXBT
CFJOHUSBJOFE"QQBSFOUMZDIJNQBO[FFT KVTUMJLFDIJMESFO UFOEUPJOUFSBDU
TQPOUBOFPVTMZXIFOUIFTJUVBUJPOJTSFMBYFEJOUFTUJOHTJUVBUJPOTUIFZBSF
SFQFUJUJWF JNJUBUJWF BOEEPOPUFMBCPSBUFUIFJSDPOUSJCVUJPOT*GUIFDPN
Communication Among Nonhuman Primates and Other Vertebrates 95

NVOJDBUJWFCFIBWJPSPGDIJNQBO[FFTEPFTJOEFFEWBSZBDDPSEJOHUPDPO
UFYU FBSMJFSSFQPSUTPOUIFDPHOJUJWFDBQBDJUJFTPGTJHOJOHDIJNQBO[FFTNBZ
OPUUFMMUIFXIPMFTUPSZ
"OPUIFSOPUFXPSUIZGJOEJOH NBEFBUUIF*OTUJUVUFGPS1SJNBUF4UVEJFTBU
UIF6OJWFSTJUZPG0LMBIPNB JOWPMWFE-PVMJT UIFZPVOHNBMFUIBU8BTIPF
BEPQUFEXIFOIFXBTUFONPOUITPME"MUIPVHITUBGGNFNCFSTXFSFSF
RVFTUFEUPSFGSBJOGSPNTJHOJOHUP-PVMJT PSFWFOUPPUIFSDIJNQBO[FFTXIFO
-PVMJTXBTQSFTFOU 8BTIPFBOETFWFSBMDIJNQBO[FFTJODPOUBDUXJUI-PVMJT
GSFFMZVTFETJHOTUIFZIBEMFBSOFEFBSMJFSGSPNUIFJSIVNBOUFBDIFST'JWF
ZFBSTBOEUISFFNPOUITMBUFS XIFO-PVMJTTiWPDBCVMBSZwDPOTJTUFEPGGJGUZ
POFTJHOT UIFSFTUSJDUJPOPOIVNBOTJHOJOHXBTMJGUFE%VSJOHUIFTVCTF
RVFOU UXP ZFBST  -PVMJT MFBSOFE UP VTF BO BEEJUJPOBM OJOFUFFO TJHOT
*OEFQFOEFOU PCTFSWFST BDRVBJOUFE XJUI "NFSJDBO 4JHO -BOHVBHF "4-

XFSFBCMFUPSFDPHOJ[FUIFTJHOT-PVMJTIBEMFBSOFEGSPNUIFPUIFSDIJN
QBO[FFTBOEDPVMEJEFOUJGZNPSFUIBOQFSDFOUPGUIFN 'PVUT 'PVUT BOE
7BO$BOUGPSE'PVUTBOE'PVUT

4PNFPGUIFHSFBUBQFTBMTPIBWFCFFOPCTFSWFEUPJOEVMHFJOHFOFSBMJ[B
UJPO UIBUJT UIFZNBEFBSFTQPOTFUPBTUJNVMVTTJNJMBSCVUOPUUIFTBNFBT
BSFGFSFODFTUJNVMVT5PHJWFBGFXFYBNQMFT8BTIPFFYUFOEFEUIFTJHOGPS
iEJSUZwGSPNGFDFTBOEEJSUUPBNPOLFZXIPUISFBUFOFEIFSBOEBMTPUP
3PHFS'PVUT XIPIBESBJTFEIFS XIFOIFSFGVTFEUPBDDFEFUPBSFRVFTU
5IFGFNBMFHPSJMMBOBNFE,PLPHFOFSBMJ[FEiTUSBXwGSPNESJOLJOHTUSBXTUP
IPTFT QMBTUJDUVCJOH DJHBSFUUFT BOEPUIFSPCKFDUTPGTJNJMBSTIBQF"OE-VDZ
BDIJNQBO[FF TJHOFEiDSZIVSUGPPEwUPNFBOSBEJTIFT )JMM

5IFTFBOEPUIFSFYQFSJNFOUBMSFTVMUTBSFOBUVSBMMZPGDPOTJEFSBCMFJOUFS
FTU CVUPOFNVTULFFQJONJOEUIBUUIFDIJNQBO[FFTXFSFMFBSOJOHUPDPN
NVOJDBUFJOBOBSUJGJDJBMTFUUJOHBOEGPSUIFNPTUQBSUXFSFDBSFGVMMZEJSFDUFE
CZIVNBOT*UXPVMEIBWFCFFOPGHSFBUFSTJHOJGJDBODFJGTPNFPGUIFIVNBO
USBJOFEDIJNQBO[FFTIBETVCTFRVFOUMZCFFOBCMF POUIFJSPXO UPBEEOFX
TJHOTUPUIFJSiWPDBCVMBSZwBOEUPVOEFSTUBOEDPOWFSTBUJPOBMUVSOUBLJOH
4DIPMBSTIBWFBSHVFEUIBUBUMFBTUTPNFPGUIFSFQPSUFEBOJNBMSFTQPOTFTNBZ
IBWFCFFOEVFUPVODPOTDJPVTOPOWFSCBMDVFJOHCZUIPTFXIPTUVEJFEUIFN
"MUIPVHIUIJTNBZCFUSVF UIFSFJTMJUUMFEPVCUUIBUBQFTDBOMFBSOUIFDPN
NVOJDBUJWFCFIBWJPSSFTFBSDIFSTIBWFEFTDSJCFE#VUFWFOBUUIBU UIFOFBSMZ
TFYVBMMZNBUVSFDIJNQBO[FFJTRVJUFMJNJUFEJOXIBUJUDBOTJHODPNQBSFEUP
BIVNBODIJMEPGTJY XIPJTDBQBCMFPGDPNNVOJDBUJOHWFSCBMMZBCPVUBMBSHF
WBSJFUZPGTVCKFDUT*OTIPSU UIFQSPGJDJFOUVTFPGUIFSFQFSUPSZPGHFTUVSBM
96 Chapter 6: The Development and Evolution of Language

TJHOTPGXIJDIDIJNQBO[FFTBSFIJHIMZDBQBCMFJTBGBSDSZGSPNUIFDPOTDJPVT
MJOHVJTUJDQSPDFTTJOHDPNNPOUPBMMIVNBOTGSPNDIJMEIPPEPO

When Does a Communication System Become Language?


5IFRVFTUJPO 8IFOEJEMBOHVBHFPSJHJOBUF JTBMUPHFUIFSUPPWBHVFVOMFTT
POFGJSTUTQFDJGJFTXIBUJTNFBOUCZUIFUFSNMBOHVBHF*GJUTUBOETGPSBTFUPG
EJTDSFUFWPDBMTPVOET NFBOJOHMFTTCZUIFNTFMWFT UIBUDBOCFTUSVOHUP
HFUIFSUPQSPEVDFIJHIFSPSEFSVOJUT iXPSETw
FOEPXFEXJUIDPOWFOUJPOBM
CVUBSCJUSBSZNFBOJOHT BOE GVSUIFS JGTVDIBTZTUFNNBLFTJUQPTTJCMFGPSJUT
VTFSTUPHFOFSBUFBOVOMJNJUFEOVNCFSPGVOQSFDFEFOUFEDPNNFOUTBCPVU
FWFOUTSFNPWFEJOUJNFBTXFMMBTTQBDF UIFONPTUPGUIFTFWFSBMNJMMJPO
ZFBSTPGIPNJOJEFYJTUFODFXPVMEIBWFCFFOMBOHVBHFMFTT
.FNCFSTPGBMMBOJNBMTQFDJFTIBWFBXBZPGUSBOTNJUUJOHJOGPSNBUJPO
BNPOH UIFNTFMWFT  BOE CFGPSF UIF IPNJOJET CSBODIFE PGG GSPN PUIFS
IPNJOPJETUIFHPSJMMBTBOEDIJNQBO[FFTJOQBSUJDVMBSGSPNUPNJM
MJPOZFBSTBHP UIFZVOEPVCUFEMZQPTTFTTFEBNFBOTPGDPNNVOJDBUJOHTJN
JMBSUPUIBUPGUIFJSDMPTFTUQSJNBUFSFMBUJWFT+VEHJOHGSPNXIBUJTOPXLOPXO
BCPVUUIFCFIBWJPSPGUIFHSFBUBQFTJOUIFXJME UIFDPNNVOJDBUJPOTZTUFN
PGUIFFBSMJFTUIPNJOJETMJLFMZFNQMPZFETJHOBMTUIBUXFSFCPUIWJTVBMBOE
BDPVTUJD PSBVEJUPSZ
BTXFMMBTPMGBDUPSZ DPOOFDUFEXJUIUIFTFOTFPGTNFMM

BOEUBDUJMF FTQFDJBMMZHSPPNJOH

5IFWJTVBMTJHOBMT PSHFTUVSFT XPVMEIBWFCFFONBEFCZWBSJPVTQBSUTPG
UIFCPEZ JODMVEJOHUIFGBDFUIFBVEJUPSZTJHOBMTOPEPVCUDPOTJTUFEPGBWBSJ
FUZPGWPDBMJ[BUJPOTHSVOUT SPBST CBSLT NPBOT IPPUT IPXMT BOEUIFMJLF
CVUBMTPPGTVDIOPOWPDBMTPVOETBTDIFTUCFBUJOHPSHSPVOETUBNQJOH5IF
PWFSBMMSFQFSUPSZ IPXFWFS NVTUIBWFCFFOSBUIFSNPEFTU XJUIUIFTJHOBMTFN
QMPZFEPOMZXIFOUIFTUJNVMJUIBUQSPWPLFEUIFNXFSFQSFTFOU5IFTJHOJGJ
DBODF PSNFBOJOH PGUIFTFTJHOBMTXPVMEIBWFCFFOMJNJUFEUPWFSZCBTJD
iDPNNFOUTwDPODFSOJOHUIFJNNFEJBUFFOWJSPONFOU GPSFYBNQMF TVEEFO
EBOHFSPSUIFEJTDPWFSZPGGPPE
PSUIFJOEJWJEVBMTFNPUJPOBMTUBUF BOOPZ
BODF TVSQSJTF EJTUSFTT BTTFSUJPOPGEPNJOBODF GFBS BOEUIFMJLF

*UJTDMFBSUIBUBWBTUEJTUBODFIBEUPCFCSJEHFECFUXFFOTPNFTVDIMJN
JUFENFBOTPGDPNNVOJDBUJPOBNFSFDBMMTZTUFNBOEGVMMCMPXOMBO
HVBHFUIBUNPEFSOIVNBOTIBWFCFFONBLJOHVTFPGGPSUIPVTBOETPGZFBST
0OFNBZSFGFSUPUIFDPNNVOJDBUJPOTZTUFNUIBUQSFDFEFEGVMMGMFEHFEMBO
HVBHFBTQSFMBOHVBHF #VUFWFOUIJTEJGGFSFOUJBUJPOJOUPMBOHVBHFBOEQSFMBO
Milestones in Human Evolution 97

HVBHFJTFYUSFNFMZSPVHICFDBVTFJUTVHHFTUTBOFWPMVUJPOBSZMFBQGSPNPOF
TUBHFUPUIFOFYUSBUIFSUIBOBMPOHTFSJFTPGDPVOUMFTTJODSFNFOUBMDIBOHFT
UIBUXPVMEIBWFCFFOJNQFSDFQUJCMFUPUIFFWPMWJOHIPNJOJETBTUIFZXFSF
PDDVSSJOH4PNFBOUISPQPMPHJTUTIBWFBUUFNQUFEUPSFDPOTUSVDUUIFFWPMV
UJPO PG IVNBO DPNNVOJDBUJPO JO TPNF EFUBJM 'PS FYBNQMF  3PHFS 8
8FTDPUU 
QPTUVMBUFEIBOEXBWJOHBOEWPDBMTZODISPOJ[BUJPOBNPOH
UIFNFNCFSTPGBHSPVQGPSUIFBVTUSBMPQJUIFDJOFT GJOHFSQPJOUJOHBOEWPDBM
JNJUBUJPOGPS)PNPFSFDUVT BOENBOVBMTJHOJOHBOEVOJOUFMMJHJCMFiTQFFDIw
JOWPMWJOHUIFVTFPGNFBOJOHMFTTTZMMBCMFTGPSUIF/FBOEFSUIBMTXSJUJOHBOE
GVMMZEFWFMPQFEMBOHVBHFIFSFTFSWFEGPSMBUFS)PNPTBQJFOT.PTUBOUISP
QPMPHJTUTXPVMEQSPCBCMZGJOEUIJTTDIFNFUPPDPOTFSWBUJWFJUTWJSUVFJTJOJUT
BUUFNQUUPDPSSFMBUFUIFEFWFMPQNFOUPGUXPDPNNVOJDBUJWFDIBOOFMT UIF
WJTVBMBOEUIFBDPVTUJD

Milestones in Human Evolution


5IFFNFSHFODFPGUIFPSEFSPGQSJNBUFT UPXIJDIIVNBOTCFMPOH EBUFTUP
TPNFoNJMMJPOZFBSTBHP POMZBTNBMMGSBDUJPOPGUIFoCJMMJPOZFBST
TJODFMJGFPOFBSUICFHBO.PTUPGUIFFBSMZQSJNBUFTXFSFBSCPSFBM CVUJO
UIFDPVSTFPGUJNF BTBSFTVMUPGDIBOHFTJOUIFOBUVSBMFOWJSPONFOU TPNF
PGUIFNCFDBNFBEBQUFEUPFYJTUFODFPOUIFHSPVOE TFF'JHVSF

0OFPGUIFTVCEJWJTJPOTPGQSJNBUFTJTUIFTVQFSGBNJMZPGIPNJOPJET
)PNJOPJEFB
XIJDIJOUVSODPNQSJTFTUISFFGBNJMJFTUIFMFTTFSBQFT TJB
NBOHTBOEHJCCPOT
UIFHSFBUBQFT HPSJMMBT PSBOHVUBOT BOEDIJNQBO[FFT

BOEUIFIPNJOJET )PNJOJEBF
 IVNBOTBOEUIFJSJNNFEJBUFBODFTUPST

$VSSFOU FWJEFODF TVHHFTUT UIBU UIF FBSMJFTU IPNJOJET DBNF GSPN &BTU
"GSJDBOTJUFTJO5BO[BOJB ,FOZB BOE&UIJPQJBBOEHPCBDLBCPVUoNJM
MJPOZFBST5IFCFTULOPXOTQFDJNFOBNPOHUIFN SFGFSSFEUPBT-VDZ BOE
GPTTJMCPOFTPGBTJNJMBSUZQFIBWFCFFOBTTJHOFEUPUIFHFOVT"VTUSBMPQ
JUIFDVT TPVUIFSO<"GSJDBO>BQF
BOEUIFTQFDJFTBGBSFOTJT OBNFEGPSUIF
"GBSCBEMBOETJO&UIJPQJB XIFSFUIFEJTDPWFSZXBTNBEFJO4NBMM
CSBJOFE XJUIDSBOJBMDBQBDJUZFTUJNBUFEBUBCPVUPOFQJOU DVCJDDFO
UJNFUFST
UIFTFFBSMZIPNJOJETXFSFCJQFEBM UIBUJT UIFZVTFEPOMZUIFJS
MPXFSMJNCTGPSMPDPNPUJPO
5IFSFJTOPUDPNQMFUFBHSFFNFOUPOUIFJOUFSNFEJBUFMJOLCFUXFFO"VT
USBMPQJUIFDVTBGBSFOTJT BOEUIFGJSTUSFQSFTFOUBUJWFTPGUIFIVNBOHFOVT BM
UIPVHI NPTU FYQFSUT XPVME QSPCBCMZ DIPPTF BOPUIFS BVTUSBMPQJUIFDJOF
98

Years Stages Landmarks Presumed


Before of in Stages in the
the Hominid Prehistoric Cultural Evolution
Present Evolution Periods Evolution of Language
Neolithic Farming (Proto-Indo-
_10,000 lithic European)
Meso

Upper Spectacular portable Earliest stage of


_40,000 Cro-Magnons and cave-wall art full-fledged
(H. s. sapiens) language

Middle Ritual activities


_100,000 Duality of
Neanderthals Stone tools from patterning
Homo sapiens prepared cores Beginnings of
neanderthalensis Belief in afterlife? articulate speech
Paleolithic

_500,000 Organized hunting

Archaic
Homo sapiens Lower

Control and use Early stage of


of fire prelanguage
H

_1 million
om

Hunting Blending
oe
rec
tu
H

_2 million
om

s
oh

First tools made


ab

and used
ili
s

Adaptations
Se th p

_3 million for prelanguage


ve e g ith
of tralo
Au

ra en ec
l s u us
s

Simple multimodal
pe s
cie

_4 million communication
s

_5 million Hominids branch


off from other
hominoids
Monkeys and apes
diverge
_50 million
Primates emerge
_100 million

F I G U R E 6 . 2 Presumed Stages of Human Evolution


"TJNQMJGJFEUJNFDIBSUMJOLJOHUIFIZQPUIFUJDBMTUBHFTJOUIFFWPMVUJPOPGMBOHVBHF
XJUITUBHFTPGIPNJOJEFWPMVUJPO QSFIJTUPSJDQFSJPET BOEMBOENBSLTJODVMUVSBMFWP
MVUJPO5IFSFBEFSJTSFNJOEFEUIBUUIFTUBHFTPGMBOHVBHFFWPMVUJPOBOEUIFJSUJNFBT
TJHONFOUTBSFDPOKFDUVSBMCVUSFBTPOBCMF HJWFOUIFQSFTFOUTUBUFPGPVSLOPXMFEHF
/PUFUIBUJOPSEFSUPBDDPNNPEBUFUIFDIBSUUPBTJOHMFQBHF UIFUJNFTDBMFDIBOHFT
TFWFSBMUJNFT BUEPUUFEMJOFT

Milestones in Human Evolution 99

TQFDJFT "VTUSBMPQJUIFDVTBGSJDBOVT5IJTNBOBQF XIPTFGPTTJMSFNBJOTJO


4PVUI"GSJDBEBUFUPBCPVUNJMMJPOZFBSTBHP XBTRVJUFMJLFMZBOBODFTUSBM
GPSNPG)PNPIBCJMJT XJUIXIPNJUNBZIBWFTIBSFEQBSUTPG"GSJDBGPSTFW
FSBMIVOESFEUIPVTBOEZFBST"TUIFUFSNTVHHFTUT )PNPIBCJMJT JTDPOTJE
FSFEUPCFUIFGJSTUIVNBO UIPVHITUJMMGBSSFNPWFEGSPNUIFNPEFSOTQFDJFT
5IFSFNBJOTPG)PNPIBCJMJT GPVOEJO5BO[BOJBBOE,FOZBBOEEBUFECF
UXFFONJMMJPOBOENJMMJPOZFBSTPME DBNFGSPNJOEJWJEVBMTXJUIB
CSBJODBTFDBQBDJUZFRVBMUPBCPVUPOFIBMGUIBUPGNPEFSOIVNBOT5IFTF
FBSMZIVNBOTXFSFDPSSFTQPOEJOHMZTIPSUFSJOTUBUVSFCVUNPSFDBQBCMFPG
NBLJOHBOEVTJOHTJNQMFUPPMTUIBOUIFBVTUSBMPQJUIFDJOFTNBZIBWFCFFO
CFGPSFUIFN.FNCFSTPGUIJTTQFDJFTVOEPVCUFEMZCFHBOUPEFQFOEUPBO
FWFSJODSFBTJOHEFHSFFPOHSPVQBDUJWJUZBOEBDVMUVSBMMZQBUUFSOFENFBOT
PGTVCTJTUFODFSBUIFSUIBOPOCFIBWJPSHPWFSOFETPMFMZCZJOTUJODU
8JUIUIFBQQFBSBODFPG)PNPIBCJMJT UIFQBDFPGIVNBOFWPMVUJPOBDDFM
FSBUFE QSPEVDJOHBOFXTQFDJFT )PNPFSFDUVT DMPTFUPNJMMJPOZFBSTBHP
.FNCFSTPGUIJTTQFDJFTTQSFBEGSPN"GSJDBUP"TJBBOE&VSPQF FOEVSJOHGPS
NPSFUIBONJMMJPOZFBSTVOUJMTPNF UP ZFBSTBHP5IFUPPMLJU
PG)PNPFSFDUVT CFTULOPXOGPSUIFNVMUJQVSQPTFIBOEBY JODMVEFEBWBSJFUZ
PGPUIFSJNQMFNFOUTVTFEGPSDVUUJOH QJFSDJOH DIPQQJOH BOETDSBQJOH&WJ
EFODFJOEJDBUFTUIBUUIFTFBODFTUPSTPGNPEFSOIVNBOTQPTTFTTFEUIFTLJMMT
OFFEFEUPCFDPNFQSPGJDJFOUMBSHFHBNFIVOUFST5IFZBMTPMFBSOFEUPVTFGJSF
UPLFFQXBSN UPQSFQBSFGPPE BOEUPESJWFBOJNBMTUPMPDBUJPOTXIFSFUIFZ
DPVMENPSFFBTJMZCFEJTQBUDIFE5IFHSFBUFSDPNQMFYJUZPGUIFJSDVMUVSFXBT
BTTPDJBUFEXJUIBOJODSFBTFETJ[FPGUIFCSBJO UIFBWFSBHFWPMVNFPGXIJDIJO
)PNPFSFDUVT BQQSPBDIFEBCPVUPOFRVBSU  DVCJDDFOUJNFUFST

5IFMBTUNBKPSTUBHFJOIVNBOFWPMVUJPOUPPLQMBDFBCPVU ZFBST
BHPXJUIUIFUSBOTJUJPOGSPN)PNPFSFDUVT UP)PNPTBQJFOT UIFTQFDJFTUP
XIJDIBMMDPOUFNQPSBSZIVNBOTCFMPOH*UJTOPUZFUQPTTJCMFUPEFUFSNJOF
XJUIBTTVSBODFXIBUDPVSTFUIFUSBOTJUJPOUPPLGSPNPOFTQFDJFTUPUIFOFYU
0OFIZQPUIFTJTJTUIBU)PNPFSFDUVT JO"GSJDBFWPMWFEGJSTUJOUPBOBSDIBJD
GPSNPG)PNPTBQJFOT BOETVCTFRVFOUMZJOUPUIFGVMMZNPEFSOTVCTQFDJFT
)PNPTBQJFOTTBQJFOT*O&VSPQF UIFTFNPEFSOIVNBOTSFQMBDFEUIF/FBO
EFSUIBMT )PNPTBQJFOTOFBOEFSUIBMFOTJT
XIP BDDPSEJOHUPTPNFBOUISP
QPMPHJTUT EJEOPUDPNQMFUFUIFGVMMUSBOTJUJPO0OUIFCBTJTPGTPNFSFDFOU
UFTUTPGNJUPDIPOESJBM%/"GSPN/FBOEFSUIBMGPTTJMTQFDJNFOT TPNFBO
UISPQPMPHJTUTIBWFTVHHFTUFEUIBU/FBOEFSUIBMTTIPVMECFBTTJHOFEUPBTFQ
BSBUFTQFDJFT )PNPOFBOEFSUIBMFOTJT
100 Chapter 6: The Development and Evolution of Language

"UUIJTQPJOU BDBVUJPOBSZOPUFJTJOPSEFS5IFVTFPGUBYPOT GPSNBM


OBNFTSFGFSSJOHUPUBYPOPNJDHSPVQT
QBSUJDVMBSMZJOTVDIBOBCCSFWJBUFE
BDDPVOUPGIPNJOJEFWPMVUJPOBTUIBUQSFTFOUFEBCPWF NBZCFNJTUBLFOMZ
UBLFOUPTVHHFTUBTUSBJHIUGPSXBSEVOJMJOFBSQSPDFTTUPXBSEBOBUPNJDBMMZ
NPEFSOGPSNT/PUIJOHDPVMECFGVSUIFSGSPNXIBUUIFCVMLPGFWJEFODFJO
EJDBUFT"UFBDITUBHFPGIVNBOFWPMVUJPOUIFSFNVTUIBWFFYJTUFEDPOTJEFS
BCMFWBSJBUJPO XJUIHFOFSBMJ[FEIPNJOJEGPSNTDIBOHJOHUPNPSFTQFDJBMJ[FE
POFTBTBSFTVMUPGBEBQUBUJPOBQSPDFTTLOPXOBTBEBQUJWFSBEJBUJPO*O
PUIFSXPSET UIFCSBODIFTPGUIFiUSFFwPGIVNBOFWPMVUJPONVTUIBWFCFFO
UBOHMFEJOEFFE"NJEBMMUIFEJGGFSFOUJBUJPO IPXFWFS BSFMBUJWFMZOBSSPX
UISFBEPGDPOUJOVJUZGSPNQPQVMBUJPOUPQPQVMBUJPOIBTMFEUPDPOUFNQPSBSZ
IVNBOT BOEJUJTBMPOHUIJTMJOFUIBUUIFWBSJPVTDIBOHFTSFTVMUJOHJOMBO
HVBHFNVTUIBWFUBLFOQMBDF
5IFFWPMVUJPOGSPN)PNPFSFDUVT UP)PNPTBQJFOT XBTNBSLFECZBTJH
OJGJDBOUJODSFBTFJODVMUVSBMDPNQMFYJUZ5IF/FBOEFSUIBMT XIPQFSTJTUFE
JO&VSPQFVOUJMUIFBQQFBSBODFPGUIF$SP.BHOPOTPGUIF)PNPTBQJFOT
TBQJFOT WBSJFUZ BQQFBSUPIBWFCFFOUIFGJSTUUPCVSZBUMFBTUTPNFPGUIFJS
EFBEXJUIEFMJCFSBUFDBSF GVSOJTIJOHUIFNXJUIUPPMTBOEGPPE EFDPSBUJOH
UIFNXJUISFEPDIFS BOEFWFOTVSSPVOEJOHUIFNXJUIXJMEGMPXFST4FWFSBM
GJOET UBLFOUPSFQSFTFOUTPNFTPSUPGCFBSDVMU DPOTJTUPGBOVNCFSPGCFBS
TLVMMT TPNFOFBUMZBSSBOHFEJOBSPDLDIFTU PUIFSTDBSFGVMMZQMBDFEJOXBMM
OJDIFT5IFTFBOEPUIFSBDUJWJUJFTPGUIF/FBOEFSUIBMTBSFDPOTJEFSFECZ
TPNFBTFWJEFODFPGSJUVBMCFIBWJPSBOEQPTTJCMZFWFOCFMJFGJOBOBGUFSMJGF
5IFNBUFSJBMDVMUVSFPGUIF/FBOEFSUIBMTBMTPCFDBNFNPSFDPNQMFY5IFJS
DIBSBDUFSJTUJDNFUIPEPGQSPEVDJOHBWBSJFUZPGTQFDJBMJ[FEJNQMFNFOUT
NBEFVTFPGGMBLFTTUSVDLPGGTUPOFDPSFTUIBUIBECFFODBSFGVMMZTIBQFEJO
BEWBODF
5IF0ME4UPOF"HF SFGFSSFEUPUFDIOJDBMMZBTUIF1BMFPMJUIJD MBTUFEGPS
NPSFUIBONJMMJPOZFBST UFSNJOBUJOHPOMZBCPVU UP ZFBSTBHP
5IFNPTUSFDFOUTVCEJWJTJPOPGUIF1BMFPMJUIJD FYUFOEJOHGSPNBCPVU 
UP ZFBSTCFGPSFUIFQSFTFOU JTSFGFSSFEUPBT6QQFS1BMFPMJUIJD 'SPN
UIF0MEPXBOUSBEJUJPOUISPVHIUPUIF.PVTUFSJBODVMUVSF BTQBOPGBCPVU
NJMMJPOZFBST QSPHSFTTJOUPPMNBLJOHXBTWFSZTMPX#VUBOFYQMPTJPOPGDSF
BUJWFBDUJWJUZPDDVSSFEEVSJOHUIF6QQFS1BMFPMJUIJD XIFOUIF$SP.BHOPOT
CFHBOUPGBTIJPOFMBCPSBUFPCKFDUTCVSJOT CBSCFEIBSQPPOT TQFBSUISPX
FST CPOFOFFEMFT BOE BCPWFBMM FYRVJTJUFBSU 8PSLJOHXJUIQBJOUTBTXFMMBT
JOTUPOF DMBZ CPOF JWPSZ BOEBOUMFS UIFZDSFBUFEBSUCPUIEFMJDBUFBOENPO
Design Features of Language 101

VNFOUBM POFGSJF[FQPSUSBZJOHBOJNBMTPGUIFIVOUJTBCPVUGPSUZGFFUMPOH
JO
TUZMFTSBOHJOHGSPNBCTUSBDUBOEHFPNFUSJDUPOBUVSBMJTUJDPSEBSJOHMZTUZM
J[FE5IFSBUIFSTVEEFOBOESBQJEBEWBODFTJOUIFNBOVGBDUVSFPGBMBSHFWB
SJFUZ PG NBUFSJBM JUFNT OP EPVCU QBSBMMFM TJNJMBS BEWBODFT JO DPHOJUJWF
QSPDFTTFTBOEJOEJDBUFUIBUGVMMGMFEHFEMBOHVBHFXPVMEIBWFCFFOJOQMBDF
5PEBZ OPPOFXPVMERVFTUJPOUIFBTTVNQUJPOUIBUMBOHVBHFXBTXFMMFT
UBCMJTIFEBUUIFUJNFPGUIFSFMBUJWFMZCSJFG.FTPMJUIJDQFSJPEUIBUGPMMPXFE
UIF6QQFS1BMFPMJUIJDBOEVTIFSFEJOUIF/FPMJUIJD.PTUDFSUBJOMZ UIFSFW
PMVUJPOBSZDIBOHFTUIBUIVNBODVMUVSFVOEFSXFOUEVSJOHUIF/FPMJUIJDBTB
DPOTFRVFODFPGUIFEPNFTUJDBUJPOPGQMBOUTBOEBOJNBMTBSFVOUIJOLBCMF
XJUIPVUGVMMGMFEHFEMBOHVBHF

Design Features of Language


*GIVNBOMBOHVBHFJTVOJRVFBNPOHUIFNBOZLOPXOTZTUFNTPGDPNNVOJ
DBUJPOUIBUFYJTUJOUIFBOJNBMLJOHEPN UIFOJUNVTUQPTTFTTTPNFGFBUVSFT
PGEFTJHOOPUUPCFGPVOEFMTFXIFSF*OUIFT $IBSMFT')PDLFUUBOE
PUIFSTQSPQPTFEBTFUPGiEFTJHOGFBUVSFTwPGMBOHVBHFQSPQFSUJFTUIBU
DIBSBDUFSJ[FIVNBOTQFFDI
5IJTXBTBSBEJDBMTIJGUJOUIJOLJOHJOMJOHVJTUJDT BOEFWFOUPDFSUBJOFY
UFOU JOBOUISPQPMPHZ5IPVHIUIFSFXBTHFOFSBMBHSFFNFOUPOUIFCJPMPHJ
DBMBGGJOJUZCFUXFFOIVNBOTBOEPUIFSBOJNBMT MBOHVBHFXBTUIPVHIUUPCF
VOBTTBJMBCMFJOUIBUJUXBTBTTVNFEUPCFFYDMVTJWFMZIVNBO&WFOUISPVHI
UIFTBOETNBOZTUSVDUVSBMMJOHVJTUTSFGVTFEUPFOUFSUBJOUIFQPT
TJCJMJUZUIBUJODJQJFOUMJOHVJTUJDCFIBWJPSNJHIUCFGPVOE TBZ JODIJNQBO[FFT
PSHPSJMMBT5IFZPGUFOEFGJOFEMBOHVBHFBUUIFWFSZCFHJOOJOHBTTPNFUIJOH
QPTTFTTFEPOMZCZIVNBOT FH 5SBHFS

)PDLFUUPSJHJOBMMZQSPQPTFETFWFOEFTJHOGFBUVSFTCVUTPPOJODSFBTFEUIF
OVNCFSUPTJYUFFO *OMJHIUPGOFXGJOEJOHTGSPNMJOHVJTUJDTBOEDPHOJUJWF
TDJFODFXFXJMMBMTPQSPQPTFGPVSNPSFTIPSUMZ
5IFGPMMPXJOHBSFUIFQSPQ
FSUJFTUIBU)PDLFUUBSHVFEDIBSBDUFSJ[FEIVNBOMBOHVBHF

 7PDBMBVEJUPSZDIBOOFM 4PNFTPVOETQSPEVDFECZBOJNBMTBSFOPU
WPDBM GPSFYBNQMF UIFDIJSQJOHPGDSJDLFUT
OPSBSFUIFZSFDFJWFE
BVEJUPSJMZ BTXJUICFFT IBWJOHOPFBST
 8SJUJOH PGDPVSTF JTFYDMVEFE
CFDBVTFUIFDIBOOFMVTFEGPSXSJUUFONFTTBHFTJTPQUJDBMSBUIFSUIBO
WPDBMBVEJUPSZ
"NPOHNBNNBMT UIFVTFPGUIFWPDBMBVEJUPSZDIBOOFM
102 Chapter 6: The Development and Evolution of Language

GPSDPNNVOJDBUJPOJTFYUSFNFMZDPNNPO UIPVHIUIFZPGUFOVTFPUIFS
NFBOTPGDPNNVOJDBUJPO FH BEPHiNBSLJOHwJUTQSFTFODFBHBJOTUB
USFF
0OFJNQPSUBOUBEWBOUBHFPGVTJOHUIFWPDBMBQQBSBUVTUPDPN
NVOJDBUFJTUIBUUIFSFTUPGUIFCPEZJTMFGUGSFFUPDBSSZPOTJNVMUBOF
PVTMZWBSJPVTPUIFSBDUJWJUJFT
 #SPBEDBTUUSBOTNJTTJPOBOEEJSFDUJPOBMSFDFQUJPO 4QFFDITPVOETNPWF
PVUGSPNUIFTPVSDFPGUIFJSPSJHJOJOBMMEJSFDUJPOT BOEUIFTFOEFSBOE
UIFSFDFJWFSOFFEOPUTFFFBDIPUIFSUPDPNNVOJDBUF OPSEPUIFZIBWF
UPiBJNwUIFJSTQFFDIJOBOBSSPXEJSFDUJPO#JOBVSBMSFDFQUJPO JO
WPMWJOHCPUIFBST
NBLFTJUQPTTJCMFUPEFUFSNJOFUIFMPDBUJPOPGUIF
TPVSDFPGTPVOET
 3BQJEGBEJOH 4QFFDITJHOBMTJNNFEJBUFMZEJTBQQFBSUPDMFBSUIFDIBO
OFMGPSOFXNFTTBHFTUPDPNF5IJTJTNPSFJNQPSUBOUUIBONJHIUBQ
QFBSBUGJSTUHMBODF*GXFDPNNVOJDBUFEPMGBDUPSJMZ BTNBOZBOJNBMT
EP XFXPVMEIBWFUPXBJUGPSPMENFTTBHFTUPEJTTJQBUF5IJTXPVMECF
WFSZUJNFDPOTVNJOH)VNBOTPVOET POUIFPUIFSIBOE BSFIFBSE
POMZBUUIFUJNFUIFZBSFCFJOHQSPEVDFE"GUFSUIBUUIFZBSFJSSFUSJFW
BCMZMPTU BOEUIFDIBOOFMJTSFBEZGPSOFXNFTTBHFT
 *OUFSDIBOHFBCJMJUZ 4QFBLFSTPGIVNBOMBOHVBHFTDBOCFTQFBLFSTBOE
IFBSFSTUIBUJT TQFFDITJHOBMTDBOCFUSBOTNJUUFEPSSFDFJWFEJOUFS
DIBOHFBCMZCZBMMBEVMUNFNCFST BOENPTUDIJMENFNCFST
PGBDPN
NVOJUZ*OUIFPSZ BUMFBTU IVNBOCFJOHTBSFDBQBCMFPGVUUFSJOHXIBU
PUIFSTTBZ JG PGDPVSTF UIFMBOHVBHFVTFEJTGBNJMJBS
5IJTJTOPUUSVF
PGNBOZBOJNBMTQFDJFTJOXIJDIUIFOBUVSFPGNFTTBHFTWBSJFTCFUXFFO
NBMFTBOEGFNBMFTPSBDDPSEJOHUPPUIFSOBUVSBMEJWJTJPOT'PSFYBN
QMF JOTPNFTQFDJFTPGDSJDLFUTPOMZUIFNBMFTDIJSQCZSVCCJOHUP
HFUIFS QBSUT PG UIFJS GPSFXJOHT  BOE UIF EBODF MBOHVBHF PG XPSLFS
IPOFZCFFTJTOPUVOEFSTUPPEOPSDBOJUCFQFSGPSNFECZBRVFFOPS
UIFESPOFTPGUIFTBNFDPMPOZ
 $PNQMFUFGFFECBDL 4QFBLFSTPGBOZMBOHVBHFIFBSXIBUUIFZUIFNTFMWFT
BSFTBZJOHBOEBSFUIFSFGPSFDBQBCMFPGNPOJUPSJOHUIFJSNFTTBHFTBOE
QSPNQUMZNBLJOHBOZDPSSFDUJPOTUIFZDPOTJEFSOFDFTTBSZPSBQQSP
QSJBUF #Z DPOUSBTU  B NBMF TUJDLMFCBDL B GJTI
 DBOOPU NPOJUPS UIF
DIBOHJOHPGUIFDPMPSPGIJTFZFTBOECFMMZUIBUTFSWFTUPTUJNVMBUFUIF
GFNBMFPGUIFTQFDJFT*UBMTPiNBLFTQPTTJCMFUIFTPDBMMFEJOUFSOBMJ[B
UJPOPGDPNNVOJDBUJWFCFIBWJPSUIBUDPOTUJUVUFTBUMFBTUBNBKPSQPS
UJPOPGAUIJOLJOHw )PDLFUU

Design Features of Language 103

 4QFDJBMJ[BUJPO )VNBOTQFFDITFSWFTOPPUIFSGVODUJPOUIBOUPDPN
NVOJDBUF#ZDPOUSBTU UIFQSJNBSZQVSQPTFPG TBZ UIFQBOUJOHPGB
EPHJTUPFGGFDUCPEZDPPMJOHUISPVHIFWBQPSBUJPO FWFOUIPVHIQBOU
JOHQSPEVDFTTPVOETUIBUDBSSZJOGPSNBUJPO GPSFYBNQMF UIFMPDBUJPO
PGUIFEPHPSUIFEFHSFFPGJUTEJTDPNGPSU
*OPUIFSXPSET UIFDPN
NVOJDBUJPOTZTUFNPGNBOZBOJNBMTUSBOTNJUTTJHOBMTPOMZBTBCZ
QSPEVDUPGTPNFPUIFSCJPMPHJDBMGVODUJPO
 4FNBOUJDJUZ 4QFFDIIBTNFBOJOHi4BMUwNFBOTTBMUBOEOPUTVHBSPS
QFQQFS4PNFGFBUVSFTPGIPOFZCFFEBODFMBOHVBHFEFOPUFUIFEJTUBODF
PGBGPPETPVSDFGSPNUIFCFFIJWF BOEPUIFSTHJWFUIFEJSFDUJPOJO
XIJDI UIF GPPE JT UP CF GPVOE )PXFWFS  JO OP TZTUFN PUIFS UIBO
IVNBOMBOHVBHFJTUIFSFTVDIBOFMBCPSBUFDPSSFMBUJPOCFUXFFOUIFWBTU
OVNCFSPGXPSETBOEQPTTJCMFTFOUFODFTBOEUIFXJEFMZEJGGFSFOUUPQ
JDTIVNBOTUBMLBCPVU
 "SCJUSBSJOFTT 5IFSFJTOPJOUSJOTJDSFMBUJPOTIJQCFUXFFOUIFGPSNPGB
NFBOJOHGVMVOJUPGBMBOHVBHFBOEUIFDPODFQUGPSXIJDIUIFVOJUTUBOET
5IFDPNNPOEPNFTUJDBOJNBMUIBUCBSLT$BOJTGBNJMJBSJT CZJUTTDJFO
UJGJD-BUJOOBNFJTSFGFSSFEUPBTEPH JO&OHMJTI )VOE JO(FSNBO DIJFO
JO'SFODI QFSSP JO4QBOJTI QFT JO$[FDI DJOF JO3PNBOJBO TPCBLB JO
3VTTJBO LQFL JO5VSLJTI LVUZB JO.BHZBS QPILP JO)PQJ IF JO"SB
QBIP BOEJOV JO+BQBOFTF#VUUIFSFJTOPUIJOHBCPVUDBOJOFTUIBUNBLFT
&OHMJTITQFBLFSTDBMMUIFNiEPHT wBOEUIFSFJTOPUIJOHJOIFSFOUJOUIF
TPVOET%0(UIBUNBLFUIFNOFDFTTBSJMZBQQMZUPDBOJOFT
 %JTDSFUFOFTT .FTTBHFTJOIVNBOMBOHVBHFTEPOPUDPOTJTUPGTPVOET
UIBUBSFDPOUJOVPVT MJLFBTJSFO GPSFYBNQMF
CVUBSFNBEFVQPGEJT
DSFUFUIBUJT JOEJWJEVBMMZEJTUJODUTFHNFOUT5IFEJGGFSFODFCFUXFFO
UIF &OHMJTI RVFTUJPOT i8PVME ZPV DBSF GPS B QJFDF PG UPBTU w BOE
i8PVMEZPVDBSFGPSBQJFDFPGSPBTU wJTEVFTPMFMZUPUXPEJTDSFUF
TPVOETBUUIFTBNFQMBDFJOFBDITFOUFODF POFXSJUUFOBOEQSPOPVODFE
BTU BOEUIFPUIFSBTS#ZDPOUSBTU CFFEBODFMBOHVBHFJTDPOUJOVPVT
JUEPFTOPUNBLFVTFPGEJTDSFUFFMFNFOUT
 %JTQMBDFNFOU )VNBOTDBOUBMLBCPVU PSXSJUFBCPVU GPSUIBUNBUUFS

TPNFUIJOHUIBUJTGBSSFNPWFEJOUJNFPSTQBDFGSPNUIFTFUUJOHJO
XIJDI UIF DPNNVOJDBUJPO PDDVST 0OF NBZ  GPS JOTUBODF  EFTDSJCF
RVJUF WJWJEMZ BOE JO TPNF EFUBJM UIF NJMJUBSZ DBNQBJHO PG UIF
$BSUIBHJOJBOHFOFSBM)BOOJCBMBHBJOTUBODJFOU3PNF FWFOUIPVHIUIF
4FDPOE1VOJD8BSUPPLQMBDFNPSFUIBO ZFBSTBHPPOBOPUIFS
104 Chapter 6: The Development and Evolution of Language

DPOUJOFOU0SQFPQMFNBZUBMLBCPVUXIFSFUIFZQMBOUPMJWFBGUFSSF
UJSFNFOUTPNFUXFOUZPSUIJSUZZFBSTJOUIFGVUVSF%JTQMBDFNFOUPG
UIJTLJOEFYJTUTOPXIFSFFMTFJOUIFBOJNBMLJOHEPNBTGBSBTXFLOPX
 1SPEVDUJWJUZPQFOOFTT)VNBOTDBOTBZUIJOHTUIBUIBWFOFWFSCFFO
TBJECFGPSF BOEUIFZDBOVOEFSTUBOEUIJOHTUIFZIBWFOFWFSIFBSECF
GPSF5IJOLJOHVQBOPWFMTFOUFODFJTOPUEJGGJDVMU BT GPSFYBNQMF
i0VS UXP DBUT BSHVF BCPVU BQQSPBDIFT UP MJOHVJTUJD BOUISPQPMPHZ
XIFOFWFSUIFZBSFMFGUBUIPNFBMPOFw
(PPEQPFUTRVJUFSFHVMBSMZVTF
MBOHVBHFJOJOOPWBUJWFXBZT8IFOBOFXUIJOHJTJOWFOUFEXFNBLF
VQBOFXOBNFGPSJU0UIFSBOJNBMDPNNVOJDBUJPOTZTUFNTIBWFMJN
JUFESFQFSUPJSFT XIJDIDBOCFVTFEPOMZJOMJNJUFEXBZT
 %VBMJUZ PGQBUUFSOJOH 5IJTJTQFSIBQTUIFNPTUTVCUMFEFTJHOGFBUVSF
QSPQPTFECZ)PDLFUU5IJTGFBUVSFUFMMTVTUIBUIVNBOMBOHVBHFJTPS
HBOJ[FEPOUXPEJTUJODUMFWFMT B
BMFWFMPGNFBOJOHMFTT TPVOETBOE C

BMFWFMPGNFBOJOHGVM QBSUTPGBMBOHVBHF#PUIIBWFUIFJSPXOMBSHFMZJO
EFQFOEFOUQBUUFSOT SVMFTGPSDSFBUJOHDPNCJOBUJPOT
'PSFYBNQMF DPO
TJEFSKVTUUIFTFUISFFTPVOETU  BOEL0OUIFQIPOFNJD TPVOE

MFWFM UIFZIBWFOPNFBOJOH CVUUIFZDBOCFDPNCJOFEUPGPSNXPSET


MJLFiUBDL wiDBU wPSiBDUw IFSFXSJUUFOJOUIFDPOWFOUJPOBM&OHMJTIPS
UIPHSBQIZ
5IBUJT UIFVOJUTPOUIFGJSTUMFWFMUIFMFWFMPGTPVOEBSF
VTFEUPDPOTUSVDUVOJUTPOUIFTFDPOEMFWFMUIFMFWFMPGXPSET5IFPC
WJPVTBEWBOUBHFPGEVBMJUZPGQBUUFSOJOHJTUIBUBMJNJUFEOVNCFSPGMJO
HVJTUJDVOJUTPGPOFLJOENBLFVQBWBTUOVNCFSPGVOJUTPOBOPUIFS
MFWFM NVDIBTUIFBUPNTPGPOMZBCPVUOJOFUZOBUVSBMMZPDDVSSJOHFMF
NFOUTNBLFVQUIFNPMFDVMFTPGNJMMJPOTPGEJGGFSFOUDPNQPVOET
 $VMUVSBM PSUSBEJUJPOBM
USBOTNJTTJPO 5IPVHIUIFSFBSFCJPMPHJDBMQSF
EJTQPTJUJPOTGPSIVNBOTUPBDRVJSFMBOHVBHF MJOHVJTUJDJOGPSNBUJPOJT
OPUQBTTFEPOHFOFUJDBMMZ CVUDVMUVSBMMZ0OFEPFTOPUJOIFSJUBQBSUJDV
MBSMBOHVBHFDIJMESFOMFBSOMBOHVBHFGSPNQBSFOUTPSPUIFSTXIPNUIFZ
TQFBLXJUI4QFBLJOHBQBSUJDVMBSMBOHVBHFJTUIFSFGPSFBQBSUPGPOFT
PWFSBMMDVMUVSBMCFIBWJPS UIBUJT CFIBWJPSBDRVJSFEUISPVHIMFBSOJOH
 1SFWBSJDBUJPO8IBUBQFSTPONBZTBZDBOCFDPNQMFUFMZBOELOPX
JOHMZGBMTF BTJGTPNFPOFBTTFSUTUIBUUIFNPPOJTNBEFPGHSFFODIFFTF
PSUIBU8BTIJOHUPOJTBOIPVSTMFJTVSFMZXBMLGSPN4U1FUFSTCVSH
"E
NJUUFEMZ BOPQPTTVNNBZGFJHOEFBUI QMBZQPTTVN
JGTVSQSJTFEPO
UIFHSPVOE PSBCJSENBZQSFUFOEUPIBWFBCSPLFOXJOHUPMFBEQSFE
BUPSTBXBZGSPNIFSOFTU CVUUIFTFCFIBWJPSTBSFQSPCBCMZJOTUJODUJWF
Language as an Evolutionary Product 105

BOEEPOPUSFGMFDUBDPHOJUJWFEFDJTJPOPSBOJOUFOUUPEFDFJWF0OUIF
XIPMF BUUFNQUTBUEFDFQUJPOBSFOPUDPNNPOBNPOHBOJNBMT
 3FGMFYJWFOFTT)VNBOTDBOVTFMBOHVBHFUPUBMLBCPVUMBOHVBHF PS
DPNNVOJDBUJPOJOHFOFSBM BOEJOEFFEEPTPBMMUIFUJNF/POIVNBO
BOJNBMTEPOPUBQQFBSUPCFDBQBCMFPGUSBOTNJUUJOHJOGPSNBUJPOBCPVU
UIFJSPXOPSPUIFSTZTUFNTPGDPNNVOJDBUJPO
 -FBSOBCJMJUZ"OZIVNBOTQFBLFSDBOQPUFOUJBMMZMFBSOBOZIVNBOMBO
HVBHF4QFBLFSTPGPOFMBOHVBHFDBOMFBSOBTFDPOEMBOHVBHF PSFWFO
TFWFSBMMBOHVBHFT JOBEEJUJPOUPUIFJSNPUIFSUPOHVFT4PNFDPNNV
OJDBUJWFCFIBWJPSBNPOHOPOIVNBOBOJNBMTJTBMTPUIFSFTVMUPGMFBSO
JOH FJUIFSCZFYQFSJFODFPSGSPNIVNBOT/PPUIFSBOJNBMT IPXFWFS
QPTTFTTUIFBCJMJUZUPMFBSOPOFPSTFWFSBMTZTUFNTPGDPNNVOJDBUJPO
BTDPNQMFYBTMBOHVBHF

)VNBOMBOHVBHFTQPTTFTTBMMUIFTFEFTJHOGFBUVSFT XIFSFBTUIFDPNNV
OJDBUJWFTZTUFNTPGPUIFSBOJNBMTQPTTFTTPOMZTPNF'PSFYBNQMF BDDPSEJOH
UP)PDLFUU 
DBMMTQSPEVDFECZHJCCPOTBSFDIBSBDUFSJ[FECZUIFQSFT
FODFPGEFTJHOGFBUVSFTUISPVHICVUMBDLEJTQMBDFNFOU QSPEVDUJWJUZ BOE
EVBMJUZPGQBUUFSOJOH )PDLFUUJTVOTVSFBCPVUUSBEJUJPOBMUSBOTNJTTJPO

,OPXJOHUIBUOPOFPGUIFTFEFTJHOGFBUVSFTJTBDPNQMFUFMZFJUIFSPSQSPQP
TJUJPO )PDLFUUBOE"MUNBOO 
DBMMFEGPSFYBNJOJOHEFTJHOGFBUVSFT
VTJOHGJWFGSBNFXPSLTUIFTPDJBMTFUUJOH UIFCFIBWJPSBMBOUFDFEFOUTBOE
DPOTFRVFODFTPGDPNNVOJDBUJWFBDUT UIFDIBOOFMPSDIBOOFMTFNQMPZFE
DPOUJOVJUZBOEDIBOHFJODPNNVOJDBUJPOTZTUFNT BOEUIFTUSVDUVSFPGNFT
TBHFTBOEUIFJSSFQFSUPSJFTJOTQFDJGJDTZTUFNT"DDPSEJOHMZ JGPOFJTUPTUVEZ
BQBSUJDVMBSDPNNVOJDBUJWFTZTUFNPSUSBOTBDUJPO POFTIPVMEJODMVEFJO
RVJSJFTDPODFSOJOHXIPUIFQBSUJDJQBOUTBSFBOEXIFSFBOEVOEFSXIBUDJS
DVNTUBODFTUIFZDPNNVOJDBUF XIBUDIBOOFMPSDIBOOFMTUIFZVTF XIBUUIF
TUSVDUVSFPGUIFJSNFTTBHFTBOEPGUIFDPEFBTBXIPMFJT BOETPPO
5IFTFBOESFMBUFEDPODFSOTOPUPOMZBSFOFDFTTBSZGPSBGVMMFSVOEFSTUBOE
JOHPGTVCIVNBODPNNVOJDBUJPOCVUBSFFRVBMMZJNQPSUBOUGPSUIFTUVEZBOE
BQQSFDJBUJPOPGIVNBOMBOHVBHFJOUIFDPOUFYUPGTPDJFUZBOEDVMUVSF

Language as an Evolutionary Product


-JLFBMMBTQFDUTPGUIFIVNBODPOEJUJPO MBOHVBHFBMTPNVTUIBWFCFFOB
QSPEVDUPGFWPMVUJPO)PXFWFS VOMJLFJUFNTPGNBUFSJBMDVMUVSF MBOHVBHF
106 Chapter 6: The Development and Evolution of Language

MFBWFTOPQIZTJDBMUSBDFTPGJUTFWPMVUJPOBSZQBTU6OUJMSFDFOUMZ NBOZBO
UISPQPMPHJTUT MJOHVJTUT BOECJPMPHJTUTCFMJFWFEUIBUUIFSFXBTMJUUMFUIBUDPVME
CFTBJEBCPVUUIFPSJHJOTPGMBOHVBHF
5IPVHIOPEFGJOJUJWFBOTXFSTDBOCFHJWFOBUQSFTFOU SFDFOUTUVEJFTJO
IVNBOHFOFUJDT CFIBWJPSBMCJPMPHZ BOBUPNZ BOEBSUJGJDJBMJOUFMMJHFODFHJWFVT
SFBTPOTUPCFPQUJNJTUJDBCPVUTPMWJOHTPNFPGUIFNZTUFSJFTPGUIFPSJHJOBOE
EFWFMPQNFOUMBOHVBHF5XPTFUTPGSFMBUFEJTTVFTNVTUCFBEESFTTFE5IFGJSTU
iCJHwRVFTUJPOJT EJEMBOHVBHFTVEEFOMZEFWFMPQBMMBUPODF PSXBTJUBHSBE
VBMQSPDFTT 5IFTFDPOEJT EJEMBOHVBHFEFWFMPQVOEFSTFMFDUJWFGPSDFTEJSFDUMZ
BDUJOHVQPOJU PSXBTJUBTFDPOEBSZCZQSPEVDUPGFWPMVUJPOBSZQSPDFTTFT
$POUJOVJUZWTEJTDPOUJOVJUZ*OIJTCPPLEFBMJOHXJUIUIFCJPMPHJDBMGPVOEB
UJPOTPGMBOHVBHF 
&SJD)-FOOFCFSH o
JODMVEFEBOFYUFOEFE
EJTDVTTJPOPGMBOHVBHFJOUIFMJHIUPGFWPMVUJPOBOEHFOFUJDT-BOHVBHFEFWFM
PQNFOU IFQPJOUFEPVU NBZCFWJFXFEGSPNUXPTIBSQMZEJGGFSJOHQPTJUJPOT
0OF XIJDI-FOOFCFSHDBMMFEUIFDPOUJOVJUZUIFPSZ IPMETUIBUTQFFDINVTUIBWF
VMUJNBUFMZEFWFMPQFEGSPNQSJNJUJWFGPSNTPGDPNNVOJDBUJPOVTFECZMPXFS
BOJNBMTBOEUIBUJUTTUVEZJTMJLFMZUPSFWFBMUIBUMBOHVBHFFWPMWFEJOBTUSBJHIU
MJOFPWFSUJNF"DDPSEJOHUPUIJTWJFX IVNBOMBOHVBHFEJGGFSTGSPNBOJNBM
iMBOHVBHFTwPOMZRVBOUJUBUJWFMZ UIBUJT CZWJSUVFPGJUTNVDIHSFBUFSDPNQMFY
JUZ"MUIPVHIUIFQSPQPOFOUTPGBWBSJBOUWFSTJPOPGUIJTUIFPSZBSHVFUIBUEJG
GFSFODFTCFUXFFOIVNBOBOEBOJNBMDPNNVOJDBUJPOBSFRVBMJUBUJWFSBUIFSUIBO
NFSFMZRVBOUJUBUJWF UIFZBMTPCFMJFWFUIBUBMMDPNNVOJDBUJWFCFIBWJPSJOUIF
BOJNBMLJOHEPNIBTDPNFBCPVUXJUIPVUJOUFSSVQUJPO XJUITJNQMFSGPSNT
GSPNUIFQBTUDPOUSJCVUJOHUPUIFEFWFMPQNFOUPGMBUFS NPSFDPNQMFYPOFT
5IFTFDPOEUIFPSZ SFGFSSFEUPBTUIFEJTDPOUJOVJUZUIFPSZPGMBOHVBHF
FWPMVUJPO BOEGBWPSFECZ-FOOFCFSH IPMETUIBUIVNBOMBOHVBHFNVTUCF
SFDPHOJ[FEBTVOJRVF XJUIPVUFWPMVUJPOBSZBOUFDFEFOUT*UTEFWFMPQNFOU
DBOOPUCFJMMVNJOBUFECZTUVEZJOHWBSJPVTDPNNVOJDBUJWFTZTUFNTPGBOJ
NBMTQFDJFTBUSBOEPNBOEUIFODPNQBSJOHUIFNXJUIIVNBOMBOHVBHF0OF
TUBUFNFOUDPODFSOJOHUIFBOUJRVJUZPGMBOHVBHF IPXFWFS DBOCFNBEFXJUI
TPNFBTTVSBODF#FDBVTFBMMIVNBOTQPTTFTTUIFTBNFCJPMPHJDBMQPUFOUJBM
GPSUIFBDRVJTJUJPOPGBOZMBOHVBHF UIFDBQBDJUZGPSTQFFDINVTUIBWFDIBS
BDUFSJ[FEUIFDPNNPOBODFTUPSTPGBMMIVNBOTCFGPSFQPQVMBUJPOTBEBQUFEUP
EJGGFSFOUFOWJSPONFOUTBOEEJWFSTJGJFEQIZTJDBMMZ
-FOOFCFSHSFKFDUFEUIFDPOUJOVJUZUIFPSZPGMBOHVBHFEFWFMPQNFOUGPS
TFWFSBMSFBTPOT&WFOUIPVHIUIFHSFBUBQFTBSFUIFBOJNBMTNPTUDMPTFMZ
SFMBUFEUPIVNBOT UIFZBQQFBSUPIBWFGFX JGBOZ PGUIFTLJMMTPSCJPMPHJDBM
Language as an Evolutionary Product 107

QSFSFRVJTJUFTGPSTQFFDI'SFRVFOUMZDJUFEFYBNQMFTPGBOJNBMDPNNVOJDB
UJPOIBWFCFFOESBXOGSPNJOTFDUT CJSET BOEBRVBUJDNBNNBMT CVUUIFFWP
MVUJPOBSZSFMBUJPOTIJQTPGUIFTFBOJNBMTUPIVNBOTWBSZHSFBUMZ5IBUPOMZB
GFXTQFDJFTXJUIJOMBSHFHFOFSBPSGBNJMJFTQPTTFTTQBSUJDVMBSJOOBUFDPN
NVOJDBUJWFUSBJUTJOEJDBUFTUIBUTVDITQFDJFTTQFDJGJDCFIBWJPSBMUSBJUTIBWF
OPUCFDPNFHFOFSBMJ[FEBOEUIFSFGPSFBSFMJLFMZUPCFPGSFMBUJWFMZSFDFOUEBUF
*OUIFGPMMPXJOHEJTDVTTJPO IVNBOTQFFDIBOEUIFTFWFSBMSFQSFTFOUBUJWF
DPNNVOJDBUJWFTZTUFNTPGPUIFSBOJNBMTTIPVMEUIFSFGPSFCFWJFXFEBTIBW
JOHOPFWPMVUJPOBSZDPOUJOVJUZ5IFSFJT JOTIPSU OPFWJEFODFUPTVHHFTUUIBU
IVNBOTQFFDIJTBOBDDVNVMBUJPOPGTFQBSBUFTLJMMTUISPVHIPVUUIFMPOH
DPVSTFPGFWPMVUJPO*GJUXFSFTP HJCCPOT DIJNQBO[FFT PSBOHVUBOT BOEHP
SJMMBTXPVMEOPUCFBTTQFFDIMFTTBTUIFZBSF
-BOHVBHFBTFNFSHFOUWTMBOHVBHFBTJOOBUFTQBOESFMTPSMBOHVBHFBTBO
FWPMVUJPOBSZCZQSPEVDU5IFQBMFPOUPMPHJTU4UFQIFO+BZ(PVME o

BSHVFEUIBUFWPMVUJPOBSZCJPMPHZOFFEFEBUFSNGPSGFBUVSFTUIBUBSPTFBTCZ
QSPEVDUTPG SBUIFSUIBOBDUVBM BEBQUBUJPOT)FDBMMTTVDIGFBUVSFTTQBOESFMT
(PVMEBOE-FXPOUJO (PVMEo
CZBOBMPHZXJUIUIF
DVSWFE BSFBT PG TVQQPSUJOH BSDIFT GPVOE JO 3FOBJTTBODF BSDIJUFDUVSF
5IPVHIQMFBTJOHUPUIFFZF BOEVTVBMMZDPWFSFEXJUICFBVUJGVMEFDPSBUJWF
BSU TQBOESFMTXFSFOFDFTTBSZUPQSPWJEFOFFEFETVQQPSUUPBTRVBSFGSBNFPG
UIFBSDIXBZ-JLFXJTF GPSFYBNQMF UIFGFBUIFSTPGCJSETNBZIBWFPSJHJOBMMZ
FWPMWFEBTBNFDIBOJTNGPSSFHVMBUJOHIFBUBOECPEZUFNQFSBUVSF BTTFFO
TBZ JONPEFSOEBZQFOHVJOT
0WFSUJNF IPXFWFS GFBUIFSTTFFNUPIBWF
UBLFOPOBOPUIFSVTFGMJHIU*GUSVF UIJTDPPQUJOHPGGFBUIFSTGPSVTFJO
GMJHIUXPVMECFBOFYBNQMFPGBTQBOESFM
5IFRVFTUJPOJT EJEMBOHVBHFFWPMWFEJSFDUMZPSXBTJUBTQBOESFM /PBN
$IPNTLZBOETPNFPUIFSTXIPTVCTDSJCFUPUIFFYJTUFODFPGBVOJWFSTBMiMBO
HVBHFGBDVMUZwCFMJFWFUIBUMBOHVBHFJUTFMGFWPMWFEBTBCZQSPEVDU )BVTFS
$IPNTLZ BOE'JUDI
4UFQIFO1JOLFS 1JOLFS 1JOLFSBOE#MPPN

BSHVFTUIBUOBUVSBMTFMFDUJPOQMBZFEBNPSFEJSFDUSPMFJOMBOHVBHFFWP
MVUJPO5IFQSPDFTTFTPGOBUVSBMTFMFDUJPOEFTJHOFEBiMBOHVBHFBDRVJTJUJPO
EFWJDFwNPEVMFJOUIFQSPUPIVNBONJOE BOEFWPMVUJPOBSZGPSDFTJODSFBT
JOHMZNBEFJUNPSFTPQIJTUJDBUFEPWFSUJNF(JWO 
IPXFWFS CF
MJFWFT UIBU NPEFSO OFVSPMPHZ TVQQPSUT UIF DMBJN UIBU iIVNBO MBOHVBHF
QSPDFTTJOHJTBOFWPMVUJPOBSZPVUHSPXUIPGUIFQSJNBUFWJTVBMJOGPSNBUJPO
QSPDFTTJOHTZTUFNw5IFLFZRVFTUJPO IFBSHVFT JT %PFTUIFOFVSPMPHZUIBU
TVQQPSUTMBOHVBHFQSPDFTTJOHJOWPMWFBOZMBOHVBHFTQFDJGJDNFDIBOJTNTPS
108 Chapter 6: The Development and Evolution of Language

JTJUKVTUBDPMMFDUJPOPGQSFFYJTUJOHNPEVMFTUIBUIBWFCFFOSFDSVJUFEUPEP
TP 5PQVUUIJOHTJOFYUSFNFT XFDPVMEQISBTFUIFTFUXPQPTJUJPOTBT

-BOHVBHFBTTPNFUIJOHUIBUFNFSHFT i"MMMBOHVBHFQSPDFTTJOH
NPEVMFTDPOUJOVFUPQFSGPSNUIFJSPMEFSQSFMJOHVJTUJDUBTLBOE
SFWFBMOPTQFDJBMMBOHVBHFEFEJDBUFEBEBQUBUJPOTw

PS

-BOHVBHFBTTPNFUIJOHUIBUJTJOOBUFi"MMMBOHVBHFQSPDFTTJOH
NPEVMFTBSFFJUIFSFOUJSFMZOPWFM PSBUUIFWFSZMFBTUIBWFCFFOIFBWJMZ
NPEJGJFEUPQFSGPSNUIFJSOPWFMMJOHVJTUJDUBTLTw (JWO

Monogenesis Versus Polygenesis


0OFPUIFSRVFTUJPOBSJTFTXIFOEJTDVTTJOHMBOHVBHFPSJHJOT%JEUIFQPUFO
UJBMJUJFTBOEUSBJUTSFRVJSFEGPSUIFEFWFMPQNFOUPGMBOHVBHFPSJHJOBUFJOTFQ
BSBUFQMBDFTBUEJGGFSFOUPSBQQSPYJNBUFMZUIFTBNFUJNFT QPMZHFOFTJT
PS
EJEUIFZDPNFJOUPCFJOHKVTUPODF NPOPHFOFTJT
"MUIPVHIPOFDBOOFWFS
FYQFDUBDPODMVTJWFBOTXFSUPUIJTRVFTUJPO BSFBTPOFEEJTDVTTJPOPGUIFBM
UFSOBUJWFTJTJOPSEFS
5IFUIFPSZPGQPMZHFOFTJT XJUIJUTJNQMJDBUJPOUIBUMBOHVBHFTTQPLFO
UPEBZVMUJNBUFMZEFSJWFGSPNTFWFSBMVOSFMBUFETPVSDFTJOUIFSFNPUFQBTU JT
OPUFBTZUPEFGFOE'PSPOFUIJOH UIFQSPDFTTMFBEJOHUPQSFMBOHVBHFBOE
MBOHVBHFNVTUIBWFDPOTJTUFEPGBMPOHDIBJOPGUSBOTGPSNBUJPOT TUSVDUVSBM
BOEGVODUJPOBM5IBUUXPPSNPSFQBSBMMFMEFWFMPQNFOUTPGTVDIDPNQMFYJUZ
UPPLQMBDFJOEFQFOEFOUMZPGFBDIPUIFSDBOOPUCFUBLFOGPSHSBOUFE%FSFL
#JDLFSUPO 
QPTJUFEUIBUUIFUSBOTJUJPOGSPNiQSPUPMBOHVBHFw SFGFSSFE
UPIFSFBTQSFMBOHVBHF
UPUSVFMBOHVBHFXBTBCSVQUBOEUIFSFTVMUPGBTJO
HMFDSVDJBMNVUBUJPO)PXFWFS JUJTEJGGJDVMUUPBDDFQUUIBUBTZTUFNPGDPN
NVOJDBUJPOBTVOJRVFBOEDPNQMFYBTIVNBOMBOHVBHFDPVMEIBWFCFFOUIF
DPOTFRVFODFPGBTJOHMFNVUBUJPO5IFO UPP UIFDBQBDJUZPGBMMOPSNBMDIJM
ESFO SFHBSEMFTTPGFUIOJDCBDLHSPVOE UPBDRVJSFBOZPOFPGUIFTFWFSBMUIPV
TBOEOBUVSBMMBOHVBHFTXJUIUIFTBNFEFHSFFPGNBTUFSZBOEBDDPSEJOHUP
BQQSPYJNBUFMZUIFTBNFUJNFUBCMFJTBTUSPOHJOEJDBUJPOUIBUTQFFDIJTJOOBUF
UISPVHIPVUUIFIVNBOTQFDJFTBOEUIBUBMMMBOHVBHFTBSFTJNQMZWBSJBUJPOTPO
BDPNNPOCBTJDTUSVDUVSBMUIFNF
Monogenesis Versus Polygenesis 109

F I G U R E 6 . 3 A Simplified Representation of the Fuzzy Version of the Mono-


genetic Theory.
5IFUJNFTDBMF U
JTTFWFSBMNJMMJPOZFBST BOEUIFTUBSUJOHQPJOUJTBDMPTFEDBMMTZTUFN $

5IFBDRVJTJUJPOPGUSBJUTFTTFOUJBMGPSUIFEFWFMPQNFOUPGMBOHVBHFDVMNJOBUFTJOUIFJOUSP
EVDUJPOPGCMFOEJOH C
XIJDIHJWFTSJTFUPTFWFSBMQSFMBOHVBHFT 1 y1
0GUIFTF 1 1
BOE1 CFDPNFFYUJODUHFOFnPX H
PDDVSTCFUXFFOUIFTQFBLFSTPGQSFMBOHVBHFT1 BOE1
PGXIJDI1 TVSWJWFTJOUIFMPOHSVOBOEBGUFSUIFJOUSPEVDUJPOPGEVBMJUZPGQBUUFSOJOH E

CFDPNFTUIFTPVSDFPGBMMFYUBOUMBOHVBHFT - y-O


5IFUIFPSZPGNPOPHFOFTJTNBZUBLFUXPGPSNTSBEJDBM PSTUSBJHIUMJOF

BOE UPVTF)PDLFUUTUFSN GV[[Z0GUIFUXP UIFGV[[ZWFSTJPOPGNPOPHFO


FTJTBQQFBSTNPSFSFBMJTUJD"MUIPVHIJUQSFTVQQPTFTBTJOHMFPSJHJOPGUSBJUT
FTTFOUJBMGPSMBOHVBHF JUBMMPXTGPSUIFGVSUIFSEFWFMPQNFOUPGUIFJODJQJFOU
DBQBDJUZGPSTQFFDIUPUBLFQMBDFJOTFQBSBUFHSPVQTPGIPNJOJETXJUIJOBOBSFB
5IFSFTVMUJOHEJGGFSFOUJBUJPODPVMEIBWFCFFOCSJEHFECZHFOFGMPXBNPOH
UIFHSPVQTPSCSPVHIUUPBOFOECZUIFFWFOUVBMEPNJOBODFBOETVSWJWBMPG
UIBUFBSMZIVNBOQPQVMBUJPOXIPTFDPNNVOJDBUJWFTZTUFNXBTNPTUFGGJ
DJFOU TFF'JHVSF
*G JOTUFBE TFWFSBMWBSJFUJFTPGQSFMBOHVBHFNBOBHFEUP
110 Chapter 6: The Development and Evolution of Language

B OX 6 . 1 H O C K E T T O N B L E N D I N G

Suppose a gibbon finds himself in a situation characterized by both the


presence of food and the imminence of danger. The factors, we shall say,
are closely balanced. The normal consequence among gibbons is that one
or the other factor prevails and just one call is given. This time we imag-
ine our gibbon atypical. Instead of emitting either the food call or the dan-
ger call, he utters a cry that has some of the characteristics of each: he
produces a blend of the two.
This is beyond the experience of the other gibbons in his band. De-
pending on acoustic conditions, some of them may hear the actual cry as
the food call, others as the danger call, and others as nonsense. It is un-
likely that any hear it as a new signal, conveying two kinds of information
at once. The consequences are thus negligible.
But now suppose that the early hominids had a somewhat richer call
system (though closed) functioning in a somewhat more complex social
order. Then we may also assume that this type of event occasionally hap-
pened, and that sooner or later the other members of a band responded
appropriately, thus handling an unusually complex situation more effi-
ciently than otherwise. With this reinforcement, the habit of blending two
calls to produce a new one would gain ground.
We have to assume that this is what happened, because blending is
the only way in which a closed system can move towards openness of the
kind characteristic of language.
from Charles F. Hockett, Mans Place in Nature (1973), 381

QFSTJTU UIFOUIFSFXPVMECFNPSFUIBOPOFiEJBMFDUwBODFTUSBMUPBMMUIPTF
MBOHVBHFTUIBUEFWFMPQFETVCTFRVFOUMZ

Estimating the Age of Language: Linguistic Considerations


"MUIPVHITDIPMBSTBDUJWFJODPNQBSBUJWFBOEIJTUPSJDBMMJOHVJTUJDTIBWFEF
WFMPQFEBSFMJBCMFNFUIPEPGSFDPOTUSVDUJOHVOXSJUUFOMBOHVBHFTUIBUXFSF
TQPLFOJOUIFEJTUBOUQBTU FWJEFODFGSPNMJOHVJTUJDQSFIJTUPSZDBONBLFPOMZ
BMJNJUFEDPOUSJCVUJPO5PCFTVSF SFDPOTUSVDUJPOTIBWFSFWFBMFE JODPOTJE
Estimating the Age of Language: Linguistic Considerations 111

FSBCMFEFUBJM NBOZTUSVDUVSBMGFBUVSFTPGMBOHVBHFTBODFTUSBMUPQSFTFOU
EBZMBOHVBHFGBNJMJFT5IFCFTUFYBNQMFJT1SPUP*OEP&VSPQFBO UIFQBS
FOUPGBMBSHFOVNCFSPGMBOHVBHFTUIBUGJSTUTQSFBEUISPVHIPVU&VSPQFBOE
NBOZQBSUTPGTPVUIFSO"TJBBOEMBUFS EVSJOHNPEFSOUJNFT UPFWFSZPUIFS
QBSUPGUIFXPSMEBTXFMM5IFDPOTFOTVTBNPOHMJOHVJTUTJTUIBUUIFTQFBL
FSTPG1SPUP*OEP&VSPQFBOXFSFNPTUMJLFMZUPCFGPVOETPNFXIFSFJO
FBTUFSO &VSPQF  QPTTJCMZ JO UIF TUFQQFT PG TPVUIFSO 3VTTJB  EVSJOH UIF
GPVSUINJMMFOOJVN#$ %FTQJUFJUTFBSMZEBUF 1SPUP*OEP&VSPQFBONBUDIFE
JOHSBNNBUJDBMQBUUFSOTUIFDPNQMFYJUZPGJUTWBSJPVTEFTDFOEBOUT*UEJT
UJOHVJTIFEBNPOHUISFFHFOEFST NBTDVMJOF GFNJOJOF BOEOFVUFS
UISFF
OVNCFST TJOHVMBS EVBM BOEQMVSBM
BOEQFSIBQTBTNBOZBTFJHIUDBTFT
BOEBMTPQPTTFTTFEBDPNQBSBCMZSJDIJOGMFDUJPOBMWFSCTZTUFN0OFDBO
UBLF1SPUP*OEP&VSPQFBOBOEPUIFSTVDISFDPOTUSVDUFEQBSFOUMBOHVBHFT
QSPUPMBOHVBHFT
GPSFYBNQMF UIPTFPGUIF6SBMJDBOE"GSP"TJBUJDMBO
HVBHFGBNJMJFTBOEBUUFNQUGVSUIFSSFDPOTUSVDUJOH BTTPNFMJOHVJTUTIBWF
JOGBDUEPOF
*O IJT QPTUIVNPVTMZ QVCMJTIFE XPSL PO UIF TVCKFDU  .PSSJT 4XBEFTI
o
BQQFBSFEUPCFDPOWJODFEUIBUQSPUPMBOHVBHFTPGMBOHVBHFGBN
JMJFTXFSFNPSFTJNJMBSJOTUSVDUVSFUIBOUIFMBOHVBHFTUIBUEFTDFOEFEGSPN
UIFNCFDBVTFiIVNBOMBOHVBHFTXFSFUIFOBQQSFDJBCMZDMPTFSUPUIFJSDPN
NPOPSJHJOUIBOUIFZBSFUPEBZw 4XBEFTI
#VUEFTQJUFUIFQJP
OFFSJOHFGGPSUTPG4XBEFTIBOEPUIFST UIFNBKPSJUZPGUIPTFXIPXPSLJO
DPNQBSBUJWFBOEIJTUPSJDBMMJOHVJTUJDTUPEBZIBWFEPVCUTBCPVUUIFFGGFD
UJWFOFTTBOESFMJBCJMJUZPGUIFDPNQBSBUJWFNFUIPECFZPOEBDFSUBJOUJNF
EFQUI*OUIFXPSETPG1BVM,JQBSTLZ 
iUIFUJNFTQBOPWFSXIJDIXF
DBOIPQFUPSFDPOTUSVDUBOZUIJOHBUBMMBCPVUQSPUPMBOHVBHFT IPXFWFSHFO
FSPVTMZXFTFUJUBU TBZ   PSFWFO ZFBST JTTUJMMBWFSZTNBMMGSBD
UJPOPGUIFQFSJPEEVSJOHXIJDIMBOHVBHFIBTQSFTVNBCMZCFFOTQPLFOCZ
NBO5IFSFGPSF QSPUPMBOHVBHFTBTSFDPOTUSVDUFEDBOOPUQPTTJCMZCFJEFOUJ
GJFEXJUIBOZPSJHJOBMTUBHFPGMBOHVBHFw5IBUUIFBTTVNFE1SPUP*OEP
&VSPQFBOMBOHVBHFXBTHSBNNBUJDBMMZNPSFDPNQMFYUIBONBOZPGJUTNPEFSO
EFTDFOEBOUTDBOOPUCFUBLFOUPNFBOUIBUUIFPMEFSBMBOHVBHFJT UIFNPSF
DPNQMFYTUSVDUVSFJUNVTUQPTTFTT*GUIJTXFSFTP POFXPVMEIBWFUPDPO
DMVEFUIBUUIFFBSMJFTUMBOHVBHFXBTUIFNPTUIJHIMZDPNQMFY BQSFTVNQUJPO
UIBUSVOTDPVOUFSUPXIBUXFLOPXBCPVUMPOHUFSNFWPMVUJPOBSZQSPDFTT
*OTIPSU GVMMZEFWFMPQFEMBOHVBHFNVTUIBWFQSFDFEFECZNBOZUIPVTBOET
PGZFBSTBOZPGUIFQSPUPMBOHVBHFTMJOHVJTUTIBWFCFFOBCMFUPSFDPOTUSVDUUP
112 Chapter 6: The Development and Evolution of Language

EBUF UIPVHIDPOUSBSZUP,JQBSTLZTFTUJNBUF  UP ZFBSTNBZOPU


IBWFCFFOBiWFSZTNBMMGSBDUJPOwPGUIFQFSJPEEVSJOHXIJDIUSVFMBOHVBHF
IBTCFFOJOFYJTUFODF CVUBTJ[BCMFPOF

Estimating the Age of Language: The View from Prehistory


"QQSPBDIJOHUIFRVFTUJPOPGMBOHVBHFPSJHJOTGSPNBEJGGFSFOUWBOUBHFQPJOU
TPNFBOUISPQPMPHJTUTMPPLGPSDMVFTJODVMUVSBMQSFIJTUPSZ*UJTHFOFSBMMZ
BHSFFEUIBUUIFEFWFMPQNFOUPGUIFWBSJPVTBTQFDUTPGDVMUVSF CPUINBUFSJBM
BOEOPONBUFSJBM NVTUIBWFCFFOQBSBMMFMFECZEFWFMPQNFOUTJODPNNV
OJDBUJWFCFIBWJPS BOEUIBUBQPTJUJWFGFFECBDLNVTUIBWFFYJTUFECFUXFFO
UIFUXP*OPUIFSXPSET UIFNPSFDPNQMFYUIFDVMUVSFPGUIFFBSMZIPNJOJET
HSFX UIFNPSFFMBCPSBUFUIFTZTUFNPGDPNNVOJDBUJPOIBEUPCFDPNFUPBD
DPNNPEBUFJUBOEUIFNPSFUIFDPNNVOJDBUJPOTZTUFNXBTBCMFUPIBOEMF
UIFNPSFFMBCPSBUFDVMUVSFDPVMECFDPNF%VSJOHUIFJOJUJBMTUBHFTPGIP
NJOJEFWPMVUJPO BEWBODFNFOUXBTTMPX5IFDVMUVSBMUBLFPGGEBUFTCBDLUP
UIFQFSJPEPGUSBOTJUJPOGSPNUIF/FBOEFSUIBMTUPUIF$SP.BHOPOT)PDL
FUUBDLOPXMFEHFEUIJTSFMBUJWFMZSFDFOUBDDFMFSBUJPO 
i5SVFMBO
HVBHFJTTVDIBQPXFSGVMJOTUSVNFOUGPSUFDIOPMPHJDBMBOETPDJBMDIBOHF
<UIBU>JGPVSBODFTUPSTIBEJU PSNJMMJPOZFBSTBHP XIZEJEJUUBLF
VTTPMPOHUPHFUXIFSFXFBSF w
"MUIPVHIOPPOFXPVMEBSHVFJOQSJODJQMFBHBJOTUUIFMJOLBHFCFUXFFO
UIFEFHSFFPGDVMUVSBMFMBCPSBUJPOBOEUIFDPNQMFYJUZPGBDPNNVOJDBUJPO
TZTUFN JOUFSQSFUBUJPOTPGFWJEFODFGSPNQSFIJTUPSZWBSZBHSFBUEFBM"TIMFZ
.POUBHVBSHVFE 
UIBUTPNFPGUIFTUPOFUPPMBTTFNCMBHFTGPVOE
BU0MEVWBJ(PSHFJO5BO[BOJBBOEEBUFEUPCFOFBSMZNJMMJPOZFBSTPMESF
RVJSFETPNVDITLJMMBOEGPSFUIPVHIUUIBUJOBMMMJLFMJIPPEiTQFFDIXBTBM
SFBEZ XFMM FTUBCMJTIFE BNPOH UIF NBLFST PG UIPTF UPPMT  TP UIBU GPS UIF
PSJHJOTPGMBOHVBHFBOETQFFDIXFTIBMMIBWFUPMPPLUPFBSMJFSIPSJ[POT BOE
QFSIBQTUPFWFOFBSMJFSGPSNTPGNBO<UIBO)PNPIBCJMJT>w.BOZBOUISP
QPMPHJTUTGJOEUIFSFGFSFODFUPiXFMMFTUBCMJTIFETQFFDIwJO)PNPIBCJMJT PWFS
ESBXOCVUXPVMESFBEJMZBHSFFUPUIFQSFTFODFPGTPNFPGUIFUSBJUTUIBUXFSF
UPDPOUSJCVUFUPQSFMBOHVBHF
5IFQPTTFTTJPOPGQSFMBOHVBHFXPVME IPXFWFS QSPCBCMZCFHSBOUFEUP
UIFNPSFSFDFOUSFQSFTFOUBUJWFTPG)PNPFSFDUVT5IFGJSTUIPNJOJEBCMFUP
BEBQUTVDDFTTGVMMZUPSFHJPOTPGUIFXPSMEIBWJOHDPMEXJOUFST )PNPFSFDUVT
NVTUIBWFCFFOBOFGGJDJFOUIVOUFSPGMBSHFHBNF5IJTDMBJNIBTCFFOQBS
Estimating the Age of Language: The View from Prehistory 113

UJDVMBSMZ XFMM TVCTUBOUJBUFE CZ FYDBWBUJPOT BU 5PSSBMCB BOE "NCSPOB JO


OPSUIFBTUFSO4QBJO5IFTFUXPTJUFTSFWFBMFEMBSHFRVBOUJUJFTPGCPOFTGSPN
BWBSJFUZPGBOJNBMTBTXFMMBTBMBSHFBTTPSUNFOUPGUPPMT XJEFMZEJTUSJCVUFE
CJUTPGDIBSDPBM BOETVDIBOJOUSJHVJOHGJOEBTUIFFOEUPFOEBSSBOHFNFOU
PG BO FMFQIBOU UVTL BOE MFH CPOFT  QSPCBCMZ MBJE PVU CZ UIPTF XIP IBE
CVUDIFSFEUIFBOJNBMT*UBQQFBSTUIBUBUPOFUJNFUIFTJUFMPDBUJPOTMBZBMPOH
BUSBJMCFUXFFOUIFTFBTPOBMHSB[JOHBSFBTPGBOJNBMIFSET"DDPSEJOHUPB
XJEFMZ BDDFQUFE TDFOBSJP  B CBOE PS CBOET PG )PNP FSFDUVT IVOUFST PG
 UP ZFBSTBHPNBOBHFECZFJUIFSCSBOEJTIJOHUPSDIFTPSTFU
UJOHHSBTTBGJSFUPTUBNQFEFFMFQIBOUTJOUPBTXBNQZBSFBBOETPSFOEFSUIFN
EFGFOTFMFTTGPSUIFLJMM*OUIFDPOUFYUPGPVSEJTDVTTJPO IPXFWFS JUJTOPUTP
NVDIUIFIVOUJOHQSPXFTTPGUIFTFQFPQMFUIBUJTJNQPSUBOUBTUIFQMBOOJOH
BOEDPPSEJOBUJPOUIBUXPVMEIBWFCFFOSFRVJSFEUPCSJOHBQPUFOUJBMMZEBO
HFSPVTIVOUUPBTVDDFTTGVMDPODMVTJPOBGFBUUIBUDPVMEOPUIBWFCFFOBD
DPNQMJTIFEXJUIPVUTPNFTPSUPGQSFMBOHVBHF
5IF/FBOEFSUIBMT GBSGSPNCFJOHUIFGJFSDFMPPLJOHPSEJNXJUUFEDSFB
UVSFTQPSUSBZFEJOFBSMJFSSFDPOTUSVDUJPOT BEBQUFEUIFTUPOFXPSLJOHUFDI
OJRVFT PG UIFJS QSFEFDFTTPST UP QSPEVDF GBS NPSF WBSJFE BOE DBSFGVMMZ
GJOJTIFEUPPMTBOECFDBNFFWFONPSFQSPGJDJFOUIVOUFST0GHSFBUFSJNQPS
UBODF IPXFWFS BSFUIFBMSFBEZNFOUJPOFEBSDIBFPMPHJDBMGJOETUIBUBSF
TUSPOHMZTVHHFTUJWFPGSJUVBMBDUJWJUJFT*GJOEFFEUIFTFFBSMZIVNBOTCFMJFWFE
JOMJGFBGUFSEFBUI BOEJGUIFJSUSFBUNFOUPGUIFSFNBJOTPGDBWFCFBSTDBOCF
BTTPDJBUFEXJUINZUINBLJOHPSUBLFOBTBOBDUPGXPSTIJQPSUIFQSBDUJDFPG
IVOUJOHNBHJD UIF/FBOEFSUIBMTXPVMEIBWFIBEUPNBLFSFGFSFODFTUP
PUIFSUJNFTBOEQMBDFT UIVTNPWJOHBTJHOJGJDBOUEJTUBODFGSPNQSFMBOHVBHF
UPMBOHVBHF
5IFOBUVSFPG/FBOEFSUIBMDPNNVOJDBUJPODPOUJOVFTUPCFTVCKFDUUP
EFCBUF CVUUIFQSFTFODFPGMBOHVBHFBNPOHUIF$SP.BHOPOTDBOOPUCF
EJTQVUFE8JUICSBJOTBTMBSHFBTUIFBWFSBHFGPSNPEFSOIVNBOT UIFZ
XFSFBCMFUPBEBQUUPUIFDMJNBUJDBOEFDPMPHJDBMFYUSFNFTPGUIF"NFSJ
DBT "VTUSBMJB BOEFWFOUIF"SDUJDSFHJPOT5IFDPODSFUFFWJEFODFPGUIFJS
JNBHJOBUJPOBOEEFYUFSJUZJTOPMFTTBTUPVOEJOH.BOZPGUIFFMBCPSBUFMZ
FNCFMMJTIFEJUFNTPGUIFJSNBUFSJBMDVMUVSFUIBUUIFZCFRVFBUIFEUPQPT
UFSJUZDPNQBSFGBWPSBCMZXJUITPNFPGUIFCFTUBSUUIBUIBTCFFODSFBUFE
TJODF5IFJSDVMUVSBMBDIJFWFNFOUTBSFVOUIJOLBCMFXJUIPVUUIFBJEPGMBO
HVBHFBTGVMMZEFWFMPQFE PSWFSZOFBSMZTP BTUIBUPGSFDFOUBOEDPOUFN
QPSBSZUJNFT
114 Chapter 6: The Development and Evolution of Language

Estimating the Age of Language: Evidence from Anatomy


5IBUBMMOPSNBMIVNBOTBDRVJSFDPNNBOEPGBUMFBTUPOFQBSUJDVMBSMBOHVBHF
JTUIFSFTVMUPGMFBSOJOHUIBUBMMIVNBOTQPTTFTTBOENBLFVTFPGUIFDBQBD
JUZGPSTQFFDIJTQBSUBOEQBSDFMPGBCJPMPHJDBMFOEPXNFOUVOJRVFUPPVS
TQFDJFT"OZJORVJSZJOUPMBOHVBHFPSJHJOTTIPVMEUIFSFGPSFHJWFDPOTJEFSB
UJPOUPUIFCJPMPHJDBMGPVOEBUJPOTPGMBOHVBHFJOQBSUJDVMBSUIPTFQBSUTPG
UIFIVNBOBOBUPNZUIBUGBDJMJUBUFJU UIFCSBJOBOEUIFWPDBMBQQBSBUVT BOE
UIFSFDFJWJOHPSHBO UIFFBS
"NPOHUIFQSJNBUFT IVNBOTIBWFCSBJOTUIBUBSFSFMBUJWFMZMBSHFJODPN
QBSJTPOUPUPUBMCPEZNBTT*OUIFDPVSTFPGIVNBOQIZTJDBMFWPMVUJPO UIF
TJ[FPGUIFCSBJODBTFBQQBSFOUMZFYQBOEFERVJUFSBQJEMZUXJDFGJSTUEVSJOH
UIFUSBOTJUJPOCFUXFFO)PNPIBCJMJT BOE)PNPFSFDUVT UIFTFDPOEUJNFDP
JODJEFOUBMMZXJUIUIFSJTFPG)PNPTBQJFOT5IFTFFYQBOTJPOTNBEFJUQPTTJ
CMFGPSUIFCSBJODBTFUPIPMEBTVCTUBOUJBMMZMBSHFSOVNCFSPGCSBJODFMMTBOE
UPBDIJFWFBHSFBUFSEFOTJUZPGQBUIXBZTBNPOHUIFN CVUJUJTOPUDFSUBJO
UIBU PGJUTFMG FYQBOTJPOXBTUIFEJSFDUSFTVMUPGBTFMFDUJPOGPSHSFBUFSNFO
UBMDBQBDJUZ
%FTQJUFNVDISFDFOUSFTFBSDI XFTUJMMMBDLBEFRVBUFLOPXMFEHFPGUIF
TUSVDUVSFTJOUIBUQBSUPGUIFIVNBOCSBJOUPXIJDIUIFDPOUSPMPGTQFFDI
QSPEVDUJPOJTBUUSJCVUFE0OFWBSJBCMFGFBUVSFPGUIFOFVSBMCBTJTGPSTQFFDI
JTUIFMBUFSBMJ[BUJPOPGMBOHVBHFGVODUJPOTJOUIFMFGUDFSFCSBMIFNJTQIFSFJO
OFBSMZQFSDFOUPGSJHIUIBOEFEBEVMUT3JHIUIBOEFEOFTTBQQFBSTUPIBWF
CFFOQSFWBMFOUTJODFUIFUJNFTPG)PNPFSFDUVT BOE BDDPSEJOHUPTPNFTDIPM
BST NBZIBWFCFFOJOFWJEFODFBTGBSCBDLBTUIFBVTUSBMPQJUIFDJOFT)BOE
FEOFTTBOEUIFBTTPDJBUFEMBUFSBMJ[BUJPOFWFOBQQFBSUPCFFTUBCMJTIFEJOUIF
HSFBUBQFT JGOPUBMTPBNPOHUIFPUIFSQSJNBUFT EFTQJUFUIFJSUPUBMJODBQBD
JUZGPSTQFFDI
5IFHFOFSBMDPOGJHVSBUJPOPGUIFCSBJOJTTJNJMBSJOIPNJOJET BQFT BOE
NPOLFZTFYDFQUGPSUIFNPSFFYUFOTJWFBOEEFFQFSGPMEJOHPGUIFPVUFSMBZFS
PGHSBZNBUUFS UIFDPSUFY BOEUIFSFMBUJWFMZTNBMMTJ[FPGUIFMJNCJDSFHJPOJO
IVNBOT5IFMJNCJDTZTUFN XIJDIJONBNNBMTBDUTBTUIFiFNPUJPOBMCSBJO w
JTSFTQPOTJCMFGPSWPDBMJ[BUJPOTBTTPDJBUFEXJUIFNPUJPOBMBOENPUJWBUJPOBM
GBDUPSTBOEUSBOTNJUTTJHOBMTPGMPXJOGPSNBUJPOBMDPOUFOU TVDIBTDSJFT5IF
TFWFSBMSFHJPOTPGUIFCSBJOUIBUBQQFBSUPCFDMPTFMZBTTPDJBUFEXJUITQFFDI
QSPEVDUJPO FTQFDJBMMZ#SPDBTBSFB 8FSOJDLFTBSFB BOEUIFBOHVMBSHZSVT

BSFMPDBUFEJOUIFNPSFSFDFOUPVUFSQBSUPGUIFIVNBOCSBJO XIJDIJTEF
Estimating the Age of Language: Evidence from Anatomy 115

WFMPQFENPSFGVMMZBOEDPNQMFYMZUIBOUIFDPSSFTQPOEJOHTUSVDUVSFPGPVS
DMPTFTUQSJNBUFSFMBUJWFT*UJTVOGPSUVOBUFUIBUDBTUTNBEFPGGPTTJMDSBOJBM
DBWJUJFTTIPXJOHUIFBQQSPYJNBUFTIBQFPGUIFCSBJOEPOPUSFWFBMJUTJOUFS
OBMTUSVDUVSF
*OTIPSU UIFEJGGFSFODFTJOUIFCSBJOTUSVDUVSFTCFUXFFOIVNBOTBOEUIF
PUIFSQSJNBUFTBSFTVGGJDJFOUMZBQQBSFOUUPJOEJDBUFXIZUIFPUIFSXJTFIJHIMZ
UFBDIBCMFBQFTDBOOPUCFUBVHIUUPTQFBL CVUQSFIJTUPSJDFWJEFODFDPODFSOJOH
UIFJOUFSOBMFWPMVUJPOPGUIFIVNBOCSBJOJTFJUIFSTQPUUZPSDPOUSPWFSTJBM
5IFFWPMVUJPOPGUIFWPDBMBQQBSBUVTIBTCFFOTUVEJFECZ1IJMJQ-JFCFS
NBO UPHFUIFS XJUI TFWFSBM DPXPSLFST $PNQBSJOH UIF TLVMMT PG NPEFSO
IVNBOBEVMUTXJUIUIPTFPGOFXCPSOJOGBOUT UIF/FBOEFSUIBMT BOEDPO
UFNQPSBSZBQFT -JFCFSNBOBOEIJTBTTPDJBUFTGPVOEUIBUUIFNPEFSOBEVMU
TLVMMWBSJFTGSPNUIFPUIFSTJODFSUBJOJNQPSUBOUSFTQFDUT5IFTJHOJGJDBOU
EJGGFSFODFTFFNTUPCFJOUIFQPTJUJPOPGUIFMBSZOYBOEUIFTJ[FPGUIFQIBS
ZOYUIBUMJFTEJSFDUMZBCPWFJU TFF'JHVSF
*ONPEFSOIVNBOBEVMUTUIF
MBSZOY JT MPDBUFE GBSUIFS EPXO JO UIF UISPBU  BOE BT B DPOTFRVFODF UIF
TVQSBMBSZOHFBMBSFBJTNVDIMBSHFSUIBOJOJOGBOUT /FBOEFSUIBMT BOEBQFT
$POTFRVFOUMZ UIFTPVOETFNJUUFEGSPNTVDIBOBSFBDBOCFNPEJGJFEUPB
HSFBUFSEFHSFFBOEFODPNQBTTUIFUISFFFYUSFNFWPXFMT<J> <V> BOE<B>BT
JOCF CPP BOECBI5IFSFDPOTUSVDUJPOPGUIFTVQSBMBSZOHFBMWPDBMUSBDUPGUIF
/FBOEFSUIBMTJOEJDBUFTUIBUUIFTFIPNJOJETXFSFOPUDBQBCMFPGQSPEVDJOH
UIFUISFFDSJUJDBMWPXFMTBOEDFSUBJODPOTPOBOUT BUMFBTUOPUWFSZFGGFDUJWFMZ
BOEDPOTJTUFOUMZ BOEUIBUUIFZUIFSFGPSFMBDLFEUIFTQFDJBMDIBSBDUFSJTUJDT
PGNPEFSOIVNBOTQFFDI UIPVHIOPUCZNVDI"T-JFCFSNBODPODMVEFE



5IFFWJEFODFPG/FBOEFSUIBMDVMUVSFJOEJDBUFTBIJHIMZEFWFMPQFEUPPM
NBLJOHBOEVTJOHDVMUVSF UIFVTFPGGJSF CVSJBMSJUVBMT BOEBTPDJBMPSEFS
UIBUDBSFEGPSUIFFMEFSMZBOEJOGJSm...*UIFSFGPSFGJOEJUIBSEUPCFMJFWF
UIBU/FBOEFSUIBMIPNJOJETEJEOPUBMTPIBWFBXFMMEFWFMPQFEMBOHVBHF...
5IPVHIJUisJNQPTTJCMFUPTUBUFXJUIDFSUBJOUZBMMUIFGBDUPSTUIBUNJHIU
IBWFEJGGFSFOUJBUFEUIFMJOHVJTUJDBOEDPHOJUJWFBCJMJUZPGDMBTTJD/FBOEFSUIBM
IPNJOJETGSPNUIFJSBOBUPNJDBMMZNPEFSOIVNBODPOUFNQPSBSJFT UIFJS
TQFFDIBCJMJUZXBTJOGFSJPS

"MTPEVSJOHUIFT +FGGSFZ5-BJUNBOBOEIJTDPMMFBHVFTOPUJDFEUIBU
UIFTIBQFPGUIFCBTFPGUIFTLVMMJTSFMBUFEUPUIFQPTJUJPOPGUIFMBSZOY"
116 Chapter 6: The Development and Evolution of Language

EFUBJMFEBOBMZTJTPGUIFTLVMMCBTFGPSNBOZTQFDJFTPGNBNNBMTSFWFBMFEUIBU
FJUIFSUIFTLVMMCBTFJTGBJSMZGMBUBOEUIFQPTJUJPOPGUIFMBSZOYIJHIPSUIF
TLVMMJTBSDIFEBOEUIFQPTJUJPOPGUIFMBSZOYMPX5IFGJSTUDPOGJHVSBUJPOJT
DIBSBDUFSJTUJDPGBMMNBNNBMTFYDFQUIVNBOTPMEFSUIBOUXPZFBST5IFTFD
POEDPOGJHVSBUJPOJTGPVOEPOMZJOIVNBOTQBTUJOGBODZ-BJUNBOTOFYUTUFQ
XBTUPFWBMVBUFUIFTLVMMCBTFTPGWBSJPVTGPTTJMIPNJOJESFNBJOTBOEUIFO
KVEHFGSPNUIFJSTIBQFXIBUUIFQPTJUJPOPGUIFMBSZOYXPVMEIBWFCFFO-BJU
NBOSFQPSUFEUIBUiUIFBVTUSBMPQJUIFDJOFTQSPCBCMZIBEWPDBMUSBDUTNVDI
MJLFUIPTFPGMJWJOHNPOLFZTPSBQFTw'VSUIFSNPSF BDDPSEJOHUPQSFMJNJOBSZ
EBUBPOUIFTLVMMTPG)PNPFSFDUVT -BJUNBOTHSPVQEJTDPWFSFEiUIFGJSTUFY
BNQMFTPGJODJQJFOUCBTJDSBOJBMGMFYJPOBXBZGSPNUIFOPOGMFYFEBQFMJLFDPO
EJUJPOPGUIFBVTUSBMPQJUIFDJOFTBOEUPXBSEUIBUTIPXOCZNPEFSOIVNBOT
5IJTJOEJDBUFTUPVTUIBUUIFMBSZOYJO)PNPFSFDUVT NBZIBWFCFHVOUPEF
TDFOE JOUP UIF OFDL  JODSFBTJOH UIF BSFB BWBJMBCMF UP NPEJGZ MBSZOHFBM
TPVOETw'PTTJMEBUB-BJUNBOBOEIJTDPMMFBHVFTPCUBJOFEGVSUIFSTVHHFTUUIBU
BGVMMBSDIJOHPGUIFTLVMMCBTFDPNQBSBCMFUPUIBUJODPOUFNQPSBSZIVNBOT
DPJODJEFTXJUIiUIFBSSJWBMPG)PNPTBQJFOT TPNF UP ZFBST
BHP*UNBZIBWFCFFOUIFOUIBUBNPEFSOWPDBMUSBDUBQQFBSFEBOEPVSBO
DFTUPSTCFHBOUPQSPEVDFGVMMZBSUJDVMBUFTQFFDIw -BJUNBOo


Summary and Conclusions


4QFFDIJTPOMZPOFPGTFWFSBMNFBOTCZXIJDIIVNBOTDPNNVOJDBUF CVUJU
JTUIFNPTUDPNNPOBOEFGGJDJFOUPOF#FTJEFTUIFBDPVTUJDDIBOOFMFN
QMPZFEJOTQFBLJOH QFPQMFNBLFVTFPGPUIFSDIBOOFMT FTQFDJBMMZUIFPQUJ
DBMPOFUIFZEPTPXIFOFWFSUIFZNBLFHFTUVSFTPSGBDJBMFYQSFTTJPOTBOE PG
DPVSTF XIFOUIFZXSJUF
$PNNVOJDBUJPOJTDPNNPOBNPOHBOJNBMTPGBMMTQFDJFTBOEJOTPNF
DBTFTJTTVSQSJTJOHMZFMBCPSBUF BTXIFOBXPSLFSIPOFZCFFTJHOBMTUPPUIFS
CFFT JO XIBU EJSFDUJPO BOE BU XIBU EJTUBODF GSPN UIF IJWF BO BCVOEBOU
TPVSDFPGOFDUBSJTUPCFGPVOE5PBDPOTJEFSBCMFFYUFOU BOJNBMTBSFHFOFU
JDBMMZFOEPXFEXJUIDPNNVOJDBUJWFCFIBWJPS UIBUJT UIFZEPOPUIBWFUP
MFBSOJU"MUIPVHIUIFDBQBDJUZGPSTQFFDIJTBMTPBQBSUPGIVNBOHFOFUJD
NBLFVQ UIFQBSUJDVMBSMBOHVBHFPSMBOHVBHFTBOJOEJWJEVBMIBQQFOTUPTQFBL
NVTUCFMFBSOFE"NPOHUIFEFTJHOGFBUVSFTUIBUEJTUJOHVJTITQFFDIGSPN
UIFDPNNVOJDBUJWFCFIBWJPSPGPUIFSBOJNBMT UIFNPTUTUSJLJOHBSFQSP
EVDUJWJUZ EJTQMBDFNFOU BOESFGMFYJWFOFTT
Summary and Conclusions 117

$PNNVOJDBUJPOBNPOHFBSMZIPNJOJETTVDIBTUIFBVTUSBMPQJUIFDJOFTVO
EPVCUFEMZJOWPMWFETFWFSBMNPEFT XJUIBDPNCJOBUJPOPGUIFWJTVBMDIBOOFM
NBOVBMHFTUVSFTPSGBDJBMFYQSFTTJPOT
BOEUIFWPDBMBVEJUPSZDIBOOFM TJN
QMFWPDBMJ[BUJPOT
QSFEPNJOBUJOHPWFSUPVDIBOETNFMM"EBQUBUJPOTUIBU
NBEFTQFFDIQPTTJCMFWFSZMJLFMZDPJODJEFEXJUIUIFJOJUJBMTUBHFTPGIP
NJOJ[BUJPOUIFFWPMVUJPOBSZEFWFMPQNFOUPGIVNBODIBSBDUFSJTUJDTTPNF
UPNJMMJPOZFBSTBHP5IFQSPDFTTXBTFYDFFEJOHMZTMPX CVUJOUIFDPVSTF
PGUJNFUIFFBSMZIPNJOJETDBNFUPSFMZQSJNBSJMZPOUIFWPDBMBVEJUPSZ
DIBOOFM QSPCBCMZBTBSFTVMUPGUIFJODSFBTJOHFNQMPZNFOUPGIBOETGPSNBL
JOHBOEVTJOHUPPMT5IFTUFBEJMZFYQBOEJOHSFQFSUPSZPGDBMMTFWFOUVBMMZMFE
UP CMFOEJOH  XIJDI NBZ IBWF IBE JUT CFHJOOJOHT XJUI )PNP IBCJMJT BOE
SFBDIFEUIFMJNJUTPGTFSWJDFBCMFDPNQMFYJUZ QSFMBOHVBHF
JOMBUF)PNPFSFD
UVT UJNFT"UUIBUQPJOU UIFTUBHFXBTTFUGPSUIFEFWFMPQNFOUPGEVBMJUZPG
QBUUFSOJOH XIJDIDPVMEIBWFCFFOBDDPNQMJTIFEJOQSJODJQMFBNPOHUIFMBUF
/FBOEFSUIBMTCVUEJEOPUBUUBJOUIFFGGJDJFODZPGGVMMGMFEHFEMBOHVBHFVOUJM
UIFDPNQMFUFQSPHSFTTJPOPGIVNBOTUPTBQJFOTTUBUVTTPNF UP 
ZFBSTBHP
0GOFDFTTJUZ UIJTIBTCFFOBWFSZCSJFGBOEPWFSTJNQMJGJFEBDDPVOUPGIPX
MBOHVBHFNBZIBWFDPNFBCPVUUIFSFBEFSTIPVMECFBSJONJOEUIFMFOHUIPG
UJNFUIFQSPDFTTUPPLBOEUIFDPVOUMFTTDIBOHFT CPUICFIBWJPSBMBOEBOBUPN
JDBM BOEIFODFHFOFUJD
SFRVJSFEGPSUIFBUUBJONFOUPGGVMMIVNBOOFTT
7

Acquiring Language(s):
Life with First Languages,
Second Languages, and More

"TNPTUTUVEFOUTLOPXPOMZUPPXFMM MFBSOJOHUPTQFBLBGPSFJHOMBOHVBHFJT
BEFNBOEJOHVOEFSUBLJOHUIBUNFBOTDPQJOHXJUIVOGBNJMJBSTPVOETBOE
TPVOEDPNCJOBUJPOT NBTUFSJOHHSBNNBUJDBMSVMFTEJGGFSFOUGSPNUIPTFPG
POFTOBUJWFMBOHVBHF BOEMFBSOJOHBOFXWPDBCVMBSZDPOUBJOJOHUIPVTBOET
PGXPSET#VUJGGPSNPTUBEVMUTMFBSOJOHBGPSFJHOMBOHVBHFJTBNBKPSUBTL
BOEPOMZSFMBUJWFMZGFXBUUBJOGMVFODZJOBTFDPOEMBOHVBHF IPXJTJUUIBU
TNBMMDIJMESFOMFBSOBMBOHVBHF PSFWFOUXPPSNPSF BTFGGPSUMFTTMZBTUIFZ
EP *TGJSTUMBOHVBHFBDRVJTJUJPOEJGGFSFOUGSPNTFDPOEMBOHVBHFBDRVJTJUJPO
*TMFBSOJOHBUIJSEMBOHVBHFFBTJFSUIBOMFBSOJOHBTFDPOE %PQPMZHMPUT
QFPQMFXIPDBOTQFBLTFWFSBMMBOHVBHFTGMVFOUMZQPTTFTTBTQFDJBMLJOEPG
JOOBUFJOUFMMJHFODFUIFSFTUPGVTMBDL "SFUIFCSBJOTPGCJMJOHVBM BOENVM
UJMJOHVBM QFPQMFTPNFIPXEJGGFSFOUGSPNNPOPMJOHVBMCSBJOT

The First Steps of Language Acquisition in Childhood


'PSUIFNPTUQBSU DIJMESFOBSFOPUUBVHIUUPTQFBLUIFJSOBUJWFMBOHVBHF
5IFZMFBSOJUCZFYQPTVSFUPQFPQMFXIPUBMLUPUIFN5IFZEPOPUHPUPMBO
HVBHFMBCT BOEUIFZBSFHJWFOOPQBUUFSOESJMMTUPNFNPSJ[F*OGBDU DIJM
ESFOTFFNUPQJDLVQUIFMBOHVBHFTQPLFOBSPVOEUIFNXJUIWFSZMJUUMFFGGPSU
BOE JOEFFE PGUFOXJUIMJUUMFJOQVU"DUVBMMZ NBOZPGUIFFYBNQMFTUIFZBSF
QSFTFOUFEBSFQPPSBQQSPYJNBUJPOTPGDPSSFDUTQFFDI BTBOZPOFXIPIBTFWFS

119
120 Chapter 7: Acquiring Language(s)

IFBSEBHSBOENPUIFSUBMLiCBCZUBMLwUPBDIJMELOPXT:FUCZBCPVUBHFUXP
PSUISFF NPTUDIJMESFOBSFVTVBMMZDPNNVOJDBUJOHXFMMFOPVHIGPSQBSFOUT
BOENPTUPUIFSTUPVOEFSTUBOEUIFN
5IFGJSTUTUFQGPSUIFJOGBOUJTUPGJOETPNFXBZUPMFBSOUIFQIPOPMPHJDBM
TZTUFN5PSFQSPEVDFUIFTQFFDITPVOETPGBOZQBSUJDVMBSMBOHVBHFXIFO
UIFZCFHJOUPUBML JOGBOUTNVTUMFBSOUPEJTDSJNJOBUFBNPOHTPVOETUIBUNBZ
CFRVJUFTJNJMBS"NPOHUIFTPVOETJO&OHMJTIDPOTJEFSFEUPCFBMJLFPSUP
DMPTFMZSFTFNCMFFBDIPUIFSBSFUIFJOJUJBMDPOTPOBOUTPGTVDIQBJSTPGXPSET
BTCJMM BOEQJMM PSUIJO BOETJO UIFGJOBMDPOTPOBOUTPGTJO BOETJOH PSEPTF
BOEEP[F BOEUIFWPXFMTPGQFU BOEQBU QFO BOEQJO PSNJMM BOENFBM
)PXTPPOBOEIPXXFMMEPJOGBOUTEJTDSJNJOBUFBNPOHTJNJMBSTQFFDI
TPVOET 0OFPGUIFUFDIOJRVFTUPUFTUJOGBOUTBDVJUZPGTPVOEQFSDFQUJPOJT
IJHIBNQMJUVEFTVDLJOH"QBDJGJFSDPOOFDUFEUPBTZTUFNUIBUHFOFSBUFT
TPVOETXIFOBDIJMETVDLTSFDPSETUIFSBUFPGTVDLJOH8IFOJOGBOUTCFHJO
UPIFBSTPVOET UIFZTVDLFOFSHFUJDBMMZ CVUUIFZHSBEVBMMZMPTFJOUFSFTUJGUIF
TPVOETUBZTUIFTBNF8IFOUIFTPVOEDIBOHFT IPXFWFS WJHPSPVTTVDLJOH
JTSFTVNFE*OGBOUTPOMZPOFNPOUIPMEBQQFBSUPCFBCMFUPEJTUJOHVJTIUXP
TZOUIFUJDDPOTPOBOUWPXFMTZMMBCMFTEJGGFSFOUPOMZJOUIFJOJUJBMDPOTPOBOUT
Q BOEC0UIFSUFTUTIBWFFTUBCMJTIFEUIBUJOGBOUTBSFCPSOXJUIUIFBCJMJUZUP
EJGGFSFOUJBUFCFUXFFOFWFODMPTFMZTJNJMBSTPVOET CVUUIBUUIJTBCJMJUZEJ
NJOJTIFTPSEJTBQQFBSTCZUIFBHFPGBCPVUPOFZFBSJOGBWPSPGQFSDFJWJOH
POMZUIFEJGGFSFODFTDSVDJBMUPUIFOBUJWFMBOHVBHF5IFBDVJUZPGWPJDFQFS
DFQUJPOJOOFXCPSOCBCJFTIBTBMTPCFFOBUUFTUFE*UIBTCFFOFTUBCMJTIFEUIBU
UISFFEBZPME JOGBOUT BSF BCMF UP EJTUJOHVJTI UIFJS NPUIFST WPJDFT GSPN
BNPOHPUIFSGFNBMFWPJDFT"OEJUIBTBMTPCFFOTIPXOUIBUOFXCPSOJO
GBOUTQSFGFSUPMJTUFOUPUIFJSNPUIFSUPOHVFSBUIFSUIBOBOPUIFSMBOHVBHF
"MUIPVHI UIF SBUF PG TQFFDI EFWFMPQNFOU JO OPSNBM DIJMESFO WBSJFT
TPNFXIBU JUJTQPTTJCMFUPHFOFSBMJ[FBCPVUUIFTUBHFTUIBUDIBSBDUFSJ[FMBO
HVBHFBDRVJTJUJPO0OMZSFGMFYJWF CBTJDCJPMPHJDBM
OPJTFTTVDIBTCVSQJOH
DSZJOH BOEDPVHIJOHBSFQSPEVDFEEVSJOHUIFGJSTUFJHIUPSUFOXFFLTUIFTF
BSF TVQQMFNFOUFE CZ DPPJOH BOE MBVHIJOH EVSJOH UIF OFYU EP[FO PS TP
XFFLT7PDBMQMBZ DPOTJTUJOHPGUIFQSPEVDUJPOPGBGBJSMZXJEFSBOHFPG
TPVOETSFTFNCMJOHDPOTPOBOUTBOEWPXFMT CFDPNFTOPUJDFBCMFCZBCPVU
UIFBHFPGTJYNPOUIT5IFTFDPOEIBMGPGBOJOGBOUTGJSTUZFBSJTDIBSBDUFS
J[FECZCBCCMJOH "DDPSEJOHUPTPNFPCTFSWFST TPVOETNBEFEVSJOHUIJT
TUBHFBSFMFTTWBSJFEBOEUFOEUPBQQSPYJNBUFUIPTFPGUIFMBOHVBHFUPCF
BDRVJSFE#BCCMJOHBQQFBSTUPCFMBSHFMZJOTUJODUJWFCFDBVTFFWFODIJMESFO
Theories of Language Acquisition 121

XIPEPOPUIFBSHPUISPVHIUIFCBCCMJOHTUBHF*OHFOFSBM FWFOCFGPSFUIF
POTFUPGCBCCMJOH JOGBOUTTIPXFBHFSOFTTUPDPNNVOJDBUFBOECFHJOUP
QSPDFTTUIFJOGPSNBUJPOUIFZBSFSFDFJWJOHUISPVHIWBSJPVTDIBOOFMT*UBMTP
BQQFBSTUIBUSFHBSEMFTTPGUIFMBOHVBHFUIFZBSFBDRVJSJOH DIJMESFOMFBSOUP
VTFUIFNBYJNBMMZEJTUJODUWPXFMTPVOETPGUIFJSMBOHVBHF VTVBMMZB J BOE
V
CFGPSFPUIFSWPXFMT BOEUIFDPOTPOBOUTBSUJDVMBUFEXJUIUIFIFMQPGUIF
MJQTBOEUFFUI DPNNPOMZQ C N U BOEE
CFGPSFUIPTFQSPEVDFEGBSUIFS
CBDLJOUIFNPVUI +BLPCTPO
"MUIPVHITVCTFRVFOUSFTFBSDIIBTJO
EJDBUFEUIBUUIFPSEFSJOXIJDIUIFTPVOETPGMBOHVBHFTBSFBDRVJSFEJTOPU
VOJWFSTBM 3PNBO+BLPCTPO o
NVTUCFDSFEJUFEXJUIUIFEJTDPW
FSZPGTJHOJGJDBOUTUBUJTUJDBMUFOEFODJFT
*OUPOBUJPOBMDPOUPVST TVDIBTUIPTFDIBSBDUFSJTUJDPGRVFTUJPOT
CFHJOUP
BQQFBSBSPVOEUIFFOEPGUIFGJSTUZFBS BUBCPVUUIFTBNFUJNFBTUIFPOF
XPSETUBHF GPSFYBNQMF NBNB DVQ BOEEPHHJF
5IJTTUBHFJTTVDDFFEFE
BSPVOEUIFBHFPGUXPCZUIFNVMUJXPSETUBHF"UGJSTUUIFDIJMEDPNCJOFTUXP
XPSET GPSFYBNQMF TFFEPHHJF CBCZCPPL OJDFLJUUZ BOEEBEEZHPOF
CVU
TPPOFYQBOETTVDIQISBTFTUPTIPSUTFOUFODFT0OUIFBWFSBHF UIFTQPLFO
WPDBCVMBSZPGUXPZFBSPMETBNPVOUTUPUXPIVOESFEXPSETPSNPSF BM
UIPVHIUIFZVOEFSTUBOETFWFSBMUJNFTUIBUNBOZ*OJUJBMDPOTPOBOUTPGXPSET
UFOEUPCFQSPOPVODFENPSFEJTUJODUMZCZUIJTBHFHSPVQUIBOUIFDPOTPOBOUT
UPXBSEXPSEFOET#ZUIFBHFPGGJWFPSTP BMMOPSNBMDIJMESFOUIFXPSMEPWFS
BSFBCMFUPBTLRVFTUJPOT NBLFOFHBUJWFTUBUFNFOUT QSPEVDFDPNQMFYTFO
UFODFT DPOTJTUJOHPGNBJOBOETVCPSEJOBUFDMBVTFT
UBMLBCPVUUIJOHTSF
NPWFEJOUJNFBOETQBDF BOEJOHFOFSBMDBSSZPOBOJOUFMMJHFOUDPOWFSTBUJPO
POUPQJDTUIFZBSFBCMFUPDPNQSFIFOE CVUUIFZIBWFZFUUPMFBSOUPUJFUIFJS
TIPFT
&WFOUIPVHINVDIPGUIFTQFFDIUPXIJDIDIJMESFOBSFFYQPTFEJT
RVJUFWBSJBCMFBOEDBTVBM UIFZHBJODPNNBOEPGUIFNBOZTPVOET GPSNT
BOESVMFTTPXFMMUIBUUIFZBSFBCMFUPTBZ BOEEPTBZ UIJOHTUIFZIBWFOFWFS
CFGPSFIFBSETBJEBOEBMMPGUIJTXJUIPVUUIFCFOFGJUPGGPSNBMUFBDIJOH

Theories of Language Acquisition


#FIBWJPSJTU1TZDIPMPHZ5IFPSZ #FIBWJPSJTNJTBTDIPPMPGQTZDIPMPHZQPQV
MBSJOUIFNJEUXFOUJFUIDFOUVSZJUNBEFBNBKPSJNQBDUPOMFBSOJOHUIF
PSZ1SPCBCMZJUTCFTULOPXOQSPQPOFOUXBT#'4LJOOFS XIPBSHVFEGPS
IJTWJFXPGMBOHVBHFBDRVJTJUJPOJOIJTCPPL7FSCBM#FIBWJPS 
#FIBW
JPSBMQTZDIPMPHZUIFPSZJTCBTFEPOUIFTUJNVMVTSFTQPOTFSFXBSEGPSNVMB
122 Chapter 7: Acquiring Language(s)

BOEJTOPUVOMJLFUIFQPQVMBSWJFXPGMBOHVBHFBDRVJTJUJPO"DDPSEJOHUPUIJT
UIFPSZ UIFIVNBOFOWJSPONFOU QBSFOUT PMEFSQFFST BOEPUIFST
QSPWJEFT
MBOHVBHFTUJNVMJUPXIJDIUIFDIJMESFTQPOET MBSHFMZCZSFQFUJUJPOPGXIBUIF
PSTIFJTIFBSJOH*GUIFSFTQPOTFJTBDDFQUBCMFPSDPNNFOEBCMF UIFMFBSOFS
JTSFXBSEFE CZQSBJTFPSTPNFPUIFSXBZ

*OOBUJTU5IFPSZ "NPOHUIFNPTUJOGMVFOUJBMBQQSPBDIFTUPMBOHVBHFEF
WFMPQNFOUJTJOOBUJTN8IFSFCFIBWJPSJTNBSHVFTUIBUBMMPGMBOHVBHFJTBD
RVJSFE UISPVHI EJGGFSFOU UZQFT PG MFBSOJOH TUJNVMVTSFTQPOTF  DMBTTJDBM
DPOEJUJPOJOH FUD
JOOBUJTUUIFPSZBSHVFTUIBUUIFSFBSFBUMFBTUTPNFBTQFDUT
PGMBOHVBHFXIJDINVTUBMSFBEZCFQSFTFOUJOUIFDIJMEBUCJSUI5IJTQPJOUPG
WJFXSFDFJWFEHSFBUTVQQPSUXIFO/PBN$IPNTLZ 
JOBMFOHUIZSF
WJFXPG4LJOOFSTCPPLDPOWJODJOHMZVOEFSNJOFEBMMPGJUTBTTVNQUJPOTBOE
DMBJNT'PSFYBNQMF TPNFUIJOHTMJLFBOFRVJMBUFSBMUSJBOHMFBSFPOMZ
QSPEVDUTPGUIFJNBHJOBUJPO BOEEPOPUBDUVBMMZFYJTUJOUIFSFBMXPSME4VDI
UIJOHTDBOOPUCFMFBSOFE UIFO JOUIFCFIBWJPSJTUTFOTF"OEJUJTUSVFUIBU
DIJMESFOEPJNJUBUF PGDPVSTF CVUOPUBTDPOTJTUFOUMZBTJTHFOFSBMMZUIPVHIU
*GDIJMESFOPOMZJNJUBUFEXIBUUIFZIFBSE IPXDPVMEXFBDDPVOUGPSTVDI
GPSNTUIFZQSPEVDFBTTIFFQT HPPTFT BOEUBLFE 5IFSFJTOPXBZCFIBWJPS
JTN $IPNTLZBSHVFE DPVMEBDDPVOUGPSTVDIBOBMPHJDBMCVUVOHSBNNBUJDBM
GPSNT4VDIGPSNTBTTIFFQT HPPTFT BOEUBLFE JOGBDUTIPXUIBUSBUIFSUIBO
JNJUBUJOHPUIFST DIJMESFOEFSJWFUIFTFGPSNTPOUIFBTTVNQUJPOPGHSBN
NBUJDBMSFHVMBSJUZCZFYUFOEJOHUIFiSFHVMBSwQMVSBMBOEQBTUUFOTFNBSL
FSTUPXPSETUPXIJDIUIFZEPOPUBQQMZ
*O$IPNTLZTWJFX DIJMESFOBSFCPSOXJUIBDBQBDJUZGPSMBOHVBHFEFWFM
PQNFOU TFF#PY
)PXFWFS UIFOBUVSFPGUIFJOOBUFIZQPUIFUJDBMMBO
HVBHFBDRVJTJUJPOEFWJDF XJUIXIJDIBMMJOGBOUTBSFFRVJQQFE DBOOPUBU
QSFTFOUCFTQFDJGJFE"DDPSEJOHUPTPNF JUDPOTJTUTPOMZPGHFOFSBMQSPDFEVSFT
IFMQJOHUIFDIJMEUPEJTDPWFSIPXUPMFBSOBOZOBUVSBMMBOHVBHFBDDPSEJOHUP
PUIFST UIJTEFWJDFQSPWJEFTDIJMESFOXJUIBLOPXMFEHFPGUIPTFGFBUVSFTUIBU
BSFDPNNPOUPBMMMBOHVBHFT$IPNTLZ 
GPSFYBNQMF TQFBLTPGBHF
OFUJDBMMZCVJMUJOiDPSFHSBNNBSwUIBUCFTJEFTBOVNCFSPGGJYFESVMFTBMTP
DPOUBJOTWBSJPVTPQUJPOBMSVMFTJUJTVQUPUIFDIJMEUPEJTDPWFSXIJDIPGUIFTF
PQUJPOTBQQMZUPBQBSUJDVMBSMBOHVBHF5IJTXPVMEIFMQUPFYQMBJOIPXDIJM
ESFONBOBHFUPPWFSDPNFXIBUJTSFGFSSFEUPBTiQPWFSUZPGTUJNVMVTwUIBU
JT UIFJSBCJMJUZUPMFBSOUPTQFBLBMBOHVBHFFGGFDUJWFMZJOBSFMBUJWFMZTIPSU
UJNF SFHBSEMFTTPGIPXDPNQMFYJUNBZCFHSBNNBUJDBMMZ FWFOJGNVDIPG
XIBUUIFZIFBSIBQQFOTUPCFMBSHFMZGSBHNFOUBSZPSSFQFUJUJPVT
Theories of Language Acquisition 123

B OX 7 . 1 C H OM S K Y O N L A N G UAG E ACQ U I S I T I O N

We can think of every normal humans internalized grammar as, in effect,


a theory of his language. This theory provides a sound-meaning correla-
tion for an infinite number of sentences. . . .
In formal terms . . . we can describe the childs acquisition of language
as a kind of theory construction. The child discovers the theory of his lan-
guage with only small amounts of data from that language. . . . Normal
speech consists, in large part, of fragments, false starts, blends, and other
distortions of the underlying idealized forms. Nevertheless, as is evident
from a study of the mature use of language, what the child learns is the un-
derlying ideal theory. This is a remarkable fact. We must also bear in mind
that the child constructs this ideal theory without explicit instruction, that he
acquires this knowledge at a time when he is not capable of complex in-
tellectual achievements in many other domains, and that this achievement
is relatively independent of intelligence or the particular course of experi-
ence. These are facts that a theory of learning must face. . . .
. . . It is unimaginable that a highly specific, abstract, and tightly or-
ganized language comes by accident into the mind of every four-year-old
child.
from Noam Chomsky, Language and the Mind (1968), 66

*UXPVMEQSPCBCMZPWFSTJNQMJGZUIFFYQMBOBUJPOPGIPXZPVOHDIJMESFO
BSFBCMFUPBDRVJSFTPSBQJEMZUIFLOPXMFEHFPGTVDIBDPNQMFYTZNCPMJD
TZTUFNBTMBOHVBHFJGPOFXFSFUPBDDFQUBOZPOFPGUIFTFPSPUIFSUIFPSJFT
UPUIFFYDMVTJPOPGUIFPUIFST5IFSFJTMJUUMFEPVCUUIBUDIJMESFOEPJNJUBUF
CVUDFSUBJOMZOPUUPUIFFYUFOUTPNFDMBJNBOEJUJTBMTPRVJUFMJLFMZUIBUUIF
FBSMJFTUQIBTFTPGMBOHVBHFMFBSOJOHBSFOPUDPNQMFUFMZEJWPSDFEGSPNUIF
DIJMETNFOUBMEFWFMPQNFOU)PXFWFS NBOZPGUIFBTQFDUTPGUIFJOOBUJTU
UIFPSZBSFRVJUFDPOWJODJOH BOEUIFUIFPSZIBTSFDFJWFENVDIBDDFQUBODF
*UJTJOEJSFDUMZ TVQQPSUFECZUIFTPNFXIBUDPOUSPWFSTJBMDSJUJDBMQFSJPE PS
DSJUJDBMBHF
IZQPUIFTJTUIBUMBOHVBHFJTBDRVJSFEXJUISFNBSLBCMFFBTFEVS
JOH CSBJO NBUVSBUJPO  UIBU JT  CFGPSF QVCFSUZ #Z UIJT UJNF UIF CSBJO IBT
SFBDIFEJUTGVMMEFWFMPQNFOU BOEUIFWBSJPVTGVODUJPOTJUQFSGPSNTIBWFCFFO
MPDBMJ[FEJOPOFTJEFPSUIFPUIFS MBUFSBMJ[BUJPO
"DDPSEJOHUPSFDFOUSF
TFBSDI UIPVHI MBUFSBMJ[BUJPONBZBMSFBEZCFDPNQMFUFCZUIFFOEPGUIFGJGUI
124 Chapter 7: Acquiring Language(s)

ZFBS CZXIJDIBHFDIJMESFOIBWFBDRVJSFEUIFHSBNNBUJDBMFTTFOUJBMTPGUIFJS
NPUIFSUPOHVF
4PDJPDVMUVSBM5IFPSZ6OUJMSFDFOUMZ MBOHVBHFBDRVJTJUJPOXBTUSFBUFEBT
JGJUXFSFVOBGGFDUFECZTPDJPDVMUVSBMGBDUPST DPSSFTQPOEJOHMZ UIFQSPDFTT
PGDIJMESFOTMFBSOJOHUIFJSDVMUVSFXBTVTVBMMZTUVEJFEXJUIPVUHJWJOHBUUFO
UJPOUPUIFSPMFMBOHVBHFQMBZTJOUIFQSPDFTT"NPOHUIPTFMJOHVJTUTBOEBO
UISPQPMPHJTUTXIPIBWFDBMMFEGPSUIFJOUFHSBUJPOPGUIFUXPBQQSPBDIFTBSF
&MJOPS0DITBOE#BNCJ#4DIJFGGFMJO*OPOFPGUIFJSXPSLTDPODFSOJOHMBO
HVBHFBDRVJTJUJPOBOETPDJBMJ[BUJPO 
UIFJSWJFXPGUIFTVCKFDUXBTFY
QSFTTFEJOUIFGPMMPXJOHUXPDMBJNTi5IFQSPDFTTPGBDRVJSJOHMBOHVBHFJT
EFFQMZBGGFDUFECZUIFQSPDFTTPGCFDPNJOHBDPNQFUFOUNFNCFSPGBTPDJ
FUZ<BOE>UIFQSPDFTTPGCFDPNJOHBDPNQFUFOUNFNCFSPGTPDJFUZJTSFBM
J[FEUPBMBSHFFYUFOUUISPVHIMBOHVBHF UISPVHIBDRVJSJOHLOPXMFEHFPGJUT
GVODUJPOs..JF UISPVHIFYDIBOHFTPGMBOHVBHFJOQBSUJDVMBSTPDJBMTJUVB
UJPOTw 0DITBOE4DIJFGGFMJOo
*OUIFNBJOCPEZPGUIFBSUJDMF UIF
BVUIPST NBEF VTF PG UIFJS GJFMEXPSL FYQFSJFODFT JO 8FTUFSO 4BNPB BOE
1BQVB/FX(VJOFB BNPOHUIF,BMVMJ
BOEGPSDPNQBSBUJWFQVSQPTFTESFX
POEBUBQFSUBJOJOHUPUIFDPNNVOJDBUJWFEFWFMPQNFOUPGDIJMESFOPGUIF
"OHMP"NFSJDBOXIJUFNJEEMFDMBTT5PTJNQMJGZNBUUFSTXFQSFTFOUPOMZUIF
DPNQBSJTPOCFUXFFOUIF,BMVMJBOEUIF"OHMP"NFSJDBODIJMESFO
"DDPSEJOHUP0DITBOE4DIJFGGFMJOBOEPUIFST FH 0DITBOE4DIJFGGFMJO
 0DITBOE5BZMPS4DIJFGGFMJO
UIFTFLJOETPGBDRVJTJ
UJPOQBUUFSOTDBOCFGPVOEDSPTTDVMUVSBMMZ'PSFYBNQMF "OHMP"NFSJDBO
XIJUFNJEEMFDMBTTJOGBOUTJOUFSBDUNBJOMZXJUIUIFJSNPUIFST5IJTEZBEJD
UXPQBSUZ
JOUFSBDUJPOJTJOQBSUUIFDPOTFRVFODFPGUIFUZQJDBMGBNJMZGPSN
QPTUNBSJUBMSFTJEFODF BOEQIZTJDBMTFUUJOHDIBSBDUFSJTUJDPG"NFSJDBONJEEMF
DMBTTBQBSUNFOUTPSIPVTFTOVDMFBSGBNJMZ TFQBSBUFIPNFGPSUIFZPVOH
NBSSJFEDPVQMF BOEBTFQBSBUFCFESPPNGPSBOJOGBOU.PUIFST PSDBSF
HJWFST
IPMEJOGBOUTGBDFUPGBDFBOEUSFBUUIFNBTTPDJBMCFJOHTBOEDPN
NVOJDBUJWF QBSUOFST  GSFRVFOUMZ UBLJOH UIF QFSTQFDUJWF PG UIF DIJME PS
EJTQMBZJOHJOUFSFTUJOXIBUNBZIBWFCFFONFBOUCZBDIJMETJODPNQMFUFPS
VOJOUFMMJHJCMFVUUFSBODF5PBDDPNNPEBUFZPVOHDIJMESFOBOEQSPUFDUUIFN
GSPNJOKVSZ UIFFOWJSPONFOUJTBEBQUFEUPUIFJSOFFET$POTJEFSUIFBWBJM
BCJMJUZPGCBCZGPPE IJHIDIBJST BOECBCZXBMLFSTBTXFMMBTCPPLTBOEUPZT
EFTJHOFEGPSTQFDJGJDBHFT BOEUIFQBSFOUBMDPODFSOTIPXOGPSUIFTBGFUZPG
UIFDIJMECZUIFDVTIJPOJOHPGTIBSQFEHFT UIFQMBDJOHPGQSPUFDUJWFHBUFTBU
TUBJST BOEUIFMJLF5IFHBQCFUXFFOUIFDBSFHJWFSTBOEUIFDIJMETWFSCBM
Theories of Language Acquisition 125

DPNQFUFODFJTSFEVDFECZBHFOFSPVTJOUFSQSFUBUJPOPGUIFDIJMETVUUFSBODFT
PSJTNBTLFECZBUUFNQUTUPFMJDJUTUPSJFTGSPNUIFDIJMECZQPTJOHRVFTUJPOT
IFPSTIFDBOBOTXFSXJUICSJFGSFTQPOTFT *OTIPSU UIFDIJMEJTUIFGPDVTPG
BUUFOUJPOBOERVJUFGSFRVFOUMZUIFTUBSUJOHQPJOUPGTPDJBMJOUFSBDUJPO
"NPOHUIF,BMVMJ BTNBMM OPOMJUFSBUF FHBMJUBSJBOTPDJFUZ UIFQSPDFTTPG
MBOHVBHFBDRVJTJUJPOBOETPDJBMJ[BUJPOJTEJGGFSFOU,BMVMJCBCJFTBSFDPOTJE
FSFEIFMQMFTTBOEVOBCMFUPDPNQSFIFOEUIFXPSMEBSPVOEUIFNUIFJSVO
JOUFMMJHJCMFVUUFSBODFTUFOEUPCFJHOPSFEBOEOPBUUFNQUJTNBEFUPJOUFSQSFU
UIFN*OGBOUTOFFETBSFPGDPVSTFBUUFOEFEUP BOEBNPUIFSOVSTFTIFSDIJME
FWFOJGTIFJTJOWPMWFEJOPUIFSBDUJWJUJFT/PSBSFJOGBOUTFWFSMFGUBMPOF
.PUIFSTDBSSZCBCJFTXJUIUIFNJOOFUUFECBHTXIFOFWFSUIFZIBQQFOUPCF
HBUIFSJOHXPPE HBSEFOJOH PSTJNQMZTJUUJOHBOEUBMLJOHXJUIPUIFST#VU
EFTQJUFUIFQIZTJDBMQSPYJNJUZPGBNPUIFSBOEIFSDIJME UIFSFJTMJUUMFDPN
NVOJDBUJWFJOUFSBDUJPOCFUXFFOUIFN*OGBOUTBSFDBSSJFEGBDJOHPUIFST OPU
UIFJSNPUIFST8IFOJOGBOUTBQQSPBDIJOHUIFBHFPGPOFZFBSEPTPNFUIJOH
UIFZTIPVMEOPU UIFZBSFSFQSJNBOEFEXJUITVDIRVFTUJPOTBTi8IPBSF
ZPV wPSi*TJUZPVST wNFBOJOH SFTQFDUJWFMZ i:PVBSFOPUTPNFPOFUPEP
UIBUw BOE i*U JT OPU ZPVSTw /PU VOUJM B DIJME CFHJOT UP VTF UIF XPSET n
ANPUIFSBOECP ACSFBTUJTUIFDIJMEDPOTJEFSFESFBEZUPCFiTIPXOIPXUP
TQFBLw#FDBVTFBEVMUNFOBOEXPNFOBSFJOWPMWFEJOFYUFOTJWFOFUXPSLT
PGPCMJHBUJPOBOESFDJQSPDJUZBTUIFZPSHBOJ[FUIFJSXPSLBOENBOJQVMBUFTP
DJBMSFMBUJPOT UIFQSJNBSZHPBMPGTPDJBMJ[BUJPOBUUIFUJNFXIFODIJMESFO
CFHJOUPUBMLJTUPUFBDIUIFNIPXUPUBMLFGGFDUJWFMZ"NPOHUIFDPOWFOUJPOT
PGBEVMUTQFFDIJTBWPJEJOHHPTTJQBOEJOEJDBUJOHUIFTPVSDFPGJOGPSNBUJPO
CZOPUJOHXIFUIFSTPNFUIJOHIBTCFFOIFBSEPSTFFOBOECZRVPUJOHPUIFST
EJSFDUMZ$IJMESFOBSFFYQFDUFEUPGPMMPXUIFTFDPOWFOUJPOT7FSZMJUUMFMBO
HVBHFJTEJSFDUFEUP,BMVMJDIJMESFOCFGPSFUIFZCFHJOUPUBML CVUUIFWFSCBM
FOWJSPONFOUJOXIJDIUIFZHSPXVQJTSJDI BOEDIJMESFOBDRVJSFWFSCBMTLJMMT
GSPNMJTUFOJOHUPPUIFST"MUIPVHIUIFPOFMBSHFWJMMBHFMPOHIPVTF XIFSFBMM
WJMMBHFSTPODFMJWFEUPHFUIFS JTOPMPOHFSJOHFOFSBMVTF BUMFBTUUXPPSNPSF
FYUFOEFEGBNJMZHSPVQTTIBSFMJWJOHTQBDF5IFQSFTFODFPGBEP[FOPSNPSF
JOEJWJEVBMTJOPOFTFNJQBSUJUJPOFEEXFMMJOHMFBETUPGSFRVFOUNVMUJQBSUZJO
UFSBDUJPO5PUFBDIUIF,BMVMJMBOHVBHFBTTQPLFOCZBEVMUT NPUIFSTDPO
TUBOUMZDPSSFDUDIJMESFOGPSGBVMUZQSPOVODJBUJPO HSBNNBS BOEVTFPGXPSET
TPUIBUUIFZCZQBTTUIFTUBHFPGCBCZUBML
*OFWBMVBUJOHUIFBWBJMBCMFJOGPSNBUJPOBTUPIPXDIJMESFOEFWFMPQUIFJS
DPNNVOJDBUJWFTLJMMTGPSGVODUJPOJOHJOEJGGFSFOUTPDJFUJFTPSTVCDVMUVSFT
126 Chapter 7: Acquiring Language(s)

UIFBVUIPSTXFSFMFEUPBTTVNFUIBUiJOGBOUTBOEDBSFHJWFSTEPOPUJOUFSBDU
XJUIPOFBOPUIFSBDDPSEJOHUPPOFQBSUJDVMBSACJPMPHJDBMMZEFTJHOFEDIPSF
PHSBQIy..<CVU>UIFSFBSFNBOZDIPSFPHSBQIJFTXJUIJOBOEBDSPTTTPDJ
eties..UIBUDPOUSJCVUFUPUIFJSEFTJHO GSFRVFODZBOETJHOJGJDBODFw 0DIT
BOE4DIJFGGFMJO
5IJTNFBOT GPSFYBNQMF UIBUEZBEJDFYDIBOHFTBSF
BDDPSEFEBWBSZJOHEFHSFFPGTJHOJGJDBODFJOEJGGFSFOUTPDJFUJFT"NPOHUIF
,BMVMJ DIJMESFOBSFFYQPTFEUPNVMUJQBSUZJOUFSBDUJPONVDINPSFGSFRVFOUMZ
UIBOUPEZBEJDJOUFSBDUJPO5IFBVUIPSTGVSUIFSQSPQPTFEUIBUUIFiTJNQMJGZ
JOHGFBUVSFTPGDBSFHJWFSTQFFDIUIBUIBWFCFFOEFTDSJCFEGPSXIJUFNJEEMF
DMBTTTQFBLFSTBSFOPUOFDFTTBSZJOQVUGPSZPVOHDIJMESFOUPBDRVJSFMBO
HVBHF wBOEPOUIFCBTJTPGUIFTFUXPQSPQPTBMTUIFBVUIPSTTVHHFTUFEUIBUiB
GVODUJPOBMBDDPVOUPGUIFTQFFDIPGCPUIDBSFHJWFSBOEDIJMENVTUJODPSQP
SBUFJOGPSNBUJPODPODFSOJOHDVMUVSBMLOPXMFEHFBOEFYQFDUBUJPOs... <BOE>
HFOFSBMJ[BUJPOTDPODFSOJOHUIFSFMBUJPOTCFUXFFOCFIBWJPSBOEHPBMTPGDBSF
HJWFSTBOEZPVOHDIJMESFOTIPVMEOPUQSFTVQQPTFUIFQSFTFODFPSFRVJWBMFOU
TJHOJGJDBODFPGQBSUJDVMBSHPBMTBDSPTTTPDJBMHSPVQTw 0DITBOE4DIJFGGFMJO
 

8JUIPVUMBOHVBHF OPDIJMEDPVMEBEFRVBUFMZMFBSOBMMBTQFDUTPGUIFDVM
UVSFBOEXPSMEWJFXPGIJTPSIFSTPDJFUZ*UGPMMPXT UIFO UIBUOPSNBMDPN
NVOJDBUJWFFYDIBOHFTJOXIJDIDBSFHJWFSTBOETNBMMDIJMESFOFOHBHFNVTUJO
TPNFXBZSFMBUFUPUIFCFIBWJPSQBUUFSOTFYQFDUFEPGBEVMUNFNCFSTPGBTP
DJFUZ"SFTJUVBUJPOTBEBQUFEUPUIFDIJME PSNVTUUIFDIJMEBEBQUUPTJUVB
UJPOT "OEJGUIFSFJTBTIJGUGSPNPOFUPUIFPUIFSPGUIFTFUXPPSJFOUBUJPOT
JOBOZHJWFOTPDJFUZ XIFOEPFTJUUBLFQMBDF
5IFBVUIPSTNBEFDMFBSUIBUUIFJSNPEFMEPFTOPUFYDMVEFUIFSPMFCJP
MPHJDBMQSFEJTQPTJUJPONBZQMBZBUUIFFYQFOTFPGDVMUVSFBOEUIBUUIFZEJE
OPUWJFXTPDJBMJ[BUJPOBTBQSPDFTTUIBUJTJOGMFYJCMFPWFSUJNFPSEVSJOHBOJO
EJWJEVBMTMJGFUJNF#VUUIFZJOTJTUFEUIBUiPVSVOEFSTUBOEJOHPGUIFGVOD
UJPOBM BOE TZNCPMJD JOUFSGBDF CFUXFFO MBOHVBHF BOE DVMUVSFw DBO CF
GVSUIFSFEPOMZUISPVHITUVEJFTPGiIPXDIJMESFOBSFTPDJBMJ[FEUISPVHIUIF
VTFPGMBOHVBHFBTXFMMBTIPXDIJMESFOBSFTPDJBMJ[FEUPVTFMBOHVBHFw 4DIJ
FGGFMJOBOE0DIT


Language and the Brain


&WFOUIPVHIPVSVOEFSTUBOEJOHPGIPXUIFIVNBOCSBJOPQFSBUFTJTTUFBEJMZ
JODSFBTJOH PVSLOPXMFEHFPGJUTGVODUJPOTJTTUJMMGBSGSPNDPNQMFUF"NPOH
Language and the Brain 127

UIFSFBTPOTBSFUIBUUIFCSBJOJTUSFNFOEPVTMZDPNQMFYBOEUIBUFYQFSJNFO
UBUJPOXJUIUIFCSBJOJTTUJMMTPNFXIBUMJNJUFE4PNFPGXIBUJTLOPXOBCPVU
JUTGVODUJPOTIBTCFFOMFBSOFEGSPNUIFMPDBUJPOBOEFYUFOUPGCSBJOJOKVSJFT
IPXFWFS BHSFBUEFBMPGJOGPSNBUJPOIBTSFDFOUMZCFFOHBJOFEGSPNOFXFY
QFSJNFOUBMUFDIOJRVFT GPSFYBNQMF OFVSPJNBHJOHBOEUIFTUJNVMBUJPOPG
UIFDFSFCSBMDPSUFYPSOFSWFDFOUFSTCFMPXJUCZFMFDUSJDDVSSFOU

/FVSPMJOHVJTUJDTUIFCSBODIPGMJOHVJTUJDTDPODFSOFEXJUIUIFSPMFUIF
CSBJOQMBZTJOMBOHVBHFBOETQFFDIQSPDFTTJOHFYQMPSFTRVFTUJPOTPOXIJDI
QBSUTPGUIFCSBJODPOUSPMMBOHVBHFBOETQFFDI IPXUIFCSBJOFODPEFTBOE
EFDPEFTTQFFDI BOEXIFUIFSUIFDPOUSPMTPGTVDIBTQFDUTPGMBOHVBHFBT
TPVOET HSBNNBS BOENFBOJOHBSFOFVSPBOBUPNJDBMMZEJTUJODUPSKPJOU
*OSFMBUJPOUPCPEZNBTT UIFIVNBOCSBJOJTOPUPOMZUIFMBSHFTUJOUIFBO
JNBMLJOHEPNCVUBMTPUIFNPTUDPNQMFYMZPSHBOJ[FE5IFMBSHFTUQBSUJTUIF
DFSFCSVN TJUVBUFEBUUIFUPQPGUIFCSBJOBOEDPOTJTUJOHPGUXPMPCFTUIFMFGU
BOESJHIUDFSFCSBMIFNJTQIFSFTBOEDPOOFDUJOHTUSVDUVSFT&BDIPGUIFUXP
IFNJTQIFSFTGJMMTEJGGFSFOUGVODUJPOT'PSFYBNQMF UIFMFGUJTTQFDJBMJ[FEGPSBT
TPDJBUJWFUIPVHIU DBMDVMBUJPOBOEBOBMZUJDBMQSPDFTTJOH UIFSJHIUWJTVBMGJFME
UFNQPSBM SFMBUJPOT  BOE PUIFS GVODUJPOT UIF SJHIU IFNJTQIFSF GPS UBDUJMF
SFDPHOJUJPOPGNBUFSJBMRVBMJUJFT WJTVPTQBUJBMTLJMMT OPOMJOHVJTUJDBVEJUPSZ
TUJNVMJ JODMVEJOHNVTJD
UIFMFGUWJTVBMGJFME TPNFVTFPGMBOHVBHFJOTPDJBM
DPOUFYU BOEPUIFST*OBOPWFSXIFMNJOHNBKPSJUZPGSJHIUIBOEFEJOEJWJEV
BMT UIFMFGUIFNJTQIFSFDPOUSPMTMBOHVBHF TQFFDI XSJUJOH BOESFBEJOH*O
NPSFUIBOPOFIBMGPGMFGUIBOEFEQFPQMF JUJTBMTPUIFMFGUIFNJTQIFSFUIBUFJ
UIFSDPOUSPMTMBOHVBHFPSJTTJHOJGJDBOUMZJOWPMWFEJOPUIFSMFGUIBOEFST MBO
HVBHF TQFDJBMJ[BUJPO JT MPDBUFE JO UIF SJHIU IFNJTQIFSF "QBSU GSPN UIF
DFSFCSBMDPSUFYUIFTVSGBDFMBZFSPGHSBZNBUUFSPGUIFDFSFCSVNTFWFSBM
PUIFSQBSUTPGUIFCSBJODPOUSJCVUFUPMBOHVBHFQSPDFTTJOH0OFTVDIQBSUJT
UIFMFGUUIBMBNVT UIFMBSHFTUTVCEJWJTJPOPGUIFQPTUFSJPSPGUIFGPSFCSBJO
*OKVSJFTUPTQFDJGJDBSFBTPGUIFMBOHVBHFEPNJOBOUIFNJTQIFSFGSPNTVDI
DBVTFT BT HVOTIPU XPVOE  UVNPS  TUSPLF  PS JOGFDUJPO SFTVMU JO EJGGFSFOU
BQIBTJBTPSPUIFSJNQBJSNFOUTPGMJOHVJTUJDDBQBCJMJUJFT5PHJWFBGFXFYBNQMFT
#SPDBTBQIBTJB BMTPSFGFSSFEUPBTFYQSFTTJWFPSNPUPSBQIBTJB JTDBVTFECZB
MFTJPOJOXIBUJTLOPXOBT#SPDBTBSFB TFF'JHVSF
BOEJTDIBSBDUFSJ[FE
CZPNJTTJPOPGGVODUJPOXPSET TVDIBTBSUJDMFT QSFQPTJUJPOT EFNPOTUSBUJWFT
BOEDPOKVODUJPOT
BOEQBTUUFOTFBOEQMVSBMFOEJOHT BTXFMMBTCZGBVMUZXPSE
PSEFSBOEEJTUPSUJPOTPGTPVOET8FSOJDLFTBQIBTJB BMTPLOPXOBTTFOTPSZPS
SFDFQUJWFBQIBTJB JTEVFUPBMFTJPOJO8FSOJDLFTBSFB JUJTDIBSBDUFSJ[FECZ
128 Chapter 7: Acquiring Language(s)

F I G U R E 7 . 1 The Human Brain


Side view of the left hemisphere of the human brain, with
its front on the left. The locations of the areas mentioned in
the text are indicated as follows: AC = auditory cortex; AG
= angular gyrus; B = Brocas area; MC = motor cortex; W =
Wernickes area. The thalamus is not seen from this view.

DJSDVNMPDVUJPOT JNQBJSFEBCJMJUZUPVOEFSTUBOEXSJUUFOBOETQPLFOMBOHVBHF
BOEPDDBTJPOBMTVCTUJUVUJPOTPGJOBQQSPQSJBUFXPSET MFBEJOHJOTFWFSFDBTFTUP
OPOTFOTJDBMVUUFSBODFT*OEJWJEVBMTBGGFDUFECZBOPNJDBQIBTJBIBWFEJGGJDVMUZ
OBNJOHPCKFDUTQSFTFOUFEUPUIFN*NQBJSNFOUPGUIJTUZQFJTBTTPDJBUFEXJUI
MFTJPOTJOUIFEPNJOBOUBOHVMBSHZSVT POFPGUIFDIBSBDUFSJTUJDSJEHFTPGHSBZ
NBUUFSBUUIFTVSGBDFTPGUIFIFNJTQIFSFT
8FSOJDLFTBSFBBQQFBSTUPHFOFSBUFUIFCBTJDTUSVDUVSFPGTFOUFODFT XIJDI
BSFUIFOFODPEFEJO#SPDBTBSFBUIFBSUJDVMBUJPOPGTPVOETJTEJSFDUFECZ
DFSUBJONPUPSBSFBTPGUIFDPSUFY$PNQSFIFOTJPOPGTQFFDIUBLFTQMBDFJO
8FSOJDLFTBSFBBGUFSBDPVTUJDTJHOBMTBSFUSBOTGFSSFEUIFSFGSPNUIFFBSCZ
UIFBVEJUPSZDPSUFY*OHFOFSBM TQFBLJOHBOEXSJUJOHBSFNPSFMJLFMZUPCFBG
GFDUFECZEBNBHFUPUIFGSPOUQBSUPGUIFCSBJO MJTUFOJOHBOESFBEJOHCZEBN
BHFUPUIFSFBSQBSU
'SPNXIBUJTOPXLOPXO MFTJPOTJOEJGGFSFOUQBSUTPGUIFMBOHVBHFEPN
JOBOUIFNJTQIFSFSFTVMUJOEJGGFSFOUMBOHVBHFBOETQFFDIJNQBJSNFOUT#VU
NVDIJTZFUUPCFMFBSOFEBCPVUUIFIVNBOCSBJO CPUIJOHFOFSBMBOEDPO
DFSOJOHJUTSPMFJODPNNVOJDBUJWFCFIBWJPS

Bilingual and Multilingual Brains


*OUIFQBTU JUXBTPGUFOBTTVNFEUIBUDPNQFUFODFBDRVJSFEJOUIFGJSTUMBO
HVBHF -
XBTRVBMJUBUJWFMZEJGGFSFOUGSPNUIBUJOBTFDPOEMBOHVBHF -

Bilingual and Multilingual Brains 129

PSBOZTVCTFRVFOUMBOHVBHF5IJTQSJWJMFHJOHUIFiOBUJWFMBOHVBHFwMFEUP
NBOZQPQVMBSNJTDPODFQUJPOT TVDIBTCFMJFWJOHUIBUDIJMESFOPGCJMJOHVBM
QBSFOUTXPVMEOFWFSGVMMZBDRVJSFFJUIFSMBOHVBHF SFNBJOJOHTPNFIPXMJO
HVJTUJDBMMZEJTBEWBOUBHFE4VDIDMBJNTBSFEVFUPUIFCFMJFGUIBUNPOPMJO
HVBMJTNJTUIFOPSN BOEUIFZBSFIFMECZNBOZJOUIF6OJUFE4UBUFTBOE
PUIFSDPVOUSJFTXIFSFBTJOHMFMBOHVBHFJTQPMJUJDBMMZPSTPDJBMMZEPNJOBOU
5IBUUIJTWJFXNVTUCFXSPOHDBOFBTJMZCFTFFOGSPNUIFGBDUUIBUNBOZ
QFPQMFJOUIFXPSMEBSFTQFBLJOHNPSFUIBOPOFMBOHVBHF*OGBDU JUJTCJMJO
HVBMJTNPSUSJMJOHVBMJTNSBUIFSUIBONPOPMJOHVBMJTN UIBUJTNPTUDPNNPO
&WFOJOTVQQPTFEMZNPOPMJOHVBMOBUJPOTMJLFUIF6OJUFE4UBUFT 64$FOTVT
GJHVSFTTIPXUIBUBUMFBTUQFSDFOUPGUIFQPQVMBUJPOSFHVMBSMZTQFBLBMBO
HVBHFPUIFSUIBO&OHMJTI BOEQFSDFOUPGUIFTFQFPQMFBMTPTQFBL&OHMJTI
"OPUIFSNBUUFSXIJDINVTUCFDPOTJEFSFEJTEFGJOJUJPOi#JMJOHVBMwPS
iNVMUJMJOHVBMwDBONFBOBWBSJFUZPGUIJOHT4PNFQFPQMFNBZMFBSOUXPMBO
HVBHFTOBUJWFMZBTDIJMESFO BOECFFRVBMMZQSPGJDJFOUBOEDPNGPSUBCMFJO
CPUI0UIFSTNBZIBWFPOMZGVMMDPNQFUFODFJOPOFMBOHVBHF BOEKVTUHFU
CZJOUIFPUIFS4PNFQFPQMFNBZCFQBTTJWFPSSFDFQUJWFCJMJOHVBMT IBWJOHUIF
BCJMJUZUPVOEFSTUBOEBTFDPOEMBOHVBHFCVUOPUCFJOHBCMFUPTQFBLJU 5IFSF
JTBMTPUIFJTTVFPGPSEFS"SFXFEFBMJOHXJUITJNVMUBOFPVTCJMJOHVBMJTN
XIFSFBDIJMEMFBSOTUXPMBOHVBHFTBUUIFTBNFUJNFPSTFRVFOUJBMCJMJO
HVBMJTNXIFSFBQFSTPOCFDPNFTCJMJOHVBMCZGJSTUMFBSOJOHPOFMBOHVBHF
BOEUIFOBOPUIFS "OEQSPCBCMZFWFSZCPEZVOEFSTUBOETBUMFBTUBMJUUMFPG
TPNFPUIFSMBOHVBHF XIFUIFSJUJTUIFMFGUPWFSTGSPNIJHITDIPPM4QBOJTI
DMBTT UIFXPSETBOEQISBTFTGSPNOFJHICPST PSXPSETQJDLFEVQPOBKPC
XPSLJOHXJUIGPSFJHOCPSOFNQMPZFFT#JMJOHVBMJTN UIFO TIPVMECFWJFXFE
BTBDPOUJOVVNGSPNUIFSFMBUJWFMZNPOPMJOHVBMTQFBLFSUPUIFIJHIMZQSPGJ
DJFOUTQFBLFSPGUXPMBOHVBHFT
'PSPVSQVSQPTFTIFSF TQFBLJOHJOWFSZCSPBEUFSNT UIFDIJMEIPPECJMJO
HVBMBDRVJTJUJPOQSPDFTTNBZCFDPOTJEFSFEBTUISFFEFWFMPQNFOUBMTUBHFT
$SZTUBMoo
'JSTU UIFDIJMECVJMETVQBTFUPG
XPSETGSPNCPUIMBOHVBHFT CVUVTVBMMZLFFQUIFNTFQBSBUF BOEOPUBTUSBOT
MBUJPOTPGFBDIPUIFS4FDPOE BTTFOUFODFTCFHJOUPBQQFBS XPSETGSPNCPUI
MBOHVBHFTDBOCFVTFE5IJTNJYJOHSBQJEMZEFDMJOFT IPXFWFS ESPQQJOHBM
NPTUDPNQMFUFMZCZUIFFOEPGUIFUIJSEZFBS"GUFSUIJT WPDBCVMBSZJOCPUI
MBOHVBHFTHSPXT CVUBTJOHMFHSBNNBUJDBMQBUUFSOJTVTFE6TVBMMZCZUIF
GPVSUIZFBS IPXFWFS UIFTZOUBYPGFBDIMBOHVBHFCFDPNFTEJTUJODUBTUIF
DIJMECFDPNFTNPSFDPHOJ[BOUUIBUUIFUXPMBOHVBHFTBSFOPUUIFTBNF*UJT
130 Chapter 7: Acquiring Language(s)

UIFOUIBUUIFZCFDPNFBXBSFPGUIFTPDJPMJOHVJTUJDQPXFSPGFBDIMBOHVBHF
UIFXBZTFBDIMBOHVBHFJTUPCFVTFE BOEGPSXIBUQVSQPTFT

The Social Aspects of Multilingualism


"QBSUJDVMBSQFPQMFJTBTBSVMFMJOLFEXJUIBQBSUJDVMBSMBOHVBHF BOEUIJT
MBOHVBHFNPSFUIBOBOZUIJOHFMTFTFSWFTBTUIFQFPQMFTCBEHFPGFUIOJDJEFO
UJUZBOEVOJRVFOFTT"TBOFYBNQMF UIF1MBJOT*OEJBOTPDJFUJFTXFSFTJNJMBS
JODVMUVSFCVURVJUFEJTUJODUCZWJSUVFPGUIFMBOHVBHFTUIFZTQPLF TPNFPG
XIJDIXFSFBTEJGGFSFOUGSPNFBDIPUIFSBT&OHMJTIJTGSPN3VTTJBOPS+BQBO
FTF"OEJUVTFEUPCFBTTVNFEUIBUQFPQMFTXIPTQFBLEJGGFSFOUMBOHVBHFT
IBWFEJGGFSFOUDVMUVSFTBOEUIFSFGPSFUIFCPVOEBSJFTCFUXFFOEJGGFSFOUTPDJ
FUJFTDPJODJEFXJUIMJOFTTFQBSBUJOHNVUVBMMZVOJOUFMMJHJCMFMBOHVBHFT*UXBT
BMTPXJEFMZBDDFQUFEUIBUBOZHJWFOMBOHVBHFJTUIFNFEJVNPGDPNNVOJDB
UJPOGPSNFNCFSTPGUIFDPSSFTQPOEJOHTPDJFUZBOEUIBUUIFSFMBUJPOTIJQ
BNPOHMBOHVBHF DVMUVSF BOEDPNNVOJDBUJPOUFOETUPQFSTJTUJOUJNF4VDI
BTTVNQUJPOTHSFBUMZPWFSTJNQMJGZNBUUFST BTTIPXOCZ%FMM)ZNFT 

"DDPSEJOHUP)ZNFT UIFXPSMEPGIVNBOTPDJFUJFTJTEJWJTJCMFOPUTPNVDI
BDDPSEJOHUPUIFMBOHVBHFTUIFJSNFNCFSTTQFBLCVUSBUIFSBDDPSEJOHUP
DPNNVOJDBUJWFVOJUTiDPNQPTFEPGSFQFSUPJSFTPGDPEFTBOESVMFTPGDPEF
VTF wBOEJUNVTUGVSUIFSCFSFDPHOJ[FEUIBUUIFTFVOJUTPWFSMBQ UIBUUIFDSJ
UFSJPOPGNVUVBMJOUFMMJHJCJMJUZJTPOMZPOFPGTFWFSBMGBDUPSTUPCFUBLFOJOUP
BDDPVOU BOEUIBUUIFOBUVSFPGUIFBTTPDJBUJPOCFUXFFOBQBSUJDVMBSDPEFBOE
QBSUJDVMBS DVMUVSBM GFBUVSFT NVTU CF DPOTJEFSFE PO B DBTFCZDBTF CBTJT
)ZNFT

5IFGPMMPXJOHFYBNQMFJTUBLFOGSPNBOBSUJDMFCZ)BOT8PMGG 
BOE
DPODFSOTUIFSFMBUJPOTIJQPGMBOHVBHF FUIOJDJEFOUJUZ BOETPDJBMDIBOHFJO
TPVUIFSO/JHFSJB*OPOFQBSUPGUIFFBTUFSO/JHFS%FMUBMJWF GSPNFBTUUP
XFTU UXPDPBTUBMQFPQMFTUIF,BMBCBSJBOEUIF/FNCFBOEUISFFIJOUFS
MBOEQFPQMFTUIF"CVB UIF0EVBM BOEUIF0HCJBGJWFFUIOJDHSPVQTBM
UPHFUIFS5IJTGJWFVOJUFUIOJDEJWJTJPOEPFTOPUDPJODJEFXJUIUIFMBOHVBHF
TJUVBUJPO5IFUXPDPBTUBMQFPQMFTTQFBLDMPTFMZSFMBUFEEJBMFDUTPGUIF*KP
CSBODIPGUIF/JHFS$POHPMBOHVBHFGBNJMZ5IFIJOUFSMBOEQFPQMFTTQFBL
SFMBUFEEJBMFDUTPGBOPUIFSMBOHVBHFHSPVQ5IF"CVBBOE0EVBMTQFBLEJ
WFSHFOUEJBMFDUTPGUIFTBNFMBOHVBHF XJUIQPPSNVUVBMJOUFMMJHJCJMJUZ)PX
FWFS  GPVS FUIOJDBMMZ 0EVBM WJMMBHFT TQFBL B DMPTFMZ SFMBUFE CVU EJGGFSFOU
MBOHVBHF ,VHCP5PDPNQMJDBUFNBUUFSTGVSUIFS UIFFBTUFSOEJBMFDUTPG0HCJB
The Social Aspects of Multilingualism 131

BSFOPUNVUVBMMZJOUFMMJHJCMFXJUIUIFXFTUFSOEJBMFDUTCVUBSFJOUFMMJHJCMFXJUI
,VHCP"MUIPVHIUIFUISFFIJOUFSMBOEHSPVQTBSFBXBSFPGUIFJSDMPTFMJO
HVJTUJDSFMBUJPOTIJQ MJUUMFDPNNVOJDBUJPOUBLFTQMBDFBNPOHUIFNCFDBVTFPG
MPOHTUBOEJOHGFVETPWFSGJTIJOHSJHIUTBOEGBSNMBOETBOECFDBVTFPGEJG
GFSFOUUSBEJOHDPOUBDUTJOUIFQBTU6OUJMSFDFOUMZ BHSFBUNBOZPGUIF"CVB
BOE0EVBM FTQFDJBMMZUIFNBMFT TQPLF,BMBCBSJBTUIFJSTFDPOEMBOHVBHF
XIFSFBTBMBSHFQFSDFOUBHFPGUIFXFTUFSO0HCJBTQPLF/FNCFBTBTFDPOE
MBOHVBHF$PBTUBMMBOHVBHFTXFSFVTFEJOUIFJOUFSJPSPOTVDIJNQPSUBOUPD
DBTJPOTBTWJMMBHFHBUIFSJOHTBOEEVSJOH$ISJTUJBODIVSDITFSWJDFTDPOEVDUFE
CZ"GSJDBODMFSHZESBXOGSPNUIFDPBTUBMQFPQMFT:FUUIFCJMJOHVBMJTNGPVOE
BNPOHUIFIJOUFSMBOEQFPQMFTXBTOPOSFDJQSPDBM5IFDPBTUBMQFPQMFTEJE
OPUMFBSOPSVTFUIFMBOHVBHFTTQPLFOCZUIF0HCJB 0EVBM PS"CVB"UUIF
UJNFPG8PMGG TWJTJUUPUIFBSFBEVSJOHUIFNJET UIFMJOHVJTUJDTJUVB
UJPOXBTVOEFSHPJOHDIBOHF#JMJOHVBMJTNDPOUJOVFEUPCFQSFTFOU XJUI*HCP
CFDPNJOHUIFTFDPOEMBOHVBHFBNPOHUIF"CVB"OPUIFSMBOHVBHFJODSFBT
JOHMZVTFECZUIPTFXJUIGPSNBMFEVDBUJPOXBT&OHMJTI"UUIFTBNFUJNF
UIFSFXBTBDPODFSUFEFGGPSUPOUIFQBSUPGUIFIJOUFSMBOEQFPQMFTUPVTFUIF
MPDBMWFSOBDVMBSBTUIFNBJO JGOPUUIFPOMZ NFEJVNPGDPNNVOJDBUJPOJO
PSEFSUPBDIJFWFQPMJUJDBMSFDPHOJUJPOBTEJTUJODUFUIOJDVOJUT
&WFOGSPNUIJTTJNQMJGJFEBDDPVOUPGUIFTJUVBUJPOJUJTFWJEFOUUIBUUIF
FYJTUFODFPGNVUVBMJOUFMMJHJCJMJUZBNPOHTPNFPGUIFMBOHVBHFTPSEJBMFDUT
TQPLFOCZNFNCFSTPGUIFTFFUIOJDHSPVQTIBEMJUUMFTJHOJGJDBODFXJUISF
TQFDUUPUIFJSFUIOJDBGGJMJBUJPOPSUIFOBUVSFBOEWPMVNFPGDPNNVOJDBUJPO
BNPOHUIFN
5IFTFDPOEFYBNQMFJTESBXOGSPNDFOUSBM&VSPQF5IFGPSFGBUIFSTPGDPO
UFNQPSBSZ$[FDITBOE4MPWBLTXFSFNFNCFSTPGPOFQPMJUJDBMFOUJUZEVSJOH
UIF(SFBU.PSBWJBO&NQJSF"GUFSUIFFNQJSFGFMMBUUIFCFHJOOJOHPGUIFUFOUI
DFOUVSZ JUT$[FDITQFBLJOHXFTUFSOQBSUCFHBOBUIPVTBOEZFBSMPOHTFQBSBUF
IJTUPSJDBMEFWFMPQNFOU XIFSFBTQSFTFOUEBZ4MPWBLJBCFDBNFBOJOUFHSBMQBSU
PGUIF)VOHBSJBOTUBUF5IF$[FDITBOE4MPWBLTXFSFOPUBHBJOKPJOFEUP
HFUIFSQPMJUJDBMMZVOUJMBGUFS8PSME8BS* XIFOUIF$[FDIPTMPWBL3FQVCMJD
XBTFTUBCMJTIFEJO0OFPGUIFSFBTPOTGPSBTTJHOJOHUIFTFUXPQFPQMFTUP
BDPNNPODPVOUSZXBTMJOHVJTUJD$[FDITBOE4MPWBLTTQFBLNVUVBMMZJOUFM
MJHJCMFMBOHVBHFT*OUIFOFXTUBUF IPXFWFS UIFBUUJUVEFPGUIF$[FDITUPXBSE
UIFNVDIMFTTVSCBOJ[FE4MPWBLTXBTQBUSPOJ[JOH BOEUIFSFMBUJPOTIJQCF
UXFFOUIFUXPQFPQMFTSFNBJOFEBTZNNFUSJDBMVOUJM XIFOUIFGFEFSBM
J[BUJPOPGUIFSFQVCMJDIFMQFEUPCSJOHBCPVUTPNFNFBTVSFPGCBMBODF
132 Chapter 7: Acquiring Language(s)

%VSJOHUIFDPVSTFPGUIFUXFOUJFUIDFOUVSZ OBUJPOBMJTUNPWFNFOUTJO&V
SPQFMPTUNVDIPGUIFJSGPSDF5IFTVCTJEJOHPGOBUJPOBMJTNXBTEVFUPUIFJO
DSFBTJOHFDPOPNJDJOUFSEFQFOEFODFPGPOFSFHJPOPOBOPUIFSJO&BTUFSO
&VSPQFJUXBTBMTPUIFDPOTFRVFODFPGUIFJOUFSOBUJPOBMJTUDIBSBDUFSPG$PN
NVOJTUSVMF"GUFSUIFDPMMBQTFPG4PWJFUDPOUSPMPWFS&BTUFSO&VSPQFBUUIF
FOEPGUIFT FUIOJDUFOTJPOTJO$[FDIPTMPWBLJBSFTVSGBDFEBOEUIF4MP
WBLTCFHBOUPTUSJWFGPSFJUIFSBVUPOPNZJOBKPJOUDPVOUSZXJUIUIF$[FDIT
PSGPSDPNQMFUFJOEFQFOEFODF5IBU$[FDITBOE4MPWBLTBSFBCMFUPDPOWFSTF
XJUIPOFBOPUIFSVTJOHUIFJSUXPMBOHVBHFTIBEMJUUMFJGBOZSFTUSBJOJOHFG
GFDUPOUIFEFTJSFPGUIFOVNFSJDBMMZTNBMMFS4MPWBLQFPQMFUPFNQIBTJ[FUIFJS
EJGGFSFOUIJTUPSJDBMFYQFSJFODFBOEEJTUJODUFUIOJDJUZ NPSFUIBOTFWFOUZZFBST
PGDPFYJTUFODFJOBDPNNPOTUBUFOPUXJUITUBOEJOH5IFSFTVMUXBTUIBUUIF
UXPQFPQMFTQFBDFGVMMZTFQBSBUFEBTPG+BOVBSZ  UIFGPSNFS$[FDIP
TMPWBLJBCFDPNJOHUXPDPVOUSJFTUIF$[FDI3FQVCMJDBOE4MPWBLJB
"OEUPUIFTPVUIFBTUPGXIBUXBT$[FDIPTMPWBLJB JOGPSNFS:VHPTMBWJB
QFPQMFTXIPGPSUIFNPTUQBSUTQFBLUIFTBNFPSNVUVBMMZJOUFMMJHJCMFMBO
HVBHFTPSEJBMFDUTCVUBSFPGEJGGFSFOUDVMUVSBMBOESFMJHJPVTCBDLHSPVOET
IBWFHPOFTPGBSBTUPSFTPSUUPBSNFEDPOGMJDUDPTUJOHNBOZUIPVTBOETPG
MJWFT BOE DBVTJOH XIPMFTBMF NJHSBUJPO PG GBNJMJFT GSPN DPNNVOJUJFT JO
XIJDIUIFJSBODFTUPSTIBEMJWFEGPSDFOUVSJFT 5IFSFBSFPOMZBGFXNJOPS
WPDBCVMBSZEJGGFSFODFTCFUXFFOXIBUUIF4FSCTBOE$SPBUTTQFBL5IFNBKPS
EJGGFSFODFJTUIFBMQIBCFU5IF4FSCTVTFUIF$ZSJMMJD UIF$SPBUTUIF-BUJO

5IFJEFOUJGJDBUJPOCFUXFFOBTPDJPQPMJUJDBMVOJUBOEMBOHVBHFEPFTOPU
IPMEGPSUIFTUBUF BGPSNPGQPMJUJDBMMZDFOUSBMJ[FETPDJFUZUIBUVTVBMMZFO
DPNQBTTFTXJUIJOJUTCPVOEBSJFTTFWFSBMPSFWFONBOZFUIOJDHSPVQT FBDI
XJUIJUTPXOTQFFDI5IFNVMUJMJOHVBMOBUVSFPGCPUIIJTUPSJDBMBOENPEFSO
TUBUFTIBTCFFOPCTDVSFECFDBVTFBTUBUFJTPSEJOBSJMZBTTPDJBUFEXJUIUIFPG
GJDJBMPSRVBTJPGGJDJBMMBOHVBHFVTFECZUIFNBKPSJUZPGJUTDJUJ[FOT*OUIF
GPSNFS4PWJFU6OJPO GPSJOTUBODF 3VTTJBOJODSFBTJOHMZTFSWFEBTUIFDPN
NPOMBOHVBHFUISPVHIPVUUIFDPVOUSZTWBTUBSFBFWFOUIPVHIUIFOVNCFSPG
JUTEJTUJODUOBUJPOBMJUJFTXBTBSPVOEPOFIVOESFEBOENPTUPGUIFJSMBOHVBHFT
XFSFBDUJWFMZVTFE*O*OEJB OFBSMZUISFFUJNFTBTQPQVMPVTBTUIFGPSNFS
4PWJFU6OJPOCVUPDDVQZJOHBOBSFBPOMZPOFTFWFOUIBTMBSHF UIFOVNCFS
PGEJGGFSFOUMBOHVBHFTJTSFQPSUFEUPCFBMNPTU*OUIF6OJUFE,JOHEPN
UIFOVNCFSPGNJOPSJUZMBOHVBHFTQSFTFOUMZJOSPVUJOFVTFFYDFFETPOFIVO
ESFE BOEJOUIF6OJUFE4UBUFTDMPTFUPQFSDFOUPGUIFQPQVMBUJPOSFHVMBSMZ
TQFBLBMBOHVBHFPUIFSUIBO&OHMJTI*OTFWFSBM"GSJDBODPVOUSJFTUIBUIBWF
The Social Aspects of Multilingualism 133

BTJOHMFPGGJDJBMMBOHVBHF BTNBOZBTOJOFPVUPGFWFSZUFOQFPQMFBSFFTUJ
NBUFEUPNBLFSFHVMBSVTFPGNPSFUIBOPOFMBOHVBHF
*GNFNCFSTPGEJGGFSFOUFUIOJDHSPVQTMJWFTJEFCZTJEFBOEJOUFSBDUGSF
RVFOUMZ BUMFBTUTPNFPGUIFNMFBSOUPTQFBLBMBOHVBHFPSMBOHVBHFTPUIFS
UIBOUIFJSPXONPUIFSUPOHVFBOEUIFSFCZCFDPNFNVMUJMJOHVBM5IFNPTU
DPNNPOJOTUBODFPGNVMUJMJOHVBMJTNJTCJMJOHVBMJTN DIBSBDUFSJ[FECZUIF
BCJMJUZUPTQFBLUXPMBOHVBHFT/PUFWFSZPOFBHSFFTPOUIFEFGJOJUJPOPGUIJT
UFSN4USJDUMZTQFBLJOH CJMJOHVBMTBSFJOEJWJEVBMTXIPIBWFDPNQMFUFBOE
FRVBMDPNNBOEPGUXPMBOHVBHFTJOBMMTJUVBUJPOTJOPUIFSXPSET UIPTF
XIPQBTTGPSOBUJWFTQFBLFSTJOFJUIFSMBOHVBHF*OQSBDUJDF IPXFWFS UIF
UFSNJTBQQMJFENPSFMPPTFMZ FYUFOEJOHUPUIPTFXIPDBOTQPOUBOFPVTMZQSP
EVDFNFBOJOHGVMVUUFSBODFTJOBMBOHVBHFPUIFSUIBOUIFJSGJSTU
3FMBUJWFMZTUBCMFCJMJOHVBMJTNDIBSBDUFSJ[FTUIFTJUVBUJPOJO4XJU[FSMBOE
XIJDIBDDPSETOBUJPOBMTUBUVTUPGPVSMBOHVBHFT(FSNBO 'SFODI *UBMJBO
BOE3PNBOTIBOEXIFSFCJMJOHVBMJTNJTDPNNPOBOEUSJMJOHVBMJTN GBS
GSPNSBSF"UUIFTBNFUJNF OPOFPGUIFGPVSMBOHVBHFTUISJWFTBUUIFFY
QFOTFPGUIFPUIFSTEFTQJUFUIFXJEFMZEJGGFSFOUQFSDFOUBHFTPGUIFJSIBCJUVBM
TQFBLFST (FSNBOXJUINPSFUIBOQFSDFOU 3PNBOTIXJUIMFTTUIBOQFS
DFOU
*O$BOBEB XIJDIJOHSBOUFEPGGJDJBMTUBUVTUPCPUI'SFODIBOE
&OHMJTI NPTUCJMJOHVBM$BOBEJBOTMJWFJOUIFQSPWJODFPG2VFCFD XIFSFB
MBSHFNBKPSJUZ BCPVUQFSDFOU
DPOTJEFSUIFNTFMWFT'SFODI$BOBEJBOTBOE
BSFPOHVBSEBHBJOTUUIFTQSFBEPG&OHMJTIBUUIFFYQFOTFPG'SFODI FWFO
UIPVHIBHSFBUNBOZPGUIFN BCPVUQFSDFOU
TQFBLCPUIMBOHVBHFT"
QBSUJDVMBSMZJOUFSFTUJOHFYBNQMFPGNVMUJMJOHVBMJTNFYJTUTBNPOHUIF/BUJWF
"NFSJDBOT PG OPSUIXFTUFSO #SB[JM BOE UIF BEKBDFOU QBSU PG $PMPNCJB
4PSFOTFO
"MNPTUFWFSZNFNCFSPGBUMFBTUUXFOUZEJGGFSFOUUSJCFTJO
BDVMUVSBMMZIPNPHFOFPVTBSFBJTGMVFOUJOUISFF GPVS PSNPSFSFHJPOBMMBO
HVBHFT5IFTPVSDFPGUIJTQIFOPNFOPOJTTUSJDUUSJCBMFYPHBNZ BDVTUPN
SFRVJSJOHNBSSJBHFQBSUOFSTUPCFGSPNEJGGFSFOUUSJCFT NBLJOHNVMUJMJO
HVBMJTNUIFDVMUVSBMOPSNSBUIFSUIBOUIFFYDFQUJPO$IJMESFOGJSTUMFBSO
UIFJSQBSFOUTMBOHVBHFT BDRVJSFUXPPSNPSFBEEJUJPOBMPOFTEVSJOHBEP
MFTDFODF BOEPGUFOMFBSOTUJMMPUIFSTJOBEVMUIPPE
.PSFDPNNPOMZ UIPVHI NVMUJMJOHVBMJTNJTBUSBOTJUJPOBMBOEBTZNNFU
SJDBMQIFOPNFOPO%VSJOHUIFMBUUFSQBSUPGUIFOJOFUFFOUIDFOUVSZ GFX
XPSLJOHDMBTTJNNJHSBOUTGSPNDPOUJOFOUBM&VSPQFUPUIF"NFSJDBTMFBSOFE
UPTQFBLUIFMBOHVBHFPGUIFJSOFXMZBEPQUFEDPVOUSZUPBOZFYUFOU JGBUBMM
"MUIPVHINBOZPGUIFJSDIJMESFOVTFEUIFMBOHVBHFMFBSOFEBUTDIPPMPOMZ
134 Chapter 7: Acquiring Language(s)

BTBTFDPOEMBOHVBHF UIFZOFWFSUIFMFTTCFDBNFCJMJOHVBMPSOFBSMZTP#Z
TVCTFRVFOUHFOFSBUJPOT IPXFWFS POMZBGFXSFUBJOFEFWFOMJNJUFEQBTTJWF
BDRVBJOUBODFXJUIUIFTQFFDIPGUIFJSGPSFCFBST.VDIUIFTBNFIBTCFFO
USVFPGNBOZ/BUJWF"NFSJDBOTJOUIF6OJUFE4UBUFT5IFUSBOTJUJPOGSPN
UIFJSOBUJWFMBOHVBHFTUP&OHMJTIUISPVHIUIFJOUFSNFEJBUFTUBHFPGCJMJO
HVBMJTNXBTNPTUMZBDDPNQMJTIFEEVSJOHUIFQBTUDFOUVSZ BOEPOMZUIFPME
FTU USJCBM NFNCFST TUJMM QPTTFTT UPEBZ B TFSWJDFBCMF LOPXMFEHF PG UIFJS
PSJHJOBMTQFFDI8IFSFUIFDPODFOUSBUJPOPGJNNJHSBOUTNBJOUBJOTJUTFMGBU
BIJHIMFWFM CJMJOHVBMJTNUFOETUPQFSTJTUMPOHFS
4QFBLFSTPGNJOPSJUZMBOHVBHFTJOUIF6OJUFE4UBUFTIBWFBMXBZTCFFO
OVNFSPVT5XFOUZQFSDFOUPG"NFSJDBOTTQFBLBMBOHVBHFPUIFSUIBO&OH
MJTIBUIPNF4FWFOTUBUFT"SJ[POB $BMJGPSOJB 'MPSJEB *MMJOPJT /FX+FS
TFZ /FX:PSL BOE5FYBTIBWFNPSFUIBONJMMJPOTQFBLFSTPGMBOHVBHFT
PUIFSUIBO&OHMJTI VQGSPNGPVSTUBUFTJO
*OIBMGUIFGJGUZTUBUFT
TQFBLFSTPGNJOPSJUZMBOHVBHFTFRVBMFEPSFYDFFEFEQFSDFOUPGUIFQPQ
VMBUJPO*ONPTUPGUIFTFTUBUFT UIFMBSHFTUNJOPSJUZMBOHVBHFJT4QBOJTI
"DDPSEJOHUPTVSWFZTCZUIF64$FOTVT UIFSFBSFTPNFNJMMJPO
TQFBLFSTPG4QBOJTIJOUIF6OJUFE4UBUFT BCPVUQFSDFOUPGUIFUPUBMQPQ
VMBUJPO
*OGPVSTUBUFT NPSFUIBOPOFJOGJWFSFTJEFOUTTQFBL4QBOJTIBTB
GJSTUMBOHVBHF/FX.FYJDP QFSDFOU
$BMJGPSOJB QFSDFOU
5FYBT
 QFSDFOU
 BOE "SJ[POB  QFSDFOU
 #FDBVTF NBOZ -BUJOPT JO UIF
6OJUFE4UBUFTTQFBL4QBOJTIJOUIFIPNFBOEXJUIDPNQBUSJPUT BOEVTF
&OHMJTIPOMZBTUIFNFEJVNGPSDPOUBDUXJUIUIFMBSHFSTPDJFUZ 4QBOJTIDPO
UJOVFTUPCFTQPLFOCZNJMMJPOTPGQFPQMFBOEJTUIFNPTUXJEFMZVTFEMBO
HVBHFJOUIF6OJUFE4UBUFTBGUFS&OHMJTI
5IFEFNBOEPOUIFCJMJOHVBMTUPVTFUXPEJGGFSFOUMJOHVJTUJDTZTUFNTNBZ
SFTVMUJOWBSJPVTGPSNTPGTJNQMJGJDBUJPOGPSPOFPGUIFUXPMBOHVBHFT"NPOH
.FYJDBO"NFSJDBOCJMJOHVBMTMJWJOHJOBQSFEPNJOBOUMZ4QBOJTITQFBLJOHTFD
UJPOPG-PT"OHFMFTJOUIFT UIJTTJNQMJGJDBUJPOBGGFDUFEUIFJS4QBOJTIJOB
WBSJFUZPGXBZT'PSFYBNQMF UIFJS4QBOJTIMPTUTPNFPGJUTDPNQPVOEUFOTFT
UIFVTFPGFTUBS AUPCFXBTFYUFOEFEUPDPOUFYUTQSFWJPVTMZMJNJUFEUPTFS AUPCF
TPNFXPSETXFSFCPSSPXFEGSPN&OHMJTI FH MPODIF AMVODIBOEUSPDB PS
USPRVF AUSVDLBOETVDIMPBOUSBOTMBUJPOTXFSFDPJOFEBTEBTEFTFNBOB AXFFL
EBZTJOTUFBEPGUIFJEJPNBUJDEBTEFUSBCBKP 4JMWB$PSWBMO

'PSTPNFZFBSTOPX FGGPSUTIBWFCFFONBEFUPFTUBCMJTI&OHMJTIBTUIF
PGGJDJBMMBOHVBHFPGUIF6OJUFE4UBUFT UIVTGBS BCPVUIBMGPGUIFGJGUZTUBUFT
IBWFEPOFTP CVUUIFTFMBXTBSFMBSHFMZTZNCPMJD
*UIBTCFFOTVHHFTUFEUIBU
Code-Switching, Code-Mixing, and Diglossia 135

BDPOTUJUVUJPOBMBNFOENFOUCFBEPQUFEUPUIFFGGFDUUIBU&OHMJTIJTUIFPGGJ
DJBMMBOHVBHFPGUIF6OJUFE4UBUFT UIBUMBXTNBOEBUJOHNVMUJMJOHVBMCBMMPUT
BOEWPUJOHNBUFSJBMTCFSFQFBMFE BOEUIBUGVOEJOHGPSCJMJOHVBMFEVDBUJPOCF
SFTUSJDUFEUPTIPSUUFSNUSBOTJUJPOBMQSPHSBNT5IPTFXIPGBWPS&OHMJTIBT
UIFPGGJDJBMMBOHVBHFNBJOUBJOUIBUUIFZBSFOPUUSZJOHUPEJTDPVSBHFUIFVTF
PGMBOHVBHFTPUIFSUIBO&OHMJTIJOUIFIPNFTPGSFDFOUJNNJHSBOUTPSVOBD
DVMUVSBUFEBEVMUTPGPUIFSFUIOJDCBDLHSPVOETUIFZTJNQMZCFMJFWFUIBUUIF
CPOEPGBDPNNPOMBOHVBHFIFMQTUPQSPNPUFVOJUZJOBDPVOUSZNBEFVQPG
QFPQMFGSPNFWFSZDPSOFSPGUIFXPSME
0OUIFPUIFSTJEFPGUIFBSHVNFOUBSFUIPTFXIPQPJOUPVUUIBUUIF'JSTU
"NFOENFOUUPUIF$POTUJUVUJPOHVBSBOUFFTGSFFEPNPGTQFFDI5IFZNBJO
UBJOUIBUDJUJ[FOTPGUIF6OJUFE4UBUFTTIPVMEIBWFUIFSJHIUUPVTFUIFMBO
HVBHFJOXIJDIUIFZBSFNPTUQSPGJDJFOU'SPNBOBOUISPQPMPHJDBMWJFXQPJOU
UIFWBMVFPGEJWFSTJUZBOEHSBEVBMWPMVOUBSZBTTJNJMBUJPOJTQSFGFSBCMFUPUIF
JNQPTJUJPOPGJOGMFYJCMFMBOHVBHFMBXTUIBUXPVMEUSZUPQSPEVDFBDPNNPO
DVMUVSFCZEFDSFF

Code-Switching, Code-Mixing, and Diglossia


1SPCBCMZBMMTQFBLFSTPGFWFSZMBOHVBHFIBWFBWBSJFUZPGMJOHVJTUJDSFTPVSDFT
BWBJMBCMFUPUIFN'PSFYBNQMF UIFQSFXBS3VTTJBOMJUFSBSZUIFPSJTU.JLIBJM
#BLIUJO 
 XSPUF PG UIF JMMJUFSBUF QFBTBOU XIP QSBZT UP (PE JO 0ME
$IVSDI4MBWPOJD TQFBLTUPIJTGBNJMZJOUIFJSMPDBMWJMMBHFEJBMFDU TJOHT
IZNOTJO4UBOEBSE3VTTJBO BOEBUUFNQUTUPQFUJUJPOUIFMPDBMHPWFSONFOUJO
XIBUIFUIJOLTJTUIFIJHIDMBTTTQFFDIPGPGGJDJBMEPN*ONPTUQMBDFTJOUIF
XPSME UIFSFBSFOPUPOMZEJBMFDUTCVUTFWFSBMMBOHVBHFTQSFTFOUJOBDPN
NVOJUZ UIFTQFBLFSTQPTTFTTJOHWBSZJOHEFHSFFTPGGBDJMJUZ*OUIFTFNVMUJ
MJOHVBMTJUVBUJPOTUIFDPEFTUIBUJT MBOHVBHFWBSJFUJFTPSMBOHVBHFTPGUFO
CFDPNFCMFOEFE5IJTJTTPDPNNPOUIBUMJOHVJTUTIBWFTQFDJBMUFSNTGPSUIJT
CMFOEJOHDPEFTXJUDIJOH BOEDPEFNJYJOH
5IJTOPNFODMBUVSFIBTIBEBMPOHIJTUPSZJOMJOHVJTUJDT&JOBS)BVHFO

XIPNPTUMJLFMZDPJOFEUIFUFSN DPEFTXJUDIJOH EFGJOFEJUBT
iXIFOBCJMJOHVBMJOUSPEVDFTBDPNQMFUFMZVOBTTJNJMBUFEXPSEGSPNBOPUIFS
MBOHVBHFJOUPIJTTQFFDIw$BSPM.ZFST4DPUUPO 
CSPBEFOFEUIFEFG
JOJUJPOCZTBZJOHUIBUDPEFTXJUDIJOHiJTUIFTFMFDUJPOCZCJMJOHVBMTPSNVM
UJMJOHVBMTPGGPSNTGSPNBOFNCFEEFEWBSJFUZ PSWBSJFUJFT
JOVUUFSBnces..
EVSJOHUIFTBNFDPOWFSTBUJPOw&ZBNCB#PLBNCB 
EJTUJOHVJTIFT
136 Chapter 7: Acquiring Language(s)

DPEFTXJUDIJOHBOEDPEFNJYJOHi$PEFTXJUDIJOHJTUIFNJYJOHPGXPSET
QISBTFTBOETFOUFODFTGSPNUXPEJTUJODUHSBNNBUJDBM TVC
TZTUFNTBDSPTT
TFOUFODFCPVOEBSJFTXJUIJOUIFTBNFTQFFDIFWFOt..<XIJMF>DPEFNJYJOH
JTUIFFNCFEEJOHPGWBSJPVTMJOHVJTUJDVOJUTTVDIBTBGGJYFT CPVOENPS
QIFNFT
XPSET GSFFNPSQIFNFT
QISBTFTBOEDMBVTFTGSPNBDPPQFSBUJWF
BDUJWJUZXIFSFUIFQBSUJDJQBOUT JOPSEFSUPJOGFSXIBUJTJOUFOEFE NVTUSFD
PODJMFXIBUUIFZIFBSXJUIXIBUUIFZVOEFSTUBOEw"OFYBNQMFPGUIFGPS
NFSXPVMECFUIF4QBOJTI&OHMJTICJMJOHVBMXIPTBZT4PNFUJNFT*MMTUBSUB
TFOUFODFJO&OHMJTIZUFSNJOPFOFTQBPM <iBOEGJOJTIJUJO4QBOJTIw> 1PQMBDL

"OFYBNQMFPGUIFMBUUFSXPVMECFUIF+BQBOFTF&OHMJTICJMJOHVBM
XIPTBZT,BXBJT TPOPCVH i5IBUCVH JTTPQJUJGVMwPSi0I UIBUQPPS
CVHw
JODPSQPSBUJOHUIF&OHMJTIXPSEGPSJOTFDUJOUPUIF+BQBOFTFTFOUFODF
5IFTFEJTUJODUJPOTBSFOPUBMXBZTTFQBSBUFECZBMMTDIPMBST BOETPNFVTF
DPEFTXJUDIJOHUPSFGFSUPBMMUZQFTPGDPNCJOFEMBOHVBHFT5IFJNQPSUBOU
UIJOHJOUIFTFTJUVBUJPOTJTUIBUBQFSTPODBQBCMFPGVTJOHUXPMBOHVBHFT "
BOE# IBTUISFFTZTUFNTBWBJMBCMFGPSVTF" # BOE$ BDPNCJOBUJPOPG"
PS#
.JYJOHBOETXJUDIJOHQSPCBCMZPDDVSUPTPNFFYUFOUJOUIFDPOWFSTB
UJPOTPGBMMCJMJOHVBMT$PEFNJYJOHBOEDPEFTXJUDIJOHDBOTFSWFBWBSJFUZ
PGGVODUJPOT TVDIBTCVJMEJOHPSSFJOGPSDJOHTPMJEBSJUZBNPOHTQFBLFSTXIP
TIBSFUIFTFMBOHVBHFT'PSFYBNQMF UXP$[FDITJOUIF6OJUFE4UBUFTDPO
WFSTJOHJO$[FDINBZVTF&OHMJTIXPSET QISBTFT PSTFOUFODFTXIFOFWFS
UIFZGFFMNPSFDPNGPSUBCMFEPJOHTPBTJOi7DP 1PQPWENFTJQZLOZ V
NZ EPNBVQJWB"MFOFTJWMF[FNFEPTVCXBZF MFUTCVZTPNFQBTUSBNJBOE
QPUBUPDIJQTw )FSFTBOJEFB-FUTUBMLPWFSCFFSBUNZQMBDF#VUCFGPSFXF
HFUPOUIFTVCXBZ MFUTCVZTPNFQBTUSBNJBOEQPUBUPDIJQT

5IFVTFPGUXPEJTUJODUWBSJFUJFTPGBMBOHVBHFGPSUXPEJGGFSFOUTFUTPG
GVODUJPOTJTDBMMFEEJHMPTTJB 5IFDPNNPOMBOHVBHFJTUIFDPMMPRVJBM PSUIF
iMPX wWBSJFUZ -
"TFDPOE iIJHIwWBSJFUZ )
JTVTFEJOGPSNBMDJSDVN
TUBODFT*UJTUBVHIUJOTDIPPMTBOEBTTVNFTBENJOJTUSBUJWF MFHBM SFMJHJPVT
BOEMJUFSBSZGVODUJPOT$IBSMFT'FSHVTPO 
DPJOFEUIJTUFSNJOSFGFS
FODFUPUIF$MBTTJDBM"SBCJDCBTFEPOUIFTUBOEBSETPGUIF2VSBO ,PSBO

VTFEJOGPSNBMTFUUJOHBHBJOTUUIFMPDBMPSSFHJPOBMEJBMFDUTPGDPMMPRVJBM"SB
CJDGPVOEUISPVHIPVUUIF.JEEMF&BTU
0GUIFUXPWBSJFUJFT UIFDPMMPRVJBMUZQJDBMMZJTMFBSOFEGJSTUBOEJTVTFEGPS
PSEJOBSZDPOWFSTBUJPOXJUISFMBUJWFTBOEGSJFOETPSTFSWBOUTBOEXPSLJOH
QFSTPOT JODBSUPPOT QPQVMBSSBEJPBOEUFMFWJTJPOQSPHSBNT KPLFT USBEJ
UJPOBMOBSSBUJWFT BOEUIFMJLF5IFGPSNBMWBSJFUZ XIJDIDBSSJFTQSFTUJHF JT
Summary and Conclusions 137

UBVHIUJOTDIPPMTBOEBTTVNFTNPTUPGUIFMJUFSBSZ BENJOJTUSBUJWF MFHBM BOE


SFMJHJPVTGVODUJPOT
*OTUBODFTPGEJHMPTTJBBSFGBJSMZDPNNPO5IPTF4XJTTXIPVTF4UBOEBSE
(FSNBO BT UIFJS GPSNBM WBSJFUZ BSF GMVFOU JO UIF 4XJTT (FSNBO EJBMFDU
4DIXZ[FSUUTDI
UIFMPXWBSJFUZ JOBEEJUJPOUPUIFPUIFSOBUJPOBMMBOHVBHFT
UIFZNBZIBWFMFBSOFE4JNJMBSMZ JO(SFFDFDPMMPRVJBM(SFFLJTJOVTFTJEF
CZTJEFXJUIUIFMJUFSBSZGPSNEFSJWFEJOMBSHFQBSUGSPNJUTDMBTTJDBMBODFT
UPS*OBDUVBMTQFFDI IPXFWFS OFJUIFSUIFUXPEJHMPTTJDWBSJFUJFTOPSUIFMBO
HVBHFTPGBCJMJOHVBMDPNNVOJUZBSFBMXBZTLFQUTUSJDUMZBQBSU

Summary and Conclusions


-FBSOJOHUPTQFBLBGPSFJHOMBOHVBHFJTBGPSNJEBCMFUBTL BOENPTUBEVMUT
GBJMUPBDIJFWFGMVFODZFWFOBGUFSNBOZZFBSTPGUSZJOH$IJMESFO IPXFWFS
MFBSOUIFJSOBUJWFMBOHVBHFXJUIOPBQQBSFOUFGGPSUBOEXJUIPVUJOTUSVDUJPO
CFGPSFUIFZSFBDITDIPPMBHF0OFXJEFMZBDDFQUFEUIFPSZDPODFSOJOHMBO
HVBHF BDRVJTJUJPO IPMET UIBU JOGBOUT BSF CPSO XJUI BO BCTUSBDU MBOHVBHF
NPEFMBMSFBEZQSPHSBNNFEJOUPUIFJSCSBJOT TFF#PY
&OEPXFEXJUI
TVDIBMBOHVBHFBDRVJTJUJPOEFWJDF UIFZBQQMZJUBTUIFZMFBSOUIFQBSUJDVMBS
NPUIFS UPOHVF UIFZ IFBS TQPLFO BSPVOE UIFN "DRVJTJUJPO PG MBOHVBHF
TIPVMEOPUCFTUVEJFEXJUIPVUDPOTJEFSJOHUIFTPDJPDVMUVSBMDPOUFYUJOXIJDI
JUUBLFTQMBDF,OPXJOHIPXUPVTFUIFJSOBUJWFMBOHVBHFFGGFDUJWFMZIFMQTJO
EJWJEVBMTDPQFXJUIUIFJSDVMUVSF BOEMFBSOJOHUPVTFJUBQQSPQSJBUFMZJTBO
JNQPSUBOUQBSUPGFODVMUVSBUJPO UIFQSPDFTTPGMFBSOJOHPOFTDVMUVSF

"NPOHUIFNBOZBDUJWJUJFTUIFIVNBOCSBJODPOUSPMTBSFTQFFDI XSJUJOH
BOESFBEJOH&WFOUIPVHINVDIJTTUJMMUPCFMFBSOFEBCPVUUIFXPSLJOHTPG
UIFCSBJO JUIBTMPOHCFFOLOPXOUIBUEJGGFSFOUQBSUTPGUIFCSBJODPOUSJCVUF
UPEJGGFSFOUBTQFDUTPGMBOHVBHFQSPDFTTJOH*OKVSJFTUPUIFTFBSFBTSFTVMUJO
DPSSFTQPOEJOHMBOHVBHFBOETQFFDIJNQBJSNFOUT
$PNQFUFODZJOPOFMBOHVBHFPOMZ UZQJDBMPGNPTU"NFSJDBOTXJUI&OH
MJTIBTUIFJSNPUIFSUPOHVF JTVODPNNPOJOUIFSFTUPGUIFXPSME XIFSF
IVOESFETPGNJMMJPOTPGQFPQMFBSFBCMFUPTQFBLTFWFSBMMBOHVBHFTPSMBO
HVBHFWBSJFUJFTUIBUJT UIFZBSFNVMUJMJOHVBMPSEJHMPTTJD&WFOUIPVHINBOZ
QFPQMFTQFBLPOMZPOFMBOHVBHF UIFZBSFBDUJWFMZ PSBUMFBTUQBTTJWFMZ BD
RVBJOUFEXJUITFWFSBMEJBMFDUTBOETQFFDITUZMFTPGUIBUMBOHVBHF5IFJSPXO
TQFFDIQBUUFSOTEJGGFSGSPNUIPTFPGPUIFST FWFOJGPOMZTMJHIUMZ"MMTQFBL
FSTIBWFUIFJSJOEJWJEVBMJEJPMFDUT
138 Chapter 7: Acquiring Language(s)

B OX 7 . 2 T H E H UM A N B R A I N A N D
L A N G UAG E ACQ U I S I T I O N

Why arent babies born talking? We know that part of the answer is that
babies have to listen to themselves to learn how to work their articula-
tors, and have to listen to their elders to learn communal phonemes,
words, and phrase orders. Some of these acquisitions depend on other
ones, forcing development to proceed in a sequence: phonemes before
words, words before sentences. But any mental mechanism powerful
enough to learn these things could probably do so with a few weeks or
months of input. Why does the sequence have to take three years?
Could it be any faster?
Perhaps not. Complicated machines take time to assemble, and
human infants may be expelled from the womb before their brains are
complete. A human, after all, is an animal with a ludicrously large head,
and a womans pelvis, through which it must pass, can be only so big.
If human beings stayed in the womb for the proportion of their life cycle
that we would expect based on extrapolation from other primates, they
would be born at the age of eighteen months. That is the age at which
babies in fact begin to put words together. In one sense, then[,] babies
are born talking!
And we know that babies brains do change considerably after birth.
Before birth, virtually all the neurons (nerve cells) are formed, and they
migrate into their proper locations in the brain. But head size, brain
weight, and thickness of the cerebral cortex (gray matter), where the
synapses (junctions) subserving mental computation are found, continue
to increase rapidly in the year after birth. Long-distance connections
(white matter) are not complete until nine months, and they continue to
grow their speed-inducing myelin insulation throughout childhood.
Synapses continue to develop, peaking in number between nine months
and two years (depending on the brain region), at which point the child
has fifty percent more synapses than the adult! Metabolic activity in the
brain reaches adult levels by nine to ten months, and soon exceeds it,
peaking around the age of four. The brain is sculpted not only by adding
neural material but by chipping it away. Massive numbers of neurons die
in utero, and the dying continues during the first two years before level-
(continues)
Summary and Conclusions 139

(continued)
ing off at age seven. Synapses wither from the age of two through the rest
of childhood and into adolescence, when the brains metabolic rate falls
back to adult levels. Language development, then, could be on a matu-
rational timetable, like teeth. Perhaps linguistic accomplishments like
babbling, first words, and grammar require minimum levels of brain size,
long-distance connections, and extra synapses, particularly in the lan-
guage centers of the brain. . . .
So language seems to develop about as quickly as the growing brain
can handle it.
from Steven Pinker, The Language Instinct (1994), 288289
8

Language Through Time

5IFTUSVDUVSFPGBMBOHVBHFNBZCFBOBMZ[FEBOEEFTDSJCFEBTJUFYJTUTBU
TPNFQPJOUJOUJNF FJUIFSJOUIFQSFTFOUPSUIFQBTU5IFBQQSPBDIUIBUDPO
TJEFSTBMBOHVBHFBTUIPVHIJUIBECFFOTMJDFEUISPVHIUJNF JHOPSJOHIJT
UPSJDBMBOUFDFEFOUT JTSFGFSSFEUPBTTZODISPOJDMJOHVJTUJDT#VUJUJTBMTP
QPTTJCMFUPTUVEZUIFIJTUPSJDBMEFWFMPQNFOUPGBMBOHVBHFCZHJWJOHBUUFOUJPO
UPUIFDIBOHFTUIBUPDDVSSFEJOUIFMBOHVBHFPWFSBQFSJPEPGUJNF4VDIBO
BOBMZTJTPSBQQSPBDIJTEJBDISPOJD PS IJTUPSJDBM MJOHVJTUJDT 5IJTDIBQUFS
TIPXTTPNFPGUIFXBZTBEJBDISPOJDBQQSPBDIDBOCFOFGJUBOUISPQPMPHJTUT

How Languages Are Classified


"OZPOFXIPLOPXT4QBOJTIXJMMUFMMZPVUIBUPUIFSMBOHVBHFT TVDIBT1PS
UVHVFTFPS*UBMJBO TFFNUPCFSFMBUFEUP4QBOJTI 5IJTJTEVFUPUIFJSDPNNPO
PSJHJOGSPN-BUJO5SBEJUJPOBMMZ POFPGUIFNPTUDPNNPOBDUJWJUJFTJOIJT
UPSJDBMMJOHVJTUJDTIBTCFFOUPDMBTTJGZMBOHVBHFTBDDPSEJOHUPUIFTFHFOFUJDSF
MBUJPOTIJQT*UJTEJGGJDVMUUPHJWFUIFFYBDUOVNCFSPGMBOHVBHFTTQPLFOJO
UIFXPSMEBUQSFTFOU CVUUIFUPUBMVOEPVCUFEMZBQQSPBDIFT  ,SBVTT
o
QPTTJCMZ *UJTJNQPTTJCMFUPHVFTTIPXNBOZMBOHVBHFTNVTU
IBWFCFDPNFFYUJODUJOQSFIJTUPSJDUJNFT8FEPLOPXUIBUEVSJOHUIFIJT
UPSJDBMQFSJPEGPSXIJDIXFIBWFXSJUUFOSFDPSET BHSFBUNBOZMBOHVBHFT
IBWFEJFEPVU
"MBOHVBHFGBNJMZ JODMVEFTBMMUIPTFMBOHVBHFTUIBUBSFSFMBUFECZWJSUVF
PGIBWJOHEFTDFOEFEGSPNBTJOHMFBODFTUSBMMBOHVBHF5IFDPODFQUPGUIF
MBOHVBHFGBNJMZJTTPNFXIBUDPOTFSWBUJWF*UJTHFOFSBMMZFNQMPZFEPOMZJG
UIFSFMBUJPOTIJQBOEUIFDPSSFTQPOEFODFTBNPOHUIFMBOHVBHFTIBWFCFFO

141
142 Chapter 8: Language Through Time

GJSNMZFTUBCMJTIFECZDBSFGVMDPNQBSBUJWFXPSLBOEBDPOWJODJOHOVNCFSPG
DPHOBUFT 4VCEJWJTJPOT PG B MBOHVBHF GBNJMZ BSF VTVBMMZ SFGFSSFE UP BT
CSBODIFT5IF*OEP&VSPQFBOMBOHVBHFGBNJMZ GPSFYBNQMF DPOTJTUTPGBCPVU
BEP[FOCSBODIFT TPNFPGXIJDIIBWFTVCCSBODIFT
4PNFCSBODIFTBSF
(FSNBOJD XJUIBCPVUBEP[FOMBOHVBHFT JODMVEJOH(FSNBOBOE&OHMJTI

$FMUJD XJUIGPVSMBOHVBHFT
3PNBODFPS*UBMJD XJUIBCPVUBEP[FOMBO
HVBHFT JODMVEJOH'SFODIBOE4QBOJTI
BOE#BMUP4MBWJD XJUINPSFUIBO
BEP[FOMBOHVBHFTCFMPOHJOHUPFJUIFSUIF#BMUJDPS4MBWJDTVCCSBODIFT
JODMVEJOH 3VTTJBOBOE1PMJTI
4PNFCSBODIFTBSFSFQSFTFOUFECZBTJOHMF
MBOHVBHF GPSFYBNQMF "MCBOJBO "SNFOJBO PS)FMMFOJDPS(SFFL*OEP*SBOJBO
XJUIJUT*OEJDBOE*SBOJBOTVCCSBODIFT DPOTJTUTPGTFWFSBMIVOESFEMBO
HVBHFTBOEEJBMFDUTTQPLFONPTUMZJOTPVUIXFTUFSO"TJB4PNFCSBODIFTPG
*OEP&VSPQFBO GPSFYBNQMF UIF5PDIBSJBOBOE"OBUPMJBOCSBODIFT BSFOP
MPOHFSSFQSFTFOUFECZTQPLFOMBOHVBHFT
5IFOVNCFSPGMBOHVBHFTUIBUNBLFVQBMBOHVBHFGBNJMZWBSJFTHSFBUMZ
5IFMBSHFTU"GSJDBOGBNJMZ /JHFS$POHP JTFTUJNBUFEUPDPOTJTUPGBCPVU
 MBOHVBHFTBOETFWFSBMUJNFTBTNBOZEJBMFDUT:FUTPNFMBOHVBHFTEP
OPUBQQFBSUPCFSFMBUFEUPBOZPUIFSUIFTFBSFSFGFSSFEUPBTMBOHVBHFJTP
MBUFT 5IF"NFSJDBTIBWFCFFONPSFMJOHVJTUJDBMMZEJWFSTJGJFEUIBOPUIFSDPO
UJOFOUTUIFOVNCFSPG/BUJWF"NFSJDBOMBOHVBHFGBNJMJFTJO/PSUI"NFSJDB
IBTCFFOKVEHFEUPCFNPSFUIBOTFWFOUZ JODMVEJOHNPSFUIBOUIJSUZJTP
MBUFT5IFOVNCFSTGPS4PVUI"NFSJDBIBWFCFFOFWFOMBSHFS CVUUIFZBSF
POMZ FTUJNBUFT CFDBVTF PVS LOPXMFEHF PG UIF *OEJBO MBOHVBHFT PG 4PVUI
"NFSJDBJTTUJMMJODPNQMFUF
4FWFSBMBUUFNQUTIBWFCFFONBEFUPTJNQMJGZUIFBQQBSFOUMJOHVJTUJDEJ
WFSTJUZPGUIF/FX8PSME*O &EXBSE4BQJSQSPQPTFEBNBKPSSFEVDUJPO
JOUIFOVNCFSPGMBOHVBHFGBNJMJFT BTTJHOJOHBMM/BUJWF"NFSJDBOMBOHVBHFT
OPSUIPG.FYJDPUPPOMZTJYiNBKPSMJOHVJTUJDHSPVQTw TVQFSGBNJMJFT
MBUFS
SFGFSSFEUPBTQIZMB$POTFRVFOUMZ BQIZMVNJOMJOHVJTUJDDMBTTJGJDBUJPOJTB
HSPVQJOHUIBUFODPNQBTTFTBMMUIPTFMBOHVBHFTKVEHFEUPIBWFNPSFSFNPUF
SFMBUJPOTIJQTUIBOEPMBOHVBHFTBTTJHOFEUPBGBNJMZ&YDFQUGPSUIF&TLJNP
"MFVUiHSPVQ wXIJDIJTDPOTJEFSFEUPCFPOFGBNJMZ FBDIPGUIFPUIFSGJWF
HSPVQTPG4BQJSTQSPQPTFEDMBTTJGJDBUJPOJODMVEFETFWFSBMGBNJMJFTBOEPOF
PSNPSFMBOHVBHFJTPMBUFT"TJNJMBSTJNQMJGJDBUJPOPG4PVUI"NFSJDBOMBO
HVBHFGBNJMJFTXBTQSPQPTFEJOCZ+PTFQI)(SFFOCFSH o

XIPTVCTVNFEUIFIVOESFETPGOBUJWF4PVUI"NFSJDBOMBOHVBHFTVOEFS
UISFFiGBNJMJFTw VTJOHUIFUFSNOPUJOUIFPMEFSDPOTFSWBUJWFTFOTFCVUNPSF
How Languages Are Classified 143

JOUIFTFOTFPGTVQFSQIZMVNPSNBDSPQIZMVN
*OBOPUIFSDMBTTJGJDBUJPO
(SFFOCFSH 
BTTJHOFEBMMOBUJWFMBOHVBHFTPGUIF/FX8PSMEUPPOMZ
UISFFiGBNJMJFT wPGXIJDIUIF"NFSJOEiGBNJMZwDPWFSTBMMOBUJWFMBOHVBHFTPG
UIFUXPDPOUJOFOUTFYDFQUGPSUIPTFCFMPOHJOHUPUIF/B%FOFBOE&TLJNP
"MFVUHSPVQT TQPLFOGPSUIFNPTUQBSUJOUIFOPSUIFSOIBMGPG/PSUI"NFS
JDB
.PTUTQFDJBMJTUTJO/BUJWF"NFSJDBOMBOHVBHFTBSFOPUSFBEZUPBDDFQU
UIFWBMJEJUZPG(SFFOCFSHTIVHF"NFSJOEHFOFUJDVOJU PSGBNJMZ*OBOZ
FWFOU BGBNJMZPGUIJTTJ[FIBTMJUUMFJODPNNPOXJUIUIFFBSMJFSDPOTFSWBUJWF
DPODFQUPGMBOHVBHFGBNJMZ .PTUPGUIFPCKFDUJPOTUPUIJTDMBTTJGJDBUJPOBSF
EJTDVTTFEJOUIFMFOHUIZSFWJFXPG(SFFOCFSHTXPSLCZ$BNQCFMM<>

*O UXPDPNQBSBUJWFMJOHVJTUTJOUIF4PWJFU6OJPOQSPEVDFEFWJEFODF
UIBUTJYNBKPSMBOHVBHFGBNJMJFTPGUIF0ME8PSME*OEP&VSPQFBO "GSP
"TJBUJD "MUBJD %SBWJEJBO 6SBMJD BOE,BSUWFMJBO 4PVUI$BVDBTJBO
XFSF
SFNPUFMZSFMBUFE5PUIJTNBDSPGBNJMZ SFGFSSFEUPBT/PTUSBUJD TPNFTDIPM
BSTTVCTFRVFOUMZBEEFEPUIFSMBOHVBHFGBNJMJFTBOEMBOHVBHFT BNPOHUIFN
&TLJNP"MFVU /JMP4BIBSBO BOE4VNFSJBO ,BJTFSBOE4IFWPSPTILJO

"OETUJMMBOPUIFSQSPQPTFENBDSPGBNJMZMJOLTUPHFUIFSNBOZMBOHVBHFTGSPN
CPUIUIF0MEBOEUIF/FX8PSME POFPGUIFOBNFTPGUIJTNBDSPGBNJMZJT
%FOF$BVDBTJBO

5IFUFOMBSHFTUDPOWFOUJPOBMMBOHVBHFGBNJMJFT SBOHJOHGSPNNPSFUIBO
CJMMJPOTQFBLFSTUPBCPVUNJMMJPO BSF*OEP&VSPQFBO 4JOP5JCFUBO /JHFS
$POHP "GSP"TJBUJD "VTUSPOFTJBO %SBWJEJBO +BQBOFTF "MUBJD "VTUSPBTJ
BUJD BOE,PSFBO +BQBOFTFBOE,PSFBOBSFGSFRVFOUMZDPOTJEFSFEMBOHVBHF
JTPMBUFTCVUNBZCFEJTUBOUMZSFMBUFEUPFBDIPUIFSBOEUPUIF"MUBJDGBNJMZ

-FTTGSFRVFOUMZVTFEBSFUZQPMPHJDBMDMBTTJGJDBUJPOT CBTFEPOTUSVDUVSBM
TJNJMBSJUJFTPGMBOHVBHFTSFHBSEMFTTPGUIFJSIJTUPSZUIBUJT SFHBSEMFTTPGHF
OFUJDSFMBUJPOTIJQ5ZQPMPHJDBMDMBTTJGJDBUJPOTUBLFWBSJPVTTUSVDUVSBMGFBUVSFT
JOUPDPOTJEFSBUJPO'PSFYBNQMF TPNFTDIPMBSTIBWFDMBTTJGJFEMBOHVBHFTBD
DPSEJOHUPUIFJSTPVOETZTUFNT CBTJOHUIFJSHSPVQJOHPOIPXNBOZBOE
XIJDIEJTUJODUJWFWPXFMTBOEDPOTPOBOUTBSFVTFEBOEXIFUIFSUPOFTBSFFN
QMPZFE0UIFSTIBWFDMBTTJGJFEMBOHVBHFTBDDPSEJOHUPXPSEPSEFS UIBUJT UIF
TFRVFODFPGTVCKFDU 4
WFSC 7
BOEPCKFDU 0
JOTJNQMFEFDMBSBUJWFTFO
UFODFT JO&OHMJTIUIFUZQJDBMBSSBOHFNFOUJT470 BTJOA*MPWFZPV
3F
DFOUMZ  TFNBOUJD UZQPMPHZ IBT CFFO QSPQPTFE JUT QSPQPOFOUT DPNQBSF
MBOHVBHFT GPSFYBNQMF BDDPSEJOHUPIPXNVDITQFDJGJDJUZSFMBUJOHUPNFBO
JOHBMBOHVBHFSFRVJSFT5IFCFTULOPXOMBOHVBHFDMBTTJGJDBUJPOTBSFCBTFE
PONPSQIPMPHJDBMDIBSBDUFSJTUJDTUIFNPTUXJEFMZVTFEBTTJHOTMBOHVBHFTUP
144 Chapter 8: Language Through Time

POFPGGPVSUZQFTJTPMBUJOH JOGMFDUJOH BHHMVUJOBUJWF BOEQPMZTZOUIFUJD BM


UIPVHIGSFRVFOUMZBMBOHVBHFDPNCJOFTGFBUVSFTPGNPSFUIBOPOFUZQF
#FGPSFXFEJTDVTTUIFTFUZQFT XFTIPVMEOPUFTPNFUIJOHBCPVUTZOUBYGJSTU
5PJOEJDBUFHSBNNBUJDBMSFMBUJPOTIJQTCFUXFFOXPSETJOBTFOUFODF MBOHVBHFT
ESBXPOPOFPGUXPHFOFSBMTUSBUFHJFTXPSEPSEFS PSJOGMFDUJPOT $IJOFTF
BOEUPBMBSHFFYUFOU &OHMJTI
VTFTUIFXPSEPSEFSTUSBUFHZ'PSFYBNQMF UIF
&OHMJTITFOUFODFA*MJLF-JOEBXPVMECFWo< x huan -JOEB JO#FJKJOH.BO
EBSJO BOEA-JOEBMJLFTNFXPVMECF-JOEBx huan wo 5IFGPSNTPGUIFXPSET
JOUIFUXPTFOUFODFTBSFJEFOUJDBM CVUUIFPSEFSJTEJGGFSFOUUPJOEJDBUFXIP
MJLFTXIPN/PUJDFUIBUJOCPUIUIF&OHMJTIBOE$IJOFTFFYBNQMFTJUJTUIF
XPSEPSEFSUIBUJOEJDBUFTUIFHSBNNBUJDBMSFMBUJPOTIJQTBUXPSLA+PIOMPWFT
+BOFJTOPUUIFTBNFUIJOHBTA+BOFMPWFT+PIO
-BOHVBHFTUIBUVTFJOGMFDUJPOT UBLFBEJGGFSFOUBQQSPBDI)FSFXFTFF
HSBNNBUJDBMSFMBUJPOTIJQTOPUJOEJDBUFECZXIFSFUIFZBQQFBSJOBTFOUFODF
CVUCZJOGMFDUJPOTTVGGJYFT QSFGJYFT PSPUIFSNBSLFST-BUJOJTBFYBNQMFPG
BUZQJDBMJOGMFDUJOH MBOHVBHFPOFJOXIJDIXPSETEJTQMBZHSBNNBUJDBMSF
MBUJPOTIJQTCZNFBOTPGTVGGJYFT)PXUIFSFMBUJPOTIJQCFUXFFOUIFTVCKFDU
BOEUIFPCKFDUPGBTFOUFODFJTDPOWFZFENBZCFJMMVTUSBUFECZUIF-BUJOTFO
UFODFT.BHJTUFSEJTDJQVMVNWPDBU A5IFUFBDIFSDBMMTUIFQVQJM
BOE.BHJTUSVN
EJTDJQVMVTWPDBU A5IFQVQJMDBMMTUIFUFBDIFS PS NPSFFYBDUMZ A*UJTUIFUFBDIFS
XIPNUIFQVQJMDBMMT
5IFPSEFSPGUIFXPSETJOUIFUXPTFOUFODFTJTUIF
TBNF CVUUIFBEEJOHPGUIFTVGGJYVN UPPOFPSUIFPUIFSOPVONBLFTJUDMFBS
XIPJTDBMMJOHXIPN'VSUIFSNPSF -BUJOFOEJOHTDBOFYQSFTTTFWFSBMHSBN
NBUJDBMNFBOJOHTBUUIFTBNFUJNF5IF JOMBVE A*QSBJTF
TUBOETGPS
GJSTUQFSTPOTJOHVMBS BDUJWFWPJDF XIFSFUIFHSBNNBUJDBMTVCKFDUJTUZQJDBMMZ
UIFBDUPS
QSFTFOUUFOTF BOEJOEJDBUJWFNPPE FYQSFTTJOHBTUBUFNFOU

.BOZMBOHVBHFTVTFJOGMFDUJPOT KVTUBTNBOZMBOHVBHFTJOEJDBUFSFMBUJPO
TIJQTUISPVHIXPSEPSEFS.PTUMBOHVBHFT IPXFWFSBMUIPVHIHFOFSBMMZ
TUSFTTJOHPOFBQQSPBDIXJMMVTFBMJUUMFCJUPGCPUI'PSFYBNQMF JO&OHMJTI
XFTBZ4IFMFGUIJNBOE)FMFGUIFS XJUIUIFQSPOPVOTDIBOHJOHUIFJSGPSN
*OBHHMVUJOBUJWF MBOHVBHFT FBDIDPNQPOFOUPGHSBNNBUJDBMNFBOJOHJT
FYQSFTTFECZBTFQBSBUFQJFDFPGNPSQIFNJDTUSVDUVSF'PSFYBNQMF JOUIF
5VSLJTIXPSEyazmalym m A*TIPVMEIBWFXSJUUFO UIFTUFNZB[AXSJUFJT
GPMMPXFECZUISFFTVGGJYFTIFSFUBLJOHUIFGPSNTPGmal y-m- m NFBOJOH
SFTQFDUJWFMZ APCMJHBUJWF FYQSFTTJOHPCMJHBUJPO
AQFSGFDUJWF JNQMZJOHDPN
QMFUJPO
BOEA*5VSLJTI 'JOOJTI 4XBIJMJ BOE+BQBOFTFBSFBNPOHMBOHVBHFT
UIBUBSFBHHMVUJOBUJWF
Internal and External Changes 145

5IFMBTUUZQF QPMZTZOUIFUJD JTDPOTJEFSFECZNBOZMJOHVJTUTUPCFBDPN


CJOBUJPOPGBHHMVUJOBUJWFBOEJOGMFDUJPOBMGFBUVSFT5IFXPSETJOUIFTFMBO
HVBHFTBSFMPOHBOENPSQIPMPHJDBMMZDPNQMFY PGUFOCFJOHMJUUMFTFOUFODFT
TVDIBTUIFTJOHMF&TLJNPXPSEa:wlisa-ut-issar-si-niarpu- a XIJDIUSBOT
MBUFTA*BNMPPLJOHGPSTPNFUIJOHTVJUBCMFGPSBGJTIJOHMJOF UIFIZQIFOTJO
UIF&TLJNPXPSEBSFVTFEUPJOEJDBUFNPSQIFNFCPVOEBSJFT


Internal and External Changes


-BOHVBHFTDIBOHFOPUPOMZJOUFSOBMMZGSPNXJUIJOCVUBMTPBTBSFTVMUPGFY
UFSOBMJOGMVFODFT5IFSFBTPOTGPSTVDIDIBOHFTWBSZIFSFXFXJMMJMMVTUSBUF
UIFNCZEJTDVTTJOHTPVOEDIBOHFTLOPXOBTBTTJNJMBUJPO EJTTJNJMBUJPO BOE
NFUBUIFTJT BOEBHSBNNBUJDBMDIBOHFCZNFBOTPGXIJDIDFSUBJOJSSFHVMBS
GPSNTCFDPNFSFHVMBSJ[FE
"TTJNJMBUJPO JTUIFJOGMVFODFPGBTPVOEPOBOFJHICPSJOHTPVOETPUIBU
UIFUXPCFDPNFTJNJMBSPSUIFTBNF'PSFYBNQMF UIF-BUJOQSFGJYJOAOPU
OPO VOBQQFBSTJO&OHMJTIBTJM JN BOEJSJOUIFXPSETJMMFHBM JNNPSBM
JNQPTTJCMF N BOEQ BSFCPUICJMBCJBMDPOTPOBOUT
BOEJSSFTQPOTJCMF BTXFMMBT
UIFVOBTTJNJMBUFEPSJHJOBMGPSNJOJOJOEFDFOU BOEJODPNQFUFOU"MUIPVHI
UIFBTTJNJMBUJPOPGUIFO PGJOUPUIFGPMMPXJOHDPOTPOBOUJOUIFQSFDFEJOH
FYBNQMFTXBTJOIFSJUFEGSPN-BUJO &OHMJTIFYBNQMFTUIBUXPVMECFDPOTJE
FSFEOBUJWFBSFBMTPQMFOUJGVM*OSBQJETQFFDIOBUJWFTQFBLFSTPG&OHMJTIUFOE
UPQSPOPVODFUFOCVDLT BTUIPVHIJUXFSFXSJUUFOUFNCVDLT BOEJOBOUJDJQB
UJPOPGUIFWPJDFMFTTT JOTPO UIFGJOBMDPOTPOBOUPGIJT JOIJTTPO JTOPUBT
GVMMZWPJDFEBTUIFT JOIJTEBVHIUFS XIFSFJUDMFBSMZJT<[>
"OPUIFSQSPDFTTPGUIJTUZQFJTEJTTJNJMBUJPO XIJDIXPSLTUIFPUIFSXBZ
BSPVOE0OFPGUXPJEFOUJDBMPSWFSZTJNJMBSOFJHICPSJOHTPVOETPGBXPSE
JTDIBOHFEPSPNJUUFECFDBVTFBTQFBLFSNBZGJOEUIFSFQFUJUJPOPGUIFTBNF
BSUJDVMBUPSZNPWFNFOUEJGGJDVMUJOSBQJETQFFDI5IJTJTXIZJUJTTPDPNNPO
UPIFBS'FCSVBSZ QSPOPVODFEBTJGJUXFSFXSJUUFO'FCZVBSZ XJUIUIFTVCTUJ
UVUJPOPG<Z>GPSUIFGJSTU<S>JOBOUJDJQBUJPOPGUIF<S>UPXBSEUIFFOEPGUIF
XPSE1FPQMFBSFBTLFEUPSFQFBUBUPOHVFUXJTUFS GPSFYBNQMF i5IFTJYUI
TIFJLTTJYUITIFFQTTJDLw
UPUFTUUIFJSBCJMJUZUPQSPOPVODFTJNJMBSOFJHI
CPSJOHTPVOETSBQJEMZXJUIPVUNBLJOHBOZFSSPST
4UJMMBOPUIFSQSPDFTTQSPEVDJOHTPVOEDIBOHFJTNFUBUIFTJT UIFUSBOTQP
TJUJPOPGTPVOETPSMBSHFSVOJUTGPSFYBNQMF UIFBOUFDFEFOUPG.PEFSO&OH
MJTI CJSE JT 0ME &OHMJTI CSJEE AZPVOH CJSE " TQPPOFSJTN  JOWPMWJOH UIF
146 Chapter 8: Language Through Time

USBOTQPTJUJPOPGUIFJOJUJBMTPVOETPGTFWFSBMXPSET JTBTMJQPGUIFUPOHVF
CBTFEPONFUBUIFTJT BTXIFOEFBSPMERVFFO CFDPNFTRVFFSPMEEFBO
"OFYBNQMFPGBHSBNNBUJDBMDIBOHFJTUIFSFHVMBSJ[BUJPOPGBOVNCFSPG
TUSPOH JSSFHVMBS
"OHMP4BYPOWFSCT0ME&OHMJTIGFBMEBO AUPGPMEBOEIFM
QBO AUPIFMQIBEUIFGJSTUQFSTPOTJOHVMBSQBTUUFOTF QSFUFSJUF
GPSNTGFPME
BOEIFBMQ BOEUIFQBTUQBSUJDJQMFGPSNTGFBMEFO BOEIPMQFO*O.PEFSO&OH
MJTI UIFTFWFSCTBSFSFHVMBSGPME GPMEFE BOEIFMQ IFMQFE"TGPSTFNBOUJD
DIBOHF 0ME&OHMJTINFUF SFGFSSFEUPGPPEJOHFOFSBM VTVBMMZTPMJE
OPUKVTU
UPBOJNBMGMFTI BTEPFT.PEFSO&OHMJTINFBU
"TMPOHBTUIFZBSFCFJOHVTFE BMMMBOHVBHFTDIBOHF5PEBZ OPNFNCFST
PGBOZTPDJFUZBOEOPTQFBLFSTPGBOZMBOHVBHFBSFDPNQMFUFMZJTPMBUFEGSPN
TQFBLFSTPGPUIFSMBOHVBHFTBOEEJBMFDUT BOEUIFTFDPOUBDUTCFUXFFOTQFBL
FSTPGEJGGFSFOUMBOHVBHFTDBVTFFYUFSOBMMBOHVBHFDIBOHFT5IFNPTUDPN
NPOJOTUBODFTPGFYUFSOBMMBOHVBHFDIBOHFBSFCPSSPXJOHT XIJDIDBOCFPG
WBSJPVTUZQFT5IFMFUUFSC JOUIFXPSEEFCU BQQBSFOUMZIBTCFFOCPSSPXFE
GPSUIFTBLFPGQSFTUJHFGSPN-BUJO E[CJUVN AEFCU
FWFOUIPVHIUIF.JEEMF
&OHMJTIBOUFDFEFOUPGUIFXPSEXBTEFUUF XJUIPVUBC GSPN0ME'SFODIEFUUF
ATPNFUIJOHPXFE
.VDINPSFDPNNPOUIBOPSUIPHSBQIJDCPSSPXJOHTBSFMFYJDBMCPSSPX
JOHT LOPXOBTMPBOXPSET /PUBMMMBOHVBHFTBEPQUGPSFJHOXPSETUPUIF
TBNFFYUFOU&WFOUIPVHI*DFMBOEJDTFSWFTBNPEFSOJOEVTUSJBMTPDJFUZ GPS
UXPDFOUVSJFTOPX*DFMBOEFSTIBWFSFTJTUFECPSSPXJOHXPSETGSPNPUIFSMBO
HVBHFTBOEJOTUFBEDPJOOFXXPSETGSPNUIFJSOBUJWFMJOHVJTUJDSFTPVSDFTGPS
UIFNBOZUIJOHTBOEDPODFQUTUIBUDPNFUP*DFMBOEGSPNPUIFSDVMUVSFT*O
HSBNNBS UPP *DFMBOEJDJTIJHIMZDPOTFSWBUJWF IBWJOHDIBOHFEPOMZBWFSZ
MJUUMFTJODFUIF0ME/PSTFQFSJPE*ODPOUSBTU +BQBOFTFWPDBCVMBSZSFGMFDUT
RVJUFDMFBSMZUIFIJTUPSJDBMDPOUBDUTCFUXFFOUIF+BQBOFTFBOE&VSPQFBOQFP
QMFTUIBUCFHBOJOUIFNJEEMFPGUIFTJYUFFOUIDFOUVSZ*UIBTMPBOXPSETGSPN
1PSUVHVFTF GPSFYBNQMF TIBCPO ATPBQGSPNTBCP
%VUDI CJJSV ACFFSGSPN
CJFS BOEHBSBTV AHMBTTGSPNHMBT
BOENPTUSFDFOUMZGSPN&OHMJTI NBTVLPNJ
ANBTTDPNNVOJDBUJPO TVVQBBATVQFSNBSLFU JOTVUBOUPGVVEP AJOTUBOUGPPE 
BOEkabG-gGru ADPWFSHJSM

&OHMJTIIBTBMXBZTCFFOWFSZIPTQJUBCMFUPXPSETPGGPSFJHOPSJHJO5IF
WPDBCVMBSJFTPGUIF"OHMFT +VUFT BOE4BYPOTXFSFFOSJDIFECZXPSETGSPN
$FMUJD GPSFYBNQMF UIFXPSEBODFTUSBMUP.PEFSO&OHMJTICJO
-BUJO QJQF
BOEBOHFM
0ME/PSTFPGUIF7JLJOHT UBLF
BOE"OHMP/PSNBO'SFODI
KPVSOFZ
'SPNUIFTJYUFFOUIDFOUVSZGPSXBSE EVSJOHUIF.PEFSO&OHMJTI
Internal and External Changes 147

QFSJPE UIF&OHMJTIMFYJDPOCPSSPXFEGSPNBHSFBUNBOZPGUIFXPSMETMBO
HVBHFT SBOHJOHGSPN"GSJLBBOT GPSFYBNQMF BBSEWBSL
UP$[FDI SPCPU
UP
:JEEJTI DIVU[QB<I>
UP+BQBOFTF LBNJLB[F
UP%BLPUB UFQFF
UPPOFPGUIF
OBUJWF"VTUSBMJBOMBOHVBHFT CPPNFSBOH
UPPOFPGUIFOBUJWFMBOHVBHFTPG
"GSJDB QSPCBCMZSFMBUFEUP5XJ PLSB
5IFNBOZUIPVTBOETPGMPBOXPSET
UIBUIBWFCFFOJODPSQPSBUFEJOUP&OHMJTITJODFFBSMJFTUUJNFTXPVMEOPUSFD
PNNFOE&OHMJTIUPNJTHVJEFEQVSJTUTXIPUIJOLBMBOHVBHFTIPVMECFQSP
UFDUFEGSPNUIFVTFPGGPSFJHOJTNT CVUTVDICPSSPXJOHTIBWFDFSUBJOMZNBEF
UIF&OHMJTIWPDBCVMBSZPOFPGUIFSJDIFTUJOUIFXPSME
4PNFMBOHVBHFTCPSSPXTFMFDUJWFMZ*OPOFPGIJTTUVEJFTPG/BUJWF"NFS
JDBOMBOHVBHFTPG$BMJGPSOJB 8JMMJBN#SJHIUJOWFTUJHBUFEUIFPSJHJOPGXPSET
GPSUIPTFEPNFTUJDBOJNBMTJOUSPEVDFECZ&VSPQFBO"NFSJDBOTFUUMFST#PS
SPXJOHGSPN4QBOJTIXBTDPOTJEFSBCMF CVUUIFSFBQQFBSTUPIBWFCFFOBSF
TJTUBODFUPXBSECPSSPXJOHGSPN&OHMJTI*O#SJHIUTPQJOJPO UIJTEJTQBSJUZ
NBZXFMMIBWFCFFOEVFUPUIFCFOFWPMFOU JGDPOEFTDFOEJOH
USFBUNFOUPG
/BUJWF"NFSJDBOQFPQMFTJO$BMJGPSOJBVOEFSUIF4QBOJTINJTTJPOTZTUFN
BOE CZDPOUSBTU UIFJOIVNBOUSFBUNFOUUIFZSFDFJWFEGSPN"OHMP"NFSJDBOT
#SJHIUo
*OUIJTJOTUBODF UIFO UIFOBUVSFPGUIFTPDJPDVMUVSBM
DPOUBDUCFUXFFOUIFOBUJWFQFPQMFTBOEUIFOFXDPNFSTXBTSFGMFDUFEJOUIF
WPDBCVMBSJFTPGUIF/BUJWF"NFSJDBOMBOHVBHFT
*OBEEJUJPOUPCPSSPXJOH MBOHVBHFTFOSJDIUIFJSWPDBCVMBSJFTJOUXPPUIFS
XBZT0OFXBZJTUPDPJOOFXXPSETGSPNOBUJWFSFTPVSDFT/FXMZDPJOFE
XPSETBSFBEEFEUP&OHMJTI BOENBOZPUIFSMBOHVBHFT
FWFSZZFBS"NPOH
UIPVTBOETPGTVDIDPJOBHFTBSFUIFCMFOECSVODI GSPNCSFBLGBTUBOEMVODI

GPSBMBUFNPSOJOHNFBMVTVBMMZDPNCJOJOHNFOVJUFNTGSPNCPUICSFBLGBTU
BOEMVODIWBQPSXBSF GPSOFXTPGUXBSFUIBUIBTCFFOBOOPVODFECVUJTOPU
ZFUBWBJMBCMFBOEXBOOBCF GSPNUIFQISBTFXBOUUPCF
GPSBQFSTPOXIPBT
QJSFTUPCFPSUSJFTUPBDUPSMPPLMJLFTPNFPOFFMTF
7PDBCVMBSJFTBMTPBEKVTUUPOFXJOWFOUJPOTPSJEFBTBOEPCKFDUTJOUSPEVDFE
UISPVHIJOUFSDVMUVSBMDPOUBDUCZFYUFOEJOHUIFNFBOJOHPGFYJTUJOHXPSETUP
JODMVEFBOFXSFGFSFOU'PSFYBNQMF EVSJOHUIFTXIFOUIF8FTUFSO
"QBDIFJOFBTUDFOUSBM"SJ[POBCFHBOVTJOHBVUPNPCJMFTBOEQJDLVQUSVDLT
BOEOFFEFEUFSNTJOUIFJSMBOHVBHFGPSUIFWBSJPVTQBSUTPGUIFTFWFIJDMFT
UIFZDIPTFUPFYUFOENBOZBOBUPNJDBMUFSNTSFGFSSJOHUPUIFIVNBOCPEZUP
UIF iDPSSFTQPOEJOHw QBSUT PG UIF BVUPNPCJMF 5IF NFBOJOH PG UIF XPSE
CJZFEBB ADIJOBOEKBXXBTFYUFOEFEUPNFBOAGSPOUCVNQFS CJHBO AIBOE
BOEBSNUPAGSPOUXIFFM biz ANPVUIUPAHBTQJQFPQFOJOH bid AFZFUP
148 Chapter 8: Language Through Time

AIFBEMJHIU bita AGPSFIFBEUPAXJOETIJFME  CJ[JH AMJWFSUPACBUUFSZ CJK AIFBSU


UPAEJTUSJCVUPS CJLFF AGPPU GFFUUPAUJSFT SFBSXIFFMT CJCJE ATUPNBDIUP
AHBTUBOL CJK J[M AMVOHUPASBEJBUPS bitsoo s AWFJOTUPAFMFDUSJDBMXJSJOH 
bich7h AOPTFUPAIPPE BOETPPO #BTTPo
5IFTFOTFPGUIFXPSE
UIBU BQQMJFT JT JOWBSJBCMZ DMFBS GSPN UIF DPOUFYU 4JNJMBS FYUFOTJPOT PG
BOBUPNJDBMUFSNTUPQBSUTPGUIFBVUPNPCJMFIBWFCFFOSFDPSEFEGPSPUIFS
/BUJWF"NFSJDBOMBOHVBHFT
5IBUOPDPOGVTJPOSFTVMUTGSPNUIFVTFPGXPSETUIBUIBWFTFWFSBMTFOTFT
VOMFTTPOFJOEVMHFTJOQVOOJOHTIPVMECFFWJEFOUGSPNUIFFYBNQMFPGUIF
&OHMJTIXPSEIPSTF XIJDIIBTEFTJHOBUFEUIFRVBESVQFE&RVVTDBCBMMVT
GSPN0ME&OHMJTI CFGPSFUIFUXFMGUIDFOUVSZ
UPUIFQSFTFOU CVUMBUFSHBJOFE
BEEJUJPOBMTFOTFTAUSFTUMFPSATBXIPSTF AQPNNFMIPSTFPSAWBVMUJOHIPSTF 
AIPSTFQPXFS BOEAIFSPJO JOTMBOH


How and Why Sound Changes Occur


$IBSBDUFSJTUJDBMMZ TPVOEDIBOHFTBSFHSBEVBM0OMZTPNFTQFBLFSTPGBEJ
BMFDUPSMBOHVBHFBEPQUBQBSUJDVMBSTQFFDIJOOPWBUJPOUPCFHJOXJUIPUIFST
EPTPMBUFS BOEVMUJNBUFMZBMMPSNPTUTQFBLFSTBDDFQUUIFDIBOHF5PQVU
JUEJGGFSFOUMZ BQBSUJDVMBSTPVOEDIBOHFJOJUJBMMZBGGFDUTXPSETUIBUBSFGSF
RVFOUMZVTFE BOEPOMZMBUFSJTUIFDIBOHFFYUFOEFEUPPUIFSXPSET5IF
NPEFSOWJFXDPODFSOJOHIPXTPVOEDIBOHFTPQFSBUFOBNFMZ UIBUUIFZ
HSBEVBMMZTQSFBE PSEJGGVTF UISPVHIUIFXPSET UIFMFYJDPO
PGBMBOHVBHF
JTSFGFSSFEUPBTMFYJDBMEJGGVTJPO 1JPOFFSFECZ8JMMJBN-BCPWBOEPUIFST
EVSJOHUIFT UIJTWJFXEJGGFSTGSPNUIFOFPHSBNNBSJBO IZQPUIFTJTPG
UIFT BDDPSEJOHUPXIJDITPVOEMBXTBENJUOPSFBMFYDFQUJPOT PQFSBU
JOHBDSPTTUIFCPBSEXJUIJOBOZHJWFOMBOHVBHF
"O FYBNQMF PG MJOHVJTUJD DIBOHF QSPDFFEJOH GSPN TQFBLFST FOKPZJOH
IJHIFSQSFTUJHFXBTQSPWJEFECZ-BCPW 
JOIJTGBNPVTTUVEZPG&OHMJTI
VTFECZTBMFTQFPQMFJOUISFF/FX:PSL$JUZEFQBSUNFOUTUPSFT"DDPSEJOHUP
UIJTTUVEZ EJTDVTTFEJONPSFEFUBJMJO$IBQUFS
UIFVTFPG<S>BGUFSB
WPXFMJOTVDIXPSETBTDBS DBSE GPVS BOEGPVSUI UFOEFEUPDIBSBDUFSJ[FDBSF
GVMMPXFSDMBTTTQFFDIPODFUIFVTBHFIBECFDPNFBTTPDJBUFEXJUIIJHIFS
QSFTUJHF'PSBOFYBNQMFPGMJOHVJTUJDDIBOHFQSPDFFEJOHGSPNCFMPX POF
NBZSFGFSUP-BCPWTTUVEZPGUIFTQFFDIJO.BSUIBT7JOFZBSE BOJTMBOETFW
FSBMNJMFTTPVUIPG$BQF$PE .BTTBDIVTFUUT5IJTTUVEZEFBMUXJUIUIFQSP
HSFTTJWFDIBOHFJOUIFRVBMJUZPGUIFGJSTUWPXFMPGUIFEJQIUIPOHTBZBOE
How and Why Sound Changes Occur 149

BXJOTVDIXPSETBTGJSFGMZ BOEPVUIPVTF%VSJOHUIFT XIFOEBUBGPS


UIF-JOHVJTUJD"UMBTPG/FX&OHMBOE XFSFCFJOHDPMMFDUFE BOEGPSBMPOHUJNF
CFGPSFUIBU UIFEJQIUIPOHBXXBTOPUDFOUSBMJ[FE XIFSFBTBZXBT UIBU
JT JUTQSPOVODJBUJPOSFTFNCMFE<I>
%VSJOH-BCPWTGJFMEXPSLJOUIFFBSMZ
T UIFDFOUSBMJ[BUJPOPGCPUIEJQIUIPOHTXBTNPTUOPUJDFBCMFJOUIF
TQFFDIPGUIJSUZPOFUPGPSUZGJWFZFBSPMEGJTIFSNFOJOUIFSVSBMQBSUTPG
UIFJTMBOE FTQFDJBMMZUIF$IJMNBSLBSFBJOUIFXFTU"DDPSEJOHUP-BCPW
 o

<UIF>IJHIDFOUSBMJ[BUJPO<PGUIFUXPEJQIUIPOHT>JTDMPTFMZDPSSFMBUFEXJUI
FYQSFTTJPOTPGTUSPOHSFTJTUBODFUPUIFJODVSTJPOTPGUIFTVNNFSQFPQMF
<XIPBUUIFUJNFPVUOVNCFSFEUIFOBUJWF7JOFZBSEFSTCZBSBUJPPGTFWFOUP
POe]...*UJTBQQBSFOUUIBUUIFJNNFEJBUFNFBOJOHPG<DFOUSBMJ[BUJPO>JT
A7JOFZBSEFS8IFOBNBO<VTFTUIFDFOUSBMJ[FEEJQIUIPOHT> IFJTVODPO
TDJPVTMZFTUBCMJTIJOHUIFGBDUUIBUIFCFMPOHTUPUIFJTMBOE...<5IF>ZPVOHFS
NFNCFSTPGUIF&OHMJTIEFTDFOUHSPVQ<PG7JOFZBSEFSs]..SFDPHOJ[FUIBU
UIF$IJMNBSLGJTIFSNFOBSFJOEFQFOEFOU TLJMMGVMXJUINBOZLJOETPGUPPMT
BOEFRVJQNFOU RVJDLTQPLFO DPVSBHFPVTBOEQIZTJDBMMZTUSPOH.PTUJN
QPSUBOUMZ UIFZDBSSZXJUIUIFNUIFFWFSQSFTFOUDPOWJDUJPOUIBUUIFJTMBOE
CFMPOHTUPUIFN*GTPNFPOFJOUFOETUPTUBZPOUIFJTMBOE UIJTNPEFMXJMM
CFFWFSQSFTFOUUPIJTNJOE

4PVOEDIBOHFT UIFO BSFDMFBSMZOFJUIFSSBOEPNOPSEPUIFZPQFSBUF


XJUIPVUFYDFQUJPO$BSFGVMTUVEJFTPGUIFDPOEJUJPOTVOEFSXIJDITPVOE
DIBOHFTUBLFQMBDFSFWFBMOPUPOMZUIFEJSFDUJPOBOESBUFPGMJOHVJTUJDDIBOHF
CVUUIFNPUJWBUJPOCFIJOEJUBTXFMM
"OEXIZEPMBOHVBHFTDIBOHF 0OFSFBTPOJTBTUSPOHUFOEFODZJOMBO
HVBHFTUPNBJOUBJOBEFGJOJUFQBUUFSOPGPSHBOJ[BUJPO"OBMPHZ JTBOPUIFS
GBDUPS3FHVMBSGPSNTUFOEUPJOGMVFODFMFTTSFHVMBSGPSNT.BOZ-BUJOMPBO
XPSET GPSFYBNQMF BSFOPXNBEFQMVSBMBMNPTUFYDMVTJWFMZCZVTJOHUIF
TVGGJYT BTJOBVEJUPSJVNT
SBUIFSUIBOUIFJSPSJHJOBM-BUJOQMVSBMFOEJOH BT
JOBVEJUPSJB
"UMFBTUJOTPNFJOTUBODFT NPSFFBTJMZBSUJDVMBUFETPVOETF
RVFODFTSFQMBDFUIPTFUIBUSFRVJSFHSFBUFSFGGPSU UIFQSJODJQMFPGMFBTUFG
GPSU
/PUPOMZIBWFTIPSUXPSET QSPG FYBN EPSN NBUI BOEUIFMJLF
CFFO
DPJOFEUPTVQQMFNFOUUIFPSJHJOBMMPOHFSPOFT CVUTPNFUJNFTUIFTJNQMJGJ
DBUJPOIBTCFFOQIPOFUJD BTJOUIFXPSEDMPUIFT XIJDIJTVTVBMMZQSPOPVODFE
BTJGJUEJEOPUDPOUBJOUIFTPVOESFQSFTFOUFECZUI
150 Chapter 8: Language Through Time

$IBOHFTFWFOPDDVSXIFOBMBOHVBHFJTQBTTFEPOGSPNQBSFOUTUPDIJM
ESFOBOEXIFODIJMESFOTTQFFDIIBCJUTBSFJOGMVFODFECZUIPTFPGUIFJSQFFST
5IPVHI UZQJDBMMZ TNBMM  FTQFDJBMMZ JO QIPOPMPHZ BOE NPSQIPMPHZ  TVDI
DIBOHFTBSFDVNVMBUJWFBOEBSFOPUJDFBCMFXIFOUIFTQFFDIPGHSBOEQBSFOUT
JTDPNQBSFEXJUIUIBUPGUIFJSHSBOEDIJMESFO
"T XF IBWF BMSFBEZ TFFO  TPDJPDVMUVSBM GBDUPST BMTP QSPNPUF MBOHVBHF
DIBOHF4PNFJOEJWJEVBMTMJLFUPJNJUBUFUIFTPVOET HSBNNBS BOEXPSET
VTFECZUIPTFXIPIBWFTPDJBMQSFTUJHF8IFOTVDIJNJUBUJPOTBSFPWFSEPOF
IZQFSDPSSFDUJPOSFTVMUT4PNFPOFXIPIBTMFBSOFEUIBUJUJT* JTDPSSFDUSBUIFS
UIBOJUJTNF NBZUIFOTBZCFUXFFOZPVBOE* JOTUFBEPGUIFDPSSFDUCFUXFFO
ZPVBOENF0OUIFQIPOFUJDMFWFM IZQFSDPSSFDUJPO PDDVSTXIFOTJOHFS JT
NBEFUPSIZNFXJUIGJOHFS CFDBVTFUIFUXPXPSETBSFPSUIPHSBQIJDBMMZTJN
JMBS4QFBLFSTPGBOZMBOHVBHFDPJOOFXXPSETDPOUJOVBMMZJOPSEFSUPHJWF
OBNFTUPOFXJOWFOUJPOTPSOFXDPODFQUT#ZUIFTBNFUPLFO UIPTFXPSET
UIBUTUBOEGPSJUFNTPSJEFBTUIBUBSFHPJOHPVUPGVTFCFDPNFPCTPMFTDFOUBOE
FWFOUVBMMZPCTPMFUF5IFWPDBCVMBSZPGBOZMJWJOHMBOHVBHF UIFO JTDPOTUBOUMZ
DIBOHJOH'PSXSJUUFOMBOHVBHFT OFXFEJUJPOTPGEJDUJPOBSJFTOFFEUPCFQVC
MJTIFEFWFSZUFOZFBSTPSTPUPSFDPSEUIFDIBOHFTUIBUIBWFDPNFBCPVU
5IFDPNQBSBUJWFNFUIPEJOQIPOPMPHZSFTUTPOUIFBTTVNQUJPOUIBUTPVOE
DIBOHFTBSFSFHVMBSBOEQSFEJDUBCMF UIJTJTXIZUIFTFDIBOHFTIBWFCFFOSF
GFSSFEUPBTiTPVOEMBXTw
#VUUIFJSSFHVMBSJUZJTOPUBCTPMVUFCFDBVTFUIFDPO
EJUJPOTVOEFSXIJDITPVOEDIBOHFTUBLFQMBDFBSFOPUJEFOUJDBM'PSFYBNQMF
-BUJOU DPSSFTQPOETUPUIFTPVOEXSJUUFOBTUI JO&OHMJTIXPSETDPHOBUFXJUI
-BUJOXPSET BDPHOBUF JTBXPSESFMBUFEUPBOPUIFSCZEFTDFOUGSPNUIFTBNF
BODFTUSBMMBOHVBHF
$PNQBSF-BUJOUFOVJT BOE&OHMJTIUIJO -BUJOtong[re AUP
LOPXBOE&OHMJTIUIJOL -BUJOtr[s BOE&OHMJTIUISFF BOE-BUJOtrGns ABDSPTT
BOE&OHMJTIUISPVHI#VU&OHMJTIXPSETIBWFSFUBJOFEU XIFOJUJTQSFDFEFECZ
T JOUIF-BUJODPHOBUF-BUJOstGre AUPTUBOEDPSSFTQPOETUP&OHMJTITUBOE -BUJO
st[lla ATUBSUP&OHMJTITUBS -BUJOstkpGre AUPDPNQSFTT DSBNUP&OHMJTITUJGG
-BUJOTUSJOHFSF AUPDMBTQ UJHIUFOUP&OHMJTITUSBJO BOETPGPSUI
0SUPHJWFBOFYBNQMFPGBTPDBMMFESFHVMBSTPVOEDPSSFTQPOEFODFGSPN
UIFIJTUPSJDBMEFWFMPQNFOUPG&OHMJTI DPOTJEFS0ME&OHMJTIG UIBUJT MPOH
B
BTJObGt gGn mGwan sGwan, slGw, and stGn DIBOHJOHJO.PEFSO&OHMJTI
UPUIFSFTQFDUJWFWPXFMTPVOEJOUIFXPSETCPBU  UP
HP  UP
NPX  UP
TPX
TMPX BOETUPOFCVUJOXPSETJOXIJDI0ME&OHMJTI PDDVSSFEBGUFSBDMVTUFS
DPOUBJOJOHX UIFTPVOEDPSSFTQPOEFODFXBTEJGGFSFOU5IVTIX BOEUX
DIBOHFEJO.PEFSO&OHMJTIUPXIP BOEUXP SFTQFDUJWFMZ
Reconstructing Protolanguages 151

4PNFUJNFTBOFYQFDUFEDPSSFTQPOEFODFJTOPUGPVOECFDBVTFUIFXPSET
UIBUBSFCFJOHDPNQBSFEBSFOPUDPHOBUFEFTQJUFUIFJSIBWJOHTJNJMBSGPSNT
'PSFYBNQMF UIJTJTXIZ-BUJOE XIJDIJO&OHMJTIDPHOBUFTDPSSFTQPOETUP
U BTJOUXP EVP JO-BUJO BOEUFO EFDFN JO-BUJO
EPFTOPUBQQFBSBTU JOEBZ
CFDBVTFUIFXPSETEBZ BOEdi[s AEBZBSFOPUSFMBUFE"OPUIFSFYBNQMF5IF
GJSTUDPOTPOBOUPGUIFXPSEUPPUI TIPXTUIFFYQFDUFEDPSSFTQPOEFODFUP
-BUJOE JOd[ns EFOUJT
AUPPUI CVUUIFXPSEEFOUBM EPFTOPUCFDBVTFJUXBT
CPSSPXFEGSPNNFEJFWBM-BUJOBUUIFFOEPGUIFTJYUFFOUIDFOUVSZ UPPMBUFUP
CFTVCKFDUUPUIFSFHVMBSDIBOHFPG-BUJOE UP&OHMJTIU
5IF GPSDF PG BOBMPHZ NBZ BMTP JOUFSGFSF XJUI UIF SFHVMBSJUZ PG TPVOE
DIBOHFT5IFJOGMFDUJPOPGUIFTUSPOH0ME&OHMJTIWFSCIFMQBO AUPIFMQ XIJDI
IBEBNPOHJUTWBSJPVTGPSNTIJMQTU TFDPOEQFSTPOTJOHVMBS
IFBMQ UIFGJSTU
BOEUIJSEQFSTPOTJOHVMBSPGUIFQSFUFSJUF
IVMQF UIFTFDPOEQFSTPOTJOHV
MBSPGUIFQSFUFSJUF
IVMQPO UIFQMVSBMGPSNPGUIFQSFUFSJUF
BOEIPMQFO UIF
QBTUQBSUJDJQMF
XBTTJNQMJGJFECZBOBMPHZXJUIXFBLWFSCTUP.PEFSO&OH
MJTIGPSNTIFMQ BOEIFMQFE
*OTIPSU UIFO TPVOEDIBOHFTBSFSFHVMBSQSPWJEFEUIFZPDDVSJOMJLFDJS
DVNTUBODFT CVUHJWFOUIFDPNQMFYJUZPGMBOHVBHFTBOEUIFNBOZEJGGFSFOUJO
GMVFODFTPOUIFN SFHJPOBM TPDJBM BOEPUIFST
BTUIFZBSFTQPLFODFOUVSZ
BGUFSDFOUVSZ JUTFFNTNPSFBQQSPQSJBUFUPSFGFSUPTVDITPDBMMFEMBXTBTUFO
EFODJFT$PODFSOJOHUIFDPOGMJDUCFUXFFOiQIPOFUJDMBXTwBOEBOBMPHZ POFPG
UIFNPTUPVUTUBOEJOH"NFSJDBODPNQBSBUJWFMJOHVJTUT &EHBS)4UVSUFWBOU
o
OPUFEi1IPOFUJDMBXTBSFSFHVMBSCVUQSPEVDFJSSFHVMBSJUJFT
"OBMPHJDDSFBUJPOJTJSSFHVMBSCVUQSPEVDFTSFHVMBSJUZw 


Reconstructing Protolanguages
*UJTHFOFSBMMZBDDFQUFEUIBUUIFCFHJOOJOHPGNPEFSOMJOHVJTUJDT IJTUPSJDBM
MJOHVJTUJDTJOQBSUJDVMBS EBUFTCBDLUP*UXBTUIFOUIBU4JS8JMMJBN+POFT
o
PCTFSWFEJOIJTQSFTJEFOUJBMBEESFTTUPUIF3PZBM"TJBUJDL4P
DJFUZPG#FOHBMUIBU4BOTLSJU (SFFL BOE-BUJOiIBWFTQSVOHGSPNTPNFDPN
NPOTPVSDF XIJDI QFSIBQT OPMPOHFSFYJTUT<BOEUIBU>UIFSFJTBTJNJMBS
SFBTPOGPSTVQQPTJOHUIBUCPUIUIF(PUIJDL BOEUIF$FMUJDL ..IBEUIF
TBNFPSJHJOXJUIUIF4BOTDSJU <BOE>UIFPME1FSTJBO NJHIUCFBEEFEUPUIF
TBNFGBNJMZw 4BMVT
"TFBSMZBTUIFTJYUFFOUIDFOUVSZJUIBECFFOTVT
QFDUFEUIBUNBOZ&VSPQFBOMBOHVBHFTXFSFSFMBUFEBOEUIBUUIFJSQBSFOUMBO
HVBHFNJHIUCF4BOTLSJU BOBODJFOUMBOHVBHFPG*OEJB+POFT IPXFWFS XFOU
152 Chapter 8: Language Through Time

TUJMMGVSUIFSBDDPSEJOHUPIJN 4BOTLSJU BODJFOU(SFFL -BUJO BOEPUIFS&V


SPQFBOMBOHVBHFTXFSFUIFEFTDFOEBOUTPGBMBOHVBHFTQPLFOJOQSFIJTUPSJD
UJNFT%VSJOHUIFGJSTUIBMGPGUIFOJOFUFFOUIDFOUVSZ BOVNCFSPGNBKPS
XPSLTXFSFQVCMJTIFEUPEFNPOTUSBUFJOTPNFEFUBJMUIBUSFMBUJPOTIJQTFYJTUFE
OPUPOMZBNPOHUIFTFWFSBMBODJFOUMBOHVBHFTUIBUXFSFOPMPOHFSTQPLFOCVU
BMTPCFUXFFOUIFNBOE(FSNBOJD 4MBWJD 3PNBODF #BMUJD BOEPUIFSMBO
HVBHFTTQPLFOJO&VSPQFBOETPVUIXFTUFSO"TJB%VSJOHUIFTBNFQFSJPE SF
DPOTUSVDUJPOTXFSFCFHVOPGXPSETPGUIFBODFTUSBMMBOHVBHF BTTVNFEUPIBWF
CFFOTQPLFOCFGPSFUIFJOWFOUJPOPGXSJUJOHBOEUIFSFGPSFOFWFSEPDVNFOUFE
5IFTFSFDPOTUSVDUJPOTQSPDFFEFETPSBQJEMZUIBUJOUIF(FSNBOQIJMPM
PHJTU"VHVTU4DIMFJDIFS o
XBTBCMFUPiUSBOTMBUFwJOUPUIFQSFIJT
UPSJDBODFTUSBMMBOHVBHFBTIPSUGBCMFBCPVUBTIFFQBOEUISFFIPSTFT
8IBUDBOCFSFDPOTUSVDUFE BOEIPXBSFTVDISFDPOTUSVDUJPOTBDDPN
QMJTIFE *UJTQPTTJCMFUPSFDPOTUSVDUUIFTPVOETBOENFBOJOHTPGXPSETBT
XFMMBTUIFHSBNNBSBOETZOUBYPGBOFBSMJFSVOEPDVNFOUFETUBUFPGBMBO
HVBHF CVUVTVBMMZUIFVMUJNBUFHPBMPGMJOHVJTUJDSFDPOTUSVDUJPOJTUIFBT
TVNFEBODFTUSBMMBOHVBHF PSQSPUPMBOHVBHF PGBMMUIPTFMBOHVBHFTEFSJWFE
GSPNUIFTBNFTPVSDF3FDPOTUSVDUJPOPGBQSPUPMBOHVBHFSFRVJSFTUIPSPVHI
LOPXMFEHFPGIJTUPSJDBMHSBNNBSBOEHPPEBDRVBJOUBODFXJUIUIFEBVHIUFS
MBOHVBHFT5IFQSPDFEVSFJTJOUSJDBUF CVUUIFUXPNBJOBTTVNQUJPOTVOEFS
MZJOHJUBSFOPUEJGGJDVMUUPFYQMBJO5IFGJSTUBTTVNQUJPOJTUIBUSFDVSSJOH
TJNJMBSJUJFTCFUXFFOXPSETGSPNEJGGFSFOUMBOHVBHFTPSEJBMFDUTJOEJDBUFUIBU
UIFTFMBOHVBHFTPSEJBMFDUTBSFSFMBUFEUPFBDIPUIFSBOENVTUUIFSFGPSFIBWF
EFTDFOEFEGSPNBDPNNPOBODFTUSBMMBOHVBHF5IFTFDPOEBTTVNQUJPOJT
UIBU BTEJTDVTTFEBCPWF TPVOEDIBOHFTBSFSFHVMBSVOEFSMJLFDJSDVNTUBODFT
'PSFYBNQMF XFLOPXGSPNXSJUUFOSFDPSETXIBUUIFGPSNTPGUIFXPSE
NFBOJOHDMPVE XFSFJOUIFUISFFBODJFOUMBOHVBHFTBTTVNFEUPCFSFMBUFE
OCIBT JO 4BOTLSJU  OQIPT JO BODJFOU (SFFL  BOE OFCP JO 0ME $IVSDI
4MBWPOJD5IFSFJTBTJNJMBSJUZBNPOHUIFUISFFXPSET BOEUIFTPVOEDPSSF
TQPOEFODFTNBZCFSFQSFTFOUFEBTGPMMPXT

Sanskrit Ancient Greek Old Church Slavonic


n n n
a e e
bh ph b
a o o
s s
Reconstructing Protolanguages 153

*GUIFTFUISFFXPSETGPSDMPVE BSFGPVOEJOUIFEBVHIUFSMBOHVBHFTPGUIF
QSPUPMBOHVBHF JOUIJTJOTUBODF1SPUP*OEP&VSPQFBO 1*&
XIBUXPVMEUIF
1*&XPSENPTUMJLFMZIBWFCFFO 5IFGJSTUTPVOE UIFOBTBMDPOTPOBOUO
QSFTFOUTOPQSPCMFNPOFXPVMESFDPOTUSVDUB1*& O UIFBTUFSJTLNBSLTB
SFDPOTUSVDUFEGPSN POFUIBUIBTOPUCFFOBUUFTUFEPSJTVOBUUFTUBCMF
"OBM
UFSOBUJWFSFDPOTUSVDUJPO VTJOHUIFOBTBM N JTNVDIMFTTQSPCBCMFCFDBVTF
UIFQSFTVNQUJPOXPVMEUIFOCFUIBUBMMUISFFEBVHIUFSMBOHVBHFTJOEFQFOE
FOUMZNBEFUIFTBNFDIBOHF GSPN N UPO5IFTFDPOETPVOE BWPXFM XBT
B JO4BOTLSJUBOEF JOCPUIBODJFOU(SFFLBOE0ME$IVSDI4MBWPOJD)FSF
POFXPVMESFDPOTUSVDUUIF1*&TPVOEBT F CFDBVTFJUJTNPSFMPHJDBMUPBT
TVNFUIBUPOMZPOFPGUIFEBVHIUFSMBOHVBHFTJOOPWBUFEXIJMFUIFPUIFSUXP
LFQUUIFPSJHJOBMTPVOEUIBOUPBTTVNFUIBUUXPPGUIFEBVHIUFSMBOHVBHFT
JOEFQFOEFOUMZFGGFDUFEUIFTBNFDIBOHF5IFNFEJBMDPOTPOBOU XIJDIJT
EJGGFSFOUJOFBDIPGUIFUISFFXPSET JTSFDPOTUSVDUFEBT CI CFDBVTFUIFSF
DPOTUSVDUFETPVOEIBTTPNFUIJOHJODPNNPOXJUIFBDIPGUIFUISFFTPVOET
EFSJWFEGSPNUIFFBSMJFSPOFCJMBCJBMBSUJDVMBUJPOJOBMMUISFFDBTFT BWPJDFE
TPVOEXJUI4BOTLSJUBOE0ME$IVSDI4MBWPOJD BOEBTQJSBUJPO I
XJUI4BO
TLSJUBOEBODJFOU(SFFL5IFTFDPOEWPXFMBOEUIFGJOBMDPOTPOBOUQPTFOP
OFXRVFTUJPOT$POTFRVFOUMZ UIFSFDPOTUSVDUFE1*&XPSEGPSDMPVEJT OFC
IPT5IJTJTOPUUPBTTFSU IPXFWFS UIBUUIJTWFSZXPSENVTUBDUVBMMZIBWFFY
JTUFEJO1SPUP*OEP&VSPQFBOUJNFTCVUSBUIFSUIBUUIFSFNVTUIBWFCFFO
TVDIBXPSE PSBWFSZTJNJMBSPOF UPIBWFHJWFOSJTFMBUFSUPUIFUISFFXPSET
BUUFTUFEGPS4BOTLSJU BODJFOU(SFFL BOE0ME$IVSDI4MBWPOJD
)JTUPSJDBMMJOHVJTUTIBWFGVSUIFSFTUBCMJTIFEUIBU1SPUP*OEP&VSPQFBO
XBTBIJHIMZJOGMFDUFEMBOHVBHF'PSFYBNQMF JUTOPVOTIBEUISFFHFOEFST
NBTDVMJOF GFNJOJOF BOEOFVUFS
UISFFOVNCFST TJOHVMBS QMVSBM BOEEVBM
GPSPCKFDUTPDDVSSJOHJOQBJST
BOEFJHIUDBTFT BOEJUTWFSCTIBEUISFFQFS
TPOT UISFFOVNCFST BOEBWBSJFUZPGUFOTFT NPPET BOEPUIFSGFBUVSFT
5IPTFXIPBTTVNFUIBUUIFHSBNNBUJDBMTZTUFNTPGQSFIJTUPSJDMBOHVBHFT
NVTUIBWFCFFOSBUIFSTJNQMF QSJNJUJWF
DPVMETDBSDFMZCFGVSUIFSGSPNUIF
USVUI5IFHSBNNBUJDBMTZTUFNPG.PEFSO&OHMJTIJTBOFYBNQMFPGTJNQMJD
JUZXIFODPNQBSFEXJUIUIBUPG1SPUP*OEP&VSPQFBO
'PS TFWFSBM *OEP&VSPQFBO MBOHVBHFT  XSJUUFO SFDPSET TPNF PO DMBZ
UBCMFUT
FYJTUGSPNBTGBSCBDLBTUIFTFDPOENJMMFOOJVN#$ BOEGPSNBOZ
PUIFSTUIFFBSMJFTUSFDPSETBSFPOUIFPSEFSPG ZFBSTPME%PDVNFOUB
UJPOPGTVDIUJNFEFQUIQSPWJEFTJOWBMVBCMFJOGPSNBUJPOBCPVUUIFDIBOHFT
UIBUPDDVSPWFSUJNFBOEBJETIJTUPSJDBMMJOHVJTUTJOUIFJSFGGPSUTUPNBLF
154 Chapter 8: Language Through Time

SFMJBCMFSFDPOTUSVDUJPOT#VUGPSNPTUPUIFSHSPVQTPGSFMBUFEMBOHVBHFT TVDI
EPDVNFOUBUJPOJTUIFSBSFFYDFQUJPOSBUIFSUIBOUIFSVMF4PNFTDIPMBSTXFSF
DPOWJODFE JOGBDU UIBUDPNQBSBUJWFSFDPOTUSVDUJPOXBTGFBTJCMFPOMZJOUIF
DBTFPGSFMBUFEMBOHVBHFTXIPTFIJTUPSZXBTLOPXOBUMFBTUUPTPNFFYUFOU
5IBUUIFDPNQBSBUJWFNFUIPEJTKVTUBTBQQMJDBCMFUPVOXSJUUFOMBOHVBHFT
QSPWJEFEUIBUTPNFSFMJBCMFTLFUDIFTPGUIFJSDPOUFNQPSBSZTUSVDUVSFTBSFBWBJM
BCMF XBTEFNPOTUSBUFEJOCZ-FPOBSE#MPPNGJFME o
BXFMM
LOPXO"NFSJDBOMJOHVJTU)JTSFDPOTUSVDUJPOPGUIFTPVOETBOEHSBNNBSPG
UIFBODFTUSBMMBOHVBHFPG/BUJWF"NFSJDBOTTQFBLJOH"MHPORVJBOMBOHVBHFT
XBTCBTFEPOGPVSPGUIFTPDBMMFE$FOUSBM"MHPORVJBOMBOHVBHFT'PY $SFF
.FOPNJOJ  BOE 0KJCXB 5ISPVHI IJT GJFMEXPSL CFHVO JO UIF FBSMZ T
#MPPNGJFMEXBTXFMMBDRVBJOUFEXJUIUISFFPGUIFN#BTJOHIJTKVEHNFOUPOIJT
LOPXMFEHFPG"MHPORVJBOMBOHVBHFT #MPPNGJFMECFMJFWFEUIBUUIFiSFDPO
TUSVDUJPOTXJMM JOUIFNBJO GJUBMMUIF<"MHPORVJBO>MBOHVBHFT<JODMVEJOHUIF
EJWFSHFOU#MBDLGPPU $IFZFOOF BOE"SBQBIPJOUIF8FTU>BOEDBOBDDPSEJOHMZ
CFWJFXFEBT1SPUP"MHPORVJBOw 
3FTFBSDICZPUIFSTEVSJOHTVCTF
RVFOUEFDBEFTIBTTIPXOUIBUFYDFQUGPSTPNFEFUBJMT #MPPNGJFMEXBTDPSSFDU
5IFSFDPOTUSVDUJPOPGQSPUPMBOHVBHFTPOUIFCBTJTPGUIFJSNPEFSOEFTDFO
EBOUTJTOPXBGBJSMZDPNNPOMJOHVJTUJDVOEFSUBLJOH4PNFPGUIFQSPUPMBO
HVBHFTSFDPOTUSVDUFEGPS/PSUIBOE$FOUSBM"NFSJDBBSF1SPUP"UIBQBTLBO
1SPUP.JYUFDBO 1SPUP0UPNJBO 1SPUP1PQPMPDBO 1SPUP4BMJTIBO 1SPUP
4JPVBO 1SPUP6UP"[UFDBO BOE1SPUP;BQPUFDBO

Reconstructing the Ancestral Homeland


1FPQMFJOEJWJEVBMT GBNJMJFT CBOET BOETUJMMMBSHFSHSPVQTIBWFBMXBZT
NJHSBUFEUPOFXQMBDFTGSPNMPDBMJUJFTJOXIJDIUIFZXFSFCPSOBOESBJTFE
GSFRVFOUMZBTGBSBXBZBTUPBOPUIFSDPOUJOFOU5IFNBJOSFBTPOGPSTVDINJ
HSBUJPOTIBTCFFOQPQVMBUJPOQSFTTVSF8IFOFWFSUIFOBUVSBMSFTPVSDFTPG
BOBSFBIBWFCFDPNFJOTVGGJDJFOUUPTVQQPSUUIFMPDBMQPQVMBUJPO TPNFPG
JUTNFNCFSTIBWFIBEMJUUMFDIPJDFCVUUPNPWFBXBZ.PWJOHGSPNPOFMP
DBMJUZUPBOPUIFSXBTBMSFBEZUSVFPGFBSMZIVNBOT XIPXFSFIVOUFSTBOEHBUI
FSFSTGPSBHFSTGPSHBNF XJMEQMBOUT BOEXBUFS#VUPODFBOJNBMTBOEQMBOUT
XFSFEPNFTUJDBUFEJOUIF.JEEMF&BTUBCPVU ZFBSTBHP UIFOFFEGPS
IVOUJOHBOEHBUIFSJOHEJNJOJTIFEJONBOZQBSUTPGUIFXPSMEBTQFSNBOFOU
TFUUMFNFOUTCFDBNFFTUBCMJTIFE*ONPEFSOUJNFTOFXTJUVBUJPOTDBVTFEQFP
QMFUPNJHSBUF5IFJOTUJUVUJPOPGTMBWFSZXBTSFTQPOTJCMFGPSUIFGPSDFESF
Reconstructing the Ancestral Homeland 155

NPWBMPGMBSHFOVNCFSTPGQFPQMFOPUPOMZGSPNSFHJPOUPSFHJPOCVUFWFO
GSPNPOFDPOUJOFOUUPBOPUIFS CZUIFNJEEMFPGUIFOJOFUFFOUIDFOUVSZ UIF
TMBWFQPQVMBUJPOJO"NFSJDBIBETVSQBTTFENJMMJPO
0UIFSTNJHSBUFEWPM
VOUBSJMZ BUUSBDUFEUPBQBSUJDVMBSBSFBPSDPVOUSZCZUIFOFXTPGCFUUFSMJWJOH
DPOEJUJPOTBTSFQPSUFECZBDRVBJOUBODFTPSSFMBUJWFTXIPIBEBMSFBEZSFTFU
UMFEUIFSF DIBJONJHSBUJPO
.BOZPGUIFNJMMJPOPSTPQFPQMFGSPNWBS
JPVT&VSPQFBODPVOUSJFTXIPFOUFSFEUIF6OJUFE4UBUFTCFUXFFOBOE
XFSFGPMMPXJOHDPNQBUSJPUTXIPIBEQJPOFFSFEUIFUSBOTBUMBOUJDNJ
HSBUJPO%VSJOHUIFUXFOUJFUIDFOUVSZ NVDINJHSBUJPOPDDVSSFEGPSQPMJUJ
DBM SFBTPOT *NNFEJBUFMZ GPMMPXJOH 8PSME 8BS **  NPSF UIBO  NJMMJPO
(FSNBOTXFSFFJUIFSUSBOTGFSSFEUPBSFEVDFE(FSNBOUFSSJUPSZGSPNDPVO
USJFTUIBUIBETVGGFSFEVOEFSUIF/B[JSFHJNFPSDIPTFUPSFTFUUMFUIFSFPO
UIFJSPXOJOJUJBUJWF"UBCPVUUIFTBNFUJNF JO
UIF*OEJBOTVCDPOUJ
OFOUXBTQBSUJUJPOFECFUXFFO*OEJBBOE1BLJTUBO BOEBUPUBMPGNPSFUIBO
NJMMJPO)JOEVTGSPN1BLJTUBOBOE.VTMJNTGSPN*OEJBNPWFEGSPNPOFPG
UIFUXPOFXDPVOUSJFTUPUIFPUIFSJOPSEFSUPMJWFBNPOHQFPQMFTPGUIF
TBNFSFMJHJPO5IF6OJUFE/BUJPOTSFQPSUTUIBUJO UIFSFXFSFNPSFUIBO
NJMMJPOSFGVHFFTJOUIFXPSME
'PSUIPTFUJNFQFSJPETBOEQBSUTPGUIFXPSMEMPOHDIBSBDUFSJ[FECZUIF
VTFPGXSJUJOH JOGPSNBUJPOJTBWBJMBCMFJONPSFPSMFTTEFUBJMDPODFSOJOHUIF
IJTUPSJDBMNJHSBUJPOTUIBUUPPLQMBDF)PXFWFS TVDIJOGPSNBUJPOJTWFSZTIBM
MPXXIFSFXSJUUFOMBOHVBHFIBTCFFOJOVTFGPSPOMZTFWFSBMDFOUVSJFT UIF
"NFSJDBTBOE"VTUSBMJBJOQBSUJDVMBS'PSFYBNQMF JO/PSUI"NFSJDBTQFBL
FSTPGNPSFUIBOUXPEP[FOMBOHVBHFTBOENBKPSEJBMFDUTPGUIF"MHPORVJBO
MBOHVBHFGBNJMZ BMPOHXJUIFODMBWFTPGPUIFSMBOHVBHFGBNJMJFT PGDPVSTF

FYUFOEFEGSPN5FOOFTTFFBOEFBTUFSO/PSUI$BSPMJOBJOUIF4PVUIFBTU UP
OPSUIFBTUFSO/FXGPVOEMBOEBOEUIFTPVUIFSODPBTUPG)VETPO#BZJOUIF
/PSUI BOEUP$PMPSBEP 8ZPNJOH .POUBOB 4BTLBUDIFXBO BOETPVUIFBTU
FSO"MCFSUBJOUIF8FTU*OUIFBCTFODFPGIJTUPSJDBMSFDPSETFYUFOEJOHTFW
FSBMUIPVTBOEZFBSTJOUPUIFQBTU JTJUQPTTJCMFUPEJTDPWFSXIFSFUIFTQFBLFST
PG1SPUP"MHPORVJBO UIFMBOHVBHFUIBUNVTUIBWFCFFOBODFTUSBMUPUIFQSFT
FOU"MHPORVJBOMBOHVBHFT PSJHJOBMMZMJWFE *UJT BOEUIFNFUIPEPGJOWFTUJ
HBUJPO JOWPMWFT UIF DBSFGVM VTF PG MJOHVJTUJD EBUB BT XFMM BT JOGPSNBUJPO
QFSUBJOJOHUPUIFOBUVSBMIJTUPSZPGUIF/PSUI"NFSJDBODPOUJOFOU5IJT
NFUIPEPGSFDPOTUSVDUJPOXBTJMMVTUSBUFECZ'SBOL54JFCFSU+S o

JOIJTXFMMLOPXOBSUJDMFi5IF0SJHJOBM)PNFPGUIF1SPUP"MHPORVJBO1FP
QMFw 

156 Chapter 8: Language Through Time

-FUVTTVNNBSJ[FUIFXPSLJOHBTTVNQUJPOTPOXIJDISFDPOTUSVDUJPOTPG
UIJTLJOEBSFCBTFE'JSTU UIFUFSSJUPSZPDDVQJFEBUTPNFUJNFJOUIFQBTUCZ
TQFBLFSTPGBOBODFTUSBMMBOHVBHFXPVMEIBWFCFFOSBUIFSMJNJUFEJOFYUFOU
XIFODPNQBSFEXJUIUIFBSFBJOXIJDIUIFEBVHIUFSMBOHVBHFTBSF PSXFSF

TQPLFO5IFGBJSMZMBSHFQBSUPG/PSUI"NFSJDBUIBUUIF"MHPORVJBOTQFBLJOH
QFPQMFTJOIBCJUFEBUUIFUJNFPGUIFJSJOJUJBMDPOUBDUXJUIUIF&VSPQFBOJN
NJHSBOUTXBTUIFSFTVMUPGNBOZDFOUVSJFTPGNPWFNFOUTCZUIFJSBODFTUPST
BXBZGSPNXIFSFWFSUIFJSBODFTUSBMIPNFNBZIBWFCFFO4FDPOE UIFWP
DBCVMBSZPGUIFBODFTUSBMHSPVQNVTUIBWFJODMVEFEXPSETEFTJHOBUJOHUIF
NBJOGFBUVSFTPGUIFTVSSPVOEJOHOBUVSBMFOWJSPONFOUBNPOHUIFNUIF
XPSETGPSUIFWBSJPVTLJOETPGNBNNBMT GJTI CJSET USFFT BOEUIFMJLF5P
CFBCMFUPSFGFSGBJSMZTQFDJGJDBMMZUPTVDIGFBUVSFTPGUIFFOWJSPONFOUXPVME
IBWFCFFOFTTFOUJBMGPSUIFJSTVSWJWBM5IFGBNJMJFTBOEHSPVQTUIBUXBOEFSFE
PGGGSPNUIFQPQVMBUJPOJOUIFBODFTUSBMIPNFMBOECFHBOUIFJSJOEFQFOEFOU
FYJTUFODFVTJOHUIFTQFFDIPGUIFQBSFOUHSPVQ*OUIFDPVSTFPGUJNF IPX
FWFS UIFTQFFDIIBCJUTPGUIPTFXIPNPWFEBXBZCFHBOUPTIPXUIFJO
FWJUBCMFDIBOHFTUPXIJDIBMMMJWJOHMBOHVBHFTBSFTVCKFDU5IFNFUIPEGPS
MPDBUJOHUIFBODFTUSBMIPNFMBOEPGMJOHVJTUJDBMMZSFMBUFEQFPQMFTJTCBTFEPO
UIFKVTUJGJBCMFBTTVNQUJPOUIBUPOFDBOSFDPOTUSVDUGSPNDFSUBJODPHOBUFTJO
UIFEFTDFOEBOUMBOHVBHFTUIFQPSUJPOPGUIFBODFTUSBMWPDBCVMBSZUIBUSF
WFBMTUIFPSJHJOBMMPDBUJPOPGUIFQBSFOUQPQVMBUJPO
%SBXJOHPONPSFUIBOBEP[FOBWBJMBCMFWPDBCVMBSJFTPGNPEFSO"MHP
ORVJBOMBOHVBHFTBOEUIFJSEJBMFDUT 4JFCFSUSFDPOTUSVDUFEGJGUZUISFF1SPUP
"MHPORVJBO 1"
 XPSET SFGFSSJOH UP QBSUJDVMBS GFBUVSFT PG UIF OBUVSBM
FOWJSPONFOU0GUIFTFXPSET FJHIUFFOBSFCJSEOBNFT OJOFUFFONBNNBMJBO
OBNFT  UXFMWF USFF OBNFT  BOE GPVS GJTI OBNFT "MM UIFTF SFDPOTUSVDUFE
XPSETPGUIFBODFTUSBMWPDBCVMBSZBSFSFHVMBSMZEFSJWBCMFGSPNUIFDPSSF
TQPOEJOH XPSET PG UIF NPEFSO "MHPORVJBO MBOHVBHFT 'PS FYBNQMF  1"
BrTLJLXB A IBSCPS
 TFBM 1IPDB WJUVMJOB DPODPMPS
 POF PG UIF GJGUZUISFF
XPSET JTSFDPOTUSVDUJCMFGSPNUIF4XBNQZPS8PPEMBOEEJBMFDUPGUIF$SFF
XPSEBrILJL UIF-BLF4U+PIOEJBMFDUPG.POUBHOBJTahOok 0KJCXBBrTLJL
BOEUIF1FOPCTDPUEJBMFDUPG"COBLJhkikw 1"*a ikanwa ATNBMMNPVUI
CMBDL CBTT .JDSPQUFSVT EPMPNJFV
 JT SFDPOTUSVDUJCMF GSPN UIF 'PY XPSE
a  ikanwa, Menomini word asekan, Ojibwa word aikan, Shawnee word
aika  BOE UIF 1FOPCTDPU EJBMFDU PG UIF "COBLJ XPSE TJLBO BOE 1"
BrLFNBrYLXB AXIJUFBTI 'SBYJOVTBNFSJDBOB
BDPNQPVOEPG1" BrLFN
ATOPXTIPFBOE1" BrYLXA IBSE
XPPE GSPNUIFNPEFSODPHOBUFTPC
Reconstructing the Ancestral Homeland 157

UBJOFEGSPN4XBNQZPS8PPEMBOEEJBMFDUPG$SFF UIF-BLF4U+PIOEJBMFDU
PG.POUBHOBJT 0KJCXB BOEUIF1FOPCTDPUEJBMFDUPG"COBLJ *O0KJCXBBOE
1FOPCTDPUUIFPSJHJOBMNFBOJOHIBTCFFOQSFTFSWFE XIFSFBTJOUIF$SFFBOE
.POUBHOBJTEJBMFDUTUIFOBNFDBNFUPCFBQQMJFEUPUIFCMBDLBTIBGUFSUIF
TQFBLFSTPGUIFTFUXPEJBMFDUTNJHSBUFEOPSUIPGUIFXIJUFBTISBOHF
0GUIF
BQQSPYJNBUFMZGJGUZSFDPOTUSVDUJCMFTQFDJFTUFSNT BCPVUBTDPSFDPOUSJCVUFE
TJHOJGJDBOUMZUPUIFTPMVUJPOPGUIFQSPCMFN
5IF EBUB 4JFCFSU VTFE DPOTJTU PG UIF SFDPOTUSVDUFE 1SPUP"MHPORVJBO
XPSETEFTJHOBUJOHUIFGPMMPXJOHOBUVSBMGFBUVSFTGPSNBNNBMT CFBS CFBWFS
CJTPOPSCVGGBMP CVDL NBMFPGNPPTF EFFS FML DBSJCPV
GBXO GMZJOHTRVJS
SFM GPY MZOYPSCPCDBU NJOL NPPTF NVTLSBU QPSDVQJOF SBDDPPO  IBSCPS

TFBM TLVOL TRVJSSFM XFBTFM XPPEDIVDLPSHSPVOEIPH BOEXPPEMBOEDBSJ


CPVGPSCJSET CMVFKBZ CPCXIJUFPSRVBJM DPNNPOMPPO HPMEFOFBHMF HSFBU
IPSOFEPXM UXPUFSNT
HSFBUFSZFMMPXMFHT HVMM IBXL IFSPOPSDSBOF LJOH
GJTIFS NFSHBOTFS OJHIUIBXL PMETRVBX QJMFBUFEXPPEQFDLFSPSMPHDPDL
SBWFO SVGGFEHSPVTFPSQBSUSJEHF BOEMBSHFFEJCMFHBNFCJSEGPSGJTI CSPXO
CVMMIFBE MBLFUSPVU OPSUIFSOQJLF BOETNBMMNPVUICMBDLCBTTBOEGPSUSFFT
TQFDLMFE
 BMEFS  CBTTXPPE  "NFSJDBO CFFDI  DPOJGFS PS FWFSHSFFO  FMN
RVBLJOHBTQFO TVHBSNBQMF UBNBSBDL XIJUFBTI XIJUFTQSVDF XJMMPX BOE
BLJOEPGUSFFXIPTFTQFDJFTDPVMEOPUCFEFUFSNJOFE
#FDBVTF BMM UIFTF BOJNBMT BOE USFFTUIF OBNFT GPS XIJDI BSF SFDPO
TUSVDUJCMFGPSUIF1SPUP"MHPORVJBOMBOHVBHFNVTUIBWFCFFOQSFTFOUJO
UIFFOWJSPONFOUTVSSPVOEJOHUIFTQFBLFSTPGUIFBODFTUSBMMBOHVBHF UIFUBTL
UIBUOFYUDPOGSPOUFE4JFCFSUXBTUPMPDBUFUIFDPSSFTQPOEJOHBSFBPOUIJT
DPOUJOFOU#VUGJOEJOHJUXBTOPUBTFBTZBTJUNJHIUTFFN5IFEJTUSJCVUJPO
PGJOEJWJEVBMBOJNBMBOEQMBOUTQFDJFTIBEDIBOHFEDPOTJEFSBCMZPWFSUIF
QBTUTFWFSBMDFOUVSJFTBTBSFTVMUPGUIFSBQJETFUUMFNFOUPGUIFDPOUJOFOUCZ
JNNJHSBOUTGSPNUIF0ME8PSME4PNFGPSFTUMBOETIBECFFODPOWFSUFEUP
GJFMETBOEQBTUVSFT TPNFTQFDJFTPGGJTIIBECFFOFMJNJOBUFECZQPMMVUJPO
XIJMFPUIFSGJTITQFDJFTNBZIBWFCFFOJOUSPEVDFEJOUPTUSFBNTBOEMBLFTJO
XIJDIUIFZXFSFOPUOBUJWF BOETPNFTQFDJFTPGNBNNBMTIBECFFOHSFBUMZ
SFEVDFEPSWJSUVBMMZFYUFSNJOBUFECZJOEJTDSJNJOBUFIVOUJOH GPSFYBNQMF
UIFCVGGBMP
PSVSCBOJ[BUJPO8IBU4JFCFSUUIFSFGPSFIBEUPFTUBCMJTIXBTUIF
FBSMJFTUQPTTJCMFSBOHFTPGUIFGJGUZPEETQFDJFT)FDPOTVMUFEOFBSMZBIVO
ESFE TPVSDFT DPOUBJOJOH JOGPSNBUJPO BCPVU UIF OBUVSBM IJTUPSZ PG /PSUI
"NFSJDB TPNFEBUJOHBTGBSCBDLBT5SFFTTFSWFEBTQBSUJDVMBSMZSFMJ
BCMFHVJEFTCFDBVTFUIFZBSFGJYFEBOEUIFJSSBOHFTBSFHPWFSOFECZTPJM
158 Chapter 8: Language Through Time

NPJTUVSF BOEMPOHUFSNDMJNBUJDQBUUFSOT#JSETQFDJFTDPOUSJCVUFENVDI
MFTTUPUIFJOWFTUJHBUJPOCFDBVTFTFBTPOBMNJHSBUJPOTUFOEUPNBLFUIFJSHF
PHSBQIJDSBOHFTRVJUFFYUFOTJWF0ODFUIFHFPHSBQIJDEJTUSJCVUJPOTIBECFFO
FTUBCMJTIFE 4JFCFSUQMPUUFEUIFSBOHFTPOBNBQPGUIFDPOUJOFOU5IFFBSMJ
FTUIPNFMBOEPGTQFBLFSTPG1SPUP"MHPORVJBOXPVMEIBWFIBEUPCFJOUIF
BSFBUIBUBMMUIFTJHOJGJDBOUTQFDJFTTIBSFEJODPNNPO PSBUMFBTUUPVDIFE
'PS4JFCFSUTJOHFOJPVTSFDPOTUSVDUJPOPGUIFMPDBUJPOPGUIFPSJHJOBMIPNFPG
UIF1SPUP"MHPORVJBOQFPQMF XFDBOSFGFSUPUIFBVUIPSTPXOEJTDVTTJPO
BOEDPODMVTJPO IFSFBCCSFWJBUFEJO#PYBOETVQQMFNFOUFECZUIFNBQ
JO'JHVSF


Reconstructing a Protoculture
3FDPOTUSVDUJPOPGXPSETPGBQSPUPMBOHVBHFBOEUIFJSNFBOJOHTJTMJLFMZUP
UISPXMJHIUPOTPNFBTQFDUTPGUIFQSFIJTUPSJDDVMUVSFPGUIPTFXIPTQPLF
UIFQSPUPMBOHVBHF"HPPEXBZUPJMMVTUSBUFUIJTTUBUFNFOUJTUPDPOTJEFS
UIPTF*OEP&VSPQFBOLJOTIJQUFSNTUIBUBSFSFDPOTUSVDUJCMFGPS1SPUP*OEP
&VSPQFBO5IFZJODMVEFBODFTUSBMXPSET QSPUPXPSET
GPSJOEJWJEVBMTSF
MBUFE CZ CMPPE  TVDI BT GBUIFS NPUIFS CSPUIFS TJTUFS TPO EBVHIUFS
QSPUPXPSETGPSBXPNBOTSFMBUJWFTCZNBSSJBHF TVDIBTIVTCBOETCSPUIFS
IVTCBOETTJTUFS IVTCBOETNPUIFS IVTCBOETGBUIFS BOEQSPUPXPSETSFGFS
SJOHUPXPNFOSFMBUFECZNBSSJBHF TVDIBTEBVHIUFSJOMBX 5PHJWFBOFY
BNQMF UIFSFBSFDPHOBUFXPSETJOBOVNCFSPG*OEP&VSPQFBOMBOHVBHFTGPS
UIFLJOTIJQUFSNEBVHIUFSJOMBXBNPOHUIFTFXPSETBSF4BOTLSJUsnuG
(SFFLOVT -BUJOOVSVT 3VTTJBOTOPLI 0ME&OHMJTITOPSV (FSNBO4DIOVS
BOEPUIFST0OUIFCBTJTPGOVNFSPVTLOPXOTPVOEDPSSFTQPOEFODFT JUJT
QPTTJCMFUPSFDPOTUSVDUUIF1*&GPSN TOVTT AEBVHIUFSJOMBX#FDBVTFUIF
XPSESFGFSSJOHUPTPOJOMBX JTOPUSFDPOTUSVDUJCMF UIFBTTVNQUJPODBOCF
NBEFUIBUUIFSFXBTOPTVDIXPSEJO1SPUP*OEP&VSPQFBOUJNFT5IFFYJT
UFODFPG TOVTT AEBVHIUFSJOMBXCVUOPUPGUIFDPSSFTQPOEJOHNBMFUFSN
TPOJOMBX
TUSPOHMZJOEJDBUFTUIBUBZPVOHXJGFXPVMEIBWFCFFOCSPVHIU
UPMJWFXJUIPSOFBSIFSIVTCBOETGBNJMZBOEUIFOSFGFSSFEUPCZBTQFDJBM
UFSNUPEJTUJOHVJTIIFSGSPNUIFCMPPESFMBUFEGFNBMFTPGUIFIPVTFIPME*G
UIFDVTUPNIBECFFOGPSBZPVOHNBOUPMJWFXJUIIJTXJGFTQBSFOUT POF
XPVMEFYQFDUUPGJOEDPHOBUFUFSNTGPSTPOJOMBXSBUIFSUIBOGPSEBVHIUFS
JOMBX5IFMJOHVJTUJDFWJEFODFCBTFEPOUIFQSPUPMBOHVBHFQPJOUTUPQB
USJMPDBMSFTJEFODFBNPOHUIFBODJFOU*OEP&VSPQFBOT UIBUJT BZPVOHDPVQMF
Reconstructing a Protoculture 159

B OX 8 . 1 S I E B E RT O N T H E O R I G I N A L H OM E O F
T H E P ROTO - A LG O N Q U I A N P E O P L E

The primeval home. . . . lay between the almost strictly coniferous forests
to the north and the deciduous woodlands to the south. That the Proto-
Algonquians lived in a mixed-forest zone is evident from the frequent use
of the two contrasting noun-finals in many tree names, PA *-antakw-
evergreen tree, conifer and *-axkw- wood; hardwood or deciduous
tree. The relatively southern species of deciduous trees, like the white
ash, sugar maple, basswood, and beech, extend more or less only slightly
farther north than the Algonquian homeland, whereas northern conifers,
like the white spruce and tamarack, were found commonly only to the
southern borders of the original home or slightly beyond.
The original home lay at the southern limit of the woodland caribou. . . .
The harbour seal is the only seal that is common on the eastern coast of
the United States . . . [but] in aboriginal times its ascent penetrated . . . into
the interior along the upper St. Lawrence River and affluent streams. . . .
The distributions of [four species of fish] provide additional reasons for pin-
pointing the earliest Algonquian residence to southern Ontario rather than
to a more western portion of the Great Lakes region. . . .
In order to allow for possible undetermined changes in the distribution
of fauna and flora in the prehistoric period . . . the earliest original home
is diagrammatically represented as Stage Number 1 . . . and an expanded
area of occupancy of slightly later date, which certainly includes the en-
tire Algonquian homeland, is characterized as Stage Number 2. To these
the tentative dates of 1200 B.C. and 900 B.C., respectively, are assigned as
suppositions to serve as a basis for further discussion. . . .
The earliest residence of the speakers of Proto-Algonquian is ascer-
tained by the multiple intersections of the distributional lines of signifi-
cant species. The original home of the Algonquian peoples lay in the
region between Lake Huron and Georgian Bay and the middle course of
the Ottawa River, bounded on the north by Lake Nipissing and the Mat-
tawa River and on the south by the northern shore of Lake Ontario, the
headwaters of the Grand River, and the Saugeen River.
from Frank T. Siebert, Jr., The Original Home of
the Proto-Algonquian People (1967), 3640
160

F I G U R E 8 . 1 The Two Assumed Stages of the Proto-Algonquin Home and Their Locations
4PVSDF'SPN'SBOL54JFCFSU +S i5IF0SJHJOBM)PNFPGUIF1SPUP"MHPORVJO1FPQMF w/BUJPOBM.VTFVNPG$BOBEB CVMMFUJO
0UUBXB 
3FQSPEVDFECZQFSNJTTJPOPGUIF$BOBEJBO.VTFVNPG$JWJMJ[BUJPO
Trying to Date the Past: Glottochronology 161

IBCJUVBMMZMJWJOHXJUIPSOFBSUIFIVTCBOETGBUIFSTGBNJMZ4VDIJOGPSNBUJPO
DPVMEOPUCFPCUBJOFEGSPNBSDIBFPMPHJDBMFWJEFODF
-JOHVJTUJDSFDPOTUSVDUJPOTUFMMVTNVDINPSFBCPVUUIFBODJFOU*OEP
&VSPQFBOTUIBUUIFZVTFEZPLFTBOEQSPCBCMZXIFFMFEWFIJDMFTPGTPNFLJOE
BOEEFQFOEFEPOPSLFQUIPSTFT DPXT EPHT TIFFQ QJHT BOEHPBUTGVS
UIFSNPSF UIBUUIFZMJWFEJOBOFOWJSPONFOUJOXIJDIUIFZFODPVOUFSFE
XPMWFT CFBST GPYFT FBHMFT TBMNPO QSPCBCMZBUZQFPGUSPVUSFTFNCMJOH
TBMNPO
PUUFST CFBWFST BOEPUIFSBOJNBMTBTXFMMBTBMEFS BTQFO CFFDI
CJSDI PBL BOEZFXBNPOHUIFGMPSB5IFZQSBDUJDFEBHSJDVMUVSFBOEDVMUJ
WBUFEDFSFBMT XIJDIUIFZHSPVOEJOUPGMPVS5IFBODJFOU*OEP&VSPQFBOT
VTFEOVNFSBMTBUMFBTUUISPVHIPOFIVOESFEBOEFNQMPZFEBEFDJNBMTZT
UFN5IFZXFSFMFECZUSJCBMDIJFGTPSLJOHTBOE KVEHJOHGSPNUIFSFDPO
TUSVDUJCMFWPDBCVMBSZ EFWFMPQFESBUIFSFMBCPSBUFSFMJHJPVTQSBDUJDFT5IF
XJEF EJTUSJCVUJPO PG XPSET GPS TOPX BOE UIF FBTZ SFDPOTUSVDUJCJMJUZ PG
TOFJHXIA UP
TOPXBQQFBSUPFYDMVEFBTUIFQSPCBCMFBODFTUSBM*OEP&VSP
QFBOIPNFMBOEUIPTFXBSNTPVUIFSOQBSUTPG&VSPQFBOETPVUIXFTUFSO"TJB
XIFSFTOPXJTOPUTFFO
5IFSFDPOTUSVDUJPOTPGQSPUPDVMUVSFIBWFOPUCFFOMJNJUFEUPQSFIJTUPSJD
*OEP&VSPQFBOTPDJFUZCVUIBWFCFFOFYUFOEFEUPPUIFSQBSUTPGUIFXPSME
GPS FYBNQMF  TVC4BIBSBO "GSJDB 4PNF MJOHVJTUJD JOGFSFODFT BCPVU FBSMZ
#BOUVIJTUPSZBSFSFQSPEVDFEJO#PY UIF#BOUVMBOHVBHFTGPSNBMBSHF
TVCHSPVQPGUIF/JHFS$POHPMBOHVBHFGBNJMZ


Trying to Date the Past: Glottochronology


"NPEFSOBUUFNQUUPEFUFSNJOFTUBUJTUJDBMMZUIFMFOHUIPGUJNFEVSJOHXIJDI
BMBOHVBHFPSBHSPVQPGHFOFUJDBMMZSFMBUFEMBOHVBHFTIBTCFFOVOEFSHPJOH
JOEFQFOEFOUEFWFMPQNFOUXBTNBEFCZ.PSSJT4XBEFTIJOIJTBSUJDMFDPO
DFSOJOHUIFJOUFSOBMSFMBUJPOTIJQTXJUIJOUIF4BMJTIBOMBOHVBHFGBNJMZPGUIF
"NFSJDBO/PSUIXFTU 4XBEFTI
5IFNFUIPE XIJDI4XBEFTIBOEPUI
FSTTVCTFRVFOUMZFMBCPSBUFE JOWPMWFTMFYJDPTUBUJTUJDTBOEHMPUUPDISPOPMPHZ
JOUIBUPSEFS
-FYJDPTUBUJTUJDT JTBNFUIPEPGFTUBCMJTIJOHMJOHVJTUJDSFMB
UJPOTIJQPOUIFCBTJTPGBRVBOUJUBUJWFTUVEZPGMFYJDBMJUFNT XPSET
HMPU
UPDISPOPMPHZ JT B NFUIPE PG EFUFSNJOJOH UIF UJNF EFQUI PG B MJOHVJTUJD
SFMBUJPOTIJQ'PSUIFTBLFPGCSFWJUZ XFBSFDPNCJOJOHUIFVTFPGUIFTFUXP
NFUIPETVOEFSUIFUFSNHMPUUPDISPOPMPHZ 5IFNFUIPECFDBNFDPOUSP
WFSTJBMTPPOBGUFSJUTJOUSPEVDUJPO CVUCFDBVTFJUIBTCFFOSFQFBUFEMZBQQMJFE
162 Chapter 8: Language Through Time

UPMJOHVJTUJDEBUBBOEGSFRVFOUSFGFSFODFTUPJUBQQFBSJOUIFMJUFSBUVSF JUEF
TFSWFTUPCFCSJFGMZFYBNJOFE
8IFOGJSTUJOUSPEVDFE HMPUUPDISPOPMPHJDBMBOBMZTJTZJFMEFESFMBUJWFEBUFT
OPU VOMJLF UIPTF BSDIBFPMPHJTUT PCUBJO GSPN UIF TUSBUJHSBQIJD SFDPSE 5IF
NFUIPEXBTMBUFSSFWJTFETPUIBUBCTPMVUFEBUFTDPVMECFEFUFSNJOFENVDIMJLF
UIPTFBSDIBFPMPHJTUTPCUBJOCZVTJOHDBSCPOUPEBUFBODJFOUPSHBOJDNBUF
SJBMTSFDPWFSFEGSPNBSDIBFPMPHJDBMTJUFT(MPUUPDISPOPMPHJDBMEBUJOHJTCBTFE
POUIFBTTVNQUJPOUIBUJOBMMMBOHVBHFTUIFSFBSFDFSUBJOXPSETUIBUUFOEUPCF
SFQMBDFEBUBDPOTUBOUSBUFPWFSMPOHQFSJPETPGUJNF5IJTCBTJDDPSFWPDBCV
MBSZDPOTJTUTPGXPSETUIBUEFTJHOBUFUIJOHT RVBMJUJFT BOEBDUJWJUJFTNPTUMJLFMZ
UPCFOBNFEJOBMMMBOHVBHFTPGUIFXPSME"NPOHUIFTFXPSETBSFCPEZQBSUT
OBUVSBMPCKFDUTBOEQIFOPNFOB QMBOUTBOEQMBOUQBSUT BOJNBMT DPMPST OV
NFSBMT CPEJMZTFOTBUJPOTBOEBDUJWJUJFT BOEXPSETCFMPOHJOHUPTFWFSBMPUIFS
TFNBOUJDEPNBJOT BNPOHUIFNQPTJUJPOTBOENPWFNFOUT QFSTPOT BOEDPN
NPORVBMJUJFT0OUIFCBTJTPGUFTUTNBEFXJUIUXPIVOESFEXPSEMJTUTGSPN
MBOHVBHFTXIPTFIJTUPSZJTLOPXO UIFSBUFPGSFQMBDFNFOU PSMPTT PGUIFCBTJD
DPSFWPDBCVMBSZBQQFBSTUPBWFSBHFOFBSMZQFSDFOUQFS ZFBST BNPVOU
JOHUPBXPSESFUFOUJPOSBUFPGKVTUPWFSQFSDFOU'PSUIFTNBMMFSBOENPSF
DPODFOUSBUFEPOFIVOESFEXPSEMJTUEFWFMPQFECZ4XBEFTIJO TFF5BCMF

UIFDPNQBSBCMFSBUFTBSFBOEQFSDFOU"DDPSEJOHUPUIFQSPQPOFOUT
PGHMPUUPDISPOPMPHZ UIFMFOHUIPGUJNFSFRVJSFEGPSUXPMBOHVBHFTUPEJWFSHF
GSPNBTJOHMFMBOHVBHFDBOCFDBMDVMBUFECZVTJOHUIFGPSNVMBU  MPH$
 MPH
S
XIFSFU JTUIFUJNFEFQUIJONJMMFOOJB $JTUIFQFSDFOUBHFPGDPHOBUFT BOE
S JTUIFDPOTUBOU UIBUJT UIFQFSDFOUBHFPGDPHOBUFTBTTVNFEUPSFNBJOBGUFS
 ZFBSTPGEJWFSHFODF QFSDFOUGPSUIFUXPIVOESFEXPSEMJTUBOE
QFSDFOUGPSUIFPOFIVOESFEXPSEMJTU

*OBQQMZJOHUIFNFUIPE POFGJSTUUSBOTMBUFTUIFCBTJDDPSFWPDBCVMBSZJOUP
UIFDPMMPRVJBMFRVJWBMFOUTPGUIFUXPSFMBUFEMBOHVBHFTBOEUIFOEFUFSNJOFT
XIJDIQBJSTBSFDPHOBUFCZWJSUVFPGTJNJMBSJUZ'PSFYBNQMF UIF&OHMJTI
XPSETCMPPE DMPVE IBJS TBOE USFF BOECMBDL XPVMEUSBOTMBUFJOUP(FSNBO
BT#MVU 8PMLF )BBS 4BOE #BVN BOETDIXBS[ 0GUIFTJYQBJST POMZUISFF
XPVMECFDPOTJEFSFEDPHOBUF CMPPE IBJS BOETBOE BOEUIFJS(FSNBOFRVJW
BMFOUT
*ODPOUSBTU EFFS BOE(FSNBO5JFS ABOJNBMBSFDPHOBUFCVUOPMPOHFS
FRVJWBMFOU0UIFSQBJSTPGXPSETBSFDPHOBUFCVUNBZOPUCFSFDPHOJ[FEBT
TVDI GPSFYBNQMF UIF&OHMJTIXPSEUPF BOEUIF(FSNBODPHOBUF;FIF AUPF 
&OHMJTICFBN BOE(FSNBO#BVN AUSFF BOE&OHMJTITXBSU IZ
BOE(FSNBO
TDIXBS[ ACMBDL
Trying to Date the Past: Glottochronology 163

TA B L E 8 . 1 The 100-Word Core Vocabulary


I dog nose die smoke
you louse mouth kill re
we tree tooth swim ash
this seed tongue y burn
that leaf claw walk path
who root foot come mountain
what bark knee lie red
not skin hand sit green
all esh belly stand yellow
many blood neck give white
one bone breasts say black
two grease heart sun night
big egg liver moon hot
long horn drink star cold
small tail eat water full
woman feather bite rain new
man hair see stone good
person head hear sand round
sh ear know earth dry
bird eye sleep cloud name
It should be noted that the large majority of these words can be traced to Old Englishthat
is, they are very old English words. Because of the universal nature and occurrence of the
referents for which these words stand, equivalents in other languages are available and may
also be expected to be old.

"MNPTUTJODFUIFEFWFMPQNFOUPGHMPUUPDISPOPMPHZ JUTCBTJDBTTVNQUJPOT
IBWFCFFODPOUSPWFSTJBM4PNFPGUIFQSPCMFNTXFSFBQUMZTVNNBSJ[FECZ
%XJHIU#PMJOHFSi8FDBOOPUCFTVSFUIBUUIFTPDJBMBOEIJTUPSJDBMGPSDFTPG
DIBOHFIBWFOPUCFFOTUSPOHFSJOPOFFQPDIUIBOJOBOPUIFS PSUIBUNBOZ
JUFNTPGTVQQPTFEMZCBTJDWPDBCVMBSZIBWFOPUBDUVBMMZCFFOCPSSPXFESBUIFS
UIBOJOIFSJUFEw'VSUIFS IFDPOUJOVFE SFGFSSJOHUPBTUVEZCZ-BCPW i"TVS
WFZPGUIFTQFFDIPGUIFZFBSSPVOEJOIBCJUBOUTPG.BSUIBT7JOFZBSEGPVOE
UIBUUIFJSEFTJSFUPCFEJGGFSFOUGSPNUIFEFUFTUFENBJOMBOEFSTJTMFBEJOH
UIFNUPTQFFEVQDFSUBJODIBOHFTJOUIFQSPOVODJBUJPOPGUIFJSWPXFMT4P
DJBMQSFTTVSFTDSFBUFWBSJBCMFSBUFTPGDIBOHFJOQIPOFUJDTBTXFMMBTJOWP
DBCVMBSZw #PMJOHFSo
*UJTBMTPLOPXO GPSFYBNQMF UIBUUIF
SFUFOUJPOPGDPHOBUFTCFUXFFO0ME/PSTFBOE.PEFSO*DFMBOEJDJTNVDI
IJHIFSUIBOUIFGPSNVMBXPVMEJOEJDBUF"OPUIFSQSPCMFNJTUIFBTTVNQUJPO
UIBUUIFCBTJDDPSFWPDBCVMBSZMJTUJTFRVBMMZBQQMJDBCMFUPBMMDVMUVSFT UIBUJT
UIBUJUIBTOPDVMUVSBMCJBTBOEJTUSVMZVOJWFSTBM)BSSZ)PJKFS o

164 Chapter 8: Language Through Time

TIPXFE GPSFYBNQMF UIBUPOFXPVMEIBWFUPDIPPTFGSPNBNPOHGJWF/BWBKP


GPSNTGPSUIF&OHMJTIUIJT BOEUIBU GSPNBNPOHGPVSGPSXIP BOEXIBU GSPN
BNPOHUXPGPSCMBDL BOETPPO )PJKFS

5PFMJNJOBUFUIFPCKFDUJPOUIBUUIFBDDFQUBODFPGBCTPMVUFUJNFSFGFS
FODFTJTVOUFOBCMF UIFTVHHFTUJPOXBTNBEFUPBEPQUBSFMBUJWFVOJUPGUJNF
EFQUIUIBUXPVMECFMFTTNJTMFBEJOH5IJTVOJUJTSFGFSSFEUPBTEJQ GPSiEF
HSFFPGMFYJDBMSFMBUJPOTIJQw
5PBSSJWFBUEJQT UIFBCTPMVUFUJNFEFQUI JO
NJMMFOOJB
JTNVMUJQMJFECZGPVSUFFO"DDPSEJOHMZ UXPSFMBUFEMBOHVBHFT
FBDIPGXIJDIIBTHPOFJUTPXOXBZGPS ZFBST XPVMECFTFQBSBUFECZ
UXFOUZFJHIUEJQT
*OTVNNBSZ JGBQQMJFEUPSFMBUFEMBOHVBHFTXIPTFIJTUPSZJTOPULOPXO
BOEGPSXIJDIXSJUUFOSFDPSETEPOPUFYJTU HMPUUPDISPOPMPHZNBZQSPWJEF
TPNFQSFMJNJOBSZFTUJNBUFTPGUIFJSDMPTFOFTT#VUDBSFGVMMJOHVJTUJDBOUISP
QPMPHJTUTXPVMEMPPLGPSTVQQPSUJOHFWJEFODFGSPNBSDIBFPMPHZ DPNQBSB
UJWFFUIOPMPHZ BOEMJOHVJTUJDSFDPOTUSVDUJPOVTJOHUIFDPNQBSBUJWFNFUIPE
CFGPSFBDDFQUJOHHMPUUPDISPOPMPHJDBMSFTVMUTBTWBMJE

Time Perspective in Culture


)PXMJOHVJTUJDEBUBDBOBJEUIFSFDPOTUSVDUJPOPGDVMUVSBMIJTUPSZXBTEJT
DVTTFEBUMFOHUIBOEFYFNQMJGJFEJOPOFPGUIFFBSMZXPSLTPG&EXBSE4BQJS
BCSJMMJBOU"NFSJDBOMJOHVJTUBOEBOUISPQPMPHJTU BOEQSPCBCMZUIFHSFBUFTU
TQFDJBMJTUPO/BUJWF"NFSJDBOMBOHVBHFTVOUJM8PSME8BS**5JNF1FSTQFD
UJWF JO "CPSJHJOBM "NFSJDBO $VMUVSF " 4UVEZ JO .FUIPE 
 XBT IJT
MPOHFTUNPOPHSBQIJOFUIOPMPHZBOEJTUFTUJNPOZUPIJTNFUIPEPMPHJDBM
QSPXFTT5IFGFXFYBNQMFTUIBUGPMMPXJMMVTUSBUF4BQJSTEJTDVTTJPOPGJOGFS
FOUJBMMJOHVJTUJDFWJEFODFGPSUJNFQFSTQFDUJWF
5IFSFMBUJWFBHFPGBDVMUVSFFMFNFOUDBOCFEFUFSNJOFEXJUITPNFSFMJB
CJMJUZGSPNUIFGPSNPGUIFOBUJWF OPUCPSSPXFE
XPSEUIBUSFGFSTUPUIFFM
FNFOU4VDITJNQMFBOEOPUGVSUIFSBOBMZ[BCMFXPSETBTCPX QMPX TQFBS
BOEXIFFM BSFBTBSVMFNVDIPMEFSUIBOXPSETUIBUDBOCFCSPLFOEPXOJOUP
TNBMMFSDPOTUJUVFOUQBSUTGPSFYBNQMF BJSQMBOF CBUUMFTIJQ SBJMSPBE BOE
TQBDFTIJQ*SSFHVMBSHSBNNBUJDBMGPSNTBMTPJOEJDBUFUIFHSFBUBHFPGUIPTF
XPSETXJUIXIJDIUIFZBSFBTTPDJBUFEBOE CZJNQMJDBUJPO PGUIPTFFOUJUJFTUP
XIJDIUIFZSFGFSIFODFUIFQMVSBMTHFFTF LJOF BSDIBJDQMVSBMPGDPX
MJDF
PYFO BOETIFFQ POUIFPOFIBOE CVUFMFQIBOUT MJPOT QBSSPUT BOEUJHFST PO
UIFPUIFS
Time Perspective in Culture 165

B OX 8 . 2 L I N G U I S T I C I N F E R E N C E S
A B O U T E A R LY B A N T U H I S T O R Y

The oldest Bantu subsistence vocabulary so far reconstructible accords


with postulation of a high-rainfall, tropical environment for the proto-
Bantu homeland. No grain terms can be reconstructed, but there is in-
stead a word for yam. Two or three possible root words dealing with the
oil palm may also date to proto-Bantu, and the reconstructible proto-
Bantu name for alcoholic drink apparently referred specifically to palm
wine. At least one cucurbit, probably the bottle gourd, a pulse (the cow-
pea?), and probably the Voandzeia groundnut were also known to the
proto-Bantu. . . . These three crops would all have been domesticated
elsewhere than in the proto-Bantu homeland, but apparently they could
be effectively grown in high-rainfall savanna and/or rain forest. . . .
A second indication of a high-rainfall environment is provided by the
reconstructibility of fishing and boating vocabulary. . . . Apparently the
proto-Bantu made considerable use of riverine resources and lived where
large perennial streams were commonplace.
Knowledge of two domestic animals, cattle and goats, can be recon-
structed. . . . Whatever the cause of proto-Bantu knowledge of cattle, it was
lost by those who expanded into the equatorial rain forest, for the proto-
Bantu root *nyaka is found no farther south than some of the forest lan-
guages in which it was reapplied, in the absence of cattle, to the buffalo. . . .
Contrary to a widely held view, knowledge of ironworking cannot be
linguistically reconstructed for proto-Bantu. . . . By the beginnings, how-
ever, of Bantu expansion into eastern Africa, on linguistic grounds most
probably during the last millennium B.C., metallurgical terms had come
into use among at least the ancestral Eastern Bantu communities.
from Christopher Ehret, Linguistic Inferences
About Early Bantu History(1982), 6162

-PBOXPSET XIJDIVTVBMMZEFTJHOBUFFMFNFOUTPGGPSFJHODVMUVSFT DBOGSF


RVFOUMZCFJEFOUJGJFECZUIFJSEJGGFSFOUQIPOFUJDTUSVDUVSF XFXPVMEOPX
TBZiQIPOFNJDw
5IVT BMUIPVHI[BOE// PDDVSJOPMEXPSETPGUIFOBUJWF
&OHMJTIWPDBCVMBSZJONFEJBMPSGJOBMQPTJUJPO BTJOGSP[FO SJTF CSJEHFT
BOESJEHF
JOJUJBMMZUIFTFUXPTPVOETBSFGPVOEPOMZJOMPBOXPSET GPSFY
BNQMF  JO [FBM BEBQUFE GSPN -BUF -BUJO
 PS KVTU BEBQUFE GSPN .JEEMF
166 Chapter 8: Language Through Time

'SFODI
4JNJMBSMZ TPNFDPNCJOBUJPOTPGTPVOETCFUSBZUIFGPSFJHOPSJHJO
PGXPSETJOXIJDIUIFZPDDVS BTQTEPFTJOBQTF BOEMBQTF CPUIGSPN-BUJO

BOESIBQTPEZ GSPN(SFFLWJB-BUJO
#VUUIFGJOBMQTJOMJQT TMFFQT TIJQT
BOEPUIFSTVDIXPSETJTOPUDPNQBSBCMFCFDBVTFUIFTSFQSFTFOUTPUIFS
NPSQIFNFTUIFQMVSBM UIFUIJSEQFSTPOTJOHVMBS PSUIFQPTTFTTJWF SF
TQFDUJWFMZ'PSTPDJFUJFTXJUIBMPOHUSBEJUJPOPGXSJUJOH JOGFSFOUJBMMJOHVJT
UJDFWJEFODFNBZBEEMJUUMFJGBOZUIJOHUPXIBUJTBMSFBEZLOPXOBCPVUUIFJS
DVMUVSBMIJTUPSZ5IJTJTOPUUIFDBTF IPXFWFS XJUIOPOMJUFSBUFTPDJFUJFT
5IFBTTJHONFOUPGSFMBUFEMBOHVBHFTUPBMBOHVBHFGBNJMZJNQMJFTUIFFBS
MJFSFYJTUFODFPGBOBODFTUSBMMBOHVBHFGSPNXIJDIBMMNPEFSOMBOHVBHFTPG
UIFGBNJMZIBWFEFTDFOEFE5IFNPSFEJGGFSFOUJBUFEUIFTFEFTDFOEBOUMBO
HVBHFTBSF UIFMPOHFSUIFQFSJPEPGUJNFPOFNVTUBMMPXGPSUIFJSEFWFMPQ
NFOUUPIBWFUBLFOQMBDFUIFUJNFEFQUIIBTJNQPSUBOUDPOTFRVFODFTGPS
DVMUVSFIJTUPSZ
-JOHVJTUJDTDIPMBSTIBWFLOPXOGPSTPNFUJNFUIBUQIPOFUJD PSQIPOFNJD

BOENPSQIPMPHJDBMTJNJMBSJUJFTTPNFUJNFTFYJTUBNPOHVOSFMBUFEOFJHICPSJOH
MBOHVBHFTUPBOFYUFOUUIBUDPVMETDBSDFMZCFEVFUPDIBODF4VDITJNJMBSJUJFT
BSFJOEJDBUJWFPGBOFYUFOTJWFQFSJPEPGDVMUVSBMDPOUBDUCFUXFFOUIFSFTQFD
UJWFTPDJFUJFT BDJSDVNTUBODFUIFFUIOPMPHJTUNVTUUBLFJOUPBDDPVOU
*OUIFDPODMVEJOHSFNBSLTPGIJTNPOPHSBQI 4BQJSNBEFUIFQPJOUUIBU
BMUIPVHIEJSFDUFWJEFODFJTNVDIUPCFQSFGFSSFEUPJOGFSFOUJBMFWJEFODFJO
UIFTUVEZPGDVMUVSFIJTUPSZBOEUIFFTUBCMJTINFOUPGDVMUVSFTFRVFODFT BO
UISPQPMPHJTUTGSFRVFOUMZGBDFTJUVBUJPOTXIFSFEJSFDUFWJEFODFJTFJUIFSJO
TVGGJDJFOUPSDPNQMFUFMZMBDLJOH*OTVDIDBTFTJOGFSFOUJBMFWJEFODF MJOHVJTUJD
JOQBSUJDVMBS CFDPNFTJOWBMVBCMF

Summary and Conclusions


-JWJOHMBOHVBHFTDIBOHFTMPXMZCVUDPOTUBOUMZ5IF0ME&OHMJTIJTOPMPOHFS
JOUFMMJHJCMFUPTQFBLFSTPG.PEFSO&OHMJTI BOEFWFOXPSETUIBUSIZNFEJO
4IBLFTQFBSFT UJNF EP OPU BMXBZT SIZNF UPEBZ 5IF UFOEFODZ PG TPVOE
DIBOHFTUPCFSFHVMBSNBLFTJUQPTTJCMFUPSFDPOTUSVDUUIFBTTVNFEBODFTUSBM
MBOHVBHFPGEBVHIUFSMBOHVBHFT3FDPOTUSVDUJCMFXPSETIBWJOHUPEPXJUIUIF
OBUVSBMFOWJSPONFOUPGBQSFIJTUPSJDTPDJFUZGBDJMJUBUFEFUFSNJOJOHUIFMPDB
UJPOPGJUTBODFTUSBMIPNFMBOE'VSUIFSNPSF UIFSFDPOTUSVDUJPOPGQSPUPXPSET
NBZBMTPUISPXMJHIUPOGFBUVSFTPGBQSFIJTUPSJDDVMUVSFOPUEJTDPWFSBCMFCZ
PUIFSNFBOT'PSFYBNQMF UIFSFDPOTUSVDUJCJMJUZPGDFSUBJOLJOTIJQUFSNT TVDI
Summary and Conclusions 167

BTUIPTFGPSJOMBXT NBZQSPWJEFDMVFTUPQPTUNBSJUBMSFTJEFODFQSBDUJDFTPG
UIFQFPQMFXIPVTFEUIFN3FDPOTUSVDUJPOPGBOBODFTUSBMIPNFMBOEMPDB
UJPOBOEPUIFSQSPUPDVMUVSBMGFBUVSFTPOUIFCBTJTPGMJOHVJTUJDEBUBJTOPUBM
XBZTBTUBOEBSEQSPDFEVSF CVUXIFOUIFBSDIBFPMPHJDBMSFDPSEJTJOTVGGJDJFOU
PSMBDLJOH JUNBZCFUIFPOMZNFBOTPGQSPCJOHUIFQSFIJTUPSJDQBTU
8IFOMBOHVBHFTBSFDMBTTJGJFEHFOFUJDBMMZ UIPTFUIBUBSFSFMBUFECZWJSUVF
PGBDPNNPOPSJHJOBSFBTTJHOFEUPPOFMBOHVBHFGBNJMZ5IFPSJHJOBMDPO
DFQUPGBMBOHVBHFGBNJMZXBTDPOTFSWBUJWF SFRVJSJOHUIFSFMBUJPOTIJQTBNPOH
UIFNFNCFSMBOHVBHFTPGBGBNJMZUPCFDMPTFBOEXFMMEPDVNFOUFE5IFUFO
EFODZTJODFUIFTIBTCFFOUPHSPVQUPHFUIFSMBOHVBHFTUIBUBSFDPOTJE
FSFEUPCFNVDINPSFSFNPUFMZSFMBUFE4VDIMBOHVBHFTBSFTBJEUPDPOTUJUVUF
BQIZMVNPSFWFOBTVQFSQIZMVN PSNBDSPQIZMVN
5IFEJGGFSFODFCFUXFFO
UIFPMEFSDPOTFSWBUJWFVOJUPGMBOHVBHFGBNJMZBOEUIFOFXFSQIZMVNDBOCFTU
CFJMMVTUSBUFECZDPNQBSJOHOVNCFST5IFTFWFSBMIVOESFEMBOHVBHFGBNJMJFT
PGUIF/FX8PSMEBSFTBJEUPCFSFEVDJCMFUPPOMZUISFFTVQFSQIZMB
-JOHVJTUJDUZQPMPHZ POUIFPUIFSIBOE JTCBTFEPOFYBNJOJOHTJNJMBSJ
UJFTBNPOHMBOHVBHFTPUIFSUIBOUIPTFEVFUPBDPNNPOPSJHJO4DIPMBSTFO
HBHFEJOGJOEJOHDPNNPOGFBUVSFTPSBUUSJCVUFTJODSPTTMJOHVJTUJDEJWFSTJUZ
IBWFUBLFOWBSJPVTBQQSPBDIFTBTUIFZBUUFNQUUPBTTJHOUPBSFMBUJWFMZGFX
CBTJDUZQFTUIFNBOZMBOHVBHFTPGUIFXPSME
9

Languages in Va riation and


Languages in Contact

4USJDUMZTQFBLJOH UIFTQFFDIQBUUFSOPGPOFJOEJWJEVBMJTTPNFXIBUEJGGFS
FOUGSPNUIFTQFFDIQBUUFSOPGUIFOFYU FWFOUIPVHIUIFUXPTQFBLUIFTBNF
MBOHVBHF BOESFHJPOBMWBSJFUJFTPGMBOHVBHFEJGGFSGSPNFBDIPUIFSCZGFB
UVSFTPGWPDBCVMBSZ HSBNNBS BOEQSPOVODJBUJPO

Idiolects
5IJTJTXIZJUJTQPTTJCMFUPJEFOUJGZPWFSUIFUFMFQIPOFQFPQMFXFLOPXXFMM
XJUIPVUUIFJSIBWJOHUPTBZXIPUIFZBSFTJNJMBSMZ XFSFDPHOJ[FGBNJMJBSUFM
FWJTJPOOFXTDBTUFSTFWFOXIFOXFDBOOPUTFFUIFTDSFFO5IFSFDPHOJUJPOPG
JOEJWJEVBMTCZWPJDFBMPOFJTQPTTJCMFCFDBVTFPGUIFJSJEJPTZODSBUJDDPNCJOB
UJPOPGWPJDFRVBMJUZ QSPOVODJBUJPO HSBNNBUJDBMVTBHF BOEDIPJDFPGXPSET
7PJDFRVBMJUZ PSUJNCSF JTEFUFSNJOFECZUIFBOBUPNZPGUIFWPDBMUSBDU UIF
UPOHVF UIFOBTBMBOEPSBMDBWJUJFT UIFWPDBMDPSET UIFMBSZOY BOEPUIFSQBSUT

PWFSXIJDIUIFTQFBLFSIBTMJUUMFPSOPDPOUSPM0UIFSWPJDFGFBUVSFTGPSFY
BNQMF UFNQP MPVEOFTT BOEUPTPNFFYUFOUFWFOQJUDISBOHFDBOCFDPO
USPMMFEGBJSMZTJNQMZ#VUOPOFPGUIFTFGFBUVSFTPGBOJOEJWJEVBMTTQFFDIQBUUFSO
JTDPOTUBOU7PJDFRVBMJUZDIBOHFTXJUIBHFBTNVTDMFTBOEUJTTVFTEFUFSJPSBUF
BOEUIFEFOUJUJPOVOEFSHPFTNPEJGJDBUJPO0WFSBMJGFUJNF DIBOHFTUFOEUP
PDDVSJOUIFDIPJDFPGXPSET HSBNNBS BOEQSPOVODJBUJPOBTXFMM
"OJOEJWJEVBMTTQFFDIWBSJFUZJTSFGFSSFEUPBTBOJEJPMFDU "MNPTUBMMTQFBL
FSTNBLFVTFPGTFWFSBMJEJPMFDUT EFQFOEJOHPOUIFDJSDVNTUBODFTPGDPNNV
OJDBUJPO'PSFYBNQMF XIFOGBNJMZNFNCFSTUBMLUPFBDIPUIFS UIFJSTQFFDI

169
170 Chapter 9: Languages in Variation and Languages in Contact

IBCJUTUZQJDBMMZEJGGFSGSPNUIPTFBOZPOFPGUIFNXPVMEVTFJO TBZ BOJOUFS


WJFXXJUIBQSPTQFDUJWFFNQMPZFS5IFDPODFQUPGJEJPMFDUUIFSFGPSFSFGFSTUPB
WFSZTQFDJGJDQIFOPNFOPOUIFTQFFDIWBSJFUZVTFECZBQBSUJDVMBSJOEJWJEVBM

Dialects
0GUFO QFPQMFXIPMJWFJOUIFTBNFHFPHSBQIJDBSFB IBWFTJNJMBSPDDVQBUJPOT
PSIBWFUIFTBNFFEVDBUJPOPSFDPOPNJDTUBUVTTQFBLSFMBUJWFMZTJNJMBS JEJPMFDUT
DPNQBSFEUPUIPTFGSPNPUIFSHSPVQT5IFTFTIBSFEDIBSBDUFSJTUJDTNBZFO
UBJMTJNJMBSJUJFTJOWPDBCVMBSZ QSPOVODJBUJPO PSHSBNNBUJDBMGFBUVSFT8IFO
BMMUIFJEJPMFDUTPGBHSPVQPGTQFBLFSTIBWFFOPVHIJODPNNPOUPBQQFBSBU
MFBTUTVQFSGJDJBMMZBMJLF XFTBZUIFZCFMPOHUPUIFTBNFEJBMFDU5IFUFSNEJ
BMFDU UIFO JTBOBCTUSBDUJPO*USFGFSTUPBGPSNPGMBOHVBHFPSTQFFDIVTFECZ
NFNCFSTPGBSFHJPOBM FUIOJD PSTPDJBMHSPVQ%JBMFDUTUIBUBSFNVUVBMMZJO
UFMMJHJCMFCFMPOHUPUIFTBNFMBOHVBHF"MMMBOHVBHFTTQPLFOCZNPSFUIBOPOF
TNBMMIPNPHFOFPVTDPNNVOJUZBSFGPVOEUPDPOTJTUPGUXPPSNPSFEJBMFDUT
.VUVBMJOUFMMJHJCJMJUZ PGDPVSTF DBOWBSZBTUPEFHSFF*OUIFFBSMZT B
OVNCFSPGNFOBOEXPNFOGSPNFJHIUSFTFSWBUJPOTJO/FX:PSLBOE0O
UBSJPXFSFUFTUFEJOBOFYQFSJNFOUEFTJHOFEUPEFUFSNJOFXIJDIPGUIFJSMPDBM
EJBMFDUTXFSFNVUVBMMZJOUFMMJHJCMFBOEUIFSFGPSFEJBMFDUTPGPOFMBOHVBHF BOE
XIJDIXFSFOPUBOEUIFSFGPSFDPVMECFDMBTTJGJFEBTJOEJWJEVBMMBOHVBHFTPGUIF
*SPRVPJBOMBOHVBHFGBNJMZ&WFOUIPVHIUIFJOWFTUJHBUPSTBSSJWFEBUQFSDFOU
BHFTPGJOUFMMJHJCJMJUZCFUXFFOBOZUXPPGUIF*SPRVPJBOTQFFDIDPNNVOJUJFT
UIFRVFTUJPOPGXIFSFUIFCPVOEBSJFTMBZCFUXFFOJOUFMMJHJCJMJUZBOEVOJOUFM
MJHJCJMJUZSFNBJOFEVOSFTPMWFE*GUIFCPVOEBSJFTCFUXFFOMBOHVBHFBOEEJ
BMFDUIBECFFOESBXOBUQFSDFOUPGNVUVBMJOUFMMJHJCJMJUZ UIFSFXPVMEIBWF
CFFOGPVSEJGGFSFOUMBOHVBHFT PGXIJDIPOFXPVMEIBWFDPOTJTUFEPGUXPEJ
BMFDUTBOEBOPUIFSPGUISFF*GTFUBUQFSDFOU UIFSFXPVMEIBWFCFFOGJWF
MBOHVBHFT UXPPGXIJDIXPVMEIBWFDPOTJTUFEPGUXPEJBMFDUTFBDI
#FDBVTFJUJTTQPLFOJOTPNBOZEJGGFSFOUBSFBTUIFXPSMEPWFS &OHMJTIJT
QBSUJDVMBSMZEJWFSTJGJFEEJBMFDUBMMZ4QFBLFSTIPNFDPVOUSJFTNBZCFHVFTTFE
GSPNUIFJSQSPOVODJBUJPOBOEGSPNUIFVTFPGDFSUBJOXPSETUIBUBSFDIBSBD
UFSJTUJDPGTQFDJGJDWBSJFUJFTPG&OHMJTI'PSFYBNQMF JODMVEFEJOUIFWPDBCV
MBSZPG"VTUSBMJBOTJTCMVEHFS AMPBGFS TIJSLFSPG$BOBEJBOTUPCPPLPGG AUP
OPUJGZBOFNQMPZFSUIBUPOFJTOPUSFQPSUJOHGPSXPSLPGUIF*SJTITQBMQFFO
ASBTDBMPGUIF4DPUTDVUUZTBSL ATIPSU VOEFS)HBSNFOUBOEPGUIF#SJUJTIUP
LOPDLVQ AUPXBLFVQ TPNFPOF
BTCZLOPDLJOHPOUIFXJOEPX"TQFBLFS
Styles 171

PGBOZEJBMFDUPG"NFSJDBO&OHMJTIJTMJLFMZUPGJOEJURVJUFEJGGJDVMUUPVO
EFSTUBOEBDBCESJWFSJO-POEPOXIPTQFBLTDPDLOFZ UIFEJBMFDUPG-POEPOT
&BTU&OE FWFOUIPVHICPUITQFBLEJBMFDUTPGUIFTBNFMBOHVBHF
&OHMJTIXBTCSPVHIUUP/PSUI"NFSJDBEVSJOHUIFTFWFOUFFOUIDFOUVSZCZ
DPMPOJTUTGSPN&OHMBOEXIPTFUUMFEBMPOHUIF"UMBOUJDDPBTUGSPN.BJOFUP
(FPSHJB5IFMBOHVBHFPGUIFTFDPMPOJTUTDPOTJTUFEPGEJBMFDUTSFGMFDUJOHUIF
TPDJBMTUSBUJGJDBUJPOBOEHFPHSBQIJDEJWJTJPOPGUIFJSGPSNFSIPNFDPVOUSZ
5PEBZ EFTQJUFSFHJPOBMEJGGFSFODFT FTQFDJBMMZBMPOHUIF&BTU$PBTUBOEJOUIF
4PVUI
"NFSJDBO&OHMJTIFYIJCJUTBSFNBSLBCMFEFHSFFPGVOJGPSNJUZ)JT
UPSJDBMMZ UIJTVOJGPSNJUZSFTVMUFEGSPNUIFNJOHMJOHPGTFUUMFSTGSPNWBSJPVT
QBSUTPGUIF&BTUBTUIFZQVTIFEXFTUXBSETJODF8PSME8BS**JUIBTCFFOEVF
UPUIFFWFSJODSFBTJOHNPCJMJUZPG"NFSJDBOT5PEBZ GFXQFPQMFMJWFJOUIF
DPNNVOJUJFTJOXIJDIUIFZXFSFCPSONPTUNPWFGSPNPOFQMBDFUPBOPUIFS
XIFOUIFZDIBOHFKPCT NBSSZ PSSFUJSF/FWFSUIFMFTT DFSUBJOSFHJPOBMEJ
BMFDUTJOUIF6OJUFE4UBUFTBSFXFMMLOPXOBOESFBEJMZSFDPHOJ[BCMFXIFO
IFBSEGPSFYBNQMF UIPTFPG#PTUPO 7JSHJOJB PS5FYBT7PDBCVMBSZNBZCF
KVTUBTIFMQGVMJOJEFOUJGZJOHXIFSFPMEFSTQFBLFSTGSPNSVSBMBSFBTIBWFDPNF
GSPN'PSFYBNQMF UIFESBHPOGMZJTSFGFSSFEUPJONPTUPG7JSHJOJBBTTOBLF
EPDUPS JOTPVUIXFTUFSO1FOOTZMWBOJBBTTOBLFGFFEFS JOFBTUFSO/PSUI$BS
PMJOBBTNPTRVJUPIBXL JO/FX&OHMBOEBT EFWJMT
EBSOJOHOFFEMF JODPBTUBM
/FX+FSTFZBTTQJOEMF JOOPSUIFSO$BMJGPSOJBBTFBSTFXFS BOETPPO
5IFXBZJOEJWJEVBMTTQFBLWBSJFTOPUPOMZBDDPSEJOHUPUIFJSSFHJPOBMBOE
TPDJBMEJBMFDUTCVUBMTPBDDPSEJOHUPDPOUFYU5IFEJTUJODUJWFNBOOFSJOXIJDI
QFPQMFFYQSFTTUIFNTFMWFTJOBQBSUJDVMBSTJUVBUJPOJTSFGFSSFEUPBTTUZMF
4QFFDITUZMFTBSFUIVTDPNQBSBCMFUPTUZMFTPGESFTT0OFXPVMEGFFMPVUPG
QMBDFBOEVODPNGPSUBCMFHPJOHPOBIJLJOHUSJQJOGPSNBMBUUJSFPSBUUFOEJOH
BUSBEJUJPOBMXFEEJOHSFDFQUJPOJOTOFBLFST KFBOT BOEBTXFBUTIJSU4JNJ
MBSMZ BQFSTPOXIPNJHIUVTFUIFWVMHBSFYQSFTTJPOi*NQJTTFEwXIFOUBML
JOHXJUIGPSNFSTDIPPMNBUFTXPVMEQSPCBCMZTVCTUJUVUFUIFDPMMPRVJBMQISBTF
i*NNBEwVOEFSPUIFSDJSDVNTUBODFTBOEVTFTVDIXPSETBTiBOHSZwPSiBH
HSBWBUFEwVOEFSNPSFGPSNBMDPOEJUJPOT

Styles
4UZMJTUJDWBSJBUJPOTBSFOPUPOMZMFYJDBM CVUBMTPQIPOPMPHJDBM GPSJOTUBODF UIF
DBTVBMQSPOVODJBUJPOPGCVUUFS XJUIUIFGMBQ[] SBUIFSUIBOUIFEFOUBM<U>

NPSQIPMPHJDBM BTJOUIFDBTVBMMZTUZMFEi8IPBSFZPVUBLJOHUPMVODI wBT
172 Chapter 9: Languages in Variation and Languages in Contact

BHBJOTUUIFGPSNBMi8IPNBSFZPVUBLJOHUPMVODI w
BOETZOUBDUJD BTJO
i8BOOBFBUOPX wBTBHBJOTUi%PZPVXBOUUPFBUOPX w
"TUZMJTUJDPSEJ
BMFDUBMWBSJFUZPGTQFFDIUIBUEPFTOPUDBMMGPSUIOFHBUJWFSFBDUJPO JTVTFEPO
GPSNBMPDDBTJPOT BOEDBSSJFTTPDJBMQSFTUJHFJTDPOTJEFSFETUBOEBSEWBSJFUJFT
UIBUEPOPUNFBTVSFVQUPUIFTFOPSNTBSFSFGFSSFEUPBTOPOTUBOEBSEPSTVC
TUBOEBSE4UBOEBSE#SJUJTI&OHMJTI PGUFOSFGFSSFEUPBT3FDFJWFE4UBOEBSE
BOEJUTQSPOVODJBUJPOBT3FDFJWFE1SPOVODJBUJPO
JTVTFEBU&OHMJTIQVCMJD
TDIPPMT QSJWBUFTFDPOEBSZCPBSEJOHTDIPPMT
IFBSEEVSJOHSBEJPBOEUFMFWJ
TJPOOFXTDBTUT BOEVTFEXIFODJSDVNTUBODFTDBMMGPSBTFSJPVT GPSNBMBUUJ
UVEF TFSNPOT MFDUVSFT BOEUIFMJLF
*OMFTTGPSNBMTJUVBUJPOT UIFSFIBTCFFO
BOJODSFBTJOHUFOEFODZUPVTFBTUZMFUIBUEFWJBUFTGSPNPSGBMMTTIPSUPGUIF
TUBOEBSE*OGPSNBMJUZJOESFTT CFIBWJPS BOETQFFDIJTBTJHOPGUIFUJNFTCPUI
JOUIF6OJUFE4UBUFTBOEFMTFXIFSF
)PXNBOZEJGGFSFOUTUZMFTEPTQFBLFSTPG&OHMJTIVTF "DDPSEJOHUP.BS
UJO+PPT o
GJWFDMFBSMZEJTUJOHVJTIBCMFTUZMFTXFSFDIBSBDUFSJTUJD
PGIJTEJBMFDUPG"NFSJDBO&OHMJTI TQPLFOJOUIFFBTUDFOUSBM6OJUFE4UBUFT

IF UFSNFE UIFN GSP[FO  GPSNBM  DPOTVMUBUJWF  DBTVBM  BOE JOUJNBUF +PPT

5PEBZ WFSZGFXTQFBLFSTPG"NFSJDBO&OHMJTIFWFSVTFUIFGSP[FO
TUZMFFYDFQUQFSIBQTPDDBTJPOBMMZJOGPSNBMXSJUJOH5IFBTTVNQUJPOUIBUUIF
FYBDUOVNCFSPGTQFFDITUZMFTDBOCFEFUFSNJOFEGPSBMBOHVBHFTFSWJOHNJM
MJPOTPGTQFBLFSTEPFTOPUTFFNUPCFXBSSBOUFE/PUXPOBUJWFTQFBLFSTPG
&OHMJTIUBMLBMJLF BOEKVTUFYBDUMZXIBUVTFFBDIQFSTPONBLFTPGUIFWBSJ
PVTTUZMJTUJDGFBUVSFT SBOHJOHBMMUIFXBZGSPNBQPNQPVTGPSNBMJUZUPBOJO
UJNBUFPSFWFOWVMHBSJOGPSNBMJUZ JTVQUPUIFJOEJWJEVBMTQFBLFS

Language Contact
-BOHVBHFTNVTUIBWFCFFOJODPOUBDUBTMPOHBTUIFSFIBWFCFFOIVNBOCFJOHT
'SPNXIBUDBOCFBTDFSUBJOFEGSPNUIFDVSSFOUBOEIJTUPSJDBMFUIOPHSBQIJD
SFDPSE QFPQMFIBWFBMTPPGUFOCFFOJODMPTFQSPYJNJUZXJUIUIPTFXIPTQPLF
MBOHVBHFTUIBUXFSFNVUVBMMZVOJOUFMMJHJCMF5SBEF USBWFM NJHSBUJPO XBS JO
UFSNBSSJBHF BOEPUIFSOPOMJOHVJTUJDDBVTFTIBWFGPSDFEEJGGFSFOUMBOHVBHFTUP
DPNFJOUPDPOUBDUDPVOUMFTTUJNFTUISPVHIPVUIJTUPSZ8IFOUIJTPDDVST TFW
FSBMUIJOHTDBOIBQQFOPWFSUJNFMBOHVBHFTDBOEJF OFXMBOHVBHFTDBOEF
WFMPQ PSMBOHVBHFTJODPOUBDUDBOCFDPNFNJYFEJOWBSJPVTXBZT8FXJMMOPX
FYQMPSFTPNFPGUIFDPOTFRVFODFTPGNJYJOHBOETFFIPXJUDBOTPNFUJNFT
MFBEUPUIFEFWFMPQNFOUPGESBTUJDBMMZEJGGFSFOUMJOHVJTUJDTUSVDUVSFT
Language Contact 173

8IFOBOFXQIZTJDBMJUFNPSDPODFQUJTCPSSPXFEGSPNBOPUIFSDVMUVSF
UIFOBNFGPSUIBUOFXJUFNJOUIFEPOPSMBOHVBHFJTPGUFOKVTUEJSFDUMZUBLFO
PWFS'PSFYBNQMF )BXBJJBOHBWF&OHMJTIVLVMFMF#BOUV HVNCP$[FDI
QPMLB $BOUPOFTF XPL "SBCJD  BMHFCSB (FSNBO  QSFU[FM BOE .BMBZ  SJDF
QBEEZ0GDPVSTF &OHMJTIIBTDPOUSJCVUFEIVOESFETPGXPSETUPPUIFSMBO
HVBHFTBTXFMM BTXFFLFOE UP'SFODI CPZGSJFOE UP3VTTJBO BFSPCJDDMBTTFT UP
(FSNBO BOECFFGTUFBL UPNBOZMBOHVBHFT
5IJTFYDIBOHFDBOHPCPUIXBZT"TNPTUOBUJWF&OHMJTITQFBLFSTLOPX
NBOZXPSETPG'SFODIPSJHJOIBWFCFFOCPSSPXFEJOUPUIFMBOHVBHF*OSF
UVSOGPSMFXFFLFOE &OHMJTISFDFJWFESFOEF[WPVT BOEMJOHFSJF 0OFPGUIFSFB
TPOT GPS UIJT XBT UIF JOUSPEVDUJPO PG 0ME 'SFODI EVSJOH UIF /PSNBO
DPORVFTUPG&OHMBOEJO XIJDISFQMBDFE0ME&OHMJTIBTUIFMBOHVBHFPG
UIFSVMJOHDMBTTFTJO&OHMBOE BOEXIJDIIFMEQSPNJOFODFVOUJMXFMMJOUPUIF
GPVSUFFOUIBOEGJGUFFOUIDFOUVSJFT
%VSJOHUIFTFDFOUVSJFTPG'SFODIMJO
HVJTUJD EPNJOBODF  B MBSHF QSPQPSUJPO PG &OHMJTI WPDBCVMBSZ ESBTUJDBMMZ
DIBOHFE4PNFXPSETEJTBQQFBSFE PUIFSTBDRVJSFEEJGGFSFOUNFBOJOHT'PS
FYBNQMF DPOTJEFSUIFXPSETJOUIJTUBCMF

.PEFSO 0ME .PEFSO .PEFSO 0ME .PEFSO


&OHMJTI &OHMJTI (FSNBO &OHMJTI 'SFODI 'SFODI
DPX D ,VI CFFG CPFG CPFVG
DBMG DFBMG ,BMC WFBM WFFM WFBV
TXJOF TXkO 4DIXFJO QPSL QPSD QPSD
TIFFQ TD[BQ 4DIBG NVUUPO NPUPO NPVUPO
DIJDLFO DJDFO ,LFO QPVMUSZ QPVMFUSJF WPMBJMMF
EFFS E[PS 5JFS WFOJTPO WFOFTPVO WFOBJTPO

)FSFXFTFFUXPDPMVNOTPG.PEFSO&OHMJTIUFSNTJOCPMEDPX DBMG
TXJOF TIFFQ DIJDLFO BOEEFFSPOUIFMFGU GPMMPXFECZ0ME&OHMJTIBOE(FS
NBOFRVJWBMFOUT
BOECFFG WFBM QPSL NVUUPO QPVMUSZ BOEWFOJTPO GPM
MPXFE CZ UIFJS 0ME 'SFODI  BOE NPEFSO 'SFODI FRVJWBMFOUT
 *O CPUI
JOTUBODFT JUJTGBJSMZFBTZUPTFFUIFSFMBUJPOTIJQT FH iDPXwBOED FUD

8IBUBSFUIFDPOOFDUJPOTCFUXFFOUIFTFUXPTFUTPG.PEFSO&OHMJTIUFSNT
5IFDPMVNOPOUIFMFGUOBNFTUIFMJWFBOJNBM5IFDPMVNOJOUIFNJEEMFMB
CFMTUIFGPPEEFSJWFEGSPNUIBUBOJNBM FH iCFFG wGSPNBiDPXw
8FNJHIU
TBZUIBUUIF"OHMP4BYPOUFSNTCFDBNFSFTUSJDUFEGPSUIFOBNFTPGBOJNBMT
BOEUIFNPSFQSFTUJHJPVT'SFODIUFSNTXFSFBQQMJFEUPUIFDPPLFEBOEQSF
QBSFEBOJNBMCSPVHIUJOTJEFUIFIPVTF +BDLTPOBOE"NWFMB

174 Chapter 9: Languages in Variation and Languages in Contact

Pidgins
"DPNNPOXBZJOXIJDIJOEJWJEVBMTBOEHSPVQTJOUFSBDUBDSPTTMBOHVBHF
CPVOEBSJFTJTCZNFBOTPGBQJEHJO5ZQJDBMMZ BQJEHJOPSJHJOBUFTXIFO
TQFBLFSTPGUXPPSNPSFNVUVBMMZVOJOUFMMJHJCMFMBOHVBHFTEFWFMPQBOFFEUP
DPNNVOJDBUFXJUIFBDIPUIFSGPSDFSUBJOMJNJUFEPSTQFDJBMJ[FEQVSQPTFT
FTQFDJBMMZUSBEF#FDBVTFQJEHJOTIBWFBNVDIOBSSPXFSSBOHFPGGVODUJPOT
UIBOUIFMBOHVBHFTGPSXIJDIUIFZTVCTUJUVUF UIFZQPTTFTTBMJNJUFEWPDBCV
MBSZ BOECFDBVTFUIFZOFFEUPCFMFBSOFESBQJEMZGPSUIFTBLFPGFGGJDJFODZ
UIFZIBWFBTVCTUBOUJBMMZSFEVDFEHSBNNBUJDBMTUSVDUVSF'SPNBTPDJPDVM
UVSBMQFSTQFDUJWF BOJNQPSUBOUDIBSBDUFSJTUJDPGBQJEHJOJTUIBUJUEPFTOPU
TFSWFBTUIFOBUJWF PSGJSTU MBOHVBHFPGBOZQBSUJDVMBSHSPVQ
"QJEHJOJTOPUUIFSFTVMUPGUIFTBNFLJOEPGEFWFMPQNFOUUSVFMBOHVBHFT
BSFTVCKFDUUP*UUFOETUPDPNFBCPVUTVEEFOMZ BTUIFOFFEBSJTFT BOEDFBTFT
UPFYJTUXIFOOPMPOHFSDBMMFEVQPOUPQFSGPSNJUTPSJHJOBMGVODUJPO*UNBZ
MBTUBTMJUUMFBTBEP[FOPSTPZFBSTPOMZJOGSFRVFOUMZEPFTJUPVUMBTUBDFO
UVSZ*OJUTQIPOPMPHZBOENPSQIPMPHZ BQJEHJOJTJOWBSJBCMZTJNQMFSUIBO
UIFGJSTUMBOHVBHFTPGUIPTFXIPVTFJU BOEUIFCVMLPGJUTMFYJDPOJTCBTFE
PO PSEFSJWFEGSPN POFPGUIFMBOHVBHFTJODPOUBDU
"MUIPVHIDVTUPNBSJMZBTTPDJBUFEXJUI&VSPQFBODPMPOJBMJTN QJEHJOTIBWF
EFWFMPQFEXIFOFWFSTQFBLFSTPGEJGGFSFOUMBOHVBHFTIBWFCFFOJOSFHVMBSCVU
MJNJUFEDPOUBDU"NPOHUIFFYBNQMFTUIBUBCPVOEBSFUIF&OHMJTICBTFE$IJOB
$PBTU1JEHJOUIBUNBZIBWFPSJHJOBUFEBTFBSMZBTUIFTFWFOUFFOUIDFOUVSZCVU
CFDBNFFTQFDJBMMZXJEFTQSFBEEVSJOHUIFDPVSTFPGUIFOJOFUFFOUIUIF&OHMJTI
CBTFE.BPSJ1JEHJODVSSFOUEVSJOHUIFFBSMZZFBSTPG#SJUJTIDPMPOJ[BUJPOPG
/FX;FBMBOE5SBEFS/BWBKP UIF/BWBKPCBTFEQJEHJOVTFECZUSBEFSTJOUIF
4PVUIXFTUBOEUIFWBSJPVT$POHPQJEHJOTUIBUGBDJMJUBUFDPOUBDUTBNPOHUIF
TQFBLFSTPGBWBSJFUZPG"GSJDBOMBOHVBHFTVTFEJOUIF$POHP3JWFSCBTJO3F
GMFDUJOHUIFJNQBDUPG&VSPQFBODPMPOJBMJTNEVSJOHUIFFJHIUFFOUIBOEOJOF
UFFOUIDFOUVSJFT NBOZPGUIFGPSNFSQJEHJOTBTXFMMBTUIPTFTUJMMJOFYJTUFODF
BSF&OHMJTI 'SFODI 4QBOJTI 1PSUVHVFTF PS%VUDICBTFE
"HPPEJMMVTUSBUJPOPGUIFPSJHJO TVDDFTTJPO BOEEFNJTFPGQJEHJOTDBOCF
ESBXOGSPNSFDFOU7JFUOBNFTFIJTUPSZ8IFO7JFUOBNXBTSVMFECZUIF'SFODI
BTQBSUPG*OEPDIJOB B'SFODICBTFEQJEHJOXBTVTFECZUIPTF'SFODIBOE7JFU
OBNFTFXIPMBDLFEDPNNBOEPGUIFPUIFSTMBOHVBHF"GUFSUIFEFGFBUPGUIF
'SFODIBU%JFO#JFO1IVJO BOEUIFFWBDVBUJPOPG'SFODIGPSDFTGSPN
7JFUOBNUXPZFBSTMBUFS UIFQJEHJOXBTOPMPOHFSOFFEFEBOECFDBNFBMNPTU
Pidgins 175

FYUJODU8JUIUIFJOUSPEVDUJPOPG64DPNCBUGPSDFTJOUPUIF3FQVCMJDPG7JFU
OBNJOUIFFBSMZT BO&OHMJTICBTFEQJEHJOSBQJEMZEFWFMPQFEUPBTTVNF
UIFSPMFPGJUT'SFODICBTFEQSFEFDFTTPS"GUFSUIF64TPMEJFSTXFSFXJUIESBXO
JO BOEQPMJUJDBMFWFOUTJOCSPVHIUUIFJOGMVFODFPGUIF6OJUFE4UBUFT
JO7JFUOBNUPBOBCSVQUFOE UIFOFXQJEHJO UPP BMMCVUEJTBQQFBSFE
"MUIPVHIJUJTUSVFUIBUQJEHJOTDBOCFTJNQMJGJFEWFSTJPOTPGBOZMBOHVBHF
UIFNPTUDPNNPOBSFUIPTFCBTFEPO&OHMJTI5IFSFBTPOGPSUIJTJTUIFXJEF
TQSFBEDPOUBDUUIBU&OHMJTITQFBLJOHQFPQMFIBWFIBEXJUIOPO8FTUFSOOB
UJPOT5IF#SJUJTI&NQJSFOPUPOMZTQSFBEUIF6OJPO+BDL CVUBMTPJUTMBOHVBHF
PWFSNVDIPGUIFXPSME5IVT &OHMJTICBTFEQJEHJOTXFSFGPVOEGSPNUIF
DPBTUTPG"GSJDBUPUIF/FX8PSMEUPUIF4PVUI1BDJGJD'PSFYBNQMF IFSFJT
BOFYBNQMFPGUIFGJSTUMJOFTPG4IBLFTQFBSFT+VMJVT$BFTBS "DU 4DFOF
JO
.FMBOFTJBO5PL1JTJODPNQBSFEUPUIFPSJHJOBM&OHMJTI .VSQIZ


1SFO NBOCPMPOH3PN 8BOUPL IBSJNOBV


.JLBNUBTPMMPOHQMBOUJN,BFTBS.JOPLFOCFJUFOMPOHFO

'SJFOET 3PNBOT DPVOUSZNFO MFOENFZPVSFBST


*DPNFUPCVSZ$BFTBS OPUUPQSBJTFIJN

8FDBOTFFIFSFNBOZPGUIFUZQJDBMEFWJDFTQJEHJOT BOEMBUFSDSFPMFT

VTFUIBUBMMPXUIFNUPDPNNVOJDBUFFGGFDUJWFMZXJUIBMJNJUFETFUPGHSBN
NBUJDBMBOEMFYJDBMSFTPVSDFT8PSETTVDIBTQSFO NJ BOELBN BSFTJNQMZ
OBUJWJ[FEGPSNTPG&OHMJTIiGSJFOE wiNF wBOEiDPNFwi3PNBOTwDPNFTPVU
BTNBOCPMPOH3PN MJU iNBONFOCFMPOH JOH
UP3PNFw
$PVOUSZNFOJT
8BOUPLUIPTFPGVTXIPBMMTQFBLiPOFUBMLw5IPVHIiMFOENFZPVSFBSTw
MPTFTTPNFPGJUTQPXFSXIFOSFOEFSFEBTIBSJNOBV iIFBSFNOPXw
JUTUJMM
NBLFTJUTQPJOUCVUQMBOUJN iQMBOUFNw
NFBOJOHiCVSZwJTBMNPTUBQPFUJD
NFUBQIPS5IFQJEHJOUBTPM iUIBUTBMMw
BDUTBTBDPOKVODUJPO TVDIBTiCVUw

PSBEWFSC TVDIBTiPOMZw
5IFXPSEOPLFO iOPDBOw
JTBWFSCBMOFHBUJWF
BVYJMJBSZ5IFSFBSFOPJOGMFDUJPOT DBTFNBSLFST PSUFOTFTJOQJEHJO UIFSF
GPSFDFSUBJOXPSETNVTUEPBNVMUJQMJDJUZPGUBTLT0ODFTVDIXPSEJTMPOH5IJT
XPSETFSWFTNBOZVTFT BTBQSFQPTJUJPO iUP wiBU wiXJUI wiVOEFSw
BDPN
QBSBUJWFNBSLFS iUIBOw
JOEJSFDUPCKFDUTJHO PSBOJOEJDBUJPOPGEVSB
UJPO'PSFYBNQMF MVLMVLMPOH MJUiMPPLMPPLMPOHw
DBONFBOUPTFFL UP
XBUDI UPMPPLGPS UPUBLFDBSFPG PSUPQSPUFDU#FUFO PSCFJUFO JTiQSBZFS wBOE
CFJUFOMPOHFO iQSBZFSCFMPOHFNw
JTBXBZPGTBZJOHiQSBJTFw
176 Chapter 9: Languages in Variation and Languages in Contact

"MUIPVHIUIFZDIBSBDUFSJTUJDBMMZMBDLJOGMFDUJPOBOEQPTTFTTBMJNJUFEWP
DBCVMBSZ QJEHJOTIBWFBTUSVDUVSFPGUIFJSPXOBOESFBEJMZBEBQUUPDIBOHJOH
DJSDVNTUBODFT5IFTUSVDUVSBMTJNQMJDJUZPGQJEHJOTJTUPUIFJSBEWBOUBHF BM
MPXJOHDSPTTDVMUVSBMDPNNVOJDBUJPOXJUIBNJOJNVNPGFGGPSU5IFSFEVD
UJPO PS UPUBM FMJNJOBUJPO PG JOGMFDUJPOBM BGGJYFT  UIF VTF PG NPSQIFNJD
SFQFUJUJPOGPSJOUFOTJGJDBUJPO BOETJNQMJGJFETZOUBDUJDDPOTUSVDUJPOTNBLFHF
PHSBQIJDBMMZTFQBSBUFEQJEHJOTMPPLSFNBSLBCMZTJNJMBSTPNVDITPUIBU
TPNFTDIPMBSTIBWFBSHVFEUIBUJOUIFJSCBTJDTUSVDUVSFBMMNPEFSOBOESFDFOU
QJEHJOTNBZXFMMHPCBDLUPTPNFTVDIQSPUPQJEHJOBT4BCJS UIFPSJHJOBMMJO
HVB GSBODB  B NFEJFWBM QJEHJO CBTFE PO 3PNBODF MBOHVBHFT BOE VTFE JO
.FEJUFSSBOFBOQPSUTVOUJMUIFCFHJOOJOHPGUIFMBTUDFOUVSZ"TTJNJMBSBTQJE
HJOTNBZCFTUSVDUVSBMMZ UIPVHI UIFZEJGGFSBDDPSEJOHUPUIFMBOHVBHFTUIBU
IBWFMFYJGJFEUIFN UIBUJT TVQQMJFEUIFNXJUIUIFCVMLPGUIFJSXPSETUPDL

'JOBMMZ JUJTJNQPSUBOUUPSFNFNCFSUIBUQJEHJOTBSFOPUiCSPLFOwMBO
HVBHFT BLJOEPGiQSJNJUJWFwTQFFDIPSNBOJGFTUBUJPOTPGiDPSSVQUwUIPVHIU
QSPDFTTFTPGTJNQMFQFPQMFT5IFZBSFRVJUFUIFPQQPTJUFiQJEHJOTBSFEFNPO
TUSBCMZDSFBUJWFBEBQUBUJPOTPGOBUVSBMMBOHVBHFT XJUIBTUSVDUVSFBOESVMFT
PGUIFJSPXO"MPOHXJUIDSFPMFT UIFZBSFFWJEFODFPGBGVOEBNFOUBMQSPDFTT
PGMJOHVJTUJDDIBOHF... <BOE>UIFZQSPWJEFUIFDMFBSFTUFWJEFODFPGMBOHVBHF
CFJOHDSFBUFEBOETIBQFECZTPDJFUZGPSJUTPXOFOET BTQFPQMFBEBQUUPOFX
TPDJBMDJSDVNTUBODFTw $SZTUBM


From Pidgins to Creoles


5IFQSPDFTTPGHSBNNBUJDBMBOEMFYJDBMSFEVDUJPOPGBMBOHVBHFTVDIBT&OH
MJTIPS/BWBKPUPBQJEHJO SFGFSSFEUPBTQJEHJOJ[BUJPO SFGMFDUTBMJNJUBUJPO
POGVODUJPOTUIFQJEHJOJTFYQFDUFEUPTFSWF#VUJUXPVMECFXSPOHUPBT
TVNFUIBUUIFSPMFQJEHJOTBSFEFTUJOFEUPQMBZJTJOWBSJBCMZIVNCMF*ONBOZ
JOTUBODFT BQJEHJOIBTDPNFUPCFVTFECZBHSPXJOHOVNCFSPGQFPQMFPWFS
BOJODSFBTJOHMZMBSHFBSFB FTQFDJBMMZXIFOOPOFPGUIFOBUJWFMBOHVBHFTDBO
DMBJNQSJPSJUZCZWJSUVFPGQPQVMBUJPOTJ[FPSUIFQSFTUJHFPGBXSJUUFOUSBEJ
UJPO*OTIPSU BQJEHJONBZCFDPNFXJEFMZSFDPHOJ[FEBOEEFQFOEFEVQPO
BTBOJOEJTQFOTBCMFNFBOTPGJOUFSFUIOJDDPNNVOJDBUJPO6OEFSTVDIDJS
DVNTUBODFT UIFHSPXJOHEFNBOETQMBDFEPOUIFQJEHJODBVTFBOFYQBOTJPO
PG JUT WPDBCVMBSZ BOE FMBCPSBUJPO PG JUT TZOUBYB QSPDFTT PQQPTJUF UP
QJEHJOJ[BUJPO*UNBZCFGVSOJTIFEXJUIBXSJUJOHTZTUFNBOEVTFEJOUIF
NBTTNFEJB JUNBZBDRVJSFBTFNJPGGJDJBMTUBUVT BOEJUNBZFWFOCFDPNFUIF
From Pidgins to Creoles 177

NPUIFSUPOHVFPGUIPTFDIJMESFOJOXIPTFGBNJMJFTJUJTIBCJUVBMMZVTFE5IJT
QSPDFTTPGFYQBOTJPOPGBQJEHJOUPPUIFSMBOHVBHFGVODUJPOTJTSFGFSSFEUPBT
DSFPMJ[BUJPO BOEUIFFOESFTVMUJTUFSNFEBDSFPMF"DSFPMF UIFO JTBQJE
HJOUIBUIBTCFDPNFUIFGJSTUMBOHVBHFPGBTQFFDIDPNNVOJUZ
"NPOHUIFNBOZQMBDFTJOUIFXPSMEXIFSFUIJTQSPDFTTIBTUBLFOQMBDF
JT1BQVB/FX(VJOFB5IFSFXIBUPODFXBTBO&OHMJTICBTFEQJEHJOPGMJN
JUFEVUJMJUZIBTCFFOFMFWBUFEPWFSUIFQBTUTFWFSBMEFDBEFTUPPOFPGUIFPG
GJDJBMMBOHVBHFTPGUIFOPXJOEFQFOEFOUDPVOUSZ,OPXOBT/FP.FMBOFTJBO
PS5PL1JTJO GSPNUBMLQJEHJO
JUIBTCFDPNFUIFMJOHVBGSBODBPGBCPVU
NJMMJPOQFPQMFXIPTQFBLTPNFMBOHVBHFTOBUJWFUP1BQVB/FX(VJOFB
BOEUIFGJSTUMBOHVBHFPGTPNF IPVTFIPMET .IMIVTMFS

5PL1JTJOIBTBDRVJSFETVDIQSFTUJHFUIBUNPSFQBSMJBNFOUBSZEFCBUFTBSF
OPXDPOEVDUFEJOJUUIBOJO&OHMJTI BOENPTUSFDFOUMZJUIBTCFFOIFBSE
FWFOJOUIFDPVOUSZTVOJWFSTJUZMFDUVSFIBMMT
"UMFBTUUISFFGPVSUITPGUIF5PL1JTJOWPDBCVMBSZEFSJWFTGSPN&OHMJTI
TPNFQFSDFOUGSPNJOEJHFOPVT/FX(VJOFBMBOHVBHFT FTQFDJBMMZ5PMBJ
,VBOVB
BOEUIFSFNBJOEFSGSPNWBSJPVTPUIFSMBOHVBHFT JODMVEJOH(FS
NBO'PSFYBNQMF JOUIFTJOHVMBS 5PL1JTJOQFSTPOBMQSPOPVOTNJ A* NF ZV
AZPV BOEFN AIF IJNTIF IFSJUSFNBJOUIFTBNFXIFUIFSUIFZTFSWFBT
TVCKFDUPSPCKFDU*OUIFGJSTUQFSTPOQMVSBM UIFEJTUJODUJPOJTNBEFCFUXFFO
UIFJODMVTJWFGPSNZVNJ AXF VT JODMVEJOHUIFIFBSFS
BOEUIFFYDMVTJWFGPSN
NJQFMB AXF VT FYDMVEJOHUIFIFBSFS
BOEJOBMMUISFFQFSTPOTPGUIFQMVSBM
UIFFYBDUOVNCFS VQUPUISFF
JTVTVBMMZJOEJDBUFE BTJOZVUVQFMB AZPVUXP
PSZVUSJQFMB AZPVUISFFUIFGPSNPM GPSUIFUIJSEQFSTPOQMVSBMPDDVSTJOBE
EJUJPOUPUIFFYQFDUFEGPSN1PTTFTTJPOJTJOEJDBUFECZCJMPOH UIFQSFEJDBUF
JTDPNNPOMZNBSLFECZUIFQBSUJDMFJ BOEUSBOTJUJWFWFSCTIBWFUIFTVGGJY
JN XIJDIBMTPDPOWFSUTBEKFDUJWFTJOUPDBVTBUJWFWFSCGPSNT"DDPSEJOHMZ
.JLVLJNLBJLBJCJMPOHNJ USBOTMBUFTBTA*DPPLNZGPPE 8BOQFMBMFLCJMPOH
NJJCSVL BTA0OFPGNZMFHTJTCSPLFO &NJLSPTJNNJ BTA)FTDPMEFENF BOE
0MJLBQTBJUJNCFOTJO BTA5IFZTQJMMFEUIFHBTPMJOF
"/FX(VJOFBSPBETBGFUZIBOECPPL 3PU4FGUJ-POH/JVHJOJ
XIJDIJO
TUSVDUTSFBEFSTJOUISFFMBOHVBHFT DPOUBJOTUIFGPMMPXJOH&OHMJTIQBSBHSBQI
BOEUIF5PL1JTJOFRVJWBMFOU $SZTUBM


*GZPVIBWFBOBDDJEFOU HFUUIFPUIFSESJWFSTOVNCFS JGQPTTJCMF HFUIJT


OBNFBOEBEESFTTUPP BOESFQPSUJUUPUIFQPMJDF%POUGJHIUPSBCVTF
IJN
178 Chapter 9: Languages in Variation and Languages in Contact

4BQPTZVLJTJNCBHBSBQ LJTJNOBNCBCJMPOHOBSBQFMBESBJWB TBQPTZVLFO


LJTJNOBJNCJMPOHFNOBBESFTUV OBUPLJNQPMJTMPOHFN/PLFOQBJUJNFN
PUPLOPHVUMPOHFN

&WFOUIPVHIDSFPMFTBSFMBOHVBHFTJOUIFJSPXOSJHIUBOEIBWFJOTPNFJO
TUBODFTGPVOEUIFJSXBZJOUPUIFNBTTNFEJBBTXFMMBTJOUPQSJNBSZTDIPPMJO
TUSVDUJPO  UIFZ OFWFSUIFMFTT UFOE UP DBSSZ MFTT QSFTUJHF UIBO UIF TUBOEBSE
&VSPQFBOMBOHVBHFTCFTJEFXIJDIUIFZBSFVTFEBOEGSPNXIJDIUIFZEFSJWF
UIFCVMLPGUIFJSWPDBCVMBSZ$POTFRVFOUMZ TPNFTQFBLFSTPGDSFPMFT FTQF
DJBMMZUIPTFXIPMJWFJODJUJFTBOEIPMETFNJQSPGFTTJPOBMKPCT USZUPiJNQSPWFw
UIFJSTQFFDICZVTJOHUIFTUBOEBSEMBOHVBHFBTBNPEFM8IFOUIJTIBQQFOT
DSFPMFTVOEFSHPBDIBOHF NPWJOHJOUIFEJSFDUJPOPGUIFTUBOEBSEMBOHVBHF
JOBQSPDFTTLOPXOBTEFDSFPMJ[BUJPO 4VDIBDIBOHFJTDVSSFOUMZUBLJOHQMBDF
GPSFYBNQMF JO&OHMJTICBTFE+BNBJDBO$SFPMF HJWJOHSJTFUPBDPOUJOVVN
SBOHJOHGSPNUIFCBTJMFDU UIFWBSJFUZNPTUEJGGFSFOUJBUFEGSPNUIFTUBOEBSE
BOEVTFECZNFNCFSTPGUIFSVSBMXPSLJOHDMBTT UPUIFBDSPMFDU BOVSCBO
WBSJFUZBQQSPBDIJOHUIFTUBOEBSEBOEUIFSFGPSFTFFOBTNPSFQSFTUJHJPVT
5IFHSFBUNBKPSJUZPGQJEHJOTBOEDSFPMFTBSFGPVOEJODPBTUBMBSFBTPGUIF
FRVBUPSJBMCFMUXIFSFDPOUBDUTCFUXFFOTQFBLFSTPGEJGGFSFOUMBOHVBHFT JO
DMVEJOHUIPTFPGGPSNFS&VSPQFBODPMPOJBMJTUOBUJPOT IBWFCFFOBDPNNPO
PDDVSSFODFCFDBVTFPGUSBEF4PNFSFDFOUQJEHJOT IPXFWFS IBWFCFFOEF
WFMPQJOH VOEFS EJGGFSFOU DJSDVNTUBODFTGPS FYBNQMF  UIF (BTUBSCFJUFS
%FVUTDITQPLFOJOUIF'FEFSBM3FQVCMJDPG(FSNBOZCZTFWFSBMNJMMJPOHVFTU
XPSLFSTGSPNTPVUIFSOBOETPVUIFBTUFSO&VSPQF
1JEHJOTBOEDSFPMFTIBWFSFDFJWFEUIFTFSJPVTBUUFOUJPOUIFZEFTFSWFPOMZ
EVSJOHUIFGPVSUIRVBSUFSPGUIFMBTUDFOUVSZ4PNFPGUIFNPTUTUJNVMBUJOH
CVUBMTPDPOUSPWFSTJBM
DPOUSJCVUJPOTUPUIFJSTUVEZXFSFNBEFCZ%FSFL
#JDLFSUPO0OFJNQPSUBOUDPODFQUCBTFEPOUIFTUVEZPGDSFPMFTJT#JDLFSUPOT
CJPQSPHSBN IZQPUIFTJT 
 UIBU JT  UIF BTTVNQUJPO UIBU UIF IVNBO
TQFDJFTNVTUIBWFBCJPMPHJDBMMZJOOBUFDBQBDJUZGPSMBOHVBHF*OTVQQPSUPG
UIJTIZQPUIFTJT #JDLFSUPOMJOLFEQJEHJOTBOEDSFPMFTXJUIDIJMESFOTMBOHVBHF
BDRVJTJUJPOBOEMBOHVBHFPSJHJOT#FDBVTFUIFTZOUBYPG)BXBJJBO$SFPMF
&OHMJTI XIJDI#JDLFSUPOLOFXXFMM TIBSFTNBOZGFBUVSFTJODPNNPOXJUI
PUIFSDSFPMFMBOHVBHFT UIFDPHOJUJWFTUSBUFHJFTGPSEFSJWJOHDSFPMFTGSPNQJE
HJOTBSFTPNVDIBMJLFBTUPCFQBSUPGUIFIVNBOTQFDJFTTQFDJGJDFOEPX
NFOU'VSUIFSNPSF UIFJOOBUFDBQBDJUJFTUIBUFOBCMFDIJMESFOUPMFBSOB
OBUJWFMBOHVBHFBSFBMTPIFMQGVMUPDIJMESFOBTUIFZFYQBOEBQJEHJOJOUPB
From Pidgins to Creoles 179

B O X 9 . 1 C R E O L I Z AT I O N O F T O K P I S I N

World War II greatly accelerated the spread of Tok Pisin within New
Guinea. New Guinean males who were pressed into service by the various
foreign armies had only Tok Pisin as a common language. In addition, there
were extensive movements of indigenous populations during the war and
Tok Pisin spread with them. Following the war, the traditional state of war-
fare or hostility between indigenous groups in Papua New Guinea was al-
most completely eliminated as a result of the continuous efforts of
missionaries and the pacification programs of various foreign governments.
This has enabled people to leave their native groups without the fear of
being killed. Mobility is increasing considerably as transportation improves,
and many people are leaving their home villages to seek employment and
excitement in urban areas. When groups mix in this way, Tok Pisin is usu-
ally the only means of communication, except where Hiri Motu or English
is spoken, and thus Tok Pisin is commonly used in public urban life in New
Guinea. There are an increasing number of marriages between men and
women from different linguistic groups. When such couples live in towns
away from the home group of either partner they generally speak only Tok
Pisin in the home, and their children acquire Tok Pisin as a native language.
Such young native speakers now number in the thousands.
from Ellen B. Woolford, Aspects of Tok Pisin Grammar (1979), 3

DSFPMF"DDPSEJOHUP#JDLFSUPO TPNFCBTJDDPHOJUJWFEJTUJODUJPOT TVDIBT


TQFDJGJD WFSTVTHFOFSBM BOETUBUF WFSTVTQSPDFTT
NVTUIBWFCFFOFTUBCMJTIFE
QSJPSUPUIFIPNJOJ[BUJPOQSPDFTT EFWFMPQNFOUPGIVNBODIBSBDUFSJTUJDT

BOEUIFTFEJTUJODUJPOTBSFFWJEFOUJOUIFTUSVDUVSFPGDSFPMFTBTXFMMBTJOUIF
FBSMJFTUTUBHFTPGMBOHVBHFBDRVJTJUJPO
4PNFPGUIFSFDFOUSFTFBSDIDPODFSOJOHQJEHJOTBOEDSFPMFTIBTSFTVMUFE
JOUIFiCMVSSJOHwPGUIFTFUXPUZQFTPGTQFFDI +PVSEBO
*UJTOPXBD
DFQUFEUIBUQJEHJOBOEDSFPMFWBSJFUJFTPGBQBSUJDVMBSMBOHVBHFDBOFYJTUTJEF
CZTJEFBOEUIBUBDSFPMFDBOCFDPNFUIFNBJOMBOHVBHFPGBTQFFDIDPN
NVOJUZXJUIPVUCFDPNJOHJUTOBUJWFMBOHVBHF*OPUIFSSFTQFDUT IPXFWFS
PVSVOEFSTUBOEJOHPGQJEHJOTBOEDSFPMFTIBTJNQSPWFECFDBVTFHSFBUFSBU
UFOUJPOJTCFJOHQBJEUPUIFIJTUPSJDBMBOETPDJPFDPOPNJDDPOUFYUTJOXIJDI
QJEHJOTBOEDSFPMFTDPNFJOUPCFJOH TFF#PY

180 Chapter 9: Languages in Variation and Languages in Contact

Language Contact in the Contemporary World


*OTQJUFPGUIFEPNJOBODFPG&OHMJTI PSUIFFGGFDUTPGFMFDUSPOJDNBTTNFEJB
BOEUIFJOUFSOFUXIJDIBSFTVQQPTFEMZEJMVUJOHTPNFPGUIFMJOHVJTUJDEJGGFS
FODFTBNPOHVT MBOHVBHFTBSFTUJMMJODPOUBDUJOWFSZDPNQMFYXBZT"TBO
FYBNQMFPGXIBUNJHIUIBQQFOJODVSSFOUDPOUBDUTJUVBUJPOT XFDBODPO
TJEFS+BQBOFTF&OHMJTIIBTCFFOWFSZNVDIBQSFTFODFJOUIFDPVOUSZFWFS
TJODFB+BQBOFTFJOGBUVBUJPOXJUI&OHMJTICFHBOJOUIFOJOFUFFOUIDFOUVSZ
"MNPTUFWFSZ+BQBOFTFUBLFTTPNFTJYZFBSTPGGPSNBM&OHMJTIJOTUSVDUJPOJO
TDIPPM ZFU+BQBOJTIBSEMZBCJMJOHVBMOBUJPO*OGBDU +BQBOFTFDSJUJDTBOE
&OHMJTIMBOHVBHFJOTUSVDUPSTBMJLFPGUFOMBNFOUUIFQPPS&OHMJTIBCJMJUJFTPG
NPTU+BQBOFTF FTQFDJBMMZDPOWFSTBUJPOBMMZ
/POFUIFMFTT UIFOVNCFSPG&OHMJTIMPBOXPSETJTFYUFOTJWF&TUJNBUFT
PGUIFOVNCFSPGDPNNPOMZ VTFEMPBOXPSETJONPEFSO+BQBOFTFSBOHFVQ
UPGJWFUIPVTBOEUFSNT PSQFSIBQTBTIJHIBTGJWFUPUFOQFSDFOUPGUIFPS
EJOBSZEBJMZWPDBCVMBSZ 4UBOMBXB 4UBOMBX
5IFQSFTFODFPG
TPNFPGUIFTFMPBOXPSETJTOPUTVSQSJTJOHUFSFCJ GPSiUFMFWJTJPO wUBCBLP
iUPCBDDPw
GPSDJHBSFUUFT BOENBOZCBTFCBMMUFSNT FH CBUUG GPSiCBUUFSw
PSQJUDIG GPSiQJUDIFSw
BMMDBNFBTUIFTFUIJOHTXFSFJNQPSUFE.BOZXPSET
IPXFWFS BSFXBTFJFJHP UFSNT PSiNBEFJO+BQBOw&OHMJTIWPDBCVMBSZ
DSFBUFEVTJOH&OHMJTIXPSETBTCVJMEJOHCMPDLTUPDPJOXPSETUIBUIBWFOP
SFBMDPSSFTQPOEFOUTJOUIF6OJUFE4UBUFTPS&OHMBOE&YBNQMFTJODMVEF
GBNJLPO i'".*MZ$0.QVUFSw
GPSB/JOUFOEP&OUFSUBJONFOU4ZTUFN GV
SBJEPQPUFUP iGSJFEQPUBUPw
GPSGSFODIGSJFT QVSBTVEPSBJCG iQMVTESJWFSw

GPSB1IJMMJQTTDSFXESJWFS TVLJOTIJQQV iTLJOTIJQw


GPSCPOEJOHUISPVHI
QIZTJDBMDPOUBDUPGUIFTLJOBTXJUIBNPUIFSBOEBDIJME VJOLG iXJOLFSw

GPSBOBVUPNPCJMFUVSOTJHOBM IBOEPSV iIBOEMFw


GPSUIFTUFFSJOHXIFFM
PGBDBS SPNBOTVHVS[ iSPNBODFHSBZw
GPSUIFTJMWFSIBJSPGBOPMEFSWJSJMF
NBOXIPJTTUJMMTFYVBMMZBUUSBDUJWF BOEUIFVCJHVJUJPVTQPLFNPO i10$,&U
.0/TUFSw
GPSUIF1PLNPOHBNFBOEBOJNFGSBODIJTF1SPCBCMZNPTUPG
UIFTFWPDBCVMBSZJUFNTBSFOPUJNNFEJBUFMZUSBOTQBSFOUUPOBUJWF&OHMJTI
TQFBLFST
0GUFO&OHMJTIMPBOXPSETSFGMFDUDIBOHJOH+BQBOFTFDVMUVSBMOPSNT'PS
FYBNQMF UIFWFSZQSPEVDUJWF&OHMJTIMPBOXPSEQPTTFTTJWFQSPOPVONBJ
iNZw
BQQBSFOUMZJTJOEJDBUJWFPGBOFXWJFXIFMEJO+BQBOUIBUUIFWBMVFT
PGDPSQPSBUFBMMFHJBODFTPSHSPVQMPZBMUZXIJDIXFSFUIPVHIUUPCFUIF
Language Contact in the Contemporary World 181

NBJOTUBZPG+BQBOFTFTPDJFUZBSFOPXCFJOHRVFTUJPOFE5FSNTTVDIBT
NBJIPPNV PXOJOHiNZIPNFw
NBJXBJGV BEPSJOHiNZXJGFw
NBJ
QFFTV EPJOHUIJOHTBUiNZQBDF
NBJQVSBJCBTIJJ WBMVJOHiNZQSJWBDZw

PSCFJOHBNFNCFSPGUIFNBJLBB[PLV UIFiNZPXODBSUSJCFw
TVHHFTU
UIBUJOEJWJEVBMJOUFSFTUTBOEHPBMTDBODPNQFUFPOFRVBMGPPUJOHXJUIUIF
USBEJUJPOBMQSJPSJUZHJWFOUPDPMMFDUJWFHSPVQSFTQPOTJCJMJUJFT*OUIFNBTT
NFEJBUIJTQSFGJYJTGPVOEPOBWBTUBSSBZPGQSPEVDUTPSUIFJSBEWFSUJTF
NFOUTNZKVJDF NZQBDL NZTVNNFS NZHJSMDBMFOEBS 4UBOMBXB
o

#FTJEFTQJEHJOJ[BUJPO NJYJOH PSPOFMBOHVBHFEPNJOBUJOHBOPUIFSUIFSF
BSFPUIFSQPTTJCJMJUJFTUIBUDBOPDDVSXIFOTQFBLFSTPGEJGGFSFOUMBOHVBHFT
DPNFJOUPDPOUBDU4QFBLFSTPGNVUVBMMZVOJOUFMMJHJCMFMBOHVBHFTXIPXJTIUP
DPNNVOJDBUFXJUIFBDIPUIFSIBWFBWBSJFUZPGNFBOTBWBJMBCMFUPUIFN0OF
XJEFTQSFBENFUIPEPGCSJEHJOHUIFMJOHVJTUJDHBQJTUPVTFBMJOHVBGSBODB
BMBOHVBHFBHSFFEVQPOBTBNFEJVNPGDPNNVOJDBUJPOCZQFPQMFXIP
TQFBLEJGGFSFOUGJSTUMBOHVBHFT*OQSFTFOUEBZ*OEJB GPSFYBNQMF UIF&OHMJTI
UIBUTQSFBEXJUI#SJUJTIJNQFSJBMJTNGSFRVFOUMZTFSWFTBTBMJOHVBGSBODB
BNPOHTQFBLFSTPGUIFNBOZEJGGFSFOUMBOHVBHFTOBUJWFUPUIFTVCDPOUJOFOU
*OUIF6OJUFE4UBUFTUIFMBOHVBHFVTFEGPSDPNNVOJDBUJPOXJUINFNCFSTPG
UIFNBOZEJGGFSFOU/BUJWF"NFSJDBOUSJCFTIBTCFFO&OHMJTI UIFTQFFDIPG
UIFEPNJOBOUTPDJFUZ"OEJO,VQXBS BTPVUIFSO*OEJBOWJMMBHFXJUITQFBL
FSTPGGPVSTFQBSBUFMBOHVBHFT.BSBUIJ 6SEV ,BOOBEB BOE5FMVHVXIFSF
BMNPTUBMMNBMFWJMMBHFSTBSFCJMJOHVBMPSNVMUJMJOHVBM UIFTQFBLFSTPGUIF
GJSTUUISFFMBOHVBHFTIBWFCFFOTXJUDIJOHBNPOHUIFNGPSTPMPOHUIBUUIF
TUSVDUVSFTPGUIFMPDBMWBSJFUJFTPGUIFTFMBOHVBHFTIBWFCFFOCSPVHIUWFSZ
DMPTFUPHFUIFS NBLJOHJUFBTJFSGPSUIFJSTQFBLFSTUPDPNNVOJDBUF (VNQFS[
BOE8JMTPO

8FTIPVMENFOUJPOBOPUIFSQPTTJCJMJUZXIFOEJTDVTTJOHIPXQFPQMFXIP
TQFBLEJGGFSFOUMBOHVBHFTUSZUPDPNNVOJDBUF#FTJEFTDIPPTJOHBMJOHVB
GSBODBPSBQJEHJO TPNFIBWFQSPQPTFEBEPQUJOHBOBSUJGJDJBM PSBVYJMJBSZ
MBOHVBHF UPGBDJMJUBUFJOUFSOBUJPOBMDPNNVOJDBUJPO"MUIPVHITFWFSBMIVO
ESFEBSFLOPXOUPIBWFCFFOEFWJTFEPWFSUIFQBTUTFWFSBMDFOUVSJFT POMZB
GFXIBWFBDIJFWFEBOZNFBTVSFPGBDDFQUBODFBOEVTF XJUI&TQFSBOUP BM
SFBEZNPSFUIBOZFBSTPME UIFNPTUXJEFTQSFBE%FTQJUFFGGPSUTUPNBLF
&TQFSBOUPUIFPGGJDJBMJOUFSOBUJPOBMMBOHVBHF IPXFWFS &OHMJTI UIFNPUIFS
UPOHVFPGTPNFNJMMJPOTQFBLFSTBOEUIFPGGJDJBMPSTFNJPGGJDJBMMBOHVBHF
182 Chapter 9: Languages in Variation and Languages in Contact

TFSWJOHXFMMPWFSBCJMMJPOQFPQMFJOUIFXPSME BQQFBSTUPEBZUPIBWFMJUUMF
JGBOZ TFSJPVTDPNQFUJUJPO $SZTUBM


The World of Languages


*UNBZDPNFBTBTVSQSJTFUPMFBSOUIBUOPPOFLOPXTFYBDUMZIPXNBOZMBO
HVBHFTBSFTQPLFOJOUIFXPSMEUPEBZ0OFTUBOEBSETPVSDFTVHHFTUTUIFUPUBM
JTNPSFUIBO  (PSEPO
5IJTOVNCFSJODMVEFTDSFPMFMBOHVBHFT
CVUFYDMVEFTQJEHJOT BTXFMMBTUIFUIPVTBOETPGMBOHVBHFTJOUIFDPVSTFPG
IJTUPSZBOEQSFIJTUPSZUIBUNVTUIBWFEJTBQQFBSFEXJUIPVUBUSBDF5IFSFBSF
TFWFSBMSFBTPOTGPSUIFMBDLPGQSFDJTJPOJOHBVHJOHUIFXPSMETMJOHVJTUJDEJ
WFSTJUZ"GFXMBOHVBHFTBSFMJLFMZUPCFEJTDPWFSFEJOUIPTFSFHJPOTPGUIF
XPSMETUJMMPOMZQBSUMZFYQMPSFE FTQFDJBMMZUIFFRVBUPSJBMSBJOGPSFTUTPG4PVUI
"NFSJDB "GSJDB BOE/FX(VJOFB4PNFMBOHVBHFTBSFPOUIFWFSZWFSHFPG
FYUJODUJPO DVSSFOUMZVTFECZBTGFXBTBIBOEGVMPGTQFBLFSTBOEOPUFWFOIB
CJUVBMMZBUUIBU5IFO UPP JUJTOPUBMXBZTFBTZUPEFUFSNJOFXIFUIFSUXPEJ
BMFDUT BSF TVGGJDJFOUMZ EJWFSHFOU UP CFDPNF NVUVBMMZ VOJOUFMMJHJCMF BOE
UIFSFGPSFNFSJUUIFTUBUVTPGUXPTFQBSBUFMBOHVBHFT*OUIJTSFTQFDU TPDJP
DVMUVSBMDPOTJEFSBUJPOTTPNFUJNFTPWFSSJEFUIFMJOHVJTUJDDSJUFSJPOPGNV
UVBMJOUFMMJHJCJMJUZ'PSFYBNQMF $[FDITBOE4MPWBLTDPNNVOJDBUFXJUIPOF
BOPUIFSJOUIFJSSFTQFDUJWFMBOHVBHFTXJUIPVUUIFTMJHIUFTUIJOESBODF BM
UIPVHI$[FDIBOE4MPWBLIBWFTFQBSBUFTUBOEBSETBOEMJUFSBSZUSBEJUJPOTBT
XFMMBTEJDUJPOBSJFTBOEUFYUCPPLT*GUIFTFUXPMBOHVBHFTXFSFUPCFTQPLFO
JOOFBSCZWJMMBHFTTPNFXIFSFJO/FX(VJOFB UIFZXPVMEVORVFTUJPOBCMZ
CFDMBTTJGJFEBTUXPEJBMFDUTPGPOFMBOHVBHF"TGPSUIFOVNCFSPGEJBMFDUTPG
UIFMBOHVBHFTDVSSFOUMZTQPLFOJOUIFXPSME UIFUPUBMXPVMESFBDIUFOTPG
UIPVTBOETJGBOZPOFXFSFJOUFSFTUFEJONBLJOHTVDIBDPVOU
5IFGJHVSFPGTPNF MBOHVBHFTBNPVOUTUPBOJNQSFTTJWFOVNCFS
XIFOPOFDPOTJEFSTUIBUFBDISFQSFTFOUTBEJTUJODUNFBOTPGDPNNVOJDBUJPO
XJUIJUTPXOFMBCPSBUFTUSVDUVSFBOEVOJRVFXBZPGEFTDSJCJOHUIFDVMUVSBM
VOJWFSTFPGJUTTQFBLFST)PXFWFS JOUFSNTPGUIFOVNCFSTPGTQFBLFST UIF
HSFBUCVMLPGUPEBZTXPSMEQPQVMBUJPONBLFTVTFPGSFMBUJWFMZGFXMBOHVBHFT
*UJTPCWJPVTUIBUBUUIJTQPJOUJOIVNBOIJTUPSZ TQFBLFSTPGTPNFMBOHVBHFT
IBWFCFFONPSFTVDDFTTGVMUIBOTQFBLFSTPGPUIFST XIFUIFSCZDPORVFTU
IJTUPSJDBMBDDJEFOU PSTPNFPUIFSDJSDVNTUBODF5IFHSFBUMZVOFWFOEJTUSJ
CVUJPOPGTQFBLFSTPGUIFXPSMETMBOHVBHFTJTHSBQIJDBMMZSFQSFTFOUFEJO'JH
VSF
183

F I G U R E 9 . 1 The Worlds Languages and Their Speakers


5IFFTUJNBUFESFMBUJWFOVNCFSTPGTQFBLFSTCFMPOHJOHUPUIFUPQUFOMBOHVBHFHSPVQT GBNJMJFT
BSF
HSBQIJDBMMZSFQSFTFOUFEJO B
5IFGPMMPXJOHBCCSFWJBUJPOTBSFVTFE
*& *OEP&VSPQFBONPTUPGUIFMBOHVBHFTTQPLFOJO&VSPQF TFWFSBMPGXIJDIIBWFTQSFBEUP
PUIFSQBSUTPGUIFXPSME BTXFMMBTTPNFMBOHVBHFTTQPLFOJO*OEJBBOETPVUIXFTUFSO
"TJB
45 4JOP5JCFUBOWBSJPVT5JCFUBO #VSNFTF BOE$IJOFTFMBOHVBHFTTQPLFOJOTPVUIFBTUFSO
"TJB
/$ /JHFS$POHPNPTUPGUIFMBOHVBHFTTQPLFOJOXFTUFSO DFOUSBM BOETPVUIFSO"GSJDB JO
DMVEJOHUIF#BOUVMBOHVBHFT
"G" "GSP"TJBUJDWBSJPVT4FNJUJD #FSCFS $VTIJUJD BOE$IBEJDMBOHVBHFTTQPLFOJOOPSUI
FSO"GSJDBBOETPVUIXFTUFSO"TJB BTXFMMBTFYUJODU "ODJFOU
&HZQUJBO
"V "VTUSPOFTJBOMBOHVBHFTTQPLFOJOUIFWBTUBSFBFYUFOEJOHGSPN.BEBHBTDBSFBTUXBSE
UISPVHIUIF.BMBZ1FOJOTVMBUP)BXBJJBOE&BTUFS*TMBOE
% %SBWJEJBOMBOHVBHFTTQPLFOQSJNBSJMZJOTPVUIFSO*OEJBBOEQBSUTPG4SJ-BOLB
+ +BQBOFTFUIFMBOHVBHFPG+BQBO DPOTJEFSFECZTPNFTDIPMBSTUPCFEJTUBOUMZSFMBUFEUP
UIF"MUBJDGBNJMZ
"M "MUBJDMBOHVBHFTTQPLFOGSPN5VSLFZJOUIFXFTUBDSPTTDFOUSBM"TJBJOUP4JCFSJB
"V" "VTUSPBTJBUJDMBOHVBHFTTQPLFOGPSUIFNPTUQBSUJOTPVUIFBTUFSO"TJB -BPT 7JFUOBN
BOE$BNCPEJB
CVUBMTPJOTPNFQBSUTPG*OEJB
, ,PSFBOUIFMBOHVBHFPGUIFUXP,PSFBT DPOTJEFSFECZTPNFTDIPMBSTUPCFEJTUBOUMZSF
MBUFEUP+BQBOFTFPSUIF"MUBJDGBNJMZ
0UIFST BHSFBUWBSJFUZPGMBOHVBHFTCFMPOHJOHUPOVNFSPVTMBOHVBHFHSPVQTBOETQPLFOJO&VSB
TJB "GSJDB BOE"VTUSBMJBBTXFMMBTBMMOBUJWFMBOHVBHFTPGUIF/FX8PSMEBMUPHFUIFS
OFBSMZ MBOHVBHFT PSIBMGPGUIFXPSMETUPUBM
5IFFTUJNBUFESFMBUJWFOVNCFSTPGTQFBLFSTPGUIFUPQUFONPUIFSUPOHVFTBSFHSBQIJDBMMZSFQSF
TFOUFEJOEFTDFOEJOHPSEFSJO C
5IFGPMMPXJOHBCCSFWJBUJPOTBSFVTFE$$IJOFTF MBOHVBHFTPS
EJBMFDUT
&&OHMJTI44QBOJTI))JOEJ""SBCJD##FOHBMJ33VTTJBO11PSUVHVFTF
++BQBOFTF((FSNBOUIFPUIFSTJODMVEFUIFSFNBJOJOH UP MBOHVBHFTPGUIFXPSME
5IFUPQUFOPGGJDJBMPSTFNJPGGJDJBMMBOHVBHFTTFSWJOHUIFMBSHFTUOVNCFSPGTQFBLFSTBSF JOEF
TDFOEJOHPSEFS&OHMJTI $IJOFTF )JOEJ 4QBOJTI 3VTTJBO 'SFODI "SBCJD 1PSUVHVFTF .BMBZ JO
DMVEJOH*OEPOFTJBO
BOE#FOHBMJ
#BTFEPOEBUBQSPWJEFEJO%BWJE$SZTUBM 5IF$BNCSJEHF&ODZDMPQFEJBPG-BOHVBHF $BNCSJEHF
6,$BNCSJEHF6OJWFSTJUZ1SFTT oo

184 Chapter 9: Languages in Variation and Languages in Contact

Summary and Conclusions


"MUIPVHIBCPVU MBOHVBHFT BTTJHOBCMFUPTFWFSBMIVOESFEMBOHVBHF
HSPVQT GBNJMJFT
BSFDVSSFOUMZTQPLFO UIFPWFSXIFMNJOHNBKPSJUZPGQFP
QMFTQFBLMBOHVBHFTUIBUCFMPOHUPPOMZBEP[FOPSTPMBOHVBHFGBNJMJFT XJUI
*OEP&VSPQFBOBUUIFUPQPGUIFMJTUGPSNPTUTQFBLFST5IFXPSMEXJEFTQSFBE
PG&OHMJTIBOEWBSJPVTPUIFS&VSPQFBOMBOHVBHFTEBUFTCBDLUPUIFCFHJO
OJOHPGUIF"HFPG%JTDPWFSZJOUIFNJEGJGUFFOUIDFOUVSZ
$PNQFUFODZJOPOFMBOHVBHFPOMZ UZQJDBMPGNPTU"NFSJDBOTXJUI&OH
MJTIBTUIFJSNPUIFSUPOHVF JTVODPNNPOJOUIFSFTUPGUIFXPSME XIFSF
IVOESFETPGNJMMJPOTPGQFPQMFBSFBCMFUPTQFBLTFWFSBMMBOHVBHFTPSMBO
HVBHFWBSJFUJFTUIBUJT BSFNVMUJMJOHVBMPSEJHMPTTJD"NPOHUIFHSFBUWBSJ
FUZPGMBOHVBHFT QJEHJOTPDDVQZBTQFDJBMQMBDF"MUIPVHITUSVDUVSFEBOE
FGGJDJFOUBTBNFBOTPGDPNNVOJDBUJPO UIFJSWPDBCVMBSJFTBSFMJNJUFECF
DBVTFQJEHJOTBSFOPUDBMMFEVQPOUPQFSGPSNUIFCSPBESBOHFPGGVODUJPOT
UIBUDIBSBDUFSJ[FGVMMGMFEHFEMBOHVBHFT
&WFOUIPVHINBOZQFPQMFTQFBLPOMZPOFMBOHVBHF UIFZBSFBDUJWFMZPSBU
MFBTUQBTTJWFMZBDRVBJOUFEXJUITFWFSBMEJBMFDUTBOETQFFDITUZMFTPGUIBUMBO
HVBHF5IFJSPXOTQFFDIQBUUFSOTEJGGFSGSPNUIPTFPGPUIFST FWFOJGPOMZ
TMJHIUMZ"MMTQFBLFSTIBWFUIFJSJOEJWJEVBMJEJPMFDUT
5IFOVNCFSPGMBOHVBHFTTQPLFOJOUIFXPSMEUPEBZJTSBQJEMZEJNJOJTI
JOH"DDPSEJOHUPPOFFTUJNBUF PGUIF MBOHVBHFTPOMZDBOCFDPO
TJEFSFETBGFGSPNFYUJODUJPOEVSJOHUIFUXFOUZGJSTUDFOUVSZ5IFQSJNBSZ
SFBTPOGPSMBOHVBHFTPGTNBMMTJ[FETPDJFUJFTCFDPNJOHFYUJODUJTUIBUJOPSEFS
UPTVSWJWF TNBMMUSJCBMQPQVMBUJPOTNVTUBEBQUUPUIFFDPOPNJDBOEDVMUVSBM
JOGMVFODFPGUIFOBUJPOTUBUFTUIBUFODPNQBTTUIFN BOEPOFPGUIFWJUBM
BEBQUJWFQSPDFTTFTJTUIFVTFPGUIFMBOHVBHFPGUIFMBSHFTPDJFUZ
10

Ethnography of Communication

*OBOBSUJDMFXSJUUFOJO )ZNFTPCTFSWFEUIBUJUVTFEUPCFDVTUPNBSZ
UPDPOTJEFSMBOHVBHFTBTEJGGFSFOUGSPNFBDIPUIFSCVUUIFVTFTUPXIJDIUIFZ
BSFQVUBTDMPTFMZTJNJMBSJGOPUFTTFOUJBMMZUIFTBNF)ZNFTUIFOOPUFEUIBU
UIFPQQPTJUFWJFXXBTCFHJOOJOHUPQSFWBJM-BOHVBHFTBSFTFFOBTGVOEB
NFOUBMMZWFSZNVDIBMJLFCVUUIFTPDJBMVTFTPGTQFFDIBTRVJUFEJGGFSFOUGSPN
POFDVMUVSFUPUIFOFYU*OUIFFBSMJFSQFSJPE EJTUJODUEJWJTJPOPGMBCPSFY
JTUFECFUXFFOMJOHVJTUTBOEDVMUVSBMBOUISPQPMPHJTUT8JUIGFXFYDFQUJPOT
MJOHVJTUTTUVEJFEMBOHVBHFTUPEJTDPWFSUIFTUSVDUVSBMEJGGFSFODFTCFUXFFO
UIFNBOEUPMFBSOBCPVUUIFJSIJTUPSJDBMEFWFMPQNFOU XIFSFBTBOUISPQPMP
HJTUTTUVEJFEIVNBOTPDJFUJFTJOPSEFSUPVOEFSTUBOEUIFXPSLJOHTPGUIFJS
DVMUVSFT#VUDVMUVSFBOEUIFVTFPGMBOHVBHFBSFOPUFBTJMZTFQBSBCMF1FPQMF
NVTUVTFMBOHVBHFUPBDDPNQMJTIBXJEFWBSJFUZPGDVMUVSFTQFDJGJDHPBMT*G
TPDJFUJFTBSFGVODUJPOTNPPUIMZ UIFJSNFNCFSTNVTUIBWFOPUPOMZMJOHVJT
UJDDPNQFUFODF UIFLOPXMFEHFPGUIFHSBNNBUJDBMSVMFTPGUIFJSNPUIFS
UPOHVF BDRVJSFEXFMMCFGPSFBEVMUIPPE
CVUBMTPDPNNVOJDBUJWFDPNQF
UFODFUIFLOPXMFEHFPGXIBUJTBOEXIBUJTOPUBQQSPQSJBUFUPTBZJOBOZ
TQFDJGJDDVMUVSBMDPOUFYU"T)ZNFTQVUJU i"DIJMEGSPNXIPNBOZBOEBMM
PGUIFHSBNNBUJDBMTFOUFODFTPGBMBOHVBHFNJHIUDPNFXJUIFRVBMMJLFMJ
IPPEXPVMECFBTPDJBMNPOTUFSw )ZNFT
4PNFQBSFOUTPDDB
TJPOBMMZMFBSOUIJTGSPNUIFJSPXOFYQFSJFODFXIFOBDIJMEXIPJTOPUZFU
GVMMZDPNNVOJDBUJWFMZDPNQFUFOUNBLFTBOFNCBSSBTTJOHDPNNFOUJOGSPOU
PGHVFTUT TVDIBTTBZJOHUPBHVFTUXIPQSBJTFTUIFDPGGFFDBLFCFJOHPGGFSFE
i.ZNPNTBJEJUXBTMPVTZ CVUJUXBTHPPEFOPVHIUPHJWFUPZPVw
5IFOBUVSFBOEGVODUJPOPGDPNNVOJDBUJWFCFIBWJPSJOUIFDPOUFYUPGDVM
UVSFBSFUIFTVCKFDUPGFUIOPHSBQIZPGDPNNVOJDBUJPO *OJUTNPEFSOGPSN

185
186 Chapter 10: Ethnography of Communication

FUIOPHSBQIZ PG DPNNVOJDBUJPO EBUFT CBDL UP )ZNFTT  BSUJDMF i5IF
&UIOPHSBQIZPG4QFBLJOHw*OBTNVDIBTUIJTSFMBUJWFMZOFXGJFMEGPDVTFTPO
UIPTFBTQFDUTPGIVNBOCFIBWJPSJOXIJDIDPNNVOJDBUJPONFFUTDVMUVSF SF
TFBSDIJOFUIOPHSBQIZPGDPNNVOJDBUJPODPOUSJCVUFTUPUIFJOUFSEJTDJQMJOBSZ
TUVEJFTUIBUBSFQSPWJOHUPCFPGJODSFBTJOHWBMVFJONPEFSOTDIPMBSTIJQ4PNF
TDIPMBSTDPOTJEFSFUIOPHSBQIZPGDPNNVOJDBUJPOBTPOFPGUIFTFWFSBMGJFMET
PGJORVJSZXJUIJOUIFTDPQFPGTPDJPMJOHVJTUJDT0UIFSTBSHVFUIBUFUIOPHSBQIZ
PGDPNNVOJDBUJPO BTUIFTUVEZPGDPNNVOJDBUJWFCFIBWJPSJOSFMBUJPOUPUIF
TPDJPDVMUVSBMWBSJBCMFTBTTPDJBUFEXJUIIVNBOJOUFSBDUJPO JTCSPBEFSBOE
NPSFFODPNQBTTJOHUIBOTPDJPMJOHVJTUJDT#FUIBUBTJUNBZ TPDJPMJOHVJTUJDT
BOEFUIOPHSBQIZPGDPNNVOJDBUJPOBSFGJFMETPGJORVJSZUIBUIBWFCFFOHBJO
JOHJOJNQPSUBODFBOEBUUSBDUJOHTJHOJGJDBOUSFTFBSDI

Speech Community and Related Concepts


5IFUFSNTTPDJFUZ BOEDVMUVSF JOBOUISPQPMPHZBSFVTFGVMBTHFOFSBMDPODFQUT
CVU OP TPDJFUZT DVMUVSF JT VOJGPSN GPS BMM JUT NFNCFST "OZ DPNQMFY PG
MFBSOFEQBUUFSOTPGCFIBWJPSBOEUIPVHIUUIBUEJTUJOHVJTIFTWBSJPVTTFHNFOUT
PGBTPDJFUZ NJOPSJUJFT DBTUFT BOEUIFMJLF
JTSFGFSSFEUPBTBTVCDVMUVSF#Z
FYUFOTJPO UIJTUFSNJTBMTPVTFEUPSFGFSDPMMFDUJWFMZUPBMMUIPTFXIPFYIJCJU
UIFDIBSBDUFSJTUJDTPGBQBSUJDVMBSTVCDVMUVSF GPSFYBNQMF UIFIPNFMFTTBT
XFMMBTUIFTPDBMMFECFBVUJGVMQFPQMF
-BOHVBHFBOETQFFDI UPP BSFDIBS
BDUFSJ[FECZMBDLPGVOJGPSNJUZ *OHFOFSBM BOZQBSUJDVMBSTPDJFUZJTBTTPDJBUFE
XJUIBTQFDJGJDMBOHVBHF BOENVMUJOBUJPOBMTPDJFUJFTBSFBTTPDJBUFEXJUITFW
FSBM#VUOPMBOHVBHFJTFWFSVOJGPSNGPSBMMTQFBLFSTPGBTPDJFUZ QFPQMF
DPNNVOJUZ USJCF
"TXFIBWFBMSFBEZTFFO DFSUBJOXBZTPGTQFBLJOHUIF
TBNFMBOHVBHFNBZEJGGFSFOUJBUFNFOGSPNXPNFO UIFZPVOHGSPNUIFPME
UIFQPPSGSPNUIFSJDI BOEUIFMJLF"MMUIPTFXIPTIBSFTQFDJGJDSVMFTGPS
TQFBLJOHBOEJOUFSQSFUJOHTQFFDIBOEBUMFBTUPOFTQFFDIWBSJFUZCFMPOHUPB
TQFFDIDPNNVOJUZ)PXFWFS JUJTJNQPSUBOUUPSFNFNCFSUIBUQFPQMFXIP
TQFBLUIFTBNFMBOHVBHFBSFOPUBMXBZTNFNCFSTPGUIFTBNFTQFFDIDPN
NVOJUZ0OUIFPOFIBOE TQFBLFSTPG4PVUI"TJBO&OHMJTIJO*OEJBBOE1BL
JTUBOTIBSFBMBOHVBHFXJUIDJUJ[FOTPGUIF6OJUFE4UBUFT CVUUIFSFTQFDUJWF
WBSJFUJFTPG&OHMJTIBOEUIFSVMFTGPSTQFBLJOHUIFNBSFTVGGJDJFOUMZEJTUJODU
UPBTTJHOUIFUXPQPQVMBUJPOTUPEJGGFSFOUTQFFDIDPNNVOJUJFT0OUIFPUIFS
IBOE .VSJFM4BWJMMF5SPJLF 
JEFOUJGJFEFWFONPOPMJOHVBMTQFBLFST
PGFJUIFS4QBOJTI UIFPGGJDJBMMBOHVBHF
PS(VBSBOJ UIFOBUJPOBMMBOHVBHF

Speech Community and Related Concepts 187

BTCFMPOHJOHUPUIFTBNFTQFFDIDPNNVOJUZJO1BSBHVBZCFDBVTFUIFTPDJBM
SPMFTPGUIFTQFBLFSTPGUIFUXPMBOHVBHFTBSFDPNQMFNFOUBSZCPUIHSPVQT
BSFNVUVBMMZEFQFOEFOUGPSTFSWJDFTPSFNQMPZNFOU
.PTUNFNCFSTPGBTPDJFUZ FWFOJGUIFZIBQQFOUPMJWFJOUIFTBNFUPXO CF
MPOHUPTFWFSBMTQFFDIDPNNVOJUJFT'PSFYBNQMF BOFMEFSMZQFSTPONBZIBWF
DPOTJEFSBCMFEJGGJDVMUZGPMMPXJOHUIFNPOPUPOPVTDIBOUPGBOBVDUJPOFFSPS
DPNQSFIFOEJOHXIBUTUVEFOUTUBMLBCPVUBNPOHUIFNTFMWFT#VUBOBVDUJPOFFS
BOEBDPMMFHFTUVEFOUDBOFBTJMZNBLFUIFBEKVTUNFOUOFDFTTBSZUPFOHBHFJOB
DPOWFSTBUJPOXJUIUIFFMEFSMZQFSTPOBOECFGVMMZVOEFSTUPPEBMMUIFZIBWFUP
EPJTUPTIBSFFOPVHIDIBSBDUFSJTUJDQBUUFSOTPGQSPOVODJBUJPO HSBNNBS WP
DBCVMBSZ BOENBOOFSPGTQFBLJOHUPCFMPOHUPUIFTBNFTQFFDIDPNNVOJUZ
*UNBZBMTPCFUIBUQFPQMFTMJWFJOEJGGFSFOUDPVOUSJFTBOETQFBLEJGGFSFOU
MBOHVBHFTCVUTIBSFTPNFSVMFTGPSTQFBLJOH BTEPUIF$[FDITBOEUIF"VT
USJBOT BOEGPSUIBUNBUUFSTPNFPGUIFPUIFSQFPQMFTXIPVOUJM8PSME8BS
*XFSFQBSUPGUIF"VTUSP)VOHBSJBO&NQJSFPSMJWFEJOBEKBDFOUBSFBT
"T
BOFYBNQMF UIFDPNNPOMZVTFEQISBTFGPSHSFFUJOHPSUBLJOHMFBWFPGB
XPNBOXIPJTFDPOPNJDBMMZBOETPDJBMMZXFMMTJUVBUFEXBT BOEUPTPNFFY
UFOU TUJMM JT
 i3VLVMCN  NJMPTUJW QBOw JO $[FDI BOE i,TT EJF )BOE
HOEJHF'SBVwJO(FSNBO5IF&OHMJTIUSBOTMBUJPO i*LJTTZPVSIBOE HSB
DJPVTMBEZ wDMFBSMZJOEJDBUFTIPXEJGGFSFOUTVDISVMFTPGTQFBLJOHBSFGSPN
UIPTFVTFE TBZ JO#SJUBJOPSUIF6OJUFE4UBUFT-JOHVJTUTSFGFSUPBOBSFBJO
XIJDITQFBLFSTPGEJGGFSFOUMBOHVBHFTTIBSFTQFBLJOHSVMFTBTBTQFFDIBSFB
-FTTGSFRVFOUMZFNQMPZFEUFSNTGPSSFMBUFEDPODFQUTJODMVEFMBOHVBHF
GJFME TQFFDIGJFME BOETQFFDIOFUXPSL )ZNFT
5IFGJSTUPGUIFTF
MBOHVBHFGJFME
SFGFSTUPBMMUIPTFDPNNVOJUJFTJOXIJDIBOJOEJWJEVBMJTBCMF
UPDPNNVOJDBUFBEFRVBUFMZCZWJSUVFPGLOPXJOHUIFMBOHVBHFTBOEMBOHVBHF
WBSJFUJFTTFSWJOHUIFDPNNVOJUJFT5IFDPODFQUPGTQFFDIGJFMEQBSBMMFMTUIBU
PGMBOHVBHFGJFMECVUJOWPMWFTUIFLOPXMFEHFPGSVMFTGPSTQFBLJOHSBUIFSUIBO
LOPXMFEHFPGMBOHVBHFT5IFMBTUUFSN TQFFDIOFUXPSL
SFGFSTUPMJOLBHFT
CFUXFFOQFSTPOTGSPNEJGGFSFOUDPNNVOJUJFTXIPTIBSFMBOHVBHFWBSJFUJFTBT
XFMMBTSVMFTGPSTQFBLJOH5PHJWFBOFYBNQMF JOBEEJUJPOUPIFSNPUIFS
UPOHVF  B XPNBO LOPXT GPVS MBOHVBHFT XFMM FOPVHI UP SFBE CPPLT BOE
OFXTQBQFSTQVCMJTIFEJOUIFNBUPUBMPGGJWFMBOHVBHFTNBLFVQIFSMBO
HVBHFGJFME)PXFWFS UIFTBNFXPNBOJTBCMFUPDPNNVOJDBUFFBTJMZJOPOMZ
POFGPSFJHOMBOHVBHFJOBEEJUJPOUPIFSOBUJWFMBOHVBHFUIFTQFFDIDPN
NVOJUJFTXJUIJOXIJDITIFGVODUJPOTFGGFDUJWFMZJOUIFUXPMBOHVBHFTNBLF
VQIFSTQFFDIGJFME8JUIJOUIBUTQFFDIGJFMEUIFXPNBOIBTTQFDJBMSBQQPSU
188 Chapter 10: Ethnography of Communication

XJUIUIPTFQFSTPOT SFHBSEMFTTPGXIFSFUIFZNBZDPNFGSPN XIPTIBSFXJUI


IFSUIFUXPMBOHVBHFT SVMFTGPSTQFFDI BOEBQSPGFTTJPOBMJOUFSFTUJO TBZ
BSDIBFPMPHZUIFMJOLBHFTXJUIUIFTFQFPQMFNBLFVQIFSTQFFDIOFUXPSL

Units of Speech Behavior


5PEJTUJOHVJTIBNPOHEJGGFSFOUMFWFMTPGTQFFDIBDUJWJUZ)ZNFTNBEFVTFPG
UISFFUFSNTGPSUIFFUIOPHSBQIJDBOBMZTJTBOEEFTDSJQUJPOPGTQFFDICFIBWJPS
TQFFDITJUVBUJPO TQFFDIFWFOU BOETQFFDIBDU )ZNFTo
 *G
POFXFSFUPJODMVEFOPOWFSCBMDPNNVOJDBUJPOBTXFMM UIFTFUISFFUFSNT
XPVMEOFFEUPCFCSPBEFOFEBOEUIFXPSETQFFDI SFQMBDFECZDPNNVOJDB
UJWF BGUFSBMM BIBOEHFTUVSFPSUIFXJOLPGBOFZFDBOCFKVTUBTFGGFDUJWFBT
BOFOUJSFTFOUFODF

"TQFFDITJUVBUJPO JTUIFDPOUFYUXJUIJOXIJDITQFBLJOHPDDVSTUIBUJT
BOZQBSUJDVMBSTFUPGDJSDVNTUBODFTUZQJDBMMZBTTPDJBUFEXJUITQFFDICFIBW
JPS PSBCTFODFPGJU
"TQFFDITJUVBUJPONBZCFBGBNJMZNFBM CJSUIEBZ
QBSUZ CBCZTIPXFS TFNJOBSNFFUJOH DBNQVTCFFSQBSUZ BVDUJPO GJTIJOH
USJQ 2VBLFSNFFUJOH PSBOZPOFPGBMBSHFOVNCFSPGTJUVBUJPOTUIBUUBLF
QMBDFJOBTPDJFUZBOEBSFEFGJOBCMFJOUFSNTPGQBSUJDJQBOUTBOEHPBMTBOE
BSFUIFSFGPSFEJTUJOHVJTIBCMFGSPNPUIFSTQFFDITJUVBUJPOT
5IFNJOJNBMVOJUPGTQFFDIGPSQVSQPTFTPGBOFUIOPHSBQIJDBOBMZTJTJT
UIFTQFFDIBDU"TQFFDIBDUNBZCFBHSFFUJOH BQPMPHZ RVFTUJPO DPNQMJ
NFOU TFMGJOUSPEVDUJPO PSUIFMJLF"MUIPVHIOPSNBMMZBUUSJCVUBCMFUPBTJO
HMFTQFBLFS DPMMFDUJWFTQFFDIBDUTBMTPFYJTUBT GPSFYBNQMF UIFi"NFOwTBJE
CZBDPOHSFHBUJPOPSUIFSFDJUJOHPGUIF1MFEHFPG"MMFHJBODFCZZPVOHQVQJMT
*OTJ[F BTQFFDIBDUNBZSBOHFGSPNBTJOHMFXPSE i4DSBNwPSi5IBOLTw
UP
BGJWFNJOVUFTIBHHZEPHTUPSZPSBMPOHIBSBOHVFPODPOEVDU4QFFDIBDUT
UIBUGPMMPXFBDIPUIFSJOBSFDPHOJ[FETFRVFODFBOEBSFHPWFSOFECZTPDJBM
SVMFTGPSUIFVTFPGTQFFDIDPNCJOFUPGPSNBTQFFDIFWFOU UIFCBTJDVOJU
PGWFSCBMJOUFSBDUJPO&YBNQMFTPGTQFFDIFWFOUTJODMVEFDPOWFSTBUJPO DPO
GFTTJPOUPBQSJFTU JOUFSWJFX EJBMPHVFXJUIBTBMFTQFSTPO UFMFQIPOFJORVJSZ
BOETPPO#PVOEBSJFTCFUXFFOTVDDFTTJWFTQFFDIFWFOUTBSFNBSLFECZB
DIBOHFPGNBKPSQBSUJDJQBOUT BOPUJDFBCMFTJMFODF PSTPNFSFNBSLEFTJHOFE
UPJOUSPEVDFBOPUIFSUPQJDPGDPOWFSTBUJPO GPSFYBNQMF i*G*DBODIBOHF
UIFTVCKFDt. wPSi#ZUIFXBZ IBWFZPVIFBSEUIBt...w6OEFSTQFDJBMDJS
DVNTUBODFT BTQFFDIBDUNBZCFDPNFBTQFFDIFWFOU BTXIFOTPNFPOF
TIPVUTi'JSFwJOBDSPXEFENPWJFUIFBUFS
Components of Communication 189

"OBMVNOJSFVOJPODBOCFVTFEUPJMMVTUSBUFUIFUISFFVOJUTPGTQFFDICF
IBWJPS5IFHBUIFSJOHJUTFMGJTBOFYBNQMFPGBTQFFDITJUVBUJPO*UIBTBCF
HJOOJOHBOEBOFOEBOEMBTUTVTVBMMZPOMZQBSUPGPOFEBZUIFQBSUJDJQBOUT
BSFSFTUSJDUFEUPGPSNFSNFNCFSTPGBDMBTTBOEUIFJSTQPVTFTPSQBSUOFST
8JUIJOTVDIBTQFFDITJUVBUJPO BOVNCFSPGTQFFDIFWFOUTJOWBSJBCMZUBLF
QMBDF'PSFYBNQMF POFHSPVQNBZCFSFNJOJTDJOHBCPVUGBWPSJUFUFBDIFST
BOEDMBTTSPPNBOUJDTUIPTFJOBOPUIFSHSPVQNBZCFHJWJOHCSJFGBDDPVOUTPG
XIBUUIFZIBWFCFFOEPJOHTJODFHSBEVBUJPOPSUIFMBTUSFVOJPOBOETUJMMPUI
FSTNBZCFTJNQMZTXBQQJOHKPLFTBOETUPSJFT8JUIJOUIFTFTQFFDIFWFOUT
UIFUFMMJOHPGBTJOHMFKPLFPSQFSTPOBMFYQFSJFODFJTBTQFFDIBDU
+VTUBTOBUJWFTQFBLFSTPGBOZMBOHVBHFBSFFYQFDUFEUPQSPEVDFTFOUFODFT
UIBUBSFHSBNNBUJDBMMZBDDFQUBCMFBOENFBOJOHGVM TQFFDIBDUTBSFKVEHFEBD
DPSEJOHUPIPXBQQSPQSJBUFUIFZBSFUPBOZTQFDJGJDTQFFDITJUVBUJPOPSTQFFDI
FWFOU*UXPVMECFDPOTJEFSFEPEEJGPOFXFSFUPTBZUPBTUSBOHFSJOUIFTUSFFU
i.ZOBNFJT+PIO4NJUIXIBUUJNFEPZPVIBWF w4JNJMBSMZ BUBCBCZTIPXFS
JUXPVMECFPVUPGQMBDFUPCSJOHVQUIFJODSFBTJOHJOGBOUNPSUBMJUZSBUF8IFO
JOBQQSPQSJBUFTQFFDIBDUTEPPDDVS QBSUJDJQBOUTJOUIFTQFFDIFWFOUPSTJUVB
UJPOBSFMBUFSMJLFMZUPDPNNFOUPOUIFNi%JEZPVIFBSXIBUTIFTBJE )PX
JODPOTJEFSBUFwPSi8IBUBDSB[ZUIJOHGPS#JMMUPTBZ)BTIFMPTUIJTNJOE w

Components of Communication
Participants and Setting
%FTDSJCJOHBMBOHVBHFXJUIFNQIBTJTPOJUTGVODUJPOBTUIFQSJNBSZNFBOT
PGDPNNVOJDBUJPOSFRVJSFTNPSFUIBOTJNQMZEFTDSJCJOHJUTTPVOET QIPOPM
PHZ
BOEHSBNNBUJDBMTUSVDUVSF NPSQIPMPHZBOETZOUBY
$BSFGVMGJFMESF
TFBSDIJTOFDFTTBSZUPEJTDPWFSIPXNFNCFSTPGBTPDJFUZVTFUIFJSMBOHVBHF
VOEFSEJGGFSJOHDJSDVNTUBODFTUPTBUJTGZUIFHPBMTUIFZTFUGPSUIFNTFMWFT
5SBEJUJPOBMMZ TQFFDICFIBWJPSXBTTBJEUPJOWPMWFBTQFBLFSBOEBIFBSFS
BOEJODMVEFUIFNFTTBHFUSBOTNJUUFECFUXFFOUIFN.PEFSOFUIOPHSBQIJD
EFTDSJQUJPOTBOEBOBMZTFTIBWFTIPXOUIBUNBOZNPSFDPNQPOFOUTOFFEUP
CFUBLFOJOUPBDDPVOUJGBOZQBSUJDVMBSJOTUBODFPGDPNNVOJDBUJWFCFIBWJPS
JTUPCFGVMMZVOEFSTUPPE8IJDIPGUIFTFDPNQPOFOUTBTTVNFBDSVDJBMSPMF
EFQFOETPOBHJWFOTQFFDITJUVBUJPOBOEUIFQBSUJDVMBSDPNNVOJUZJOXIJDI
JUUBLFTQMBDF
5IFDPNQPOFOUUFSNFEQBSUJDJQBOUTJODMVEFTOPUPOMZUIFTFOEFSPGBNFT
TBHF BMTPSFGFSSFEUPBTUIFTQFBLFSPSBEESFTTFS
BOEUIFJOUFOEFESFDFJWFS
190 Chapter 10: Ethnography of Communication

IFBSFS BEESFTTFF
CVUBOZPOFXIPNBZCFJOUFSFTUFEJOPSIBQQFOTUPQFS
DFJWF IFBS TFF
UIFNFTTBHFUIFBVEJFODF5IFOVNCFSPGQBSUJDJQBOUTDBO
WBSZGSPNPOMZPOFUPNBOZUIPVTBOET'PSFYBNQMF BQFSTPOXIPIBTBKPC
JOUFSWJFXTDIFEVMFENBZQSBDUJDFGPSJUCZQPTJOHQPUFOUJBMRVFTUJPOTBOE
UIFOBOTXFSJOHUIFN UIVTBTTVNJOHUIFSPMFPGCPUITFOEFSBOESFDFJWFS
#VUBUBOPVUEPPSQPMJUJDBMSBMMZPOFPSNPSFDIBSJTNBUJDMFBEFSTNBZOPU
POMZBEESFTTTFWFSBMIVOESFEUIPVTBOEGPMMPXFSTCVUBMTPTVDDFFEJONPCJ
MJ[JOHUIFN
*OTPNFDVMUVSFT UIFBCJMJUZUPDPNNVOJDBUFJTOPUQFSDFJWFEBTMJNJUFEUP
PSEJOBSZIVNBOT"NPOHUIF"TIBOUJ B8FTU"GSJDBOQFPQMFPOUIF(VMGPG
(VJOFB BNJEXJGFNBZEJSFDUBRVFTUJPOUPBGFUVTDPODFSOJOHJUTGBUIFST
JEFOUJUZ BOESFDFOUMZEFDFBTFEQFSTPOTBSFCFMJFWFEUPCFBCMFUPJOGPSNUIFJS
TVSWJWJOHSFMBUJWFTBTUPXIPPSXIBUXBTSFTQPOTJCMFGPSUIFJSEFBUIT5IF
"TIBOUJBMTPCFMJFWFUIBUGPSFTUGBJSJFTBOENPOTUFSTBSFBCMFUPJOTUSVDUZPVOH
NFOJONFEJDJOFUIFTFCFJOHTBSFTBJEUPDPNNVOJDBUFJOBXIJTUMFMBOHVBHF
CVUBSFBCMFUPVOEFSTUBOE5XJ UIFMBOHVBHFJOXIJDIIVNBOTQSBZUPUIFN
"TJOEJDBUFEFBSMJFSJOUIFEJTDVTTJPOPGMBOHVBHFJOJUTTPDJBMDPOUFYU B
UIPSPVHIFUIOPHSBQIJDBDDPVOUPGDPNNVOJDBUJWFCFIBWJPSNVTUDBSFGVMMZ
OPUFUIFDIBSBDUFSJTUJDTPGUIFQBSUJDJQBOUT"HF HFOEFS FUIOJDBGGJMJBUJPO
SFMBUJPOTIJQ LJOTIJQ
BNPOHQBSUJDJQBOUT UIFJSSFMBUJWFTPDJBMTUBUVT UIF
EFHSFFUPXIJDIUIFZBSFBDRVBJOUFE BOEPUIFSGBDUPSTDBOJOGMVFODFIPX
DPNNVOJDBUJPOQSPDFFET8IPUBMLTUPXIPNBOEJOXIPTFQSFTFODFUFOET
UP EFUFSNJOF OPU POMZ IPX POF UBMLT DBTVBMMZ PS SFTQFDUGVMMZ
 CVU BMTP
XIFUIFSPSOPUPOFDBOJOUFSSVQUUIFPUIFSQBSUJDJQBOU IPXMPOHTQFFDI
BDUTTIPVMECF XIBUBEEJUJPOBMDIBOOFMTPOFTIPVMEVTFUPFOIBODFUIF
QSFTFOUBUJPO BOETPPO
"OZDPNNVOJDBUJWFBDUPSFWFOUIBQQFOTBUBQBSUJDVMBSUJNFBOEQMBDF
BOEVOEFSQBSUJDVMBSQIZTJDBMDJSDVNTUBODFTUIBUJT JUJTDIBSBDUFSJ[FECZ
BQBSUJDVMBSTFUUJOH4FUUJOHTBSFMJLFMZUPWBSZTPNFXIBUGSPNPOFJOTUBODFUP
UIFOFYUFWFOJGUIFFWFOUTBSFPGUIFTBNFLJOE CVUUIFWBSJBUJPOIBTDVM
UVSBMMZSFDPHOJ[FEMJNJUT4NBMMDPMMFHFDMBTTFTOPSNBMMZNFFUJODMBTTSPPNT
CVUPOXBSNTQSJOHPSBVUVNOEBZTUIFZNBZCFDPOEVDUFEJOUIFTIBEFPG
BUSFFPVUTJEFUIFDMBTTSPPNCVJMEJOHUPNFFUJOBOFBSCZUBWFSOPSUIFMPCCZ
PGUIFBENJOJTUSBUJWFCVJMEJOHXPVMECFDPOTJEFSFEJOBQQSPQSJBUF0O"QSJM
'PPMT%BZ QSBDUJDBMKPLFTBSFBDDFQUFECZQFPQMFXIPXPVMEDPOTJEFSUIFN
QSFTVNQUVPVTPOBOZPUIFSEBZ)ZNFTEJTUJOHVJTIFECFUXFFOTFUUJOHBOE
TDFOF UIFMBUUFSEFTJHOBUJOHUIFiQTZDIPMPHJDBMTFUUJOHw*UJTUSVFUIBUUIF
Components of Communication 191

NPPEQFSWBEJOHBHJWFOTFUUJOHNBZJOWJUFPSJOIJCJUDFSUBJODPNNVOJDB
UJWFBDUTPSFWFOUT BOEJOUIJTTFOTFUIFTDFOFDPOUSJCVUFTUPUIFEFGJOJUJPOPG
TFUUJOH0OFDBOFBTJMZJNBHJOFUIFJEFOUJDBMTFUUJOHBOEQBSUJDJQBOUTCVU
DPNQMFUFMZEJGGFSFOUTDFOFT$PNQBSF GPSFYBNQMF UIFBUNPTQIFSFTVS
SPVOEJOHUIFBOOPVODFNFOUPGBDSPTTUIFCPBSEXBHFJODSFBTFTXJUIUIF
BOOPVODFNFOUPGUIFDPNQBOZTHPJOHPVUPGCVTJOFTT

Purpose, Channels, Codes, and Message Content and Form


5IFQVSQPTFPGTQFBLJOHJTOPUBMXBZTUPUSBOTNJUJOGPSNBUJPOPSUPFYDIBOHF
JEFBT4PNFUJNFTJUJTUPFTUBCMJTIBOBUNPTQIFSFPGTPDJBCJMJUZBOEJTUIF
FRVJWBMFOUPGBIVHPSBIFBSUZIBOETIBLF4QFFDICFIBWJPSXJUIUIFHPBMPG
CSJOHJOHBCPVUTVDIBOFNPUJPOBMFGGFDUJTSFGFSSFEUPBTQIBUJDDPNNVOJPO
5IFNPUJWBUJPOGPSDPNNVOJDBUJWFCFIBWJPSWBSJFTGSPNPOFPDDBTJPOUP
UIFOFYU"OJOEJWJEVBMNBZNBLFBOPGGFSPSBSFRVFTU UISFBUFOPSQMFBE
QSBJTFPSCMBNF JOWJUFPSQSPIJCJUTPNFBDUJPO SFWFBMPSUSZUPDPODFBMTPNF
UIJOH BOETPPO0OFTHPBMPSQVSQPTFRVJUFGSFRVFOUMZEFUFSNJOFTUIFNBO
OFS JO XIJDI POF TQFBLT PS BDUT &WFO BO BHHSFTTJWF QFSTPO NBZ TQFBL
NFFLMZBOEEFGFSFOUJBMMZXIFOTUPQQFEGPSTQFFEJOHCZBQPMJDFPGGJDFS IPQ
JOHUIBUQPMJUFBOEBQPMPHFUJDTQFFDICFIBWJPSXJMMJOGMVFODFUIFPGGJDFSUP
JTTVFBXBSOJOHJOTUFBEPGBUJDLFU
"MUIPVHIUIFBDPVTUJDDIBOOFM CFTUFYFNQMJGJFECZTQPLFOXPSET JTUIF
POFNPTUDPNNPOMZFNQMPZFE PUIFSDIBOOFMTPGDPNNVOJDBUJPOTIPVME
OPUCFPWFSMPPLFE5PEPTPXPVMECFUPJHOPSFUIBUDPNNVOJDBUJWFCFIBW
JPSUIBUNBLFTQSJNBSZVTFPGPOFDIBOOFMGSFRVFOUMZEFQFOETPOPUIFS
DIBOOFMTGPSSFJOGPSDFNFOU5PIFBSBQMBZSFBEBMPVEPSUPTFFJUQSPGFT
TJPOBMMZQFSGPSNFEDBONFBOUIFEJGGFSFODFCFUXFFOFYQFSJFODJOHCPSFEPN
PSFOKPZNFOU2VJUFDPNNPOMZ UPP POFDIBOOFMPGGFSTBOFGGFDUJWFTVCTUJ
UVUFGPSBOPUIFS5IFNJMJUBSZTBMVUF VTJOHUIFPQUJDBMDIBOOFM TVCTUJUVUFTB
WJTVBMFYQSFTTJPOPGSFTQFDUPSIPOPSGPSXIBUDPVMEPUIFSXJTFCFPSBMMZSF
DJUFE BOEQIPUPKPVSOBMJTUTTUSJWFUPQSFTFOUOFXTFWFOUTQJDUPSJBMMZCFDBVTF
iBQJDUVSFJTXPSUIBUIPVTBOEXPSETw
5IFNPTUDPNNPOGPSNPGUIFBDPVTUJDDIBOOFMJTPSBM BTJOTJOHJOH
XIJTUMJOH BOEPGDPVSTFTQFBLJOH*GIVNBOMBOHVBHFJTUPCFDPOTJEFSFEBTB
HFOFSBM MBOHVBHF DPEF  UIFO JU JT NBOJGFTUFE JO TFWFSBM UIPVTBOE TQFDJGJD
DPEFT PGXIJDI&OHMJTI 3VTTJBO /BWBKP BOE+BQBOFTFBSFFYBNQMFT&BDIPG
UIFTFDPEFTTVCTVNFTBOVNCFSPGTVCDPEFT&OHMJTIIBTOPUPOMZTFWFSBMOB
UJPOBMWBSJFUJFT TVDIBT"NFSJDBO #SJUJTI BOE"VTUSBMJBO CVUBMTPSFHJPOBM
192 Chapter 10: Ethnography of Communication

EJBMFDUTTVDIBTUIPTFPG/FX&OHMBOE UIF&OHMJTI.JEMBOET BOE4PVUI"VT


USBMJB BOEBOVNCFSPGTMBOHTQFDVMJBSUPQBSUJDVMBSHSPVQT
"NPOHUIF"TIBOUJ UIFBDPVTUJDDIBOOFMJTRVJUFEJWFSTJGJFE5IFQSJODJ
QBMWFSCBMDPEFJT5XJ BMBOHVBHFDIBSBDUFSJ[FECZGJWFEJTUJODUJWFUPOFT5IF
DFSFNPOJBMMBOHVBHFQSJFTUTBOEQSJFTUFTTFTVTFJTBTVCDPEFJUJTJEFOUJGJFEBT
BOFBSMJFSGPSNPG5XJUIBU"TIBOUJMBZQFPQMFBQQBSFOUMZDBOOPUVOEFSTUBOE
5IFTPDBMMFEMBOHVBHFPGUIFHIPTUT DPOTJTUJOHPGDPPJOHOPJTFTBOETBJEUP
CFJOUFMMJHJCMFPOMZUPVOCPSOCBCJFTBOEUPPUIMFTTJOGBOUT JTBOFYBNQMFPGBO
PSBMCVUOPOWFSCBMGPSNPGUIFBDPVTUJDDIBOOFM0UIFSOPOWFSCBMDPEFTPG
UIF"TIBOUJJODMVEFUIFESVNDPEFUPDPOWFZNFTTBHFTBOETJHOBMTUIFIPSO
DPEF VTFEGPSTJNJMBSQVSQPTFTUIFHPOHDPEF FNQMPZFEGPSQVCMJDTVN
NPOTFTBOEXIJTUMJOH VTFEOPUCZUIF"TIBOUJUIFNTFMWFTCVUCZUIFGPSFTU
GBJSJFTBOENPOTUFSTXIPJOTUSVDUUIFJSNFEJDJOFNFO4PNFQBSUTPGUIFDFS
FNPOZBUXIJDIBODFTUSBMTQJSJUTBSFQSPQJUJBUFEBSFDPOEVDUFEJODPNQMFUF
TJMFODFPUIFSQBSUTQFSNJUUIFDIJFGUPDPNNVOJDBUFPOMZCZHFTUVSFT
.FTTBHF GPSN BOE NFTTBHF DPOUFOU BSF DMPTFMZ SFMBUFE  PS BT )ZNFT

QVUJU i*UJTBUSuism..UIBUIPX TPNFUIJOHJTTBJEJTQBSUPGXIBU
JTTBJEw"QBSBQISBTFNBZCFTVGGJDJFOUUPJOEJDBUFUIFNFTTBHFDPOUFOU CVU
POMZUIFRVPUJOHPGUIFFYBDUXPSETDBOSFQSFTFOUBEFRVBUFMZUIFNFTTBHF
GPSNPGBTQFFDIBDU5PQBSBQISBTFUIFTUBUFNFOUi-JLFIFMM*NLJEEJOH*WF
XBSOFEZPVOPXHFUPVU GBTUwBTi*UPMEIJNJOOPVODFSUBJOUFSNTUIBU
IFXBTOPMPOHFSXFMDPNFwEPFTBXBZXJUITPNVDIDPMPSBOEGFFMJOHUIBU
UIFDIBOHFEGPSNOPMPOHFSIBTNVDIJODPNNPOXJUIUIFPSJHJOBMDPOUFOU
)FSFJUJTBQQSPQSJBUFUPNFOUJPOUIFUFSNSFHJTUFS SFGFSSJOHUPBWBSJFUZ
PGMBOHVBHFUIBUTFSWFTBQBSUJDVMBSTPDJBMTJUVBUJPO*O"NFSJDBOMJOHVJTUJDT
UIFUFSNJTVTFEUPEJGGFSFOUJBUFCFUXFFOCSPBEWBSJFUJFTPGBMBOHVBHFGPS
FYBNQMF CFUXFFOUIFWFSOBDVMBS FWFSZEBZ DBTVBMTQPLFOGPSN
BOEUIF
TUBOEBSE QSFTUJHFGPSN
JO&OHMJTI*O(SFBU#SJUBJOSFHJTUFS JTVTFEGPSBOZ
PGBOVNCFSPGTQFDJGJDBMMZEFGJOFEWBSJFUJFT TVDIBTMFHBM TDJFOUJGJD SFMJ
HJPVT JOUJNBUF BOETPPO

Genres, Key, Rules of Interaction, and Norms of Interpretation


5IFUFSNHFOSF SFGFSTUPTQFFDIBDUTPSFWFOUTBTTPDJBUFEXJUIBQBSUJDVMBS
DPNNVOJDBUJWFTJUVBUJPOBOEDIBSBDUFSJ[FECZBQBSUJDVMBSTUZMF GPSN BOE
DPOUFOU3JUVBMPSSFMJHJPVTPDDBTJPOT GPSFYBNQMF SFHVMBSMZDBMMGPSTVDI
TQFDJBMHFOSFTBTQSBZFSTBOETFSNPOT#PUITFSNPOTBOEQSBZFSTNBLFVTF
PGBDFSFNPOJBMTUZMFPGTQFFDIXJUITQFDJBMBUUFOUJPOUPGPSN5IJTJTXIZ
Components of Communication 193

UIPV UIFF UIZ BOEUIJOF GPSAZPV AZPVS BOEAZPVSTIBWFTVSWJWFEUPUIF


QSFTFOUJOQSBZFSTBOEUIFMBOHVBHFPGUIF'SJFOET 2VBLFST

"HPPETUPSZUFMMFSPG0ME8PSMEGBJSZPSXPOEFSUBMFTXPVMEDVTUPNBSJMZ
CFHJOUIFUFMMJOHCZTPNFTVDIQISBTFBTi0ODFVQPOBUJNFwBOETJHOBMUIF
FOEPGUIFUBMFCZUIFGPSNVMBi"OEUIFZMJWFEIBQQJMZFWFSBGUFSwPS NPSF
FMBCPSBUFMZ i5IFGFTUJWJUJFTMBTUFEOJOFEBZTBOEOJOFOJHIUT5IFSFXFSF
GJEEMFST GMVUFST BOEQJQFST BOEUIFMBTUEBZBOEOJHIUPGUIFXFE
EJOHXFSFCFUUFSUIBOUIFGJSTUw*NQPSUBOUJODJEFOUTJO0ME8PSMEUBMFTVTV
BMMZUBLFQMBDFUISFFUJNFT UIBUJT UIFGPSNVMBJDPSNBHJDOVNCFSJTUISFF

XIFSFBTJO/BUJWF"NFSJDBOUBMFTUIJOHTIBQQFOGPVSUJNFT
.ZUITSFQSFTFOUBOPUIFSHFOSF POFGPVOEJOUIFUSBEJUJPOTPGBMMPGUIF
XPSMETTPDJFUJFT"SBQBIPTUPSJFTDPODFSOJOHOJIPP A8IJUFNBO BQPQ
VMBSDIBSBDUFSPG"SBQBIPUSJDLTUFSUBMFT BMNPTUJOWBSJBCMZIBWFIJNXBMLJOH
EPXO PSVQ
UIFSJWFSJOUIFJOJUJBMTFOUFODFPGUIFTUPSZ5IFFOEJTTJHOBMFE
CZUIFGPSNVMBi5IJTJTUIFFOEPGUIFTUPSZw*O6QQFS$IJOPPL B/BUJWF
"NFSJDBOMBOHVBHFTQPLFOJO0SFHPO NZUITBSFDIBSBDUFSJ[FECZGFBUVSFT
OPUGPVOEFMTFXIFSFJOUIFMBOHVBHF )ZNFT
5IFEJBHOPTUJDGFBUVSFT
PG6QQFS$IJOPPLNZUITBSFQIPOPMPHJDBM GPSFYBNQMF UIFEPVCMJOHPGB
DPOTPOBOUXPSEGJOBMMZUPJOEJDBUFTUVUUFSJOHGSPNGSJHIUPSFYDJUFNFOU

NPSQIPMPHJDBM MJNJUJOHUIFVTFPGDFSUBJOOPVOQSFGJYFTUPUIFTQFFDIPG
DIBSBDUFSTBQQFBSJOHJONZUIT
MFYJDBM SFTFSWJOHUIFVTFPGDFSUBJOOBNFT
GPSNZUITPOMZ
BOETZOUBDUJD0UIFSMJOHVJTUJDGFBUVSFTPG6QQFS$IJOPPL
BSFMJNJUFEUPDBTVBMTQFFDI
"iXBSUBMLwHFOSFXBTFNQMPZFEBNPOHUIF/BWBKP )JMM
BOEPUIFS
/BUJWF"NFSJDBOT6QPOFOUFSJOHFOFNZUFSSJUPSZ UIFMFBEFSPGB/BWBKP
XBSQBSUZXPVMEJOTUSVDUUIFHSPVQUPVTFXPSETEJGGFSFOUGSPNUIFPOFT
DPNNPOMZVTFEUPSFGFSUPUIFMJWFTUPDL DBQUJWFT BOEXIBUFWFSFMTFUIFZ
IPQFEUPCSJOHCBDLNFNCFSTPGUIFXBSQBSUZTQPLFUIJTXBSQBUIMBOHVBHF
VOUJMUIFZUVSOFEUPXBSEIPNF
1FSIBQTNPSFUIBOHFOSFPSPUIFSDPNQPOFOUT LFZWBSJFTXJEFMZBNPOH
DVMUVSFT#ZUIFUFSNLFZ )ZNFTSFGFSSFEUPUIFiUPOF NBOOFS PSTQJSJUJO
XIJDIBOBDUJTEPOFwBOEBEEFEUIBUiBDUTPUIFSXJTFUIFTBNFBTSFHBSETTFU
UJOH QBSUJDJQBOUT NFTTBHFGPSN BOEUIFMJLFNBZEJGGFSJOLFZ BT FH CF
UXFFONPDL <BOE>TFSJPVT PSQFSGVODUPSZ <BOE>QBJOTUBLJOHw )ZNFT

,FZNBZFWFOPWFSSJEFBOPUIFSDPNQPOFOU BTXIFOBTQFBLFSXIPJTQSF
TVNBCMZQSBJTJOHTPNFPOFCFDPNFTTMPXMZCVUJODSFBTJOHMZTPTBSDBTUJDUIBU
UIFQFSTPOTQPLFOPGGFFMTIVSUPSSJEJDVMFE"QBSUJDVMBSLFZNBZCFVTFETP
194 Chapter 10: Ethnography of Communication

GSFRVFOUMZCZNFNCFSTPGBHSPVQUIBUJUMPTFTNVDIPGJUTFGGFDU XIFSFBT
BOPUIFSLFZNBZCFTPSBSFMZFNQMPZFEUIBUJUNBZSFRVJSFTPNFFGGPSUPO
UIFQBSUPGIFBSFSTUPJEFOUJGZJUBOEDPNQSFIFOEJUTTPDJBMNFBOJOH
$PNNVOJDBUJWFBDUJWJUZJTHVJEFECZSVMFTPGJOUFSBDUJPO 6OEFSOPSNBM
DJSDVNTUBODFT NFNCFSTPGBTQFFDIDPNNVOJUZLOPXXIBUJTBOEXIBUJT
OPUBQQSPQSJBUF"NPOHNFNCFSTPGUIFNJEEMFDMBTTJOUIF6OJUFE4UBUFT
GPSFYBNQMF JOUFSSVQUJPOTBSFOPUDPOTJEFSFEBQQSPQSJBUFFYDFQUBNPOH
DMPTFGSJFOETPSGBNJMZNFNCFST CVUJGTPNFPOFNPOPQPMJ[FTBDPOWFSTB
UJPO UIFSFBSFBDDFQUBCMFXBZTPGCSFBLJOHJO"DPNQMJNFOUBEESFTTFEUP
BOPUIFSQFSTPOJTVTVBMMZHSBUFGVMMZBDLOPXMFEHFEPSTPNFSFNBSLJTNBEF
UPUIFFGGFDUUIBUUIFDPNQMJNFOUNBZOPUCFGVMMZEFTFSWFE8IFOSVMFTPG
JOUFSBDUJPOBSFCSPLFOPSDPNQMFUFMZOFHMFDUFE FNCBSSBTTNFOUSFTVMUT BOE
VOMFTTBOBQPMPHZJTPGGFSFE GVUVSFDPOUBDUTCFUXFFOUIFQBSUJFTNBZCF
TUSBJOFEPSFWFOBWPJEFE
5IFKVEHNFOUBTUPXIBUDPOTUJUVUFTQSPQFSJOUFSBDUJPOJTPGDPVSTFTVC
KFDUUPJOUFSQSFUBUJPO5IFOPSNTPGJOUFSQSFUBUJPO KVTUBTUIFSVMFTPGJO
UFSBDUJPO
WBSZGSPNDVMUVSFUPDVMUVSF TPNFUJNFTPOMZTVCUMZCVUVTVBMMZ
RVJUFEJTUJODUMZPSFWFOQSPGPVOEMZ"OEXJUIJOBTJOHMFTPDJFUZ JGUIBUTPDJ
FUZJTTPDJBMMZPSFUIOJDBMMZEJWFSTJGJFE OPUBMMNFNCFSTBSFMJLFMZUPVTFUIF
TBNFSVMFTPGJOUFSBDUJPOBOEUIFTBNFOPSNTPGJOUFSQSFUBUJPO
*GUIFOPSNTPGJOUFSQSFUBUJPOBSFTIBSFECZUIFJOUFSMPDVUPST UIFJSSFMB
UJPOTBSFMJLFMZUPCFNBSLFECZVOEFSTUBOEJOHBOEIBSNPOZ%FCPSBI5BO
OFO 
HBWFBOFYBNQMFPGTIBSFEOPSNTPGJOUFSQSFUBUJPOUIBUEJGGFS
TVCUMZGSPNUIPTFFNQMPZFECZNPTU"NFSJDBOT 3FGFSFODFJTUPB(SFFL
GBNJMZ
#FGPSFNBSSJBHF B(SFFLXPNBOiIBEUPBTLIFSGBUIFSTQFSNJTTJPO
CFGPSFEPJOHBOZUIJOg.*GTIFBTLFE GPSFYBNQMF XIFUIFSTIFDPVMEHPUP
BEBODF BOEIFBOTXFSFE A"OUIFT QBT *GZPVXBOU ZPVDBOHP
TIFLOFX
UIBUTIFDPVMEOPUHP*GIFSFBMMZNFBOUUIBUTIFDPVMEHP IFXPVMETBZ A/F
/BQBT :FT:PVTIPVMEHP
w*OBEEJUJPOUPUIFNBOOFSJOXIJDIUIFGBUIFS
QISBTFEIJTBOTXFS IJTJOUPOBUJPO BSJTFPOUIFJG DMBVTF
SFJOGPSDFEIJT
NFBOJOHPGEJTBQQSPWBM
*OBOJOUFSFUIOJDDPOWFSTBUJPO FWFOUIPVHIDBSSJFEPOJO&OHMJTICFUXFFO
IVTCBOEBOEXJGF TVCUMFEJGGFSFODFTJOUIFOPSNTPGJOUFSQSFUBUJPONBZMFBE
UP B NJTVOEFSTUBOEJOH 5IF GPMMPXJOH FYBNQMF JT BMTP GSPN 5BOOFO
o
 5IF SFDPOTUSVDUFE DPOWFSTBUJPO CFUXFFO B OBUJWF /FX
:PSLFSXJGFBOEIFS(SFFLIVTCBOESVOTBTGPMMPXTi8JGF+PIOTIBWJOHB
QBSUZ8BOOBHP )VTCBOE0, -BUFS
8JGF"SFZPVTVSFZPVXBOUUPHP
Components of Communication 195

UPUIFQBSUZ )VTCBOE0, MFUTOPUHP*NUJSFEBOZXBZw5BOOFOTDPN


NFOUBSZ HJWFOIFSFPOMZJOQBSU


*OEJTDVTTJOHUIFNJTVOEFSTUBOEJOH UIF"NFSJDBOXJGFSFQPSUFETIFIBE
NFSFMZCFFOBTLJOHXIBUIFSIVTCBOEXBOUFEUPEPXJUIPVUDPOTJEFSJOHIFS
PXOQSFGFSFODF4JODFTIFXBTBCPVUUPHPUPUIJTQBSUZKVTUGPSIJN TIFUSJFE
UPNBLFTVSFUIBUUIBUXBTIJTQSFGFSFODFCZBTLJOHIJNBTFDPOEUJNF4IF
XBTCFJOHTPMJDJUPVTBOEDPOTJEFSBUF5IF(SFFLIVTCBOETBJEUIBUCZCSJOH
JOHVQUIFRVFTUJPOPGUIFQBSUZ IJTXJGFXBTMFUUJOHIJNLOPXUIBUTIF
XBOUFEUPHP TPIFBHSFFEUPHP5IFOXIFOTIFCSPVHIUJUVQBHBJO TIF
XBTMFUUJOHIJNLOPXUIBUTIFEJEOUXBOUUPHPTIFIBEPCWJPVTMZDIBOHFE
IFSNJOE4PIFDBNFVQXJUIBSFBTPOOPUUPHP UPNBLFIFSGFFMBMMSJHIU
BCPVUHFUUJOHIFSXBZ5IJTJTQSFDJTFMZUIFTUSBUFHZSFQPSUFECZUIF(SFFL
XPNBOXIPEJEXIBUIFSGBUIer..XBOUFEXJUIPVUFYQFDUJOHIJNUPUFMMIFS
EJSFDUMZXIBUUIBUXBT

.JTVOEFSTUBOEJOHTNBZCFFYQFDUFEXIFOJOEJWJEVBMTJOUFSQSFUDVFTHFO
FSBUFECZPUIFSTBDDPSEJOHUPSVMFTUIBUBSFEJGGFSFOU64DJUJ[FOTPG.FYJDBO
PSJHJONBZXFMMIBWFOPSNTPGJOUFSQSFUJOHDPNNVOJDBUJWFCFIBWJPSUIBUEJG
GFSGSPNUIPTFBEIFSFEUPCZGFMMPXDJUJ[FOTPG+BQBOFTFBODFTUSZ"XBSFOFTTPG
UIFTFEJGGFSFODFTBOEBOFFEGPSVOEFSTUBOEJOHBOEBEKVTUNFOUBSFQBSUJDV
MBSMZDSVDJBMJOJOUFSDVMUVSBMDPNNVOJDBUJPO*OBTUVEZDPOEVDUFEBUUIF6OJ
WFSTJUZPG$PMPSBEPBNPOHNBMFTUVEFOUTGSPN"SBCJDTQFBLJOHDPVOUSJFTBOE
NBMFTUVEFOUTGSPNUIF6OJUFE4UBUFT .JDIBFM8BUTPOBOE5IFPEPSF(SBWFT
o
GPVOE NVDIBTUIFZIBEIZQPUIFTJ[FE UIBUi"SBCTDPOGSPOUFE
FBDIPUIFSNPSFEJSFDUMZUIBO"NFSJDBOTXIFODPOWFSTJOg.5IFZTBUDMPTFS
UPFBDIPUher..<BOE>XFSFNPSFMJLFMZUPUPVDIFBDIPUIFS5IFZMPPLFE
FBDIPUIFSNPSFTRVBSFMZJOUIFFZe..BOd..DPOWFSTFENPSFMPVEMZUIBO
"NFSJDBOs...1FSTPOTGSPNUIFWBSJPVT"SBCDPVOUSJFT<BQQFBSFEUP>CFNPSF
TJNJMBSUPFBDIPUIFSUIBOUPBOZSFHJPOBMHSPVQPG"NFSJDBOTw*OUFSQSFUBUJPO
PG"NFSJDBODPNNVOJDBUJWFCFIBWJPSCZGPSFJHOWJTJUPSTUPUIF6OJUFE4UBUFT
BDDPSEJOHUPUIFJSPXOOPSNT BOEWJDFWFSTB DBOPOMZSFTVMUJONJTVOEFS
TUBOEJOHSBUIFSUIBOUIFBQQSFDJBUJPOPGEJGGFSFOUDVMUVSFT
*O EJTDVTTJOH UIF WBSJPVT DPNQPOFOUT PG TQFFDI  )ZNFT VTFE BT B
NOFNPOJDEFWJDFUIFXPSE41&",*/( XIPTFMFUUFSTTUBOEGPSTFUUJOHT
QBSUJDJQBOUT FOET EJTDVTTFEQSFWJPVTMZBTiQVSQPTFw
BDUTFRVFODFT UIF
BSSBOHFNFOUPGDPNQPOFOUT
LFZT JOTUSVNFOUBMJUJFT EJTDVTTFEQSFWJPVTMZ
196 Chapter 10: Ethnography of Communication

BTiDIBOOFMT wiDPEFT wBOEiNFTTBHFGPSNw


OPSNT PGJOUFSBDUJPOBOEJO
UFSQSFUBUJPO
BOEHFOSFT
"DPODFQUGSFRVFOUMZVTFEJOSFDFOUZFBSTJTUFSNFEGSBNF PS UPFOEPX
JUXJUITPNFEZOBNJD GSBNJOH
*UJTDMPTFMZSFMBUFEUPXIBU)ZNFTDBMMFE
iLFZwBOEUPXIBUJTSFGFSSFEUPJONPEFSOGPMLMPSFBTQFSGPSNBODF"QBS
UJDVMBSQFSGPSNBODFUIBUJT XIBUUIFQBSUJDJQBOUTJOBGBDFUPGBDFJOUFSBD
UJPO PSEJTDPVSTF
BSFEPJOHXIFOUIFZTQFBLDPNNPOMZEFUFSNJOFTUIF
GSBNFPGSFGFSFODFJOXIJDIUIFFYDIBOHFJTUPCFJOUFSQSFUFEBOEVOEFS
TUPPE"VUIFOUJDGSBNFTBSFDVMUVSFTQFDJGJDBOEWBSZ TPNFXIBUPSBHSFBU
EFBM GSPNPOFTPDJFUZUPBOPUIFS"TIPSUMJTUPGGSBNFT PSGSBNJOHTUIFMJTU
DPVMECFHSFBUMZFYQBOEFE
NJHIUJODMVEFCBSHBJOJOH DPNQMBJOJOH DPO
HSBUVMBUJOH TPNFPOF
DPOTVMUJOH FYDVTJOH POFTFMG
JOTJOVBUJOH TPNF
UIJOH
 JOUFSWJFXJOH TPNFPOF
 KPLJOH  NJNJDLJOH TPNFPOF
 BOE
SFQPSUJOH TPNFUIJOH
5IFTFBOEPUIFSTQFFDITJUVBUJPOTIBWFNFBOJOHT
UIBUQBSUJDJQBOUTBSFGBNJMJBSXJUI FYDFQUJOTJUVBUJPOTPGXJEFEJGGFSFODFJO
BHFPSTPDJPFDPOPNJDTUBUVT"MBDLPGDPNNPOGSBNFDPVMECFFYUSFNFJG
UXP PSTFWFSBM
JOEJWJEVBMTPGTUSJLJOHMZEJGGFSFOUDVMUVSBMCBDLHSPVOETXFSF
UPJOUFSBDU5IFQVSQPTFPGTVDIBEJTDPVSTFNJHIUCFQPPSMZTFSWFE PSFWFO
BTFSJPVTNJTVOEFSTUBOEJOHDPVMESFTVMU
"TBNQMFMJTUPGNFBOTCZXIJDIEJTDPVSTFTBSFGSBNFEJODMVEFTTVDITUZ
MJTUJDEFWJDFTBTSIZNFQSPTPEJDEFWJDFTGPSFYBNQMF UFNQPPSJOUPOBUJPO
TVDIGJHVSFTPGTQFFDIBTNFUBQIPSBOENFUPOZNZHFOSFGPSNVMBTTVDIBT
DPOWFOUJPOBMPQFOJOHTPSDMPTJOHTPGGBJSZUBMFTTQFDJBMDPEFTGPSFYBNQMF
UIFVTFPGBSDIBJDXPSETPSPCTDFOJUJFTBOEBEJTUJODUJWFNBOOFSPGTQFFDI
TVDIBTBWFSZGPSNBMTUZMFPSBOJOUJNBUFPOF
4VXBLP8BUBOBCFTBDDPVOUPG"NFSJDBOBOE+BQBOFTFVOJWFSTJUZTUVEFOUT
HSPVQEJTDVTTJPOT 8BUBOBCF
BEESFTTFEUIFDVMUVSBMEJGGFSFODFTJOGSBN
JOH5PHJWFBOFYBNQMF8IFSFBTUIF"NFSJDBOTUVEFOUTFOUFSFEBOEFYJUFE
UIFEJTDVTTJPOGSBNFJNNFEJBUFMZBOEEJSFDUMZ UIF+BQBOFTFTUVEFOUTCFHBO
UIFJSQBSUJDJQBUJPOEFMJCFSBUFMZBOENBEFUIFJSQPJOUTHSBEVBMMZ.PSFPWFS UIF
"NFSJDBOTUVEFOUTBDDFQUFEBQPUFOUJBMDPOGSPOUBUJPOBTBHJWFO XIFSFBTUIF
+BQBOFTFTUVEFOUTUSJFEUPBWPJEDPOGSPOUBUJPO DPOTJEFSJOHCPUITVQQPSUJWFBOE
PQQPTJOHBSHVNFOUT5IJTQBSUJDVMBSDIBSBDUFSJTUJDXBTQFSDFJWFECZUIF"NFS
JDBOTBTUPPJOEJSFDUBOEBNCJHVPVT"DDPSEJOHUP8BUBOBCF 

<8>IFO+BQBOFTFBOE"NFSJDBOTBSFUPEJTDVTTBDPOUSPWFSTJBMJTTVF UIF
+BQBOFTFNBZFYQFSJFODFGSVTUSBUJPO CFJOHVOBCMFUPQBSUJDJQBUFJOUIFBS
Subanun Drinking Talk 197

HVNFOUCFDBVTFUIFZGJOEUIFPOFBUBUJNFBSHVNFOUBUJPOPGUIF"NFSJ
DBOTUPPGBTU<UIFSFGFSFODFIFSFJTUPUIFGBDUUIBU"NFSJDBOQBSUJDJQBOUT
QSFTFOUFEPOFQPTJUJPOBUBUJNFBOEESFXBDPODMVTJPOFBDIUJNF>"UUIF
TBNFUJNF UIF"NFSJDBOTNBZQFSDFJWFUIF+BQBOFTFBTJMMPHJDBMBOEFMVTJWF
CFDBVTFUIFZHJWFCPUITVQQPSUJWFBOEDPOUSBEJDUPSZBDDPVOUT

Subanun Drinking Talk


"HPPEFYBNQMFPGBOFUIOPHSBQIZPGTQFBLJOHBDDPVOUPGBTQFFDITJUVB
UJPOJTUIFQBQFSi)PXUP"TLGPSB%SJOLJO4VCBOVOw 'SBLF
5IF
4VCBOVOBSFTXJEEFOBHSJDVMUVSJTUTXIPMJWFJOUIFNPVOUBJOPVTJOUFSJPSPG
BQFOJOTVMBPOUIF1IJMJQQJOFJTMBOEPG.JOEBOBP'SBLFTBSUJDMFEFBMUPOMZ
XJUIUIFESJOLJOHPGHBTJ BGFSNFOUFECFWFSBHFVTVBMMZNBEFPGSJDF NBO
JPD BOENBJ[F UIBU'SBLFMBCFMFEiCFFSw5IFESJOLJOHPGCFFSJTBSFRVJSFE
BDUJWJUZMJNJUFEUPGFTUJWFHBUIFSJOHTPDDBTJPOFECZTPNFTQFDJGJDFWFOUBOE
DIBSBDUFSJ[FECZUIFQBSUJDJQBUJPOPGTFWFSBMGBNJMJFT5IFCFFSJTESVOLXJUI
CBNCPPTUSBXTGSPNB$IJOFTFKBSDPOUBJOJOHUIFGFSNFOUFENBTI+VTUCF
GPSFUIFESJOLJOHCFHJOT UIFKBSJTGJMMFEXJUIXBUFS5IFSFTVMUJOHCFFS XIJDI
DPOUBJOTBGBJSBNPVOUPGBMDPIPM JTTVDLFEVQCZTUSBXGSPNUIFCPUUPNPG
UIFKBSCZFBDIQBSUJDJQBOUJOUVSO
5IFGJSTUTUBHFPGUIFESJOLJOHFODPVOUFSDPOTJTUTPGUBTUJOH%VSJOHUIJT
TUBHF UIFQFSTPOXIPQSPWJEFTUIFKBSJOWJUFTUIFQBSUJDJQBOUXIPFOKPZTUIF
IJHIFTUSFTQFDUUPESJOL5IJTQFSTPONVTUUIFOBTLFBDIPGUIFPUIFSQBS
UJDJQBOUTUPQFSNJUIJNUPESJOL FYQSFTTJOHSPMFEJTUBODFTBOEBVUIPSJUZSF
MBUJPOTCFUXFFOIJNTFMGBOEUIFPUIFSTCZUIFPSEFSJOXIJDIIFBTLTUIFJS
QFSNJTTJPOBOEUIFUFSNTPGBEESFTTIFVTFT4FWFSBMSPVOETPGUBTUJOHBSF
TVDDFFEFECZDPNQFUJUJWFESJOLJOH%VSJOHUIJTTUBHF UIFUBMLDFOUFSTPOUIF
RVBMJUZPGUIFCFFSBOEUIFQFSGPSNBODFPGUIFQBSUJDJQBOUT5IFESJOLFST
NVTUDPOTVNFOPMFTTUIBOUIFBNPVOUESVOLCZUIFQFSTPOJOJUJBUJOHUIF
SPVOE%VSJOHUIFDPNQFUJUJPO UIFOVNCFSPGQBSUJDJQBOUTBTBSVMFJTSF
EVDFEUPGFXFSUIBOBIBMGEP[FO$PNQFUJUJWFESJOLJOHUIFODPOUJOVFTXJUI
BEJTDVTTJPOCFHJOOJOHXJUIUSJWJBMHPTTJQBOEQSPDFFEJOHUPTVCKFDUTPG
DVSSFOUDPODFSO*UDVMNJOBUFTJOXIBU'SBLFUFSNFEiHBNFESJOLJOH wXIJDI
GFBUVSFTBEJTQMBZPGWFSCBMBSU 'SBLFTEFTDSJQUJPOPGUIFMBTUUXPEJTDPVSTF
TUBHFT EJTDVTTJPOBOEEJTQMBZPGWFSCBMBSU BQQFBSTJO#PY

*OTIPSU BNPOHUIF4VCBOVO TQFBLJOHJOUIFDPOUFYUPGGFTUJWFESJOLJOH


DBOCFVTFEUPFYUFOE EFGJOF BOENBOJQVMBUFBQFSTPOTTPDJBMSFMBUJPOTIJQT
198 Chapter 10: Ethnography of Communication

B OX 1 0 . 1 F E S T I V E D R I N K I N G A N D
TA L K I N G A M O N G T H E S U B A N U N

As the size and role-structure of the gathering becomes defined, discourse


changes in topic to removed referents, usually beginning with relatively
trivial gossip, proceeding to more important subjects of current interest,
and, finally, in many cases arriving at litigation. . . . Success in effecting
legal decisions depends on achieving a commanding role in the en-
counter and on debating effectively from that position. Since there are no
sanctions of force legally applicable to back up a decision, the payment
of a fine in compliance with a decision is final testimony to the prowess
in verbal combat of the person who made the decision.
. . . If drinking continues long enough, the focus of messages shifts
from their topics to play with message forms themselves, following styl-
ized patterns of song and verse composition. Songs and verses are com-
posed on the spot to carry on discussions in an operetta-like setting. Even
unsettled litigation may be continued in this manner, the basis for decision
being shifted from cogent argument to verbal artistry. The most prestigious
kinds of drinking songs require the mastery of an esoteric vocabulary by
means of which each line is repeated with a semantically equivalent but
formally different line. Game drinking is a frequent accompaniment to
these displays of verbal art. Together they help assure that the festivity will
end with good feelings among all participants, a goal which is explicitly
stated by the Subanun. Participants who had displayed marked hostility
toward each other during the course of drinking talk may be singled out
for special ritual treatment designed to restore good feelings.
from Charles O. Frake, How to Ask for a Drink in Subanun (1964), 130131

5PTQFBL4VCBOVOHSBNNBUJDBMMZBOETFOTJCMZJTOPUFOPVHI*OPSEFSUPCF
DPNFSFTQFDUFEBOEBDIJFWFBQPTJUJPOPGMFBEFSTIJQJO4VCBOVOTPDJFUZ BQFS
TPONVTUIBWFUIFTLJMMUPiUBMLGSPNUIFTUSBX wUIBUJT POFNVTULOPXXIBUUP
TBZUPXIPNBOEXIFO BOEJOBEEJUJPOCFBCMFUPVTFUIFMBOHVBHFDSFBUJWFMZ

Attitudes Toward the Use of Speech


5IFCVMLPGJOGPSNBUJPOJOBMMDPNNVOJUJFTJTUSBOTNJUUFECZTQFFDI CVU
NFNCFSTPGTPNFDPNNVOJUJFTFOHBHFJOTQFBLJOHNPSFSFBEJMZUIBOEP
Attitudes Toward the Use of Speech 199

NFNCFSTPGPUIFST*OIJT-BXT 1MBUPIBTBOFMEFSMZ"UIFOJBODPNNFOUUIBU
JO(SFFDFJUJTXJEFMZCFMJFWFEUIBU"UIFOJBOTOPUPOMZUBLFEFMJHIUJOUBML
JOHCVUUBMLBHSFBUEFBM -BDFEBFNPOJBOT 4QBSUBOT
BSFJODMJOFEUPCFUBD
JUVSO BOE$SFUBOTIBWFWFSTBUJMFNJOETCVUQSFGFSUPCFDPODJTFJOTQFFDI
1MBUPF
*OPUIFSTPDJFUJFT UBMLJOHJTFODPVSBHFEBOEBQQSF
DJBUFECZTPNFNFNCFSTCVUEJTDPVSBHFEPSOFHBUJWFMZWBMVFECZPUIFST"D
DPSEJOHUP*OF[)JMHFS o
BNPOHUIF"SBVDBOJBOTPGTPVUIDFOUSBM
$IJMFBOEOFJHICPSJOHQBSUTPG"SHFOUJOB NFOBSFFYQFDUFEUPUBMLBHSFBU
EFBM BOEUIPTFXIPEPBOETQFBLXFMMBSFIJHIMZSFTQFDUFE#ZDPOUSBTU
"SBVDBOJBOXPNFOBSFCSPVHIUVQUPTBZMJUUMFBOETQFBLRVJFUMZJOQVCMJD
BOEUPLFFQTJMFOUJOUIFDPNQBOZPGUIFJSIVTCBOET BMUIPVHIUIFZTQFBL
GSFFMZXIFOJOUIFDPNQBOZPGXPNFO
 )JMHFSo o
"NPOH
.POHPMJBOOPNBET EBVHIUFSTJOMBXIBWFTVDIBMPXTUBUVTUIBUUIFZBSF
TFWFSFMZSFTUSJDUFEJOUIFVTFPGMBOHVBHF'PSFYBNQMF UIFZBSFGPSCJEEFO
UPVTFOPUPOMZUIFOBNFTPGUIFJSIVTCBOETNBMFSFMBUJWFTCVUBMTPBOZ
XPSETPSTZMMBCMFTUIBUTPVOEMJLFUIFTFOBNFT
*OUIF6OJUFE4UBUFTBMNPTUFWFSZPOFLOPXTTPNFJOEJWJEVBMTXIPUBML
JODFTTBOUMZ PSBUMFBTUBHSFBUEFBM UBMLFST HBCCFST DIBUUFSCPYFT KBCCFSFST
DIBUUFSFST
BOEPUIFSTXIPTBZWFSZMJUUMF UIFZBSFTBJEUPCFUJHIUMJQQFE
DMPTFNPVUIFE SFUJDFOU UBDJUVSO BOETPPO
5IPTFXIPUBMLGSFFMZBSFHFO
FSBMMZQSFGFSSFECFDBVTFUIFZBQQFBSNPSFTFMGDPOGJEFOUBOEBSFFBTJFSUP
HFUUPLOPXUIBOUIPTFXIPTBZWFSZMJUUMF5IFTBZJOHi4UJMMXBUFSTSVOEFFQw
TVHHFTUTUIBUBRVJFUEFNFBOPSNBZDPODFBMVOFYQFDUFEDIBSBDUFSJTUJDT0O
UIFXIPMF LFFQJOHTJMFOUJTOPUMPPLFEVQPOGBWPSBCMZJOUIF6OJUFE4UBUFT
&WFOUFOTFDPOETPGOPPOFTTBZJOHBOZUIJOHEVSJOHBQBSUZDBODBVTFTVDI
FNCBSSBTTNFOUUIBUTFWFSBMQFPQMFBSFMJLFMZUPCFHJOTQFBLJOHBUUIFTBNF
UJNFUPCSFBLUIFTJMFODF#VUVOEFSTPNFDJSDVNTUBODFTTQFFDIJTWJSUVBMMZ
QSPTDSJCFE%VSJOHUIFNFFUJOHTPGUIF4PDJFUZPG'SJFOET 2VBLFST
GPSFY
BNQMF DPNNVOJPOXJUI(PEJTTPVHIUUISPVHITJMFOUXBJUJOHGPSUIF*OOFS
-JHIUSBUIFSUIBOUISPVHIQSBZJOHBMPVEPSTJOHJOH
*OTPNFTPDJFUJFT SFGSBJOJOHGSPNTQFBLJOHJTFYQFDUFEVOEFSBWBSJFUZPG
DJSDVNTUBODFTBOEQSPWJEFTBOJOUFSFTUJOHDPOUSBTUXJUIUIFHFOFSBMBUUJUVEFT
UPXBSETQFFDIJOUIF6OJUFE4UBUFT'PSBEFTDSJQUJPOPGTJUVBUJPOTJOXIJDI
UIF8FTUFSO"QBDIFPG$JCFDVFJOFBTUDFOUSBM"SJ[POBiHJWFVQPOXPSET w
XFBSFJOEFCUFEUP,FJUI)#BTTP  
GPSIJTEJTDVTTJPOPGTFWFSBM
UZQFTPGTJUVBUJPOTJOXIJDI8FTUFSO"QBDIFTBSFFYQFDUFEUPSFGSBJOGSPN
TQFBLJOH0OFDPODFSOTNFFUJOHTUSBOHFST XIFUIFS"QBDIFTPSPUIFST4VDI
200 Chapter 10: Ethnography of Communication

BTJUVBUJPOVTVBMMZUBLFTQMBDFBUMBSHFHBUIFSJOHTTVDIBTSPEFPTCVUJTSF
QPSUFEUPIBWFPDDVSSFEFWFOXIFOUXPTUSBOHFSTIBQQFOFEUPXPSLUPHFUIFS
POBGPVSNBOSPVOEVQDSFX5IFZEJEOPUCFHJOUPTQFBLUPFBDIPUIFSVOUJM
UIFOJHIUPGUIFGPVSUIEBZ*O8FTUFSO"QBDIFDVMUVSFBTUSBOHFSXIPJT
RVJDLUPUBMLUPPUIFSTJTTVTQFDUFEPGXBOUJOHTPNFUIJOHGSPNUIFNPSPG
IBWJOHIBEUPPNVDIUPESJOL"OPUIFSTJUVBUJPOJOXIJDIOPTQFBLJOHPD
DVSTIBTUPEPXJUIUIFJOJUJBMTUBHFTPGDPVSUTIJQ"UQVCMJDHBUIFSJOHTZPVOH
DPVQMFTNBZCFIPMEJOHIBOETCVUTBZJOHOPUIJOHUPFBDIPUIFSGPSBTNVDI
BTBOIPVS BOEUIFZBSFHFOFSBMMZKVTUBTTJMFOUXIFOUIFZBSFBMPOF5IFJSTJ
MFODF FTQFDJBMMZUIBUPGUIFHJSMT JTBUUSJCVUFEUPTIZOFTT TFMGDPOTDJPVTOFTT
BOENPEFTUZ
$PNQMFUFTJMFODFJTBMTPNBJOUBJOFEGPSBTMPOHBTBRVBSUFSPGBOIPVS
XIFO8FTUFSO"QBDIFQBSFOUTNFFUDIJMESFOXIPBSFSFUVSOJOHGSPNCPBSE
JOHTDIPPMT8IJMFUIFDIJMESFOCFDPNFDPNGPSUBCMFFOPVHIUPUBMLTPPO
BGUFSUIFJSBSSJWBM JUNBZUBLFTFWFSBMEBZTCFGPSFUIFQBSFOUTFOHBHFJOOPS
NBMDPOWFSTBUJPOXJUIUIFN5IFSFBTPOGPSUIFJOJUJBMSFTUSBJOUPOUIFQBSU
PGUIFQBSFOUTJTUIFJSCFMJFGUIBUUIFBUUJUVEFTBOECFIBWJPSPGUIFJSDIJMESFO
BSFMJLFMZUPIBWFDIBOHFEBTBSFTVMUPGFYQPTVSFUPOFXJEFBTBOEUIBUJUJT
UIFSFGPSFXJTFUPXBJUBOETFFiIPXUIFZXPVMEMJLFCFJOH<BU>IPNF
<BHBJO>wi(FUUJOHDVTTFEPVUw XIFUIFSJOUFSQSFUFEBTEFTFSWFEPSOPU
JT
BMTPBSFBTPOGPSTJMFODF5IPTFTVGGJDJFOUMZFOSBHFEUPiDVTTTPNFPOFPVUw
BSFDPOTJEFSFEUFNQPSBSJMZJSSBUJPOBM BOEBOTXFSJOHUIFNJTUIPVHIUMJLFMZ
UPBEEUPUIFJSMPTTPGTFMGDPOUSPM5IFSFBSFTUJMMPUIFSDPOEJUJPOTUIBUDBMMGPS
TJMFODFiCFJOHXJUIQFPQMFXIPBSFTBEw JUJTDPOTJEFSFEUIPVHIUGVMOPUUP
FOHBHFJODPOWFSTBUJPOJOEJWJEVBMTXIPIBWFSFDFOUMZMPTUBTQPVTFPSSFMB
UJWFCFDBVTFEFFQHSJFGNBZDBVTFUIFNUPCFDPNFIPTUJMF
BOEiCFJOHXJUI
TPNFPOFGPSXIPNUIFZTJOHw POFEPFTOPUUBMLEVSJOHBDVSJOHDFSFNPOZ
FTQFDJBMMZXIJMFUIFNFEJDJOFNBOJTDIBOUJOH
#BTTPIZQPUIFTJ[FEUIBUJO
8FTUFSO"QBDIFDVMUVSFiUIFBCTFODFPGWFSCBMDPNNVOJDBUJPOJTBTTPDJBUFE
XJUITPDJBMTJUVBUJPOTJOXIJDIUIFTUBUVTPG<UIFNBJO>QBSUJDJQBOUTJTBN
CJHVPus<BOEDPOTUJUVUFT>BSFTQPOTFUPVODFSUBJOUZBOEVOQSFEJDUBCJMJUZ
JOTPDJBMSFMBUJPOTw #BTTP

5IFSFJTTPNFFWJEFODFUIBUUSBEJUJPOBM/BWBKPTJMFODFCFIBWJPSPDDVSTJO
TJNJMBSTPDJBMDPOUFYUT"MUIPVHIUIJTDPVMECFUBLFOBTBOJOEJDBUJPOPGB
XJEFSEJTUSJCVUJPOPGUIJTVTFPGTJMFODF XFNVTUSFNFNCFSUIBUUIF/BWB
KPTBOE"QBDIFTBSFDMPTFMZSFMBUFEBOEUIFSFGPSFBUMFBTUTPNFPGUIFTFCF
IBWJPSBMUSBJUTNBZCFWFSZPME
Attitudes Toward the Use of Speech 201

5IBUTQFBLJOHJTBDVMUVSBMGPDVTGPSUIF5FOFKBQB5[FMUBM XIPMJWFJOUIF
DFOUSBMIJHIMBOETPGUIFTUBUFPG$IJBQBTJO.FYJDP JTFWJEFOUGSPNUIFJSFMBC
PSBUFUFSNJOPMPHZGPSXBZTPGTQFBLJOH"NPOHUIFUFSNTSFDPSEFECZ
#SJBO4USPTT 
BSFUIPTFSFGFSSJOHUPUBMLPDDVSSJOHJOBHSBTTZBSFB
OJHIUUJNFUBML TQFFDIDPNJOHGSPNBQFSTPOXIPJTMZJOHPOIJT IFS
TJEF
UIFBOOPVODFNFOUCZBXPNBOUIBUTIFJTQSFHOBOU UBMLBNPOHTFWFSBMQFP
QMFXIPBSFTJUUJOHEPXO TQFFDIPGBQFSTPOXIPJTIVOHSZPSGBTUJOH BOETP
PO.BMJDJPVTHPTTJQ JOTVMUT NPDLFSZ UISFBUT BOEVOHSBNNBUJDBMPSJODP
IFSFOUTQFFDIBSFDPOTJEFSFEPGMJUUMFXPSUITPOHT QSBZFST FMPRVFOUTQFFDI
BOEEFMJCFSBUFVUUFSBODFTVTJOHDBSFGVMQSPOVODJBUJPOBSFIJHIMZWBMVFE
5IFBCJMJUZUPTQFBLXFMM FTQFDJBMMZJOQVCMJD JTWBMVFEJOBMMTPDJFUJFT#VU
EFGJOJUJPOPGXIBUiTQFBLJOHXFMMwNFBOTXPVMEOPUCFUIFTBNFJOBMMDVM
UVSFT5IFTBDSFEWPDBCVMBSZPG;VJQSBZFST TPOHT NZUIT BOEDFSFNPOJBM
DPOWFSTBUJPOTDBSSJFTQSFTUJHFBOEJTDPOTJEFSFEEJHOJGJFEUIFSBQJEMZDIBOH
JOHTMBOHXPSETPGZPVOH;VJTBSFDPOTJEFSFEGPPMJTIBOEPGMJUUMFWBMVFCVU
BSFOPUDPOEFNOFE /FXNBO
5IFUFOEFODZPGUIF,XBLJVUMPG7BO
DPVWFS*TMBOE #SJUJTI$PMVNCJB UPHPCFZPOEUIFMJUFSBMNFBOJOHPGXPSET
XBTEPDVNFOUFECZ#PBT 
JOIJTEJTDVTTJPOPGNFUBQIPSJDBMFYQSFT
TJPOTJO,XBLJVUM5IFZSBOHF JO&OHMJTIUSBOTMBUJPO
GSPNiUPOFUUMFwGPS
iUPSJEJDVMFwUPiQPTUPGPVSXPSMEwGPSiDIJFG wUPiIBWJOHBTXFFUUBTUFwJO
SFGFSFODFUPBHPPETQFFDI"OEGPSUIF/BWBKP XPSETBSFiUIJOHTPGQPXFS
4PNFXPSETBUUSBDUHPPEPUIFSTESJWFBXBZFWJM<BOE>DFSUBJOXPSETBSFEBO
HFSPVTUIFZNBZCFVUUFSFEPOMZCZTQFDJBMQFSTPOTVOEFSTQFDJBMMZEFGJOFE
DPOEJUJPOTw ,MVDLIPIOBOE-FJHIUPO

"TBSVMF QFPQMFDPOTJEFSUIFJSOBUJWFMBOHVBHFUPCFUIFNPTUOBUVSBM
BOEFGGJDJFOUNFBOTPGDPNNVOJDBUJPO BOEPOFDBOFBTJMZVOEFSTUBOEXIZ
UIFZXPVMEUIJOLTP#VUJUJTBMTPUSVFUIBUNBOZQFPQMFTWJFXPUIFSMBO
HVBHFT BOEUIFJSTQFBLFST
XJUIMFTTSFTQFDU5IF$[FDITCFMJFWFUIFJSMBO
HVBHFUPCFWFSZSJDIBOEFYQSFTTJWF XIJDIJUJT
BOENBOZ$[FDIXSJUFST
BOEQPFUTIBWFDFMFCSBUFEUIFJSMBOHVBHFJOUIFJSXSJUJOHT"UUIFTBNFUJNF
TPNF$[FDITUFOEUPWJFXUIFWFSZDMPTFMZSFMBUFEBOENVUVBMMZJOUFMMJHJCMF
4MPWBLMBOHVBHF XIJDIJTTQPLFOUPUIFFBTUPGUIF$[FDI3FQVCMJD BTBDBS
JDBUVSFPG$[FDI4MPWBLFYQSFTTJPOTUIBUBSFOPUJEFOUJDBMPSOFBSMZJEFOUJDBM
XJUI$[FDIPOFTTFFNUP$[FDITUPQPTTFTTBNFBTVSFPGHSPUFTRVFOFTT BOE
4MPWBL XPSET PS QISBTFT UIFZ DBOOPU VOEFSTUBOE BU GJSTU IFBSJOH TUSJLF
$[FDITOPUTJNQMZBTGPSFJHOCVUBTNPOTUSPVT6OJOUFMMJHJCMFMBOHVBHFTGBSF
OPCFUUFS5IF$[FDIXPSEGPSB(FSNBO /ZNFD XBTEFSJWFEDFOUVSJFTBHP
202 Chapter 10: Ethnography of Communication

GSPNUIFBEKFDUJWFOZN ANVUFCFDBVTF JUXBTUIPVHIU TPNFPOFXIPVU


UFSFEJOBSUJDVMBUFBOEVOJOUFMMJHJCMFGPSFJHOTPVOETNJHIUBTXFMMCFNVUF

Recent Trends in the Ethnography of Speaking


5IFNFUIPETPGUIFFUIOPHSBQIZPGTQFBLJOHBSFJODSFBTJOHMZBQQMJFEFWFO
JOXIBUJTFTTFOUJBMMZMJOHVJTUJD SBUIFSUIBOMJOHVJTUJDBMMZBOUISPQPMPHJDBM

JORVJSZ 8IFO GJFMEXPSLFST TP BQQMZ UIFTF NFUIPET  UIFZ NBLF VTF PG
SFDPSEFEOBSSBUJWFT NPOPMPHVFT PSEJBMPHVFTUPTIPX GPSFYBNQMF IPXUIF
TZOUBDUJDQBUUFSOTPGBMBOHVBHFBSFBEKVTUFEUPQSJODJQMFTPGDVMUVSFTQFDJGJD
EJTDPVSTF+FGGSFZ)FBUIEJTDVTTFEUIJTBQQSPBDIJOIJTBSUJDMFBCPVUDMBVTF
TUSVDUVSFJO/HBOEJ BMBOHVBHFOPXTQPLFOCZPOMZBWFSZGFXBCPSJHJOFTJO
TPVUIFBTUFSO"SOIFN-BOE OPSUIFSO"VTUSBMJB
'PSIJTBOBMZTJT SBUIFS
UIBOVTJOHBUFYUDPSSFDUFEBOESFGJOFEXJUIUIFIFMQPGBOJOGPSNBOUBGUFSB
NPSFPSMFTTTQPOUBOFPVTGJSTUSFDPSEJOHIBECFFONBEF )FBUIQSFGFSSFE
iUIFPSJHJOBMUFYU XBSUTBOEBMMwPSBUMFBTULFQUiFEJUPSJBMFNFOEBUJPOs..UP
BNJOJNVNw )FBUI
'VSUIFSNPSF IFMJLFEUPPCUBJOUFYUTUIBUBSF
TUZMJTUJDBMMZEJWFSTFSBUIFSUIBOVOJGPSN)BWJOHTVDIUFYUTNBEFJUFBTJFSUP
NBUDIEJGGFSFOUTUZMFTXJUIDPSSFTQPOEJOHHSBNNBUJDBM PSFWFOiVOHSBN
NBUJDBMw
GPSNT
5PDJUF JOBTJNQMJGJFEGPSN
POFPGUIFTFWFSBMFYBNQMFTXJUIXIJDI
)FBUIJMMVTUSBUFEIJTEJTDVTTJPO"NPOHNBOZTQFBLFSTPG&OHMJTI TVDI
GJMMFSTBTFS VI VN VTFEUPGJMMQBVTFTPSHBQTJOEJTDPVSTFDBSSZBTUJHNB/PU
TPBNPOHTQFBLFSTPG/HBOEJ5IFNPTUDPNNPOPGXIBU)FBUIUFSNFEB
iXIBUDIBNBDBMMJUwFMFNFOUJO/HBOEJ UIFOPVOKBSB JTGVMMZBDDFQUBCMFJO
BMMTUZMFT BOEJUTTZOUBDUJDQSPNJOFODFJTBUUFTUFECZJUTIBWJOHEFSJWBUJPOBM
GPSNT BTJONBOKBSB AHSPVQBTTPDJBUFEXJUIXIBUDIBNBDBMMJUBOECJDBSB
AXIBUDIBNBDBMMJU<QMBDFOBNF>
BOEBGVMMTFUPGOPVODMBTTQSFGJYFTBOETVG
GJYFT5IFXPSEKBSB VTVBMMZIFBSEBGUFSBQBVTF JTVTFEXIJMFBTQFBLFS
TFBSDIFTIJTPSIFSNFNPSZGPSBTQFDJGJDOPVO BOEXIFOBTFDPOETVDIFM
FNFOUJTVTFEJOUIFTBNFVUUFSBODF uni JTBEEFEUPFYQSFTTJNQBUJFODFBOE
TFMGJSSJUBUJPO BTJObuluki bicara ba-ga-y-i CJDBSBVOJ AUIFZBMTPTBU MJWFE

BUXIBUDIBNBDBMMJUQMBDFXIBUUIFIFMMXBTUIFOBNFPGUIBUQMBDF  )FBUI

5PMJOHVJTUTXIPXPVMENPTUMJLFMZCFBOBMZ[JOHVOXSJUUFOMBO
HVBHFTTQPLFOCZWFSZTNBMMPVUPGUIFXBZTPDJFUJFT /HBOEJEJTDPVSTF
TUSVDUVSFNJHIUXFMMBQQFBSBTIJHIMZGSBHNFOUFEBOEVOQSFEJDUBCMF8IBU
TUSVDL)FBUIJOQBSUJDVMBSiBCPVUUIFEJGGFSFODFTCFUXFFO&OHMJTIBOETVDI
Summary and Conclusions 203

"VTUSBMJBOMBOHVBHFTBT/HBOdi..JTUIBUNPTUPGUIFNSFMBUFDMPTFMZUPAQTZ
DIPMJOHVJTUJDBTQFDUTPGTQFFDIQSPEVDUJPOwBOEUIBUUIFVOEFSMZJOHDMFBSDVU
HSBNNBSBOEUIFQTZDIPMJOHVJTUJDDPNQPOFOUDPODFSOFEXJUINFNPSZMJN
JUBUJPOT TVSGBDFBNCJHVJUJFT BOEUIFMJLFiBSFGBSNPSFUJHIUMZXFMEFEUPFBDI
PUIFSUIBOJUTFFNTBUGJSTUw )FBUI
5PNBLFTPNFTPSUPGTFOTFPG
UIJTDPOOFDUJPO UIFJOWFTUJHBUPSNVTUBUUBDIEVFTJHOJGJDBODFUPMBOHVBHFBT
JUJTVTFE)FSFXFIBWFBHPPEFYBNQMFPGUIFSFDPHOJUJPOPGUIFDPOUSJCV
UJPOUIBUFUIOPHSBQIZPGTQFBLJOHDBONBLFUPMJOHVJTUJDT
*OQBQFSTEFBMJOHXJUIMBOHVBHFVTF UIFUFSNDPOUFYU IBTCFFODPNNPOMZ
FNQMPZFEUPEFOPUFUIFJOUFSSFMBUFEDPOEJUJPOTVOEFSXIJDITQFFDIBOE
PUIFSGPSNTPGDPNNVOJDBUJWFCFIBWJPSPDDVS5IFSFIBTSFDFOUMZCFFOB
UFOEFODZUPFNQMPZUIFUFSNDPOUFYUVBMJ[BUJPO JOTUFBE.BOZMJOHVJTUJDBO
UISPQPMPHJTUTCFMJFWFUIBUJUJTQSFGFSBCMF BUMFBTUJOTPNFJOTUBODFT UPWJFX
DPOUFYUBTBQSPDFTTBTTPNFUIJOHUIBUEFWFMPQTBOEQFSIBQTFWFODIBOHFT
TJHOJGJDBOUMZXIJMFUXPPSNPSFJOEJWJEVBMTBSFJOUFSBDUJOHSBUIFSUIBOBT
TPNFUIJOHUIBUJTHJWFO PSGJYFE5IPTFGFBUVSFTPGUIFTFUUJOHTUIBUBSFVTFE
BUQBSUJDVMBSTUBHFTPGUIFJOUFSBDUJPOUPBJEJOUIFJOUFSQSFUBUJPOPGUIFDPO
UFOUBSFTJHOBMFECZDPOUFYUVBMJ[BUJPODVFT
5PQVUJUEJGGFSFOUMZ8IFOUXP PSNPSF
JOEJWJEVBMTJOUFSBDUGPSFWFOB
SFMBUJWFMZTIPSUQFSJPEPGUJNF UIFOBUVSFBOEQVSQPTFPGUIFJSWFSCBMFY
DIBOHFNBZBCSVQUMZDIBOHFBTXFMMBTUIFNFTTBHFDPOUFOUBOEGPSN SVMFT
PGJOUFSBDUJPO BOETPGPSUI4VDIBTJUVBUJPOJTFBTZUPJNBHJOF'PSFYBNQMF
UXPOFJHICPSTBSFDIBUUJOHDBTVBMMZBCPVUUIFXFBUIFSBOEUIFJSHBSEFOTVOUJM
POFIBQQFOTUPNBLFBSFNBSLBCPVUUIFPUIFSTDIJMEBOEUIFSFNBSLJT
UBLFOBTBDSJUJDJTNPGQBSFOUJOHTLJMMT5IFDBTVBMBUNPTQIFSFTVSSPVOEJOH
UIFDPOWFSTBUJPODIBOHFTJOTUBOUMZ5IFUPOFPGUIFQFSTPOXIPTFDIJMETCF
IBWJPSIBTCFFOGPVOEXBOUJOHNBZTVEEFOMZUVSODPPM JOEJDBUJOHUIBUUIF
DPOWFSTBUJPOJTBCPVUUPFOE BOEPOBWFSZEJGGFSFOUOPUFGSPNUIFXBZJU
CFHBOPSUIFUPOFNBZCFDPNFBOHSZ XJUIBDPVOUFSDIBSHFMBVODIFEBHBJOTU
UIFDIJMEPGUIFPOFNBLJOHUIFPSJHJOBMDSJUJDJTN*OUIFMBUUFSDBTF UIFDPO
UFYUVBMJ[BUJPODVFDPVMEXFMMCFTPNFTVDISFNBSLBTi.ZDIJMEJTGJOFXIZ
EPOUZPVDPODFOUSBUFPOZPVSPXO XIPJTBMXBZTMFBEJOHPVSCPZBTUSBZw

Summary and Conclusions


&UIOPHSBQIZPGDPNNVOJDBUJPOJTBOJNQPSUBOUSFDFOUEFWFMPQNFOUTVQ
QMFNFOUJOHUIFBMSFBEZXFMMFTUBCMJTIFETUVEZPGDVMUVSFTCZBOUISPQPMPHJTUT
204 Chapter 10: Ethnography of Communication

BOEMBOHVBHFTCZMJOHVJTUT5IFHPBMTPGUIJTOFXGJFMEBSFGJSTUUPHJWFBTDPN
QMFUFBOBDDPVOUBTQPTTJCMFPGUIFTPDJBMVTFTPGTQFFDIJOEJGGFSFOUTPDJFUJFT
BOEUIFOUPQSPEVDFIJTUPSJDBMBOEDPNQBSBUJWFTUVEJFTPOUIFTVCKFDU FUI
OPMPHZPGDPNNVOJDBUJPO
5IVTGBSUIFTDPQFPGFUIOPHSBQIZPGDPNNV
OJDBUJPO IBT CFFO MBSHFMZ EFTDSJQUJWF BOE TZODISPOJD  CVU DSPTTDVMUVSBM
DPNQBSJTPOTPGUIFTPDJBMVTFTPGTQFFDIBTXFMMBTTUVEJFTPGIPXTQFFDI
VTFTDIBOHFPWFSUJNFBSFGPSUIDPNJOH
#FDBVTFUIFJSQVSQPTFJTUPEJTDPWFSIPXIVNBOTJOUFSBDUVOEFSUIFNBOZ
EJGGFSFOUDJSDVNTUBODFTPGUIFSFBMXPSME BOUISPQPMPHJTUTXIPTQFDJBMJ[FJO
UIFFUIOPHSBQIZPGDPNNVOJDBUJPOPCUBJOUIFJSEBUBGSPNEJSFDUPCTFSWBUJPO
PGDPNNVOJDBUJWFQFSGPSNBODFT5IFTPDJBMVOJUUPXIJDITUVEJFTJOFUIOPH
SBQIZPGDPNNVOJDBUJPOSFGFSJTUIFTQFFDIDPNNVOJUZUIBUJT BMMUIPTF
QFPQMFXIPTIBSFBUMFBTUPOFTQFFDIWBSJFUZBTXFMMBTTQFDJGJDSVMFTGPSUIF
TPDJBMVTFTPGTQFBLJOHBOEGPSJOUFSQSFUJOHXIBUJTCFJOHDPNNVOJDBUFE
"OVOEFSTUBOEJOHPGUIFEJWFSTJUZJOUIFXBZTPGDPNNVOJDBUJOHJTPG
DPVSTFPGHSFBUJOUFSFTUUPMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHJTUT CVUXFOFFEUPMPPLCF
ZPOEUIFNFSFMZJOUFMMFDUVBMTBUJTGBDUJPOEFSJWFEGSPNUIFTUVEZPGUIFTVC
KFDU5IFSFJTSFBTPOUPIPQFUIBUUIFBQQMJDBUJPOPGUIFHSPXJOHCPEZPG
JOGPSNBUJPOJOUIFGJFMEPGFUIOPHSBQIZPGDPNNVOJDBUJPONBZDPOUSJCVUFUP
UIFTPMVUJPOPGTPNFPGUIFTPDJBMQSPCMFNTPGTPDJFUJFTJOXIJDINBOZQFP
QMFTMJWFTJEFCZTJEFCVUEPOPUBMXBZTTIBSFUIFTBNFXBZTPGTQFBLJOH
11

Culture as Cognition, Culture


as Categorization: Meaning and
Language in the Conceptual World

8FIBWFBMSFBEZTFFOUIBUNJOJNBMVOJUTPGTPVOE QIPOFNFT
BSFVTFEUP
DPNQPTFNPSQIFNFT UIFTNBMMFTUVOJUTPGHSBNNBUJDBMPSMFYJDBMGVOD
UJPO5IFTFNPSQIFNFTDPNCJOFUPNBLFVQUIFXPSETPGPVSWPDBCVMBSZ
8PSETGPSNJOUPTFOUFODFT BOEUIFTFTFOUFODFTNBLFVQDPOWFSTBUJPOBOE
EJTDPVSTF #VUXIFOEPFTMBOHVBHFDFBTFUPCFTFMGDPOUBJOFE "UTPNF
QPJOUMBOHVBHFNVTUNBLFDPOUBDUXJUIUIFPVUTJEFXPSME"TUIFOPUFE
UXFOUJFUIDFOUVSZMJOHVJTU%XJHIU#PMJOHFSTBJE UIJTQPJOUPGDPOUBDUJTXIBU
XFDBMMNFBOJOH BOEUIFTUVEZPGNFBOJOHJTHFOFSBMMZSFGFSSFEUPBTTFNBO
UJDT 

#VUUIJTDPOOFDUJPOJTIBSEMZGPSFHPOFPSPCWJPVT1SPCBCMZOPUXPUIJOHT
BSFNPSFVOMJLFUIBOVUUFSBODFTPGTPVOETBOEUIJOHTJOUIFXPSME UIPVHI
UISPVHIGPSDFPGIBCJU UIFTFDPOOFDUJPOTDPNFUPTFFNPOMZOBUVSBMBOEVO
RVFTUJPOBCMFUPVT
#VUXIBUTPNFXPSEPSTFOUFODFNFBOTJTIBSEMZUSBOT
QBSFOU TFF#PY
'PSFYBNQMF POFPGUIFGJSTUXPSETBDIJMEMFBSOTJTUIF
XPSEGPSNPUIFS CVUUIJTJTEPOFPOMZJOUIFDPOUFYUPGBTJOHMFDBTFPOFT
PXONBUFSOBMQBSFOUBOEJUJTOPUFBTZUPTFFIPXUIJTNFBOJOHDBOCFFY
UFOEFEUPBMMUIFPUIFSNPUIFSTJOUIFXPSME0GUFOXFDBMMPVSPXOCJPMPHJ
DBMNPUIFSi.BNB wCVUXIZDBOUXFEPUIJTGPSPUIFSiNPUIFST wTVDIBTUIF
IFBEPGB$BUIPMJDDPOWFOU *UJTEPVCUGVMUIBUUIFOVOXIPXPOUIF
/PCFM 1FBDF 1SJ[F XPVME FWFS CF DBMMFE i.BNB 5FSFTBw #VU TPNFUJNF
i.BNBTwDBOJOEFFECFGPVOEJOPUIFSQMBDFT TVDIBTUIFOBNFTPGCMVFT

205
206 Chapter 11: Culture as Cognition, Culture as Categorization

TJOHFST #JH.BNB5IPSUPO
PSJOUIFQPQVMBS#JH.PNNBT)PVTF NPWJF
TFSJFTTUBSSJOH.BSUJO-BXSFODF#VUXIZEPXFTBZUIBUOFDFTTJUZJTUIF
NPUIFSOPUUIFGBUIFSPGJOWFOUJPO BOEUIBUJUJTOPUOJDFUPGPPM.PUIFS
OPU'BUIFS/BUVSF  DG.BDOBNBSB -ZPOT 8FJOSFJDI

.PEFSOMJOHVJTUJDTIBTCFHVOUPTUVEZTFNBOUJDTJOBSJHPSPVTBOETZT
UFNBUJDXBZPOMZSFMBUJWFMZSFDFOUMZ1BSUPGUIFSFBTPOGPSUIJTIBTUPEPXJUI
UIFJOGMVFODFQTZDIPMPHJDBMCFIBWJPSJTNIBEPOUIFTPDJBMTDJFODFTVOUJMUIF
T#FIBWJPSJTN TPVHIUUPSFEVDFNPTUPGIVNBOBDUJWJUZUPDPOEJUJPOJOH
BOE SFJOGPSDFNFOUT 5IF TFNJOBM "NFSJDBO TUSVDUVSBM MJOHVJTU -FPOBSE
#MPPNGJFMEWJFXFENFBOJOHBTBLJOEPGDPOOFDUFETFSJFTPGTQFBLFSTBOE
IFBSFSTTUJNVMJ 4
BOESFTQPOTFT 3
"QFSTPOJTIVOHSZBOE TFFJOHGPPE
4
UFMMTBOPUIFSUPCSJOHJU XIJDIIFEPFT 3
1SFTFOUJOHUIFGPPEUPUIF
IVOHSZQFSTPO 4
FMJDJUTBiUIBOLTwJOSFUVSO 3
.FBOJOHBSJTFTGSPNUIF
FWFOUTUIBUBDDPNQBOZBOBDUJPO'PSTUSVDUVSBMMJOHVJTUJDTUISPVHIUIFT
TVDIOPUJPOTXFSFHFOFSBMMZTVGGJDJFOU5IFZSFMJFEPOUIFTFLJOETPGiEJGGFS
FOUJBMNFBOJOHwUPEPUIFJSQIPOFNJDBOENPSQIPMPHJDBMBOBMZTJT'PSFY
BNQMF UPEFUFSNJOFQIPOFNFTPGBMBOHVBHF UIFZXPVMEBTLJOGPSNBOUTUP
EJGGFSFOUJBUFCFUXFFOUXPXPSETPGBNJOJNBMQBJS TBZ<BSU>BOE<BSL>*GUIF
UXPXPSETEJEOPUNFBOUIFTBNFUIJOH JUXPVMECFDPODMVEFEUIBU<U>BOE
<L>XFSFEJGGFSFOUQIPOFNFT
.PTUMJOHVJTUTPGUIFGJSTUIBMGPGUIFUXFOUJFUIDFOUVSZTBXMJUUMFSFBTPO
UPHPNVDIGVSUIFSUIBOUIJT&WFOUIFHSFBUQJPOFFS&EXBSE4BQJSGBJMFEUP
JODMVEFBDIBQUFSPOTFNBOUJDTJOIJTJOGMVFOUJBMDMBTTJD-BOHVBHF 
#VU
UIFMJNJUBUJPOTPGUIJTLJOEPGBOBMZTJTXFSFBQQBSFOUUPMJOHVJTUT BOUISPQPM
PHJTUT BOEQIJMPTPQIFSTFWFOEVSJOHUIFIFJHIUPGTUSVDUVSBMJTNTQPQVMBS
JUZ4VDIBOBSSPXTFNBOUJDTQSFDMVEFEFYQMBOBUJPOTPGGJHVSBUJWFMBOHVBHF
NFUBQIPSJDBMVTFTPGXPSET PSMBOHVBHFDIBOHFUPTBZOPUIJOHPGIBWJOH
MJUUMFUPPGGFSBCPVUTJNQMFDPODFQUTTVDIBTTZOPOZNT PSIPNPOZNT
.PEFSOMJOHVJTUJDTBOEQIJMPTPQIZOPXIBWFBNPSFOVBODFEWJFXPG
TFNBOUJDT SFBMJ[JOHUIBUNFBOJOHJTOPUTPNFUIJOHJTPMBUFEGSPNUIFSFTU
PGMBOHVBHF CVUJTJOUSJOTJDUPJU*G$IPNTLZJTSJHIUJODMBJNJOHUIBUXF
TIPVMETUVEZMJOHVJTUJDDPNQFUFODFUIBUJT XIBUTQFBLFSTLOPXPGUIFJS
MBOHVBHFUIFOTFNBOUJDTNVTUCFBTJNQPSUBOUUPJUTEFTDSJQUJPOBTTZO
UBYPSQIPOPMPHZ/POFUIFMFTT TFNBOUJDTJTRVJUFNVMUJGBDFUFEBOEEJWFSTF
CFJOHJOGMVFODFECZNBOZEJGGFSFOUEJTDJQMJOFTGSPNNPEFSODPNQVUFS
TDJFOUJTUTXPSLJOHPOBSUJGJDJBMJOUFMMJHFODFUPDMBTTJDBMTDIPMBSTTUVEZJOH
(SFFLSIFUPSJD
Culture as Cognition, Culture as Categorization 207

*OUIFSFTUPGUIJTDIBQUFSXFXJMMFYBNJOFNFBOJOHGSPNUIFQPJOUPGWJFX
PGUIFMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHJTU5IBUJT XFXJMMTFFLUPTFFIPXNFBOJOH
FNFSHFTUISPVHIUIFJOUFSBDUJPOTPGDVMUVSF DPHOJUJPO BOEDBUFHPSJ[BUJPO
8FTUBSUXJUITPNFJTTVFTPGOPNFODMBUVSFIPXXFNJHIUGPSNBMMZEFGJOF
XPSET DPODFQUT BOEDBUFHPSJFTBOEXFXJMMNBLFTPNFSFNBSLTPOIPX
TVDIUFSNTIBWFCFFOUIPVHIUBCPVUJOUIFQBTU8FXJMMUIFOMPPLJOTPNF
EFUBJMBUIPXMBOHVBHFNFFUTUIFSFBMDVMUVSBMXPSMECZFYBNJOJOHUIFMFYJ
DBM HSBNNBUJDBM BOETPDJBMOBUVSFPGDPODFQUT

B OX 1 1 . 1 A N E X A M P L E O F H OW M E A N I N G I S D I S COV E R E D

It is still not definitively clear how we as children learn what words mean.
For the most part, words are never explicitly defined for us, even though
many times specific examples are pointed out (Look, theres a puppy
coming!). Still, this process is often equally mysterious, even to adults,
when things are explained to them and they have the intellectual matu-
rity to know what to look for and the tools to do so. A case in point is
when one of the authors (Stanlaw) was studying Japanese. The first week
of language class he learned two important survival words: eat (taberu)
and drink (nomu). When Japanese people would consume tea, beer, or
water they would nomu; when they would consume sushi, hamburgers,
or pizza they would taberu. There were a few oddities, however (as seen
below). Japanese people would nomu chicken soup or aspirin, while
Americans would eat the soup or take the aspirin. If something was
dropped on the floor, a dog could eat itor taberu itin both lan-
guages (even if it was an aspirin). Stanlaw chalked this up to just some of
the inevitable exceptions to the rules in learning a foreign language and
never thought much more about these peculiarities, as about 90% of the
time he ate and drank in Japanese just fine.

ENGLISH JAPANESE
water, beer drink nomu
hamburger, sushi eat taberu
chicken soup eat nomu
aspirin take nomu
dogs stuff on the floor eat taberu

(continues)
208 Chapter 11: Culture as Cognition, Culture as Categorization

(continued)
On his first trip to Japan, Stanlaw went to the zoo one day to people-
watch and noticed a grade school class on one of their ubiquitous field
trips getting a guided tour in the reptile house. After being shown a num-
ber of snakes, someone asked the zookeeper What do pythons nomu?
Assuming he was smarter than a Japanese fifth grader, Stanlaw thought
the answer would be obvious. Even snakes sometime probably had to
drink water. He was surprised at the zookeepers reply, Pythons nomu
mice and rats. Pondering how pythons could drink mice, it finally
dawned on him what nomu really meant: to ingest something without
chewing. Pythons, of course, swallow their prey whole, so they dont
ingest by moving the jaws, which is what taberu refers to. This is why
Japanese can nomu soups or aspirins, as these are generally not chewed.
A dog, however, will chew something he picks up off the floor, even an
aspirin, so the right verb is taberu in this case.
Stanlaw went to his Japanese teachers with his new insights: First, in
English the world of consumables is divided into liquids (which are
drunk) and solids (which are eaten). Second, the Japanese divide the
world into actionswhether or not something is chewed (taberu) or not
chewed (nomu). His teachers looked at him as if he had just discovered
that the sky is blue or dogs have tails. This fact about the cultural universe
was so self-evident to the Japanese teachers that they were at a loss to
even know that it had to be pointed out (and in fact, at the time, most
Japanese-English dictionaries didnt).
Stanlaw also realized a third thing: In the English world, speakers take
medicines, regardless of whether they are solids or liquids. So there is an-
other distinction English makesthat between consumables and medi-
cines. It is the intent behind the ingestion that is as significant as either the
act itself or the item ingested. Dogs snatching up the dropped aspirin are
not really taking it, they are just eating it as they would any stray scrap of
food they find. But if a dog were sick and went to the vet, he might be given
some baby aspirins that the owner would be instructed to have him take
at certain times. These were aspects about the meaning of the English words
eat, drink, and take that Stanlaw had never been explicitly taught.
Nor had he really noticed their usage before, even though he had been
using these wordspresumably correctlyfor decades.
Jim Stanlaw
Concepts, Words, and Categories 209

Concepts, Words, and Categories


"DPNNPOMZIFMEWJFXPGNFBOJOHJTUIBUJUFOUBJMTUIFOBNFTPGUIJOHTJOUIF
XPSMEi#JMMwTUBOEJOHPWFSUIFSF PSUIJTiUSFFwIFSF5IFTFBSFTPNFUJNFT
DBMMFEPTUFOTJWFEFGJOJUJPOT#VUUIFSFBSFNBOZQSPCMFNTXJUITVDIBWJFX
BOEXFMMNFOUJPOKVTUUISFF'JSTU UIFSFBSFNBOZXPSETGPSXIJDIJUJTIBSE
UPTFFXIBUUIFZSFGFSUPJOUIFXPSME FH BCTUSBDUOPVOTTVDIBTiUSVUIwPS
iCFBVUZwQSPQFSUJFTTVDIBTiCJH wiUFSSJCMF wPSUIFiSFEOFTTwPGBOBQQMFPS
WFSCTTVDIBTiUIJOLJOHwPSiEPJOHw
4FDPOE UIFSFBSFTPNFUIJOHTUIBUBSF
OBNFECVUEPOPUFYJTU FH iVOJDPSOTwPSi(PE[JMMBw
5IJSE XIFOXFTBZ
UIFXPSEiUSFFwXFNJHIUOPUCFUBMLJOHBCPVUKVTUUIJTQBSUJDVMBSUSFFJOGSPOU
PGVT CVUPGUSFFOFTT UIFRVBMJUZPSOBUVSFPGUSFFT

4PNFFBSMZSIFUPSJDJBOTBSHVFEUIBUUIFUIJOHTJOUIFXPSME SFGFSFOUT
BOE
UIFXPSET TZNCPMT
UIBUSFGFSUPUIFNBSFNFEJBUFECZDPODFQUTJOUIFNJOE
UIBUVOEFSMJFUIFN UIPVHIU
5IJTJTSFGMFDUFEJOUIFMFGUEJBHSBNCFMPX UIF
GBNPVTiTFNJPUJDUSJBOHMFwPG0HEFOBOE3JDIBSET 
'PSFYBNQMF
TFFJOHBOBDUVBMQIZTJDBMSFGFSFOU TVDIBTBiUSFF wDPOKVSFTVQUIPVHIUT
BCPVUUSFFT HJWJOHSJTFUPUIFTQPLFOTZNCPM UIBUJT UIFXPSE53&&0G
DPVSTF UIJOHTDBOHPUIFPUIFSEJSFDUJPOIFBSJOHTPNFPOFTBZUIFXPSE
iUSFFw QVUT BMM UIFTF TBNF QSPDFTTFT JO SFWFSTF NPUJPO 5IFSF IBWF CFFO
EP[FOTPGWBSJFUJFTPGUIFTFNJPUJDUSJBOHMFBMMFNQIBTJ[JOHEJGGFSFOUBT
QFDUTPGUIFDPOOFDUJPOTCFUXFFOPCKFDUTJOUIFXPSME UIFXPSETVTFEUP
TZNCPMJ[FUIFN BOEUIFUIPVHIUTUIFTFXPSETHFOFSBUFBOEXFXJMMVTF
UIFWFSTJPOEFQJDUFEPOUIFSJHIUGPSPVSEJTDVTTJPOIFSF

thought concept

symbol referent word category

i$PODFQUTwBOEiXPSETwBSFPGUFOOPUEJTUJOHVJTIFE BOENVDIPGUIFMJU
FSBUVSFVTFTUIFUFSNTJOUFSDIBOHFBCMZ#ZDPODFQUXFNFBOBOPOMJOHVJTUJD
QTZDIPMPHJDBMSFQSFTFOUBUJPOPGBDBUFHPSZPSDMBTTPGFOUJUJFTJOUIFXPSME
.VSQIZ
"XPSEJTUIFMJOHVJTUJDVTVBMMZTQPLFONBOJGFTUB
UJPOPGUIBUSFQSFTFOUBUJPO$PODFQUT UIFO BSFUIFNFOUBMHMVF .VSQIZ
210 Chapter 11: Culture as Cognition, Culture as Categorization


UIBUUJFTQBTUFYQFSJFODFTPVSLOPXMFEHFPGTPNFDBUFHPSZPSDMBTT
PGPCKFDUTJOUIFXPSMEXJUIPVSQSFTFOUFYQFSJFODFJOMBCFMJOHUIFNCZ
NFBOTPGXPSET
$BUFHPSJFTBSFTVCUMF8FDBOCFHJOUIJOLJOHBCPVUDBUFHPSJFTCZSFBMJ[JOH
UIBUOPUXPPCKFDUTJOUIFSFBMXPSMEBSFFYBDUMZUIFTBNF/PNBUUFSIPX
DMPTFUIFZNBZTFFN HJWFOFOPVHIUJNFBOEBUUFOUJPOUPEFUBJM XFDBOBM
XBZTGJOETPNFEJGGFSFODFTCFUXFFOUIFN*GUIFEJGGFSFODFTEPOPUNBUUFS
UIFUXPJUFNTBSFQMBDFEJOUIFTBNFDBUFHPSZ*GUIFTFEJGGFSFODFTEP NBLF
BEJGGFSFODF UIFOUIFZBSFOPU$BUFHPSJFT UIFO BSFUIFCSJEHFCFUXFFOUIF
OFDFTTJUZPGNBLJOHHFOFSBMJ[BUJPOT BOEJHOPSJOHEJGGFSFODFTUIBUEPOUNBU
UFS
BOEUIFOFDFTTJUZPGNBLJOHEJTUJODUJPOT BOEBUUFOEJOHUPEJGGFSFODFT
UIBUEPNBLFBEJGGFSFODF
5IJTIBTTPNFJNQPSUBOUJNQMJDBUJPOT
'JSTU QFSDFQUJPOJTKVTUBTNVDIBCPVUJHOPSJOHTUJNVMJBTJUJTBCPVUSF
TQPOEJOHUPUIFN8FIBWFBOJOGJOJUZPGTUJNVMJDPNJOHJOUPPVSCSBJOTBU
BOZHJWFONPNFOU"MBOHVBHFPSDVMUVSFTDBUFHPSJFTBMMPXVTUPGJMUFSPVUUIF
VOJNQPSUBOUGSPNUIFJNQPSUBOU4FDPOE UIFIVNBOCSBJOBMMPXTVTUPSFBDU
UP UIF XPSME VTJOH DBUFHPSJFT JOTUBOUBOFPVTMZ *G XF IBE UP MPPL BU  BOE
VOJRVFMZSFTQPOEUP FWFSZEFTLJOUIFDMBTTSPPNBTXFXBMLFEJO JUXPVME
UBLFVTBOIPVSUPUBLFBTFBU$MBTTJGZJOHUIFNBMMUPHFUIFSBTiEFTLTw
XIFSFQSFTVNBCMZPOFJTUIFTBNFBTBOZPUIFSBMMPXTVTUPHFUPOXJUI
NPSFJNQPSUBOUUIJOHT TVDIBTUPEBZTRVJ[PSUIFQFSTPOTJUUJOHOFYUUPVT
#PUIQFSDFQUVBMEFWJDFTFEJUJOHPVUBOEUBLJOHJOTUJNVMJBSFOFDFT
TBSZUPBQQSFIFOEUIFXPSME BOEQSFTVNBCMZNPTU JGOPUBMM PGUIJTJTDPO
EVDUFEUISPVHIUIFNFEJVNPGUIFDBUFHPSJFTPGPOFTMBOHVBHF#VUHFUUJOH
BUUIFTFDBUFHPSJFTJTOPUBOFBTZUIJOHUPEP)PXBOEXIFOXFDSFBUFDBUF
HPSJFTJTSBUIFSDPNQMJDBUFE BOEXJMMCFEJTDVTTFEJONPSFEFUBJMJOUIFOFYU
TFDUJPOT'PSOPX XFDBOUIJOLPGBDBUFHPSZBTBTFUPGSFGFSFOUTUIBUJT
TPNFIPXHSPVQFEUPHFUIFS
4PNFUJNFTUIFUFSNTiDBUFHPSJFTwBOEiDPODFQUTwBSFVTFEJOUFSDIBOHFBCMZ
BOEPUIFSBVUIPSTVTFUIFNJOTPNFXIBUEJGGFSFOUXBZT"UBOZSBUF UIFSFBSF
GJWFQPJOUTUPOPUJDF 
$BUFHPSJ[BUJPOCZJUTFMGJTOPUOFDFTTBSJMZVTFGVM CVU
JUJTPVSBCJMJUZUPBQQMZPVSLOPXMFEHFBCPVU UIFDBUFHPSZUIBUNBLFTDBUFHP
SJ[BUJPOVTFGVM 
)FSFXFBSFOPUUBMLJOHBCPVUBTJOHMFSFGFSFOU BTJOUIF
DMBTTJDTFNJPUJDUSJBOHMFPOUIFMFGUBCPWF CVUPGDMBTTFTPSLJOETPGSFGFSFOUT
5IJTJTBOBMPHPVTUPUIFOPUJPOPGUIFQIPOFNFUIBUJT BHSPVQPGTPVOETUIBU
BSFQTZDIPMPHJDBMMZUIPVHIUPGBTCFJOHUIFTBNF JOTQJUFPGDFSUBJOQIPOFUJD
EJGGFSFODFTCFUXFFOUIFJSBMMPQIPOFT
 
5IFFTTFOUJBMBTQFDUPGDPHOJUJPOJT
The Lexical Nature of Concepts 211

UIFBCJMJUZUPDBUFHPSJ[FUPKVEHFXIFUIFSPSOPUBQBSUJDVMBSUIJOHJTBOJO
TUBODFPGBQBSUJDVMBSDBUFHPSZ 3PWFS JTBiEPHw(BSGJFME JTBiDBUw
 
5IF
BCJMJUZUPBQQMZDBUFHPSJFTTVDDFTTGVMMZJTiJOEJTQFOTBCMFJOVTJOHQSFWJPVTFY
QFSJFODFUPHVJEFUIFJOUFSQSFUBUJPOPGOFXFYQFSJFODFXJUIPVUDBUFHPSJ[BUJPO
NFNPSZJTWJSUVBMMZVTFMFTTw +BDLFOEPGG
 
8FTIPVMESFNFNCFS
IPXFWFS UIBUBMUIPVHIDBUFHPSJFTBSFJOEJTQFOTJCMFGPSMJWJOH OPUBMMDBUFHP
SJ[BUJPOJTOFDFTTBSJMZMJOHVJTUJD"OJNBMTNVTUEPTPBMMUIFUJNFUIJTJTiFBU
BCMF wUIJTJTiIBSNGVMwXJUIPVUVTJOHMJOHVJTUJD DBUFHPSJFT
'JOBMMZ XFTIPVMEOPUFUIBUTPNFTFNBOUJDJTUTBOEMJOHVJTUTVTFUIFUFSN
iMFYFNFwPSiMFYJDBMJUFNwSBUIFSUIBOiXPSEwXIFOUIFZXBOUUPEJTUJO
HVJTIBXPSEBTBOBCTUSBDUJPOGSPNBOZPGJUTTQFDJGJDGPSNTPSQBSUTPGTQFFDI
'PSFYBNQMF UIFSFJTTPNFVOEFSMZJOHOPUJPOPGiSVOOJOHOFTTwJOUIFUFSNT
iSVO wiSBO wiSVOOJOH wiSVOTwBOETPPO UIBUXPVMECFNJTTFEJGXFDPOTJE
FSFEUIFNUPCFEJGGFSFOUUFSNTFOUJSFMZ8FXJMMOPXMPPLBUIPXDPODFQUTCF
DPNFJODPSQPSBUFEJOUPMBOHVBHFCZXBZPGXPSET HSBNNBS BOEEJTDPVSTF

The Lexical Nature of Concepts


0OFPGUIFQSJNBSZXBZTNFBOJOHJTEFNPOTUSBUFEJOMBOHVBHFJTUISPVHIJUT
XPSET8PSETBSFCBTJDUPBMMDPNNVOJDBUJPO BOETFFNUPCFUIFGJSTUUIJOHT
DIJMESFOMFBSOXIFOBDRVJSJOHUIFJSMBOHVBHF*OEFFE BTBOZPOFXIPIBT
FWFSCFFOUPBGPSFJHODPVOUSZDBOUFMMZPV LOPXMFEHFPGBGFXXPSETDBO
TPNFUJNFTHFUZPVBMPOHXBZ FWFOJGZPVSDPNNBOEPGUIFPUIFSBTQFDUTPG
UIFMBOHVBHFBSFMJNJUFE
4FOTFWT3FGFSFODF*OPVSEJTDVTTJPOTPGUIFTFNJPUJDUSJBOHMFXFTBXUIBU
UIFUFSNSFGFSFOU XBTVTFEXIFOTQFBLJOHBCPVUDPODSFUFSFBMUIJOHT TVDIBT
BUSFF3FGFSFODF UIFO EFBMTXJUIUIFDPOOFDUJPOCFUXFFOBTQFDJGJDFYQSFTTJPO
BOEBTQFDJGJDDBTFPSJOEJWJEVBMJOTUBODF#VUXFDBOBMTPMPPLBUUSFFTBTBOBC
TUSBDUJPO*OTIPSU SFGFSFODF EFBMTXJUIUIJOHTJOUIFSFBMXPSME CVUTFOTF JT
DPODFSOFEXJUIIPXBXPSEDPOUSBTUTXJUI PSJTSFMBUFEUP PUIFSXPSET
*OPOFXBZ XFNJHIUUIJOLPGTFOTFBTUIFXBZMFYFNFTBSFPSHBOJ[FEJO
BMBOHVBHF4FOTFJTUIFTFUPGSFMBUJPOTBNPOHMFYJDBMVOJUT PSTFNBOUJDSF
MBUJPOTBNPOHXPSET5IFSFBSFNBOZLJOETPGUIFTFSFMBUJPOT5XPXPSET
BSFTBJEUPCFTZOPOZNT JGUIFZIBWFUIFTBNFTFOTF'PSFYBNQMF CJH BOE
MBSHF DBU BOEGFMJOF PSUPJOWFTUJHBUF BOEUPSFTFBSDI NJHIUCFFYBNQMFTPG
QBJSTPGTZOPOZNT PSOFBSTZOPOZNT
JO&OHMJTI4ZOPOZNZJTDPNNPOJO
FWFSZMBOHVBHF BTBOFYBNJOBUJPOPGBOZEJDUJPOBSZDBOTIPX)PXFWFS JUJT
212 Chapter 11: Culture as Cognition, Culture as Categorization

EPVCUGVMUIBUBOZUXPTZOPOZNTNFBOFYBDUMZUIFTBNFUIJOH BTJTPGUFO
DMFBSMZSFWFBMFECZVTBHF"CJHCSPUIFS BOEBMBSHFCSPUIFS GPSFYBNQMF QSPC
BCMZEPOPUTPVOEMJLFUIFTBNFUIJOHUPOBUJWF&OHMJTITQFBLFST
"OPUIFSJNQPSUBOUSFMBUJPOJTJODMVTJPO)FSFUXPUFSNT 9BOE: BSF
MJOLFECZJODMVTJPOJGXFDBOTBZi9JTBLJOEPG:w"OPBL JTBLJOEPGUSFF B
UIPSPVHICSFE JTBLJOEPGIPSTF BOEB'PSE BLJOEPGDBS5IFNPSFJODMVTJWF
BOECSPBEFSUFSNTTVDIBTUSFF IPSTF BOEDBS BSFDBMMFETVQFSPSEJOBUFUFSNT
4PNFMFYFNFTNBZCFSFMBUFEUISPVHIDPFYUFOTJPO .BD-BVSZ

4PNFUJNFTUIJTBQQFBSTBTPWFSMBQ XIFSFUFSNTNBZTIBSFTPNF CVUOPUBMM
TFNBOUJDQSPQFSUJFT'PSFYBNQMF UVSRVPJTF NBZCFUIPVHIUUPIBWFFMFNFOUT
GSPNCPUICMVF BOEHSFFO DPMPST"UPUIFSUJNFT BDPFYUFOTJWFSFMBUJPONBZ
JOEJDBUFUIBUUXPUFSNTNBZCFTZOPOZNT PSOFBSTZOPOZNT
JOGSFFWBSJB
UJPO CVUIBWFEJGGFSFOUGPDVTFT'PSFYBNQMF i5IF4FBST5PXFSJTWFSZUBMMw
BOEi5IF4FBST5PXFSJTWFSZIJHIwCPUITVHHFTUUIBUUBMM BOEIJHI BSFOFBS
TZOPOZNT CVUDMPTFSJOTQFDUJPOSFWFBMTUIJTJTOPUTP FH IJHIDFJMJOH WT
UBMMDFJMJOH
+PIO5BZMPSBSHVFT 
UIBUUIFTFUXPUFSNTEJGGFSCF
DBVTFIJHI DBOEFTJHOBUFCPUIiWFSUJDBMFYUFOUw IFJHIUNFBTVSFEGSPNUIF
CPUUPNUPUIFUPQPGTPNFUIJOH
BOEiWFSUJDBMQPTJUJPOw IFJHIUNFBTVSFE
GSPNPOFSFGFSFODFQPJOUUPBOPUIFSFH UIFGMPPSVQUPUIFDFJMJOH
5BMM JT
VTFEPOMZGPSWFSUJDBMFYUFOU OFWFSGPSWFSUJDBMQPTJUJPO
"OUPOZNT BSFUXPUFSNTUIBUIBWFUIFPQQPTJUFNFBOJOH4PNFBSFBC
TPMVUF TVDIBTSJHIU WTMFGU0UIFST TVDIBTIPU BOEDPME BSFHSBEBCMF'PSFY
BNQMF XFDBOTFFUIFDPOUJOVVNPGEFHSFFPGUFNQFSBUVSFJOUIFGPMMPXJOH
UFSNTWFSZIPU IPU XBSN MVLFXBSN UFQJE DPPM DPME WFSZDPME"CTPMVUF
BOUPOZNTIBWFCFFOPGTQFDJBMJOUFSFTUUPTUSVDUVSBMBOUISPQPMPHJTUT BNPOH
UIFN$MBVEF-WJ4USBVTT 
XIFSFUIFZBSFPGUFOUFSNFECJOBSZPQ
QPTJUJPOT #JOBSZPQQPTJUJPOTBCPVOEJOBMMMBOHVBHFTPGUIFXPSME GPS
FYBNQMF VQEPXO NBMFGFNBMF JOTJEFPVUTJEF OJHIUEBZ SBXDPPLFE HPPE
FWJM TBDSFEQSPGBOF 5IFZBQQFBSPGUFOJOXPSEBTTPDJBUJPOTQSPUPDPMT FH
8IBUGJSTUDPNFTUPNJOEXIFO*TBZUIFXPSEiXIJUFw i#MBDLw
&BSMZTUSVD
UVSBMBOUISPQPMPHJTUTCFMJFWFEUIBUCJOBSZPQQPTJUJPOTXFSFQPXFSGVMEFWJDFT
UIBUDVMUVSFTVTFEUPGPSNBOEPSHBOJ[FIVNBOUIPVHIUQFSIBQTUIFZFWFO
IBEBCJPMPHJDBMPSOFVSPMPHJDBMCBTJT CBTFEPOWJTVBMQFSDFQUJPO"MMQFP
QMFFWFSZXIFSFXFSFTBJEUPUIJOLBCPVUUIFXPSMEJOUFSNTPGCJOBSZPQQP
TJUFT  BOE NBOZ BTQFDUT PG DVMUVSF DPVME CF VOEFSTUPPE JO UIJT XBZ 'PS
FYBNQMF -WJ4USBVTTGPVOEUIBUBNPOHUIF(PGUIF"NB[POSBJOGPSFTU
WJMMBHFTBOELJOTIJQTZTUFNTXFSFEJWJEFEJOUPDPNQFUJOHIBMWFT/POFUIF
The Lexical Nature of Concepts 213

MFTT UIFTFSJWBMIBMWFTNFEJBUFEUIFJSDPOGMJDUT GPSFYBNQMF UISPVHINBS


SJBHFFYDIBOHFT4VDIQSBDUJDFTXFSFTBJEUPCFVOJWFSTBM BOENBOZBTQFDUT
PGDVMUVSFGSPNLJOTIJQ UPNZUIPMPHZ UPDPPLJOHCFIBWJPSEFNPOTUSBUFE
UIFDSPTTDVMUVSBMJNQPSUBODFPGCJOBSZPQQPTJUJPOT
(SBQIJDBMMZ UIFTFSFMBUJPOTIJQTTZOPOZNT JODMVTJPO DPFYUFOTJPO BOE
BOUPOZNTDBOCFEFQJDUFECFMPXGPSUXPIZQPUIFUJDBMMFYFNFT "BOE#
4UBSUJOHBUUIFMFGU UIFTFNBOUJDGJFMETPG"BOE#BMNPTUDPNQMFUFMZPWFSMBQ
BTBOFYBNQMFPGTZOPOZNZ/FYU #JTJODMVEFEJOUIFGJFMEPG"BTBOFY
BNQMFPGJODMVTJPO"BOE#QBSUMZPWFSMBQJOBSFMBUJPOTIJQPGDPFYUFOTJPOJO
UIFUIJSEEJBHSBN"UUIFSJHIU "BOE#EPOPUPWFSMBQBUBMM BOEJGUIFZBSF
BOUPOZNT UIFOUIFZSFQSFTFOUDPNQMFUFMZPQQPTJUFTFNBOUJDGJFMET

5XPPUIFSOPUJPOTDPODFSOJOHXPSETTIPVMECFNFOUJPOFECFGPSFXFHP
PO*OQPMZTFNZ BTJOHMFMFYFNFDBSSJFTNPSFUIBOPOFNFBOJOH*O&OH
MJTI GPSFYBNQMF QBUDI DBONFBOBTNBMMQMPUPGMBOE BQJFDFPGDMPUIVTFE
UPSFQBJSBIPMF BOFNCMFNXPSOPOBVOJGPSN BTNBMMCBOEBHF PSBOFZF
DPWFS BNPOHPUIFSUIJOHT*OIPNPOZNZ IPXFWFS UXPEJGGFSFOUMFYFNFT
IBWFUIFTBNFBQQFBSBODF5IFTFBSFUIFLJOETPGFOUSJFTUIBUBSFUZQJDBMMZ
OPUFECZTVQFSTDSJQUTJOEJDUJPOBSJFT FH TPMF TPMF TPMF BOETPMF

$POOPUBUJPOWT%FOPUBUJPO5IFEFGJOJUJPOPGEFOPUBUJPO JTRVJUFDMPTFUP
SFGFSFODFJONBOZXBZT BOETFNBOUJDJTUTBOEMJOHVJTUTHFOFSBMMZVTFUIFUXP
UFSNTJOUFSDIBOHFBCMZ%FOPUBUJPOJTUIFSFMBUJPOTIJQCFUXFFOUIFMFYJDBM
JUFNBOEUIFUIJOHPSDMBTTPGUIJOHTJUSFGFSTUP%FOPUBUJPONJHIUCFUIPVHIU
BTUIFFYQMJDJUEJDUJPOBSZEFGJOJUJPOPGBXPSE EFUBDIFEGSPNJUTBTTPDJBUJPOT
FH XJOUFS BTBQBSUJDVMBSUJNFPGUIFZFBS SFHBSEMFTTPGXIFUIFSJUJTQMFBT
BOUPSOPU PSEPH BQBSUGSPNIJTCFJOHNBOTCFTUGSJFOE$POOPUBUJPO JO
DPOUSBTU SFGFSTUPUIFFNPUJPOBMGFFMJOHTUIBUBSFUJFEUPUIBUMFYFNF'PS
4IBLFTQFBSF iXJOUFSwXBTOPUKVTUPOFPGUIFGPVSTFBTPOTCVUBUJNFiPGPVS
EJTDPOUFOUw"EPHJTOPUKVTUBQBSUJDVMBSLJOEPGEPNFTUJDBUFEBOJNBMCVU
DPOOPUFTGFFMJOHTPGMPZBMUZBOEDPNQBOJPOTIJQ
*UJTPCWJPVTMZWFSZIBSEUPNFBTVSFDPOOPUBUJPO CVUUIFDSPTTDVMUVSBM
QTZDIPMPHJTU$IBSMFT0THPPEEFWFMPQFEBTFNBOUJDEJGGFSFOUJBM TDBMFJO
UIFTBTPOFNFBOTUPRVBOUJGZUIFDPOOPUBUJWFNFBOJOHPGXPSETBOE
214 Chapter 11: Culture as Cognition, Culture as Categorization

DPODFQUT#BTJDBMMZ VTJOHBOVNCFSPGTFUTPGCJQPMBSBEKFDUJWFTSBOLFEPOB
TFWFOQPJOUTDBMF JOGPSNBOUTXFSFBTLFEUPSBUFBQSFTFOUFEJUFN'PSFYBN
QMF POFNJHIUBTL BT,SVTBOE*TIJHBLJ 
EJE IPXTPNFPOFGFFMTBCPVU
8PSME8BS**+BQBOFTFLBNJLB[FQJMPUTCZDIFDLJOHPOFPGUIFTFWFOTQBDFT
CFMPX LBNJLB[FQJMPUTXFSFBTTJHOFEUPNBLFBTVJDJEBMDSBTIPOBUBSHFU


HPPECBE
     

0UIFSQBJSTPGBEKFDUJWFTBSFBMTPVTFE FH XFBLTUSPOHPSXBSNDPME



5IFTFQBJSTPGBEKFDUJWFTBSFUZQJDBMMZGPVOEJOBMMUIFMBOHVBHFTUIBUIBWF
CFFOJOWFTUJHBUFE5IFBEWBOUBHFPGVTJOHBOVNCFSFETDBMFBOEBWBSJFUZPG
FYQFSJNFOUBMTUJNVMJJTUIBUBHHSFHBUFEBUBDBOCFDPNQJMFEBOEDPNQBSFE
'PSFYBNQMF +BQBOFTFSFTQPOEFOUTSBUFEUIFLBNJLB[FQJMPUTBOBWFSBHFPG
POUIFHPPECBETDBMFBOEPOUIFXBSNDPMETDBMF"NFSJDBOTSBUFE
UIFNPOUIFPOUIFHPPECBETDBMFBOEPOUIFXBSNDPMETDBMF"GUFS
MPPLJOHBUFJHIUPGUIFTFLJOETPGTDBMFT ,SVTBOE*TIJHBLJJOUFSQSFUFEUIFN
UPNFBOUIBUNPEFSO+BQBOFTFQFPQMF XIPXFSFUIFTVCKFDUTPGUIFUFTU
OP
MPOHFSTFFUIFLBNJLB[FQJMPUTPGUIFJSHSBOEGBUIFSTHFOFSBUJPOBTNBLJOHB
MPHJDBMBOESBUJPOBMDIPJDFUPEFGFOEUIFDPVOUSZBDMBJNUIFPWFSXIFMN
JOHOVNCFSPGLBNJLB[FTVSWJWPSTBOEUIFJSUSBJOFSTNBLF BOEXIJDIXBT
BMTPQSFTVNBCMZUIFDPOWFOUJPOBMXJTEPNPGUIFUJNF*OUIFTFTDBMFT UIF
+BQBOFTFSFTQPOEFOUTEJGGFSMJUUMFGSPN"NFSJDBOT)PXFWFS JODFSUBJOiTVC
UMFTDBMFT wTVDIBTCFBVUJGVMVHMZBOEXBSNDPME +BQBOFTFSFTQPOEFOUTBSF
NVDINPSFQPTJUJWFi<0>OUIFMFWFMPGUIFJOEJSFDUEFTDSJQUJPOTVTJOHUIF
TVCUMFTDBMFT UIFZEFTDSJCFUIF,BNJLB[FQJMPUTJOUFSNTUIBUTVHHFTUBQPT
JUJWFFNPUJPOBMSFTQPOTFBTTPDJBUFEXJUIUIF+BQBOFTFQJMPUTXFBSJOHUIF
(PET8JOETDBSGPWFSUIFJSGPSFIFBETEVSJOHUIFJSGJOBMFODPVOUFSXJUIUIF
FOFNZw 

0THPPEBOEPUIFST FH )FJTF
NBLFUXPNBKPSDMBJNTBCPVUUIF
VTFPGUIFTFNBOUJDEJGGFSFOUJBM'JSTU UIFZBSHVFUIBUVMUJNBUFMZ BGUFSDPM
MBQTJOHTDBMFT UIFSFBSFUISFFSFDVSSJOHBUUJUVEFTUIBUQFPQMFVTFUPBQQSBJTF
JUFNTFWBMVBUJPO QPUFODZ BOEBDUJWJUZ&WBMVBUJPOJTUZQJGJFECZUIFHPPE
CBETDBMF1PUFODZJTUZQJGJFECZUIFTUSPOHXFBLTDBMF"DUJWJUZJTUZQJGJFE
CZUIFBDUJWFQBTTJWFTDBMF4FDPOE UIFZDMBJNUIBUUIFTFNBOUJDEJGGFSFOUJBM
JTWBMJEDSPTTDVMUVSBMMZ)PXFWFS UIFTDBMFTDBOCFEJGGJDVMUUPJOUFSQSFU*UJT
IBSEUPLOPXXIBUUPNBLFPGUIFGBDUUIBU+BQBOFTFSBUFEUIFUFSN
The Rise and (Relative) Fall of Ethnoscience 215

LBNJLB[FQJMPU BTPOBUPXBSNDPMETDBMF*GOFYUZFBSUIFSFTVMUTBSF
 EPFTUIJTNFBOUIFQJMPUTBSFOPXSFHBSEFEUXJDFBTQPTJUJWFMZ 4VDI
RVFTUJPOTBSFTUJMMPQFO)PXFWFS GPSBMMJUTMJNJUBUJPOTUIFTFNBOUJDEJGGFS
FOUJBMJTXJEFMZVTFEJOBUUJUVEJOBMSFTFBSDI'FXPUIFSUFDIOJRVFTIBWFCFFO
BTFYUFOTJWFMZVTFEUPNFBTVSFBGGFDUBOEDPOOPUBUJPO

The Rise and (Relative) Fall of Ethnoscience


5IFXFMMLOPXOBOUISPQPMPHJTU8BSE(PPEFOPVHIDMBJNFE 
i8F
MFBSONVDIPGBDVMUVSFXIFOXFMFBSOUIFTZTUFNPGNFBOJOHTGPSXIJDIJUT
MJOHVJTUJDGPSNTTUBOE.VDIEFTDSJQUJWFFUIOPHSBQIZJTJOFTDBQBCMZBOFY
FSDJTFJOEFTDSJQUJWFTFNBOUics...<)PXFWFS >SFMBUJWFMZMJUUMF<TZTUFNBUJD>
BUUFOUJPO<IBTCFFO>EFWPUFd..UPJTPMBUJOHUIFDPODFQUTPSGPSNTJOUFSNT
PGXIJDIUIFNFNCFSTPGBTPDJFUZEFBMXJUIPOFBOPUIFSBOEUIFXPSME
BSPVOEUIFN BOENBOZPGXIJDIBSFTJHOJGJFEMFYJDBMMZJOUIFJSMBOHVBHFw
(PPEFOPVHIXBTXSJUJOHBUBVOJRVFUJNFJOUIFIJTUPSZPGBOUISPQPMPHZ
5IF"MMJFEWJDUPSZBGUFS8PSME8BS**NBEFUIF6OJUFE4UBUFTBOFDPOPNJD
BOENJMJUBSZTVQFSQPXFS5VSOJOHBXBZGSPNJUTQSFXBSJTPMBUJPOJTN "NFS
JDBOGPSFJHOQPMJDZCFDBNFJODSFBTJOHMZQSPBDUJWFBOEJOUFSOBUJPOBMJTU"U
VOJWFSTJUJFTBOEDPMMFHFT BSFBTUVEJFTQSPHSBNTQSPMJGFSBUFEBOEBOUISPQPM
PHZEFQBSUNFOUT BOEUIFJSTUVEFOUT FYQPOFOUJBMMZJODSFBTFE5IVT NPSF
"NFSJDBOTXFSFCFDPNJOHQSPGFTTJPOBMBOUISPQPMPHJTUTUIBOFWFSCFGPSF
BOENPSFGJFMEXPSLXBTCFJOHDPOEVDUFE
4FWFSBMPUIFSUIJOHTIBQQFOFEJOUIFTBOETUIBUDBVTFETPNF
BOUISPQPMPHJTUTUPSFFWBMVBUFDFSUBJOQSFXBSBTTVNQUJPOTBCPVUUIFEJTDJ
QMJOF'PSPOFUIJOH BOUISPQPMPHJTUTSFEJTDPWFSFEUIBUDVMUVSFXBTOPUPOMZ
FODPEFEJO MBOHVBHF JUXBTFODPEFEWFSZNVDIMJLF MBOHVBHF5IJTFOUBJMFE
UISFFQPJOUT 4UBOMBXC
 
$VMUVSFBQQFBSFEUPCFSVMFCPVOE BTDPO
TJTUFOUBOESFQMJDBCMFCFIBWJPSTXFSFFBTJMZGPVOE 
5IFOBUJWFTLOFXUIFTF
SVMFTXFMM BTDIJMESFOBDRVJSFEUIFNWFSZFBSMZBOENPTUBEVMUTNBEFGFX
NJTUBLFT 
"TNVDIBTUIFTFSVMFTXFSFJOUFSOBMJ[FE UIFOBUJWFTXFSFBM
XBZTIBSEQSFTTFEUPFYQMBJOUIFNBEFRVBUFMZ
"MMUIFTFDPOUSBEJDUJPOTDBNFUPHFUIFSJOUIFTBOETJOUPXIBU
XBTDBMMFEBUUIFUJNFUIFOFXFUIOPHSBQIZ BOEMBUFSFUIOPTDJFODF5IF
OFXBQQSPBDIFTGPDVTFEPOMFYJDBMDMBTTJGJDBUJPOPGUIFTPDJBMBOEQIZTJDBM
FOWJSPONFOUTPGTQFBLFSTPGBMBOHVBHFCZNFBOTPGJUTWPDBCVMBSZSBUIFS
UIBOUIFSFMBUJPOTIJQTPGHSBNNBUJDBMDBUFHPSJFT5IJTXBTEFGJOJUJWFMZBO
216 Chapter 11: Culture as Cognition, Culture as Categorization

FNJDSBUIFSUIBOBOFUJDBQQSPBDI#VUBOJNQPSUBOUNPUJWBUJPOXBTUPUSZ
BOENBLFBOUISPQPMPHZNPSFTDJFOUJGJD"TNPSFGJFMEXPSLXBTCFJOHEPOF
DPODFSOTPWFSFUIOPHSBQIJDWBMJEJUZUIBUJT IPXEPXFLOPXXFGPVOEPVU
XIBUXFUIPVHIUXFXFSFMPPLJOHGPS BOESFMJBCJMJUZJG*EJEUIJTTUVEZ
BHBJO PSJGZPVEJEJUJOTUFBEPGNF XPVMEUIFTBNFDPODMVTJPOTCFESBXO
CFDBNFBOBHHJOHQSPCMFN
&UIOPTDJFODFBEESFTTFECPUIUIFQSPCMFNTPGDPWFSUSVMFTBOESFMJBCJMJUZ PS
SFQMJDBCJMJUZ
EJSFDUMZ5IFJOUFOUXBTUPGJOEBXBZUPFYUSBDUBDDVSBUFJOGPSNB
UJPOGSPNUIFNJOETPGJOGPSNBOUT EFTQJUFUIFGBDUUIBUNVDIPGUIJTLOPXM
FEHFXBTPWFSUMZVOLOPXOUPUIFN*UXBTUIPVHIUUIBUGJOEJOHUIFBQQSPQSJBUF
NFUIPEPMPHZXBTDSJUJDBM BOETFWFSBMSFMBUFEUFDIOJRVFTXFSFQSPQPTFE5IF
NPTUJOGMVFOUJBMXFSFUIFTUVEZPGGPMLUBYPOPNJFTBOEDPNQPOFOUJBMBOBMZTJT
*OCPUINFUIPET IPXFWFS UIFBTTVNQUJPOXBTUIBUJOHFOFSBMUIFXPSETJOB
MBOHVBHFSFGMFDUUIFNFOUBMDBUFHPSJFTBOEUIFDVMUVSBMFMFNFOUTIFMECZUIF
TQFBLFST)PXFWFS UIJTJEFB BTXFXJMMTFF JTQSPCMFNBUJD
"HPPEFYBNQMFPGWJFXJOHBEPNBJOPGBOPUIFSDVMUVSFXJUIUIFIFMQPGOB
UJWFDBUFHPSJFTXBTUIFXPSLPG$IBSMFT'SBLFPOIPXEJTFBTFJTEJBHOPTFE
BNPOHUIF&BTUFSO4VCBOVO TMBTIBOECVSOGBSNFSTPGXFTUFSO.JOEBOBPJO
UIF1IJMJQQJOFT4JDLOFTTJTPOFPGUIFNPTUGSFRVFOUTVCKFDUTPGDPOWFSTBUJPO
BNPOHUIFTFQFPQMF BOEDPOTFRVFOUMZUIFJSMBOHVBHFIBTNBOZUFSNTSFMBUFE
UPEJTFBTF'SBLFTQBQFSJTBQBSUJBMBOBMZTJTPGEJTFBTFOBNFT POFPGUIF
OVNFSJDBMMZNPSFNPEFTUUFSNJOPMPHJDBMTFUTJO4VCBOVO 5IFGPMMPXJOH&OH
MJTIMBCFMTCSJFGMZFYQMBJOCVUEPOPUEFGJOF4VCBOVOUFSNT
"NPOHUIFOBNFT
PGIVNBOEJTFBTFT'SBLFSFDPSEFE TPNFXFSFEFTDSJQUJWFQISBTFTTVDIBTmee-
bag gatay ATXPMMFOMJWFS CVUNPTUPGUIFEJTFBTFOBNFTXFSFFYQSFTTFECZBTJO
HMF4VCBOVOXPSE-FUVTDPOTJEFSUIFUFSNOVLB ATLJOEJTFBTF XIJDIDPOUSBTUT
XJUI GPSFYBNQMF TBNBE AXPVOE BOEpasu ACVSO5IFSFBSFTFWFSBMWBSJFUJFT
PGOVLB QVHV ASBTI me ebag AJOGMBNNBUJPO CFMEVU ATPSF CVOJ ASJOHXPSN BOE
PUIFST"CFMEVU ATPSFJTGVSUIFSDMBTTJGJFEBDDPSEJOHUPEFQUI TIBMMPXBTBHBJOTU
EFFQ
EJTUBODFGSPNUIFQPJOUPGPSJHJOPSBUUBDINFOU BXBZGSPN PSEJTUBM BT
BHBJOTUDMPTFUP PSQSPYJNBM
TFWFSJUZ TFWFSFBTBHBJOTUNJME
BOETQSFBE TJO
HMFBTBHBJOTUNVMUJQMF
XJUIFBDIPGUIFFYJTUJOHWBSJFUJFTSFGFSSFEUPCZB4VC
BOVOUFSNGPSFYBNQMF UFMFNBXHMBJ ATIBMMPXEJTUBMVMDFS DPOTJEFSFETFWFSF

TFMJNCVOVU ANVMUJQMFTPSF BOEUIFMJLF5IFEJBHOPTJTPGBOZQBSUJDVMBSEJTFBTF
NBZ SFRVJSF BEWJDF GSPN EJGGFSFOU QFPQMF XIP KVEHF  BNPOH PUIFS UIJOHT
XIFUIFSBQBSUJDVMBSbaga AQSPYJNBMVMDFSJTTIBMMPX baga
PSEFFQ CFHXBL

#VUQSPQFSEJBHOPTJTJTOPUBOFOEJOJUTFMGJUJT
The Rise and (Relative) Fall of Ethnoscience 217

BQJWPUBMDPHOJUJWFTUFQJOUIFTFMFDUJPOPGDVMUVSBMMZBQQSPQSJBUFSFTQPOTFTUP
JMMOFTTCZUIF4VCBOVO<BOE>CFBSTEJSFDUMZPOUIFTFMFDUJPOPGPSEJOBSZ
CPUBOJDBMMZEFSJWFE NFEJDJOBMSFNFEJFTGSPNSFDPSEFEBMUFSOBUJWFT5IF
SFTVMUTPGUIJTTFMFDUJPn..JOGMVFODFFGGPSUTUPSFBDIQSPHOPTUJDBOEFUJP
MPHJDBMEFDJTJPOT<EFDJTJPOTIBWJOHUPEPXJUIUIFDBVTFTPGBEJTFBTFBOEUIF
QSPTQFDUPGSFDPWFSZ> XIJDI JOUIFJSUVSO HPWFSOUIFQPTTJCMFUIFSBQFVUJD
OFFEGPSBWBSJBOUPGPOFPGTJYUZPOFCBTJDOBNFEUZQFTPGQSPQJUJBUPSZPG
GFSJOHT 'SBLF

*OEPJOHBGPMLUBYPOPNZ UIFGJFMEXPSLFSUSJFTUPVODPWFSIPXOBUJWFT
DPODFJWFPGUIFTUSVDUVSFPGBQBSUJDVMBSEPNBJO"TBTJNQMFFYBNQMF DPO
TJEFSUIFDPODFQUPGADBSTJOUIF6OJUFE4UBUFT"NFSJDBOTMPWFUIFJSDBST TP
JUJTOPUTPTVSQSJTJOHUIBUUIFZIBWFIVOESFETPGOBNFTGPSUIFN#VUIPX
JTUIJTLOPXMFEHFPGDBSTTUSVDUVSFEJOUIFJSIFBET 0OFUIJOHXFNJHIUEP
JTGJSTUFMJDJUBTNBOZDBSUFSNTBTQPTTJCMF8FNJHIUBTLTPNFPOF i8IBUBSF
BMMUIFEJGGFSFOULJOETPGDBSTZPVLOPX wBOEXSJUFBMMUIFTFXPSETEPXO
8F XPVME FMJDJU OBNFT MJLF A'PSET  A$IFWZT  AIBUDICBDLT  A.JUTVCJTIJT 
A$PSWFUUFT BOETPPO 4UBOMBXC
5IFSFTVMUPGEBUBDPODFSOJOHGPSFJHO
DBSTPCUBJOFEGSPNBOJOGPSNBOUNBZUIFOCFSFQSFTFOUFEBTGPMMPXT
218 Chapter 11: Culture as Cognition, Culture as Categorization

$PNQPOFOUJBMBOBMZTJT IBTTJNJMBSUFDIOJRVFTBOEHPBMT)FSFUIFGPDVT
JTPOUIFOFDFTTBSZBOETVGGJDJFOUGFBUVSFTUIBUBSFVTFEUPEJTUJOHVJTIBMMUIF
UFSNTJOUIFEPNBJO'PSFYBNQMF JOUBCMFCFMPX 4UBOMBXC
XFTFFIPX
UIFQSPQFSUJFTPGEJFU WTOPOEJFU BOEDBGGFJOF WTDBGGFJOFGSFF BDDPVOUFEGPS
BMMUIFEJGGFSFOULJOETPG$PDB$PMBESJOLTUIFSFXFSF BUMFBTUBEFDBEFBHP

/PXUIFSFBSFEJGGFSFOUGMBWPST TVDIBTDIFSSZ $PLFBOEWBOJMMB $PLF TP


XFIBWFUPNPEJGZPVSUBCMFUPBDDPVOUGPSUIJTUIJSEEJNFOTJPO  GMBWPS
5IFTFOFXEBUBNJHIUCFBDDPVOUFEGPSJOBUBCMFMJLFUIBUTIPXOCFMPX
The Rise and (Relative) Fall of Ethnoscience 219

5IFBQQFBMJOHUIJOHBCPVUBOBOBMZTJTJOUFSNTPGDPNQPOFOUT BTTIPXO
JOUIFTFGJHVSFT JTUIBUTVDIBOBOBMZTJTJTFDPOPNJDBMBOEDBOSFBEJMZCF
DIBOHFEPSFYQBOEFEJOMJHIUPGOFXJOGPSNBUJPO'PSFYBNQMF JOBO
PUIFSEJFUQSPEVDU $PDB$PMB;FSP TXFFUFOFEXJUIBTQBSUBNF
XBTJOUSP
EVDFE  BT XBT UIF TIPSUMJWFE 3BTQCFSSZ $PLF *O   %JFU $PLF 1MVT
TVQQPTFEMZ B iIFBMUIZ TPEBw DPOUBJOJOH WJUBNJOT #  #  NBHOFTJVN
OJBDJO BOE[JOD
XBTBMTPNBSLFUFE)BEUIFTFQSPEVDUTMBTUFE UIFZDPVME
IBWFFBTJMZCFFOJODPSQPSBUFEJOUPUIFUBCMFBCPWFCZBEEJOHOFXDPNQP
OFOUGFBUVSFT
*OJUJBMMZ VTJOHUIFTUBOEBSERVFTUJPOT DBMMFEFMJDJUBUJPOGSBNFT
UPVO
DPWFSUIFVOEFSMZJOHQSPQFSUJFTPGWBSJPVTEPNBJOTXBTUIPVHIUUPCFQSP
EVDUJWF*UTFFNFEUPPGGFSSFDJQFTUIBUXPVMEJOTVSFUIBUBOUISPQPMPHJTUT
XPVMEHFUQSFUUZNVDIUIFTBNFEBUBJGUIFZXFSFXPSLJOHPOUIFTBNFUPQJD
BUUIFTBNFQMBDF*UBMTPTFFNFEUPPGGFSBXBZUPHFUBUTPNFPGUIFDPHOJ
UJWFQBUUFSOTVTFECZJOGPSNBOUTUIFNTFMWFTUPTUSVDUVSFUIFJSXPSME FWFOJG
UIFZEJEOUBSUJDVMBUFUIFNPSDPVMEOPUBSUJDVMBUFUIFN
0QUJNJTNXBTIJHI BOEUXPTQFDJBMJTTVFTPGUIF"NFSJDBO"OUISPQPMP
HJTU 3PNOFZBOE%"OESBEF )BNNFM
PGGFSFEMFHJUJNBDZUP
XIBUDBNFUPCFDBMMFEDPHOJUJWFBOUISPQPMPHZ*NQPSUBOUFEJUFEWPMVNFT
FH 5ZMFS 4QSBEMFZ
TBXDPHOJUJWFBOUISPQPMPHZCFJOHGSVJUGVMMZ
BQQMJFEUPUIFTUVEZPGLJOTIJQTZTUFNT BTXFMMBTUPBOVNCFSPGTQFDJBMEP
NBJOTTVDIBTEJTFBTFUFSNJOPMPHJFT DBUFHPSJFTPGCFFSJO(FSNBOZ BOETQB
UJBMDPODFQUTPGUIFIPNFMFTT1MBOUUFSNJOPMPHJFT FH #FSMJO #SFFEMPWF
BOE3BWFO
[PPMPHJDBMDMBTTJGJDBUJPOT FH #SPXO
BOEDFSBNJDT
BOENBUFSJBMDVMUVSF ,FNQUPO
XFSFBMTPFYUFOTJWFMZBOBMZ[FEJOUIJT
XBZXJUIHPPETVDDFTT
#ZUIFT IPXFWFS JUXBTDMFBSUIBUFUIOPTDJFODFBTJOJUJBMMZDPODFJWFE
XBTOPUGVMGJMMJOHJUTQSPNJTFT 4UBOMBXC
"MUIPVHIUIFTQFDJGJDTPGDFS
UBJO EPNBJOT XFSF FMVDJEBUFE  NBOZ BOUISPQPMPHJTUT CFHBO UP XPOEFS
XIFUIFSJUXBTOUKVTUiIPDVTQPDVT wBTPOFFBSMZDSJUJDBMMFHFE #VSMJOH

PSBiQBSBEJHNMPTUw ,FFTJOH
1BSUPGUIFQSPCMFNXBTUIBUUIF
OPUJPO PG DMBTTJGJDBUJPO JUTFMG OFFEFE SFUIJOLJOH FH  ,SPOFOGFME 

4PNFBSHVFEUIBUUIFJEFBUIBUBEPNBJODPVMECFEFGJOFECZKVTUEJTDPWFS
JOHJUTOFDFTTBSZBOETVGGJDJFOUGFBUVSFTXBTQSPWJOHTJNQMJTUJDPSFUIOP
HSBQIJDBMMZJOBEFRVBUF4VDIBOBMZTJTJHOPSFE GPSFYBNQMF UIFGBDUUIBU
DVMUVSBMLOPXMFEHFJTJOUFSMPDLJOH BOEPSHBOJ[FEPOUIFCBTJTPGQSJODJQMFT
SFMFWBOU UP  BOE FNFSHFOU GSPN  FYQFSJFODF 4UBOMBX BOE :PEEVNOFSO
220 Chapter 11: Culture as Cognition, Culture as Categorization


"OEJUTPPOiCFDBNFFWJEFOUUIBUUIFSFJTBQSPCMFNJOIFSFOUJO
EFUFSNJOJOHDPSFNFBOJOHTJOBWBTUOFTTPGNFBOJOHJOGMVFODJOHDPOUFYUTw
4IBVMBOE'VSCFF

*UXPVMECFJODPSSFDUUPUIJOLUIBUFUIOPTDJFOUJTUTXFSFUIFGJSTUDVMUVSBM
BOUISPQPMPHJTUTUPJOTJTUPOUIFJNQPSUBODFPGEJTDPWFSJOHIPXBDVMUVSFJT
TFFOGSPNUIFQFSTQFDUJWFPGUIFTPDJFUZTNFNCFST4VDIBWJFXIBTIBEB
MPOHUSBEJUJPOJO"NFSJDBOBOUISPQPMPHZ/FWFSUIFMFTT UIFQSBDUJUJPOFSTPG
UIFTFSFDFOUBQQSPBDIFTIBWFNBEFTPNFWBMVBCMFDPOUSJCVUJPOTUPUIFTUVEZ
PGDVMUVSFUIFZIBWFFMJDJUFEIFMQGVMEBUBCZNBLJOHUIFMBOHVBHFPGUIPTF
UIFZTUVEZBSJDITPVSDFPGJOGPSNBUJPOSBUIFSUIBONFSFMZUIFNFBOTPG
DPNNVOJDBUJOH5IFNBJOTIPSUDPNJOHPGUIFFUIOPTDJFOUJGJDNFUIPEJTUIBU
JUTFNQIBTJTPOVOEFSTUBOEJOHDVMUVSFUISPVHIMBOHVBHFSFTVMUTJOUIFOFH
MFDUPGOPOWFSCBMCFIBWJPSBOEUIPTFBTQFDUTPGDVMUVSFUIBUMJFPVUTJEFUIF
EPNBJOTBDDFTTJCMFUISPVHIUFSNJOPMPHJDBMTFUT

Sound Symbolism and Synesthesia


0OFPGUIFUFOFUTPGNPEFSOMJOHVJTUJDT HPJOHCBDLUPUIFCFHJOOJOHTPGUIF
UXFOUJFUIDFOUVSZ XBTUIFBSCJUSBSJOFTTPGMJOHVJTUJDTZNCPMT XPSET
*G
XPSETXFSFBSCJUSBSZ UIFODPNNPOTFOTFXPVMETVHHFTUUIBUUIFDPNQP
OFOUTPGXPSETTPVOETTIPVMECFFRVBMMZBSCJUSBSZ BOEDBSSZOPJOEF
QFOEFOUNFBOJOHTPOUIFJSPXO#VUUIJOHTNJHIUOPUCFRVJUFUIBUTJNQMF
5IFSFBSFUXPUFSNTUIBUEFTDSJCFTPNFEJSFDUBTTPDJBUJPOTPGUFOGPVOE
CFUXFFOGPSNBOENFBOJOHJOMBOHVBHF4ZOFTUIFTJB JTUIFTUJNVMBUJPOPG
POFTFOTFCZBOPUIFS'PSFYBNQMF UIFGBNPVTKB[[NVTJDJBO%VLF&MMJOHUPO
XBTTBJEUPiIFBSwDPMPSTi*IFBSBOPUFCZPOFPGUIFGFMMPXTJOUIFCBOEBOE
JUTPOFDPMPS*G)BSSZ$BSOFZJTQMBZJOH %JTEBSLCMVFCVSMBQ*G+PIOOZ
)PEHFTJTQMBZJOH (CFDPNFTMJHIUCMVFTBUJOw (FPSHF
4PVOE
TZNCPMJTN JTUIFQSFTVNFEBTTPDJBUJPOPGTPVOEBOENFBOJOHGPVOEJO
TPNFDBTFTJONBOZPGUIFXPSMETMBOHVBHFT
0OFPGUIFGJSTUBOUISPQPMPHJTUTBOEMJOHVJTUTUPBEESFTTTPVOETZNCPMJTN
XBTPODFNPSF&EXBSE4BQJS C
)FJOWFOUFEUXPXPSET NBM BOE
NJM BOEBTLFE&OHMJTIJOGPSNBOUTUPJOEJDBUFXIFUIFSUIFTFSFGFSSFEUPB
iMBSHFwPSiTNBMMwUBCMF"NBKPSJUZPGIJTJOGPSNBOUTTBJEUIBUUIFXPSEXJUI
UIFIJHIGSPOUWPXFM NJM
XBTUIFTNBMMUBCMF TVHHFTUJOHUIBUQIPOFNFTJO
JTPMBUJPONJHIUIPMENFBOJOH)PXFWFS OPSFBMFWJEFODFPGTZNCPMJDSFQ
SFTFOUBUJPOPGNBHOJUVEFJOOBUVSBMMBOHVBHFIBTCFFOSFWFBMFE#VUXIFO
Sound Symbolism and Synesthesia 221

QMBDFEJOUIFDPOUFYUPGXIPMFXPSET TPNFJOUSJHVJOHUIJOHTBQQFBS'PSFY
BNQMF DPOTJEFSUIFUBCMFCFMPX

GM HM TO   


GMBTI HMJTUFO TOPVU TIBSQ TQMBTI UISPX
GMJDLFS HMFFN TOFF[F TIFBS DSBTI UISVTU
GMZ HMJUUFS TOJGG TISFE DSVTI UIVNQ
GMPX HMPX TOPSF TIBSE TMBTI UISPUUMF
GMVUUFS HMB[F TOPSU TIBWF UISBTI UISBTI

TM QS Q SM X C


TMVH QSPCF TOBQ TXJSM XPCCMF LOPC
TMBDL QSJDL DMJQ UXJSM XFBWF HMPC
TMPUI QSPOH [JQ DVSM XBOEFS MPCF
TMPX QSPQFM SJQ VOGVSM XBHHMF OJC
TMPVDI QSFTT UJQ TQJSBM XBWF CPPC

TX [ G M L JJ
TXBU XIFF[F DPVHI UJDLMF DSBDL UFFOZ
TXJTI PP[F XPPG XJHHMF DSFBL UJOZ
TXBZ TMFF[F QVGG SVTUMF DSJDL XFFOJF
TXJSM TOFF[F QPPG TOVHHMF GMJDL +JNNZ
TXJOH CSFF[F IVGG TOJGGMF LJDL CBCZ

1SPCBCMZNPTU&OHMJTITQFBLFSTDBOTFOTFTPNFUIJOHUIBUBMMXPSETJOFWFSZ
DPMVNOTIBSF FWFOJGUIFZDBOOPUEFGJOFJU'PSFYBNQMF UIFXPSETJOUIFGJSTU
GMDPMVNOBSFBTTPDJBUFEXJUIUIJOHTUIBUBSFGMFYJCMF TVDIBTBGMBHGMVUUFSJOH
JOUIFCSFF[F5IFHMDPMVNOSFGFSTUPTIJOZPSTQBSLMJOHPCKFDUT5IFTO
XPSETJOUIFUIJSEDPMVNODPOKVSFVQDPOOFDUJPOTUPUIFOPTFPSTJOVT/FYU
UIFJOJUJBMTI -
XPSETBSFBTTPDJBUFEXJUIDVUUJOHUIJOHTXJUIBTIBSQFEHFE
PCKFDU5IFXPSEGJOBMTI -
XPSETJOUIFOFYUDPMVNOTFFNUPJOWPLFBGFFM
JOHPGTPNFUIJOHIJUUJOHPSDPNJOHJOUPDPOUBDUXJUITPNFUIJOHFMTF5IF
UI -
XPSETJOUIFMBTUDPMVNOPGUIFUPQSPXBSPVTFGFFMJOHPGTPNFLJOE
PGEFGJOJUJWFPSFWFOWJPMFOUBDUJPO QFSIBQTXJUIIBOETPSBSNT
5IFSFBSFNBOZPUIFSFYBNQMFT5IFRVFTUJPOOPXJTXIFUIFSTPVOETZN
CPMJTNJTVOJWFSTBM*UTFFNTBMMMBOHVBHFTIBWFTPNFPGJU#VUEPFTTPVOE
TZNCPMJTNPQFSBUFUIFTBNFXBZ 4PNFFWJEFODFTVHHFTUTUIBUJUEPFT BU
222 Chapter 11: Culture as Cognition, Culture as Categorization

MFBTUGPSTPNFTPVOET'PSFYBNQMF +PIO0IBMBTIPXFEUIBU4BQJSTJOUVJUJPO
UIBUIJHIGSPOUWPXFMTBSFBTTPDJBUFEXJUITNBMMOFTTIBTTVQQPSUGSPNEBUB
GSPNOVNFSPVTPUIFSMBOHVBHFT'PSJOTUBODF DPOTJEFSUIFGPSNTCFMPX BE
KVTUFEGSPN0IBMBoGPSPVSQVSQPTFT


-BOHVBHF iTNBMMEJNJOVUJWFw iMBSHFMBSHFOFTTGBUw


&OHMJTI UFFOZ MBSHF
&XF <LUTLUT> <HCHCHC>
:PSVCB <CS> <CS>
4QBOJTI DIJDP HPSEP
(SFFL <NJLSPT> <NBLSPT>
'SFODI QFUJU HSBOE

5IJTBOEPUIFSFWJEFODFTFFNTUPTVQQPSUUIFDPOUFOUJPOUIBUiTNBMMwJT
BTTPDJBUFEDSPTTMJOHVJTUJDBMMZXJUIIJHIGSPOUWPXFMT IJHIUPOFT BOEWPJDF
MFTTDPOTPOBOUTBOEiCJHwXJUIMPXWPXFMT MPXUPOFT BOEWPJDFEDPOTP
OBOUT4PNFIBWFBSHVFEUIBUFWJEFODFPGTPVOETZNCPMJTNJTGPVOEJOPUIFS
EPNBJOT GPSFYBNQMF QSPYJNJUZBOEEJTUBODF 5BO[
CVUUIFTFDPO
OFDUJPOTIBWFCFFOMFTTTUVEJFE
5IFSFBMTPTFFNUPCFDSPTTMBOHVBHFVOJWFSTBMTJOQBSBMBOHVBHF TVDIBT
JOUPOBUJPOPSTUSFTT.BOZMBOHVBHFTJOUIFXPSMEBTLRVFTUJPOTCZVTJOHB
SJTJOHJOUPOBUJPOBUUIFFOEPGBTFOUFODF*ONBOZMBOHVBHFT JODMVEJOH&OH
MJTI QJUDICFDPNFTMPXFSBUUIFFOEPGOPSNBMEJTDPVSTF#PMJOHFS 

GPVOEUIJTXBTUSVFGPSUIJSUZFJHIUPVUGJGUZTFWFOMBOHVBHFTUIBUEPOPUVTF
UPOFQIPOFNJDBMMZ$SVUUFOEFO 
DMBJNTUIBUUIFGPMMPXJOHUPOBM
QBUUFSOTBSFOFBSVOJWFSTBM

GBMMJOHJOUPOBUJPOJO SJTJOHJOUPOBUJPOJO
OFVUSBMTUBUFNFOUT UFOUBUJWFTUBUFNFOUT
FOETPGTFOUFODFT ZFTOPRVFTUJPOT
DPNNBOET SFRVFTUT

Studies of Discourse
.BOZMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHJTUTBSFBXBSFUIBUUIPTFOBUJWFTPDJFUJFTJO4PVUI
BOE$FOUSBM"NFSJDBUIBUIBWFSFNBJOFESFMBUJWFMZJOUBDUBSFFTQFDJBMMZTVJUBCMF
GPSUIFTUVEZPGFUIOPQPFUJDT 5PCFTVSF EJTDPVSTFBNPOHUIFTFQFPQMFTJT
Studies of Discourse 223

SBSFMZQPFUJDGPSUIFTBLFPGBFTUIFUJDFGGFDUBMPOFUIFQPFUJDBTQFDUTPGEJT
DPVSTFBSFBMNPTUJOWBSJBCMZJOUFHSBUFEXJUIDFSFNPOJBM SJUVBM NBHJDBM DVS
BUJWF QPMJUJDBM PSPUIFSGVODUJPOT4IFS[FS 
JMMVTUSBUFEUIFDPPDDVSSFODF
PGUIFBFTUIFUJDBOEQSBHNBUJDGVODUJPOTCZBOBMZ[JOHBTQFFDINBEFJO
POPOFPGUIF4BO#MBTJTMBOETBMPOHUIFOPSUIFBTUDPBTUPG1BOBNB
5IFPDDBTJPOGPSUIJTQBSUJDVMBSTQFFDIXBTUIFIPNFDPNJOHPG0MPXJUJ
OBQQJ POFPGUIFPVUTUBOEJOH,VOBDVSJOHTQFDJBMJTUTJOUIFWJMMBHFPG.V
MBUVQQV 8JUI UIF IFMQ PG B TDIPMBSTIJQ BXBSEFE IJN CZ UIF WJMMBHF
0MPXJUJOBQQJIBEHPOFPGGUPTUVEZTOBLFCJUFNFEJDJOFXJUIBUFBDIFSJOBO
PUIFSQBSUPG,VOBUFSSJUPSZ0OIJTSFUVSO UIFWJMMBHFDPNNVOJUZXBTFBHFS
UPIFBSGSPNIJNXIBUOFXDVSJOHQSBDUJDFTIFIBEMFBSOFEBOEIPXUIF
TDIPMBSTIJQNPOFZIBECFFOTQFOU0MPXJUJOBQQJTQSFTFOUBUJPOUPPLQMBDFJO
UIFDFOUSBMMZMPDBUFEHBUIFSJOHIPVTFPGUIFWJMMBHF)JTSFQPSUXBTWFSZFG
GFDUJWF NFOUJPOJOHOPUPOMZIPXPOFDBOQSFWFOUTOBLFCJUFCVUBMTPXIBU
DVSJOHDIBOUTTIPVMECFVTFEBOEXIBUIFSCBMPSPUIFSNFEJDJOFTTIPVMECF
BQQMJFEXIFOTPNFPOFJTCJUUFO1BSUPGIJTTQFFDIXBTEFWPUFEUPBGJOBO
DJBMBDDPVOUJOHGPSUIFNPOFZIFIBESFDFJWFE*OTIPSU UIFQSFTFOUBUJPOEF
TDSJCFEJOTPNFEFUBJMIJTFYQFSJFODFTEVSJOHUIFTUVEZUSJQ5IFTQFFDIBT
USBOTDSJCFECZ4IFS[FS JOOVNCFSFEMJOFTPGUFYU
JTGPMMPXFECZBMJOF
CZMJOF&OHMJTIUSBOTMBUJPOBOETFWFSBMQBHFTPGBOBMZUJDBMDPNNFOUT
5IFJOGPSNBUJPODPODFSOJOHDVSJOHNFUIPETBOEUIFFYQFOTFTJODVSSFE
EVSJOHUIFUSJQXBTPOMZBQBSUPGUIFQSFTFOUBUJPO3FHBSEMFTTPGXIBUQSBD
UJDBMHPBMTB,VOBQVCMJDTQFBLFSIBTJONJOE IFLOPXTUIBUWFSCBMBSUJT
HSFBUMZWBMVFEBNPOHIJTQFPQMFBOEUIBUIJTQSFTFOUBUJPOXJMMCFDSJUJDBMMZ
FWBMVBUFE"OBOBMZTJTPG0MPXJUJOBQQJTTQFFDINVTUUIFSFGPSFBMTPUBLFJOUP
BDDPVOUUIFQPFUJDBOESIFUPSJDBMEFWJDFTVTFEJOJUTQFSGPSNBODF *O,VOB
DVMUVSF WFSCBMQFSGPSNFSTBSFVTVBMMZNFOXPNFOFYQSFTTUIFJSBSUJTUJDUBM
FOUTQSJNBSJMZCZNBLJOHDPMPSGVMBQQMJRVECMPVTFT

5PCFHJOXJUI QBSBMJOHVJTUJDGFBUVSFTOFFEUPCFDPOTJEFSFE0MPXJUJOBQQJ
TUSFUDIFEPVUDFSUBJOXPSETPSQISBTFTUPFNQIBTJ[FJNQPSUBOUQPJOUTNBEF
VTFPGSJTJOHQJUDI WJCSBUJOHWPJDF BOEQBVTJOHGPSFGGFDUBOEPOTFWFSBMPD
DBTJPOTJODSFBTFEPSEFDSFBTFEIJTWPMVNF%JSFDURVPUBUJPOTPGPUIFSTBT
XFMMBTPGPOFTFMGBSFBQSPNJOFOUGFBUVSFPG,VOBEJTDPVSTF4VDIRVPUB
UJPOT JEFOUJGJFECZUIFVTFPGTPLF PSTPLB A*TBZ AIFTBZT PSAUIFZTBZ
BOE
UBLLFO TPLF PS TPLB ATFF * TBZ  ATFF IF TBZT  PS ATFF UIFZ TBZ
 PDDVSSFE
UISPVHIPVU0MPXJUJOBQQJTTQFFDI"UPOFQPJOUEVSJOHUIFTQFFDI 0MPXJUJ
OBQQJRVPUFEIJTUFBDIFS XIPXBTRVPUJOHPOFPGUIFGJSTUHSFBUMFBEFSTPGUIF
224 Chapter 11: Culture as Cognition, Culture as Categorization

,VOB XIPXBTRVPUJOHBNFNCFSPGBOFJHICPSJOHUSJCF XIPXBTRVPUJOH


BTQJSJUXPSMEDIJFG XIPXBTRVPUJOH(PE
0MPXJUJOBQQJTTQFFDIDPOTJTUFEPGBTFSJFTPGOBSSBUJWFFQJTPEFT FNCFM
MJTIFECZUIFVTFPGVOEFSTUBUFNFOU JSPOZ BOEIVNPSBTXFMMBTQBSBMMFMJTNT
BMMVTJPOT BOENFUBQIPST GPSFYBNQMF iUIFHPMEFOQFPQMFwSFGFSTUPUIF
,VOB BOEiFODPVOUFSJOHBWJOFwSFGFSTUPCFJOHCJUUFOCZBTOBLFBDPN
NPO,VOBFVQIFNJTN
"T4IFS[FSOPUFEFMTFXIFSF i5IFSFisBOJOUJ
NBUF SFMBUJPOTIJQ CFUXFFO ,VOB DVMUVSF BOE WFSCBM FTUIFUJDT 7FSCBM BSU
BOd..WFSCBMQMBZBSFBUUIFIFBSUPG,VOBDVMUVSFw 4IFS[FS


Summary and Conclusions


*OUIJTDIBQUFSXFEFBMXJUIUIFMFYJDBM HSBNNBUJDBM BOETPDJBMOBUVSFPG
NFBOJOHBOEDPODFQUVBMJ[BUJPO8FGJOETFWFSBMXBZTUIBUNFBOJOHBOEDPO
DFQUTBQQFBSUPCFTJNJMBSMZNBOJGFTUFEBDSPTTMBOHVBHFT'JSTU UIFSFJTBUFO
EFODZGPSQFPQMFUPUIJOLJOUFSNTPGMJOHVJTUJDBOETPDJPDVMUVSBMCJOBSZ
PQQPTJUJPOT4FDPOE BMMMBOHVBHFTBOEDVMUVSFTDMBTTJGZBUMFBTUDFSUBJOBT
QFDUTPGUIFXPSMEUISPVHIMBCFMFEEPNBJOTXIJDIBSFIJFSBSDIJDBM BTJOUBY
POPNJFT
 BOE DPOTJTU PG JEFOUJGJBCMF DPNQPOFOUT BWBJMBCMF GPS GPSNBM
BOBMZTJT5IFTFVOJWFSTBMMZEFNPOTUSBUFNBOZPGUIFTBNFQSPQFSUJFT FH
OVNCFSTBOEMFWFMTPGTVQFSPSEJOBUFUFSNT
5IJSE UIFSFBSFBQQBSFOUMZ
TPNFEJSFDUOPOBSCJUSBSZBTTPDJBUJPOTCFUXFFOGPSNBOENFBOJOHGPVOEJO
BMMMBOHVBHFT TPVOETZNCPMJTN
'PVSUI BMMMBOHVBHFTIBWFSVMFTUIBUHPW
FSOTPDJBMEJTDPVSTFBOEDPOWFSTBUJPO BOEUIFTFFODPEFUIFSPMFTPGUIFQBS
UJDJQBOUT UIFJSQPJOUTPGWJFX BOEUIFJSQSFTVQQPTJUJPOT7JPMBUJPOTPGUIFTF
BDDFQUFEUIPVHIVOBSUJDVMBUFEQBUUFSOT QSFTVNQUJPOT BOESFHVMBUJPOT
SFTVMUOPUPOMZJONJTDPNNVOJDBUJPOCVUBMTPJOTPDJBMTBODUJPO
12

Language, Culture, and Thought

5IFOBUVSFPGUIFSFMBUJPOTIJQCFUXFFOMBOHVBHF UIPVHIU BOEDVMUVSFXBT


VOEFSDPOTJEFSBUJPOMPOHCFGPSFBOUISPQPMPHZCFDBNFSFDPHOJ[FEBTBTDIPM
BSMZ GJFME JO JUT PXO SJHIU 8JMIFMN WPO )VNCPMEU o
 B XFMM
LOPXO (FSNBO EJQMPNBU BOE TDIPMBS  XBT POF PG UIPTF XIP IBE WFSZ
EFGJOJUFJEFBTPOUIFTVCKFDU)FXSPUF i5IFTQJSJUVBMUSBJUTBOEUIFTUSVDUVSF
PGUIFMBOHVBHFPGBQFPQMFBSFTPJOUJNBUFMZCMFOEFEUIBU HJWFOFJUIFSPGUIF
UXP POFTIPVMECFBCMFUPEFSJWFUIFPUIFSGSPNJUUPUIFGVMMFTUFYUFOt...
-BOHVBHFJTUIFPVUXBSENBOJGFTUBUJPOPGUIFTQJSJUPGQFPQMFUIFJSMBOHVBHF
JTUIFJSTQJSJU BOEUIFJSTQJSJUJTUIFJSMBOHVBHFJUJTEJGGJDVMUUPJNBHJOFBOZ
UXPUIJOHTNPSFJEFOUJDBMw 
/PUPOMZEJEUIF%BOJTIMJOHVJTU0UUP
+FTQFSTPOEFDMBSF 
UIBUMBOHVBHFBOEiOBUJPOw JF DVMUVSF
BSFTZO
POZNPVT IFFWFOCFMJFWFEUIBUPOFMBOHVBHF&OHMJTIXBTTVQFSJPSUP
TBZ 'SFODI CFDBVTFJUJTBNPSFiNFUIPEJDBM FOFSHFUJD CVTJOFTTMJLFBOE
TPCFSMBOHVBHF UIBUEPFTOPUDBSFNVDIGPSGJOFSZBOEFMFHBODF CVUDBSFTGPS
MPHJDBMDPOTJTUFODZw
5PNPEFSOBOUISPQPMPHJTUTUIFTFTUBUFNFOUTBSFVOBDDFQUBCMFJOUIFGPSNT
JOXIJDIUIFZXFSFNBEF#VUTVDIRVPUBUJPOTTIPXUIFDPODFSOQFPQMFIJT
UPSJDBMMZIBWFIBEBCPVUIPXMBOHVBHFSFGMFDUTUIFDVMUVSFPGUIFTPDJFUZJUJT
TQPLFOJO BOEUIFUIPVHIUQSPDFTTFTPGUIPTFXIPTQFBLJU*OUIJTDIBQUFSXF
XJMMMPPLBUTPNFPGUIFSFMBUJPOTIJQTCFUXFFOMBOHVBHF UIPVHIU BOEDVMUVSF
JOQBSUJDVMBS UIFTPDBMMFE4BQJS8IPSGIZQPUIFTJT5IF4BQJS8IPSGIZ
QPUIFTJT BSHVFT GJSTU UIBUUIFMBOHVBHFPOFTQFBLTEFUFSNJOFTIPXPOFQFS
DFJWFTUIFXPSME BOE TFDPOE UIBUUIFEJTUJODUJPOTFODPEFEJOFBDIMBOHVBHF
BSFBMMEJGGFSFOUGSPNPOFBOPUIFS5IVT JOJUTTUSPOHGPSNUIJTIZQPUIFTJT
DMBJNTUIBUFBDITPDJFUZBOEDVMUVSFMJWFTJOJUPXOiMJOHVJTUJDXPSME wQFSIBQT

225
226 Chapter 12: Language, Culture, and Thought

JODPNNFOTVSBUFXJUIUIFMJOHVJTUJDXPSMETPGPUIFSTPDJFUJFTBOEDVMUVSFT*G
USVF UIJTIBTQSPGPVOEQIJMPTPQIJDBM TPDJBM BOEFWFOQPMJUJDBMJNQMJDBUJPOT

The Stimulus of Sapirs Writings


*OUIFQBTU MBOHVBHF DVMUVSF BOESBDFXFSFPGUFOMVNQFEUPHFUIFSBTUIPVHI
BOZPOFPGUIFNBVUPNBUJDBMMZJNQMJFEUIFPUIFSUXP0OFPGUIFUBTLTBOEBD
DPNQMJTINFOUTPGBOUISPQPMPHZIBTCFFOUPEFNPOTUSBUFUIBUDVMUVSF SBDF
BOEMBOHVBHFBSFIJTUPSJDBMMZTFQBSBCMF"MUIPVHIJUJTUSVFUIBUIVNBODVMUVSF
JOJUTHSFBUDPNQMFYJUZDPVMEOPUIBWFEFWFMPQFEBOEJTVOUIJOLBCMFXJUIPVU
UIFBJEPGMBOHVBHF OPDPSSFMBUJPOIBTZFUCFFOFTUBCMJTIFECFUXFFODVMUVSFTPG
BDFSUBJOUZQFBOEBDFSUBJOUZQFPGMBOHVBHF*OGBDU UIFSFXFSFBOETUJMMBSF
BSFBTJOUIFXPSMEXIFSFTPDJFUJFTTIBSFBWFSZTJNJMBSDVMUVSBMPSJFOUBUJPOZFU
TQFBLMBOHVBHFTUIBUBSFOPUPOMZNVUVBMMZVOJOUFMMJHJCMFCVUDPNQMFUFMZVOSF
MBUFEBOETUSVDUVSBMMZEJGGFSFOU4VDIXBTUIFDBTF GPSFYBNQMF PGUIF/PSUI
"NFSJDBO*OEJBOTPGUIF(SFBU1MBJOT XIPQPTTFTTFENBOZPGUIFTBNF PS
WFSZTJNJMBS DVMUVSBMDIBSBDUFSJTUJDTCVUXIPTFMBOHVBHFTCFMPOHFEUPBUMFBTUTJY
EJGGFSFOUMBOHVBHFGBNJMJFT"MHPORVJBO GPSFYBNQMF "SBQBIPBOE$IFZFOOF

4JPVBO GPSFYBNQMF $SPXBOE%BLPUB
6UP"[UFDBO GPSFYBNQMF 4IPTIPOF
BOE$PNBODIF
"UIBQBTLBO 4BSDFFBOE,JPXB"QBDIF
$BEEPBO 8JDIJUB
BOE1BXOFF
BOE,JPXB5BOPBO ,JPXB
5IFPQQPTJUFNBZBMTPIPMEUSVF
&TUPOJBOTBOE-BQQTTQFBLSFMBUFEMBOHVBHFT CPUICFMPOHUPUIF'JOOJDCSBODI
PGUIF'JOOP6HSJDTVCGBNJMZPGUIF6SBMJDGBNJMZPGMBOHVBHFT
CVUUIFJSDVM
UVSFTBSFRVJUFEJGGFSFOU5IFBCTFODFPGBOZJOUSJOTJD JOIFSFOU
SFMBUJPOTIJQ
BNPOHBQFPQMFTQIZTJDBMUZQF DVMUVSF BOEMBOHVBHFXBTSFQFBUFEMZEFDMBSFE
CZ'SBO[#PBT QBSUJDVMBSMZJOIJTFJHIUZQBHFJOUSPEVDUJPOUPUIFGJSTUWPMVNF
PG)BOECPPLPG"NFSJDBO*OEJBO-BOHVBHFT 

5IFTVCKFDUPGMBOHVBHFDVMUVSFSFMBUJPOTIJQXBTBMTPQSPNJOFOUJOUIF
XPSLPG&EXBSE4BQJS"MUIPVHI4BQJSXBTDPOWJODFE KVTUBT#PBTIBECFFO
FBSMJFS UIBUiMBOHVBHFBOEDVMUVSFBSFOPUJOUSJOTJDBMMZBTTPDJBUFE wIFOFW
FSUIFMFTTCFMJFWFEUIBUiMBOHVBHFBOEPVSUIPVHIUHSPPWFTBSFJOFYUSJDBCMZ
JOUFSXPWFO <BOE>BSF JOBTFOTF POFBOEUIFTBNFw 4BQJS 

*GUIFEJTUJODUJPOCFUXFFO#PBTTWJFXBOE4BQJSTDPOUFOUJPO BTDJUFE TPVOET
MJLFIBJSTQMJUUJOH MFUVTUSZUPDMBSJGZUIFEJGGFSFODF#PBTBOE4BQJSIBEOP
EPVCUUIBUUIFBTTPDJBUJPOPGBQBSUJDVMBSDVMUVSF QIZTJDBMUZQF iSBDFw
BOE
MBOHVBHFXBTOPUHJWFOCZOBUVSFCVUXBTBIJTUPSJDBMDPJODJEFODF*GUIJT
XFSFOPUTP IPXDPVMEJUIBQQFOUIBUQFPQMFTPGEJGGFSFOUQIZTJDBMUZQFT
The Stimulus of Sapirs Writings 227

TQFBLUIFTBNFMBOHVBHFPSDMPTFMZSFMBUFEMBOHVBHFTBOEUIBUQFPQMFTPGUIF
TBNFPSTJNJMBSQIZTJDBMUZQFTQFBLBWBSJFUZPGEJGGFSFOUBOEDPNQMFUFMZVO
SFMBUFEMBOHVBHFT 5IFTBNFTPSUPGSBOEPNBTTPDJBUJPOIPMETUSVFGPSMBO
HVBHFBOEDVMUVSFBTXFMMBTGPSMBOHVBHFBOEQIZTJDBMUZQF)PXFWFS #PBT
BOE4BQJSCFMJFWFEUIBUJOBTNVDIBTFBDIQBSUJDVMBSMBOHVBHFTFSWFTBQBS
UJDVMBSTPDJFUZBOEJTJOTUSVNFOUBMJOIFMQJOHUIFZPVOHFTUNFNCFSTMFBSO
UPPQFSBUFXJUIJOUIFTPDJFUZTDVMUVSF TPNFSFMBUJPOTIJQCFUXFFOUIFMBO
HVBHFBOEUIFDVMUVSFDPVMECFFYQFDUFEUPEFWFMPQ
#FDBVTF4BQJSTXSJUJOHTBSPVTFEBHSFBUEFBMPGJOUFSFTUJOUIFRVFTUJPOPG
IPXMBOHVBHFTJOGMVFODFUIFDVMUVSFPGUIFJSTQFBLFST JUJTJNQPSUBOUUPUBLF
VQUIFSFDFOUIJTUPSZPGUIJTTVCKFDUJONPSFEFUBJMBOEBMTPUPFYBNJOFJU
GSPNUIFQFSTQFDUJWFPGDPOUFNQPSBSZBOUISPQPMPHZ4BQJS XIPIBEDPNFUP
UIF6OJUFE4UBUFTBUUIFBHFPGGJWF CFDBNFBDRVBJOUFEXJUI#PBTBU$PMVN
CJB6OJWFSTJUZXIJMFEPJOHHSBEVBUFXPSL*NQSFTTFECZ#PBTTCSFBEUIPG
LOPXMFEHFBOEGJFMEFYQFSJFODF IFTXJUDIFEGSPN(FSNBOJDTUVEJFTUPBO
UISPQPMPHZ'SPNUIBUUJNFPO NPTUPGIJTFOFSHJFTXFSFEFWPUFEUPUIF
TUVEZPG/BUJWF"NFSJDBOMBOHVBHFT)FQVCMJTIFEQSPMJGJDBMMZ IJTCPPL-BO
HVBHF 
SFNBJOJOHBDMBTTJDUPUIFQSFTFOUEBZ
*O5JNF1FSTQFDUJWFJO"CPSJHJOBM"NFSJDBO$VMUVSF 
4BQJSEJTDVTTFE
WBSJPVTNFUIPETUIBUDBOCFFNQMPZFEUPEFWFMPQDVMUVSBMDISPOPMPHJFTGPSBCP
SJHJOBM"NFSJDBXIFOFWFSOBUJWFUFTUJNPOJFTBOEIJTUPSJDBMPSBSDIBFPMPHJDBM
SFDPSETBSFFJUIFSMBDLJOHPSPGMJUUMFPSOPIFMQ4BQJSPCTFSWFEUIBUDPNQBSFE
XJUIDIBOHFTJODVMUVSF MJOHVJTUJDDIBOHFTDPNFBCPVUNPSFTMPXMZBOEFWFOMZ
BOEUIBUMBOHVBHFJTGBSNPSFDPNQBDUBOETFMGDPOUBJOFEUIBODVMUVSFUBLFO
BTBXIPMFBOEUIFSFGPSFJTMBSHFMZGSFFPGDPOTDJPVTSBUJPOBMJ[BUJPOPOUIFQBSU
PGJUTTQFBLFST.BKPSSFWPMVUJPOT XIFUIFSWJPMFOUPSOPU VTVBMMZDIBOHFQSP
GPVOEMZUIFTUSVDUVSFPGUIFTPDJFUJFTJOXIJDIUIFZPDDVS ZFUMBOHVBHFTSF
NBJOVODIBOHFEFYDFQUGPSSFMBUJWFMZNJOPSBEKVTUNFOUTJOWPDBCVMBSZ
5XPFYBNQMFTGSPNUIFNBOZHJWFOCZ4BQJSJMMVTUSBUFIJTVTFPGMBOHVBHF
BTBLFZUPUIFDVMUVSBMQBTUPGBTPDJFUZ.PVOU4IBTUBJOOPSUIFSO$BMJGPS
OJBXBTWJTJCMFUPBOVNCFSPG/BUJWF"NFSJDBOHSPVQT"NPOHUIFTF NFN
CFSTPGUIF)VQBUSJCFSFGFSSFEUPUIFNPVOUBJOCZUIFEFTDSJQUJWFUFSN
nn-ns-an * ak-gai AXIJUF NPVOUBJO  XIFSFBT UIF :BOB OBNF GPS JU XBT
XBHBMVr BXPSEOPMPOHFSUSBOTMBUBCMFPSBOBMZ[BCMF"DDPSEJOHUP4BQJS UIF
:BOBXPSEJTUIFSFGPSFVOEPVCUFEMZNVDIPMEFS BOEPOFNBZBTTVNFUIBU
UIFDPVOUSZEPNJOBUFECZ.PVOU4IBTUBXBTIPNFUPUIF:BOBMPOHCFGPSF
UIF)VQBDBNFUPUIFSFHJPO'PSUIF/PSUIXFTU$PBTU 4BQJSDPOTJEFSFEUIF
228 Chapter 12: Language, Culture, and Thought

/PPULBXPSEt*okwana XIJDISFGFSTUPUIFXPMGDFSFNPOJBMDPNQMFYPGUIF
USJCF#FDBVTF/PPULBXPSETDIBSBDUFSJTUJDBMMZDPOTJTUPGPOFTZMMBCMF NBEF
VQPGBDPOTPOBOUWPXFMDPOTPOBOUTFRVFODF
SBUIFSUIBOUISFFTZMMBCMFT
UIFGPSNPGUIFUFSNTVHHFTUTUIBUJU BMPOHXJUIUIFDFSFNPOZ NBZIBWF
CFFOCPSSPXFEGSPNBOPUIFSUSJCF"OEJOEFFEUIFOFJHICPSJOH,XBLJVUM
QFPQMFIBWFBXPMGEBODFUPXIJDIUIFZSFGFSCZBUFSNUIBUBQQFBSTUPCF
UIFTPVSDFPGUIF/PPULBXPSE-JOHVJTUJDEBUBJOUIJTDBTFJOEJDBUFOPUPOMZ
UIBUBUMFBTUTPNFBTQFDUTPGBDVMUVSFDPNQMFYNBZIBWFCFFOCPSSPXFECZ
BOPUIFSUSJCFCVUBMTPXIJDIUSJCFXBTUIFMJLFMZTPVSDFPGUIFJOGMVFODF
8IBUDBVHIUUIFJNBHJOBUJPOPGBHSFBUNBOZTDIPMBSTBOEJOTQJSFEBD
UJWFSFTFBSDIGPSTFWFSBMEFDBEFT IPXFWFS XBTBQBSUJDVMBSQBSBHSBQIPGB
QBQFS4BQJSSFBEJOBUBTDIPMBSMZNFFUJOHJO/FX:PSLBUUFOEFECZMJO
HVJTUTBOEBOUISPQPMPHJTUT

*OBTFOTF UIFOFUXPSLPGDVMUVSBMQBUUFSOTPGBDJWJMJ[BUJPOJTJOEFYFEJOUIF
MBOHVBHFXIJDIFYQSFTTFTUIBUDJWJMJ[BUJPn...-BOHVBHFJTBHVJEFUPiTPDJBM
SFBMJUZw5IPVHIMBOHVBHFJTOPUPSEJOBSJMZUIPVHIUPGBTPGFTTFOUJBMJOUFSFTU
UPUIFTUVEFOUTPGTPDJBMTDJFODF JUQPXFSGVMMZDPOEJUJPOTBMMPVSUIJOLJOH
BCPVUTPDJBMQSPCMFNTBOEQSPDFTTFT)VNBOCFJOHTEPOPUMJWFJOUIFPC
KFDUJWFXPSMEBMPOF OPSBMPOFJOUIFXPSMEPGTPDJBMBDUJWJUZBTPSEJOBSJMZ
VOEFSTUPPE CVUBSFWFSZNVDIBUUIFNFSDZPGUIFQBSUJDVMBSMBOHVBHFXIJDI
IBTCFDPNFUIFNFEJVNPGFYQSFTTJPOGPSUIFJSTPDJFUZ5IFGBDUPGUIF
NBUUFSJTUIBUUIFiSFBMXPSMEwJTUPBMBSHFFYUFOUVODPOTDJPVTMZCVJMUVQPO
UIFMBOHVBHFIBCJUTPGUIFHSPVQ/PUXPMBOHVBHFTBSFFWFSTVGGJDJFOUMZTJN
JMBSUPCFDPOTJEFSFEBTSFQSFTFOUJOHUIFTBNFTPDJBMSFBMJUZ5IFXPSMETJO
XIJDIEJGGFSFOUTPDJFUJFTMJWFBSFEJTUJODUXPSMET OPUNFSFMZUIFTBNFXPSME
XJUIEJGGFSFOUMBCFMTBUUBDIFE 4BQJSB

5IFNPTUQSPWPDBUJWFTUBUFNFOUXBTUIFBTTFSUJPOUIBUIVNBOTBSFBUUIF
NFSDZPGUIFMBOHVBHFUIFZIBQQFOUPTQFBL

The Whorf Hypothesis of Linguistic Relativity


and Linguistic Determinism
8IFSFBT#PBTTBOE4BQJSTJEFBTDPODFSOJOHUIFSFMBUJPOTIJQCFUXFFOMBO
HVBHFBOEDVMUVSFQSJNBSJMZJOGMVFODFEPOMZUIFJSTUVEFOUTBOEPUIFSTDIPM
BST UIFXSJUJOHTPG#FOKBNJO-FF8IPSG o
DBVHIUUIFBUUFOUJPOPG
The Whorf Hypothesis of Linguistic Relativity and Linguisitc Determinism 229

B O X 1 2 . 1 H O W W O R D S A F F E C T B E H AV I O R

It was in the course of my professional work for a fire insurance com-


pany, in which I undertook the task of analyzing many hundreds of re-
ports of circumstances surrounding the start of fires, and in some cases,
of explosions. My analysis was directed toward purely physical condi-
tions, such as defective wiring, presence or lack of air spaces between
metal flues and woodwork, etc., and the results were presented in these
terms. . . . But in due course it became evident that not only a physical
situation qua physics, but the meaning of that situation to people, was
sometimes a factor, through the behavior of the people, in the start of the
fire. And this factor of meaning was clearest when it was a LINGUISTIC
MEANING, residing in the name or the linguistic description commonly
applied to the situation. Thus, around a storage of what are called gaso-
line drums, behavior will tend to a certain type, that is, great care will be
exercised; while around a storage of what are called empty gasoline
drums, it will tend to be differentcareless, with little repression of
smoking or of tossing cigarette stubs about. Yet the empty drums are
perhaps the more dangerous, since they contain explosive vapor. Physi-
cally the situation is hazardous, but the linguistic analysis according to
regular analogy must employ the word empty, which inevitably sug-
gests lack of hazard.
from Benjamin Lee Whorf, Language, Thought, and Reality (1956), 135

UIFFEVDBUFEQVCMJD8IPSG BDIFNJDBMFOHJOFFSCZUSBJOJOH XBTBGJSFQSF


WFOUJPOJOTQFDUPSBOEMBUFSBOFYFDVUJWFPGB/FX&OHMBOEGJSFJOTVSBODF
DPNQBOZ"MUIPVHIIFDPOUJOVFEUPXPSLGPSUIFDPNQBOZVOUJMIJTVOUJNFMZ
EFBUI JOIFFOSPMMFEJOBDPVSTFBU:BMF6OJWFSTJUZUPEPHSBEVBUFTUVEZ
VOEFS4BQJS XIPIBEKVTUCFFOBXBSEFEBQSPGFTTPSTIJQBU:BMF"NPOH
8IPSG TOVNFSPVTTVCTFRVFOUQVCMJDBUJPOT UIFCFTULOPXOBSFUIPTFJO
XIJDIIFFYQPVOEFEPOXIBUTPNFIBWFSFGFSSFEUPBTUIF4BQJS8IPSGIZ
QPUIFTJT TFF#PY

&YQBOEJOHPO4BQJSTJEFBT 8IPSGXSPUFUIBU

UIFCBDLHSPVOEMJOHVJTUJDTZTUFN JOPUIFSXPSET UIFHSBNNBS


PGFBDIMBO
HVBHFJTOPUNFSFMZBSFQSPEVDJOHJOTUSVNFOUGPSWPJDJOHJEFBTCVUSBUIFSJT
230 Chapter 12: Language, Culture, and Thought

JUTFMGUIFTIBQFSPGJEFas...8FEJTTFDUOBUVSFBMPOHMJOFTMBJEEPXOCZPVS
OBUJWFMBOHVBHes..PSHBOJ[FJUJOUPDPODFQUT BOEBTDSJCFTJHOJGJDBODFTBTXF
EP MBSHFMZCFDBVTFXFBSFQBSUJFTUPBOBHSFFNFOUUPPSHBOJ[FJUJOUIJT
XBZBOBHSFFNFOUUIBUIPMETUISPVHIPVUPVSTQFFDIDPNNVOJUZBOEJT
DPEJGJFEJOUIFQBUUFSOTPGPVSMBOHVBHF...</PU>BMMPCTFSWFSTBSe..MFE
CZUIFTBNFQIZTJDBMFWJEFODFUPUIFTBNFQJDUVSFPGUIFVOJWFSTF VOMFTT
UIFJSMJOHVJTUJDCBDLHSPVOETBSFTJNJMBS 8IPSGB

)F GVSUIFS BTTFSUFE UIBU iVTFST PG NBSLFEMZ EJGGFSFOU HSBNNBST BSF
QPJOUFECZUIFJSHSBNNBSTUPXBSEEJGGFSFOUUZQFTPGPCTFSWBUJPOTBOE
IFODFBSFOPUFRVJWBMFOUBTPCTFSWFSTCVUNVTUBSSJWFBUTPNFXIBUEJGGFSFOU
WJFXTPGUIFXPSMEw 8IPSGC
*OUIFTFQBTTBHFT8IPSGTFUGPSUIB
EPVCMFQSJODJQMFUIFQSJODJQMFPGMJOHVJTUJDEFUFSNJOJTN OBNFMZ UIBUUIF
XBZPOFUIJOLTJTEFUFSNJOFECZUIFMBOHVBHFPOFTQFBLT BOEUIFQSJODJQMF
PGMJOHVJTUJDSFMBUJWJUZ UIBUEJGGFSFODFTBNPOHMBOHVBHFTNVTUUIFSFGPSFCF
SFGMFDUFEJOUIFEJGGFSFODFTJOUIFXPSMEWJFXTPGUIFJSTQFBLFST
.BOZPGUIFFYBNQMFT8IPSGVTFEUPTVQQPSUIJTDPOUFOUJPODBNFGSPN
)PQJ BMBOHVBHFTQPLFOCZ/BUJWF"NFSJDBOTJOUIFQVFCMPTPGOPSUIFBTU
FSO"SJ[POB"MUIPVHI8IPSGCSJFGMZWJTJUFEUIF)PQJWJMMBHFTJO UIF
EBUBGPSIJTHSBNNBUJDBMTLFUDIPGUIFMBOHVBHF 
XFSFPCUBJOFEGSPN
BOBUJWFTQFBLFSPG)PQJXIPMJWFEJO/FX:PSL$JUZ*OBOBSUJDMFEFBMJOH
XJUIHSBNNBUJDBMBTQFDUTPG)PQJWFSCT 8IPSGQVUGPSUIUIFDMBJNUIBUUIF
)PQJiIBWFBMBOHVBHFCFUUFSFRVJQQFEUPEFBMXJUITVDIWJCSBUJMFQIFOPN
FOB<UIBUJT QIFOPNFOBDIBSBDUFSJ[FECZWJCSBUJPO>UIBOJTPVSMBUFTU<&OH
MJTI>TDJFOUJGJDUFSNJOPMPHZw 
"NPOHIJTFYBNQMFTBSFUIFWFSC
GPSNTXB}MB AJU BMJRVJE
NBLFTBXBWF HJWFTBTMPTI U}S AIFHJWFTBTVEEFO
TUBSU BOE }N AJUFYQMPEFT HPFTPGGMJLFBHVO5IFTFBOEPUIFSTDBOCF
DIBOHFEGSPNUIFJSQVODUVBMBTQFDU BUFSNVTFEUPSFGFSUPBWFSCBDUJPO
DPODFOUSBUFEJOUPBWFSZTIPSUQFSJPEPGUJNF
UPUIFTFHNFOUBUJWFBTQFDUCZ
SFQFBUJOH SFEVQMJDBUJOH
UIFJSMBTUUXPTPVOETBOEBEEJOHUIFFOEJOHUB UP
QSPEVDFUIFGPSNTXBMB}MBUB AJUJTUPTTJOHJOXBWFT US}SUB AIFJTRVJWFSJOH
USFNCMJOH BOE N}NUB AJUJTUIVOEFSJOH
8IFSFBTJO&OHMJTIUIFEJGGFSFODFCFUXFFOTPNFUIJOHIBQQFOJOHPODFCSJFGMZ
BOETPNFUIJOHPDDVSSJOHSFQFBUFEMZPWFSUJNFNBZDBMMGPSEJGGFSFOUQISBTFT
GPSFYBNQMF iJUFYQMPEFTwBTBHBJOTUiJUJTUIVOEFSJOH wPSiJUNBLFTBXBWFwBT
BHBJOTUiJUJTUPTTJOHJOXBWFTw
UIF)PQJFYQSFTTJUCZUIFVTFPGBTJNQMFHSBN
NBUJDBMEFWJDF*O8IPSG TXPSET UIFFYBNQMFJMMVTUSBUFTiIPXUIF)PQJMBO
The Whorf Hypothesis of Linguistic Relativity and Linguisitc Determinism 231

HVBHFNBQTPVUBDFSUBJOUFSSBJOPGXIBUNJHIUCFUFSNFEQSJNJUJWFQIysics...
XJUIWFSZUIPSPVHIDPOTJTUFODZBOEOPUBMJUUMFUSVFTDJFOUJGJDQSFDJTJPOwBOE
iIPXMBOHVBHFQSPEVDFTBOPSHBOJ[BUJPOPGFYQFSJFODFw o

*OBOPUIFSBSUJDMF XSJUUFOJOUIFNJETCVUOPUQVCMJTIFEVOUJMOJOF
ZFBSTBGUFS8IPSG TEFBUI UIFBVUIPSTUBUFEUIBUiUIF)PQJMBOHVBHFJTTFFO
UPDPOUBJOOPXPSET HSBNNBUJDBMGPSNT DPOTUSVDUJPOTPSFYQSFTTJPOTUIBU
SFGFSEJSFDUMZUPXIBUXFDBMM5*.& PSUPQBTU QSFTFOU PSGVUVSFPSUIBU
FWFOSFGFSUPTQBDFJOTVDIBXBZBTUPFYDMVEFUIBUFMFNFOUPGFYUFOTJPOPS
FYJTUFODFUIBUXFDBMM5*.&w 
*OTUFBE UIFHSBOEDPPSEJOBUFTPGUIF
VOJWFSTFGPSUIF)PQJBSFNBOJGFTU PCKFDUJWFFYQFSJFODFBOEUIFVOGPMEJOH
TVCKFDUJWFSFBMNPGIVNBOFYJTUFODF
8IPSGJMMVTUSBUFEIJTOPUJPOPGMJOHVJTUJDSFMBUJWJUZCZVTJOHBTBOFYBNQMF
UIF"QBDIFFRVJWBMFOUPGUIF&OHMJTIVUUFSBODFi*UJTBESJQQJOHTQSJOHw SF
GFSSJOHUPBTPVSDFPGXBUFS
i"QBDIFFSFDUTUIFTUBUFNFOUPOBWFSCHB ACF
XIJUF JODMVEJOHDMFBS VODPMPSFE BOETPPO
8JUIBQSFGJYOUIFNFBOJOH
PGEPXOXBSENPUJPOFOUFSTAXIJUFOFTTNPWFTEPXOXBSE5IFOU NFBOJOH
CPUIAXBUFSBOEATQSJOH JTQSFGJYFE5IFSFTVMUDPSSFTQPOETUPPVSAESJQQJOH
TQSJOH CVUTZOUIFUJDBMMZJUJTABTXBUFS PSTQSJOHT XIJUFOFTTNPWFTEPXO
XBSE)PXVUUFSMZVOMJLFPVSXBZPGUIJOLJOHw 8IPSGB 

'PMMPXJOHVQPOUIFIZQPUIFTJTUIBUBMBOHVBHFBOEUIFDVMUVSFJUTFSWFT
NJSSPSFBDIPUIFS 8IPSGDPNQBSFEUIF)PQJMBOHVBHFXJUIXFTUFSO&VSP
QFBOMBOHVBHFT MBCFMFE4"&GPSi4UBOEBSE"WFSBHF&VSPQFBOw
"DDPSEJOH
UPIJN UIFEJGGFSFODFTJOMJOHVJTUJDTUSVDUVSFCFUXFFO)PQJBOE4"&BSFSF
GMFDUFEJOiIBCJUVBMUIPVHIUwBOEiIBCJUVBMCFIBWJPSw'PSFYBNQMF iUIF)PQJ
NJDSPDPTNTFFNTUPIBWFBOBMZ[FESFBMJUZMBSHFMZJOUFSNTPGFWFOUT PSCFU
UFS< > AFWFOUJOH
 SFGFSSFE UP JO UXP XBZT  PCKFDUJWF BOE TVCKFDUJWFw
C
UIFFNQIBTJTJTPOCFJOHJOBDDPSE CZNFBOTPGUIPVHIUGVMQBS
UJDJQBUJPO XJUIUIFVOGPMEJOHGPSDFTPGOBUVSF4QFBLFSTPG4"& JODPOUSBTU
DPODFJWFPGUIFVOJWFSTFMBSHFMZJOUFSNTPGUIJOHTBOEPGUJNFJOUFSNTPG
TDIFEVMFT4"&MBOHVBHFTVTFUFOTFUPNBSLUIFUJNFBUXIJDIBOBDUJPOUBLFT
QMBDF BTJOUIFQBTU QSFTFOU GVUVSF PS FWFONPSFTQFDJGJDBMMZ BTJOi*IBE
FBUFO wUPFYQSFTTUIFDPNQMFUJPOPGBOBDUJPOCFGPSFBTQFDJGJDQBTUUJNF

/PXPOEFS UIFO UIBUTQFBLFSTPGXFTUFSO&VSPQFBOMBOHVBHFTUFOEUPCF
QSFPDDVQJFEXJUIiSFDPSET EJBSJFT CPPLLFFQJOH BDDPVOUJOHDBMFOEBST
DISPOPMPHy..BOOBMT IJTUPSies..<BOE>CVEHFUTw C

5IFJNQMJDBUJPOTPG8IPSG TJEFBTDPODFSOJOHMJOHVJTUJDSFMBUJWJUZBOEEF
UFSNJOJTNBSFRVJUFTFSJPVT*GUIFXPSMEWJFXBOECFIBWJPSPGBQFPQMFBSF
232 Chapter 12: Language, Culture, and Thought

TJHOJGJDBOUMZBGGFDUFECZUIFTUSVDUVSFPGUIFMBOHVBHFUIFZTQFBL BOEJGMBO
HVBHFTEJGGFSJOTUSVDUVSF UIFODSPTTDVMUVSBMDPNNVOJDBUJPOBOEVOEFS
TUBOEJOHBSFMJLFMZUPCFOPUJDFBCMZJNQBJSFE JGOPUJNQPTTJCMFUPBDIJFWF
5IJTJTXIZ8IPSG TJEFBTSFDFJWFEBHSFBUEFBMPGBUUFOUJPOBOETUJNVMBUFE
NVDIEJTDVTTJPOGPSBOVNCFSPGZFBSTBGUFS8PSME8BS**

Whorfs Hypothesis Reconsidered


'SPNBDPOUFNQPSBSZTUBOEQPJOU IPXFWFS JUBQQFBSTUIBU8IPSGPWFSTUBUFE
IJTDBTF"DDPSEJOHUPBTUSPOHWFSTJPOPGUIJTQSPQPTJUJPO MFYJDBMBOEHSBN
NBUJDBMDBUFHPSJFTPGBMBOHVBHFDPNQMFUFMZEFUFSNJOFIPXJUTTQFBLFSTQFS
DFJWFUIFXPSMEBSPVOEUIFN5IJTJTVOEPVCUFEMZOPUUSVF5IBUXFDBO
USBOTMBUFGSPNPOFMBOHVBHFUPBOPUIFSCFMJFTUIFDPSSFDUOFTTPGUIFIZQPUI
FTJTJOJUTTUSPOHFTUGPSN)VNBOTEPOPU MJWFJOJODPNQBSBCMFMJOHVJTUJD
XPSMET#VUBDDPSEJOHUPBXFBLFSWFSTJPO UIFSFJTTPNFTPSUPGDPSSFMBUJPO
CFUXFFOBMBOHVBHFBOEJUTTQFBLFSTXPSMEWJFX UIFQIJMPTPQIJDBMEJNFO
TJPOPGBTPDJFUZTDVMUVSF

8IPSG T7JFXTPG-FYJDBM%JGGFSFODFTJO-BOHVBHF5IFSFJTOPRVFTUJPO
UIBUUIFMFYJDPOPGBOZMBOHVBHFNJSSPSTXIBUFWFSUIFOPOWFSCBMDVMUVSF
FNQIBTJ[FT UIBU JT  UIPTF BTQFDUT PG DVMUVSF UIBU BSF JNQPSUBOU GPS UIF
NFNCFSTPGBTPDJFUZBSFDPSSFTQPOEJOHMZIJHIMJHIUFEJOUIFWPDBCVMBSZ
'PSFYBNQMF XPSETDPOWFZJOHUIFWBSJPVTDIBSBDUFSJTUJDTPGDBNFMT BHF
CSFFE HFOEFS GVODUJPO DPOEJUJPO BOETPPO
BSFVOEPVCUFEMZNPSFQMFO
UJGVMJOBMBOHVBHFTQPLFOCZ#FEPVJOTXIPEFQFOEPODBNFMTUIBOUIFZ
BSFJO&OHMJTIUIFWPDBCVMBSZPG"NFSJDBO&OHMJTI GPSJUTQBSU JTSFQMFUF
XJUIUIFOBNFTPGNBLFTBOENPEFMTPGBVUPNPCJMFT XJUIOFXOBNFTPG
NPEFMTPGUIFWBSJPVTNBLFTCFJOHBEEFEFWFSZZFBS*O1JOUVQJ POFPGUIF
BCPSJHJOBMMBOHVBHFTPG"VTUSBMJB UIFSFBSFBUMFBTUUFOXPSETEFTJHOBUJOH
WBSJPVTLJOETPGIPMFTGPVOEJOOBUVSFPSJONBOVGBDUVSFEPCKFDUTNVUBSB
JTBTQFDJBMIPMFJOBTQFBS QVMQB JTBSBCCJUCVSSPX NBLBSOQB JTBCVSSPX
PGBNPOJUPSMJ[BSE LBUBSUB JTUIFIPMFMFGUCZBNPOJUPSMJ[BSEBGUFSJUIBT
CSPLFOUIFTVSGBDFBGUFSIJCFSOBUJPO BOETPPO5IJTFYBNQMFBMTPTIPXT
UIBUFWFOUIPVHIBMBOHVBHFNBZOPUIBWFBPOFXPSEFRVJWBMFOUGPSB
XPSEPGBOPUIFSMBOHVBHF JUJTQPTTJCMFUPQSPWJEFBOBEFRVBUFUSBOTMBUJPO
CZBEFTDSJQUJWFQISBTF GPSLBUBSUB UIJTNBZUBLFBTNBOZBTGJGUFFO&OH
MJTIXPSET
5PBWPJEXPSEJOFTTPSUIFVTFPGCPSSPXFEXPSET NBOZMBO
HVBHFT DPJO OFX XPSET 4PNF ZFBST BHP  BO "NFSJDBO BOUISPQPMPHJTU
Whorfs Hypothesis Reconsidered 233

UIPVHIUBLJOTIJQUFSNXBTOFFEFEUPJODMVEFUIFNFBOJOHTPGOFQIFX BOE
OJFDF BOEDPJOFEUIFXPSEOJCMJOH VTJOHUIFXPSETJCMJOH CSPUIFSPSTJTUFS

BTBNPEFM)PXFWFS UPDPODMVEFUIBUUIFBCTFODFPGFRVJWBMFOUUFSNTCF
UXFFOEJGGFSFOUWPDBCVMBSJFTNVTUBMXBZTCFBTTPDJBUFEXJUIBEJGGFSFOUQFS
DFQUJPOPGUIFXPSMEXPVMECFGBSGFUDIFE
8IPSG T FYBNQMFT GSPN )PQJ BMTP DBMM GPS DPNNFOU "DDPSEJOH UP
7PFHFMJO 7PFHFMJO BOE+FBOOF 
UIFSFMBUJPOTIJQCFUXFFOUIFQVODUVBM
BOETFHNFOUBUJWFBTQFDUTJTOPUBTTUSBJHIUGPSXBSEBT8IPSGEFTDSJCFEJU
'PSFYBNQMF OPUBMMOPOSFEVQMJDBUFE OPUEPVCMFE
TUFNTXJUIPVUUIFFOE
JOHUB DBOCFTBJEUPFYQSFTTUIFQVODUVBMBTQFDU'VSUIFSNPSF BMUIPVHI
TQFBLFSTPG)PQJNBLFMJUUMFPGUIFEJWJTJPOCFUXFFOGVUVSFBOEOPOGVUVSF
UIFZEPJOEJDBUFUFOTFCZUFNQPSBMBEWFSCT UIFTVGGJYOJ GVUVSF
BOEUIF
HOPNJDTVGGJY- NFBOJOHUIBUTPNFUIJOHJTHFOFSBMMZUSVF

8IPSGDMBJNFEUIBUUIF"QBDIFXBZPGUIJOLJOHJTiVUUFSMZVOMJLFwUIBUPG
TQFBLFSTPG&OHMJTICFDBVTFUIFVUUFSBODFi*UJTBESJQQJOHTQSJOHwUSBOTMBUFT
MJUFSBMMZGSPN"QBDIFJOUP&OHMJTIBTi"TXBUFS PSTQSJOHT XIJUFOFTTNPWFT
EPXOXBSEw#VUTVQQPTFUIBUTQFBLFSTPGBGPSFJHOMBOHVBHFXFSFUPJOUFSQSFU
MJUFSBMMZCSFBLGBTU BTiCSFBLJOHUIFGBTU BCTUJOFODFGSPNGPPE
wCPOGJSF BTiB
GJSFPGCPOFT CPOFGJSF wBOETQJOTUFS BTiBXPNBOXIPTFPDDVQBUJPOJTTQJO
OJOHwBOEBTBSFTVMUTBXBQSPGPVOEEJGGFSFODFCFUXFFOUIFJSPXOXBZPG
UIJOLJOHBOEUIBUPG&OHMJTITQFBLJOHQFPQMF#VUTPNFMFYJDBMEJGGFSFODFT
CFUXFFOMBOHVBHFTNBZIBWFTPNFDPOTFRVFODFTBTUPIPXTQFBLFSTWJFX
UIFDPSSFTQPOEJOHQBSUTPGUIFJSFOWJSPONFOU1SPOPNJOBMVTBHFBOELJO
TIJQXJMMTFSWFBTFYBNQMFT
1SPOPVOT4QFBLFSTPG&OHMJTIVTFUIFQFSTPOBMQSPOPVOZPV XIFUIFSUIFZ
BSFBEESFTTJOHPOFPSTFWFSBMDIJMESFO BEVMUT PMEQFSTPOT TVCPSEJOBUFT PS
JOEJWJEVBMTNVDITVQFSJPSUPUIFNTFMWFTJOSBOL0OMZXIFOBEESFTTJOH(PE
JOQSBZFSPSJODFSUBJOWFSZMJNJUFEDPOUFYUTGPSFYBNQMF JOUIFMBOHVBHFPG
UIF 'SJFOET UIF 2VBLFST
 PS JO QPFUSZEPFT POF VTF UIF QSPOPVO UIPV
XIJDIJTTJOHVMBSPOMZ
5IFUZQJDBMTJUVBUJPOJOPUIFSMBOHVBHFT JODMVEJOH
NPTUPGUIPTFTQPLFOJO&VSPQF JTNPSFDPNQMFY8IFOBEESFTTJOHTPNF
POF TQFBLFSTPG%VUDI 'SFODI (FSNBO *UBMJBO 3VTTJBO 4QBOJTI BOEPUIFS
MBOHVBHFTNVTUDIPPTFCFUXFFOUIFiGBNJMJBSwQFSTPOBMQSPOPVO 5GPSN
BOE
UIFiQPMJUFwQFSTPOBMQSPOPVO 7GPSN
BOEPSUIFDPSSFTQPOEJOHWFSCGPSN
5IFTZNCPMT5BOE7BSFEFSJWFEGSPNUIF'SFODIUV BOEWPVT UIFGBNJMJBS
BOEQPMJUFTFDPOEQFSTPOQSPOPVOT SFTQFDUJWFMZ
*O$[FDI GPSFYBNQMF UP
BEESFTTBOJOEJWJEVBMXIPJTDMPTFMZSFMBUFE TPNFPOFTPDJBMMZDMPTFBOEPGMPOH
234 Chapter 12: Language, Culture, and Thought

BDRVBJOUBODF PSBDIJMECFMPXUIFBHFPGQVCFSUZ POFDPNNPOMZVTFTUIFQFS


TPOBMQSPOPVOUZ #VUJOBEESFTTJOHBDBTVBMBDRVBJOUBODF BTUSBOHFS PSBQFS
TPOEFTFSWJOHSFTQFDU POFVTFTUIFQSPOPVOWZ XIJDIBMTPTFSWFTBTUIFQMVSBM
PGUZ "TQFBLFSNBZPDDBTJPOBMMZXPOEFS GPSFYBNQMF XIJDIPGUIFUXPGPSNT
UPVTFXIFOBEESFTTJOHBOBEVMUXIPNUIFTQFBLFSLOFXBTBDIJMEBOESF
GFSSFEUPSFQFBUFEMZBTUZ "USBOTMBUJPOGSPN$[FDIJOUP&OHMJTI PSWJDFWFSTB
UIBUJOWPMWFTUIFTFQSPOPVOT BOEPSUIFDPSSFTQPOEJOHWFSCGPSNT
JTUIFSF
GPSFOPUFRVJWBMFOU5IF$[FDIQISBTFTiUZBKw BOEiWZBKw CPUIUSBOTMBUF
JOUP&OHMJTIBTiZPVBOE* wFWFOUIPVHIUIFGJSTUPOFNBLFTVTFPGUIFJOGPS
NBM GBNJMJBSFWFOJOUJNBUFQSPOPVOBOEXPVMEOPUCFVTFEJOTJUVBUJPOTJO
XIJDIUIFGPSNBM QPMJUFQSPOPVOPGUIFTFDPOEQISBTFXPVMECFBQQSPQSJBUF
5IF&OHMJTIUSBOTMBUJPO UIFO DBOPOMZCFBQQSPYJNBUF BTJUDBOOPUGVMMZDPO
WFZUIFOBUVSFPGUIFSFMBUJPOTIJQCFUXFFOUIFTQFBLFSBOEUIFBEESFTTFF
1SPOPVOVTBHFJO+BQBOFTFJTNPSFDPNQMFYUIBOJOUIF*OEP&VSPQFBO
MBOHVBHFT BTPUIFSEJNFOTJPOTCFTJEFGBNJMJBSJUZNVTUCFDPOTJEFSFE1SP
OPVOTNVTUCFTFMFDUFEEFQFOEJOHPOEJGGFSJOHMFWFMTPGJOUFOEFEGPSNBMJUZ
BOEUIFHFOEFSPGUIFTQFBLFS'PSFYBNQMF DPOTJEFSTPNFPGUIFWBSJPVT
XBZTPGTBZJOHiXFwJO+BQBOFTF

GPSGFNBMFTQFBLFST GPSNBMFTQFBLFST
XBUBLVTIJEPNP XBUBLVTIJEPNP
XBUBLVTIJUBDIJ XBUBLVTIJUBDIJ
XBUBTIJUBDIJ XBUBTIJUBDIJ
XBUBTIJSB XBUBTIJSB
BUBTIJUBDIJ
CPLVUBDIJ
BUBTIJSB CPLVSB
PSFUBDIJ
PSFSB

'SPNUPQUPCPUUPN UIFUFSNTCFDPNFMFTTGPSNBM5IPVHIUIFSFBSFOP
FYBDUSVMFT UIFMFWFMTEFQJDUFEBCPWFQSPCBCMZDPSSFTQPOEUPJOUVJUJPOTNPTU
+BQBOFTFOBUJWFTQFBLFSTIBWFPGIPXUIFTFQSPOPVOTTIPVMECFVTFE4PNF
PGUIFGBDUPSTBGGFDUJOHMFWFMTPGQPMJUFOFTTBOEVTFPG IPOPSJGJDT JODMVEF

t GBNJMJBSJUZ FH TUSBOHFS GBNJMZNFNCFS GSJFOE

t BHF PMEFSPSZPVOHFSUIBOTQFBLFS

Whorfs Hypothesis Reconsidered 235

t QSPGFTTJPOBMSFMBUJPOT FH CPTT TBMFTQFSTPO DVTUPNFS

t HFOEFS TBNFPSEJGGFSFOUGSPNTQFBLFS

t JOHSPVQPVUHSPVQ FH TBNFGBNJMZ TDIPPM EFQBSUNFOU DPNQBOZ

t DPOUFYU FH SFRVFTU DPNNBOE HSFFUJOH

0UIFS-FYJDBM%JGGFSFODFT,JOTIJQ5FSNJOPMPHZ5IF+BQBOFTFLJOTIJQBOE
QSPOPNJOBM TZTUFNT SFGMFDU GJOF OVBODFT PG NFBOJOH PS TPDJBM EJTUBODF
+BQBOFTFTPDJBMTUSVDUVSFBMFBTUMJOHVJTUJDBMMZGPMMPXTXIBUBOUISPQPMP
HJTUTDBMMBOi&TLJNPwLJOTIJQUFSNJOPMPHZ8IBUUIJTNFBOTJTUIBUUIFLJO
TIJQTZTUFNJO+BQBOFTFJTTJNJMBSJONBOZXBZTUPUIF"NFSJDBOPOF CVU
XJUIUISFFJNQPSUBOUFYDFQUJPOT

t UFSNTPGBEESFTTBSFEJGGFSFOUGSPNUFSNTPGSFGFSFODF
t PMEFSTJCMJOHTBSFEJTUJOHVJTIFEGSPNZPVOHFSTJCMJOHT
t UFSNTGPSSFMBUJWFTPGUIFTQFBLFSBSFEJGGFSFOUGSPNUFSNTGPSPUIFST
SFMBUJWFT

'PSFYBNQMF JG*XFSFUBMLJOHUPNZPMEFSCSPUIFS *XPVMEDBMMIJNCZUIF


LJOTIJQUFSNPOJJTBO iFMEFSCSPUIFSwXJUIUIFIPOPSJGJDTBO TVGGJYBU
UBDIFE
SBUIFS UIBO VTJOH IJT OBNF *G * XFSF UBMLJOH BCPVU NZ PMEFS
CSPUIFS *XPVMEVTFUIFUFSNBOJ*G*XFSFBEESFTTJOHTPNFPOFFMTFTPMEFS
CSPUIFS *XPVMEVTFUIFGBNJMZOBNF XJUIUIFTBO TVGGJYCFJOHPCMJHBUPSZ

PSBUJUMF5PUBMLBCPVUIJN *XPVMEVTF POJJTBO8IFOUBMLJOHUPNZ


ZPVOHFSCSPUIFS *XPVMEVTFIJTGJSTUOBNF XJUIPVUUIFTBO TVGGJY PSQPT
TJCMZBEEJOHUIFEJNJOVUJWFTVGGJYDIBO
*XPVMESFGFSUPIJNBTNZPUUP
8IFOJOUSPEVDJOHNZXJGF*XPVMEVTFUIFUFSNUTVNB OFVUSBM
OZC DPM
MPRVJBM
PSLBOBJ QPMJUF
CVUXPVMEOFFEUPVTFPLVTBO QPMJUF
PSPLV
TBNB WFSZQPMJUF
GPSTPNFPOFFMTFTXJGF5IFSFBSFTPNFUXPEP[FOUFSNT
GPSXJGFJO+BQBOFTF FBDISFGMFDUJOHEJGGFSFOUFNPUJPOBMDPOOPUBUJPOT TPDJBM
BUUJUVEFT BOEMFWFMTPGSFTQFDU$PNNPOUIFTFEBZTJTFWFOUIF&OHMJTIMPBO
XPSEXBJGV XIJDITPNFIBWFDMBJNFE FOUFSFEUIF+BQBOFTFMBOHVBHFQSF
DJTFMZUPBWPJE TPNFPGUIFDVMUVSBMCBHHBHFDBSSJFECZUIFTFPUIFSUFSNT
-FUVTDPOTJEFSBOPUIFSFYBNQMF POFXJUIFWFONPSFTJHOJGJDBOUDPOTF
RVFODFT"NPOHUIF"SBQBIP B/BUJWF"NFSJDBOUSJCFPGUIF(SFBU1MBJOT
UIFUFSNGPSiNZNPUIFSwJTOOPP 4BM[NBOO 
5IJT"SBQBIP
UFSNGPSiNZNPUIFSwBMTPBQQMJFTUPFHPTNPUIFSTTJTUFS BQFSTPOSFGFSSFEUP
JOUIF"NFSJDBOLJOTIJQTZTUFNBTiNZBVOUw FHP JTUIFQFSTPOPGSFGFSFODF
236 Chapter 12: Language, Culture, and Thought

UPXIPNPUIFSTBSFTIPXOUPCFSFMBUFE
)PXFWFS UIFUFSNCZXIJDIFHP
DBMMTIJTNPUIFSTCSPUIFSJTOTJ SPVHIMZFRVJWBMFOUUPiNZVODMFw4JNJ
MBSMZ UIFUFSNGPSiNZGBUIFS wOFJTOPP BMTPSFGFSTUPFHPTGBUIFSTCSPUIFS
XIFSFBTGBUIFSTTJTUFSJTSFGFSSFEUPBTOFIJ SPVHIMZFRVJWBMFOUUPiNZ
BVOUw/PXJGFHPTGBUIFSTCSPUIFSJTUFSNFEOFJTOPP BTJTBMTPFHPTGB
UIFS JUGPMMPXTUIBUGBUIFSTCSPUIFSTXJGFXPVMECFSFGFSSFEUPCZUIFTBNF
UFSNBTFHPTGBUIFSTXJGF UIBUJT OOPP "OECZUIFTBNFUPLFO FHPT
NPUIFSTTJTUFSTIVTCBOEJTSFGFSSFEUPJO"SBQBIPBTOFJTOPP ANZGBUIFS
8IFSFBTJOUIF"NFSJDBOLJOTIJQUFSNJOPMPHZCJPMPHJDBMQBSFOUTBSFEJT
UJOHVJTIFEGSPNVODMFTBOEBVOUT UIF"SBQBIPBOENBOZPUIFSQFPQMFT
MVNQUPHFUIFSMJOFBMSFMBUJWFTXJUITPNFPGUIFJSDPMMBUFSBMSFMBUJWFTUIF
CJPMPHJDBMNPUIFS IFSTJTUFS BOEGBUIFSTCSPUIFSTXJGFPOUIFPOFIBOE
BOEUIFCJPMPHJDBMGBUIFS IJTCSPUIFS BOENPUIFSTTJTUFSTIVTCBOEPOUIF
PUIFS TFF'JHVSF
*UGPMMPXT UIFO UIBUBOZPOFXIPDBMMTTPNFSFMB
UJWFTPGUIFQBSFOUBMHFOFSBUJPOCZUFSNTUIBUBQQMZUPUIFCJPMPHJDBMNPUIFS
BOEGBUIFSJTJOUVSODBMMFECZBMMUIFTFSFMBUJWFTCZUFSNTUIBUBQQMZUPCJ
PMPHJDBMTPOTBOEEBVHIUFST
*TPOFUPDPODMVEFGSPNUIF"SBQBIPLJOTIJQUFSNJOPMPHZUIBUUIF"SB
QBIPBSFVOBXBSFPGUIFEJGGFSFODFCFUXFFOBCJPMPHJDBMNPUIFS PSGBUIFS

BOEIFSTJTUFS PSIJTCSPUIFS
0GDPVSTFOPU8IBUJUNFBOTJTUIBUUIFFY
UFOTJPOPGUIF"SBQBIPLJOTIJQUFSNTOFJTOPP BOEOOPP GSPNFHPTCJP
MPHJDBMQBSFOUTUPBEEJUJPOBMSFMBUJWFTJTQBSBMMFMFECZBOFYUFOTJPOPGFHPT
CFIBWJPSUPXBSEIJTPSIFSCJPMPHJDBMGBUIFSBOENPUIFSUPBMMUIPTFSFMBUJWFT
XIPBSFSFGFSSFEUPCZUIFTBNFLJOTIJQUFSNT"MM"SBQBIPUFSNJOPMPHJDBM
iGBUIFSTwBOEiNPUIFSTwIBWFUIFTBNFPCMJHBUJPOTUPXBSEUIFJSUFSNJOPMPH
JDBMiTPOTwBOEiEBVHIUFST wBOEWJDFWFSTB FWFOUIPVHIPQQPSUVOJUJFTUPGVM
GJMM UIFN NBZ TPNFUJNFT CF MJNJUFE CZ DJSDVNTUBODFT "NPOH UIPTF
iQBSFOUTwBOEiDIJMESFOwXIPTFJOUFSBDUJPOJTMJNJUFECZEJTUBODF UIFFN
QIBTJTJTPOFYUFOEJOHUIFSFMFWBOUBUUJUVEFTSBUIFSUIBOCFIBWJPS*UJTDMFBS
UIBUUIFLJOTIJQUFSNJOPMPHZCZXIJDIPOFDMBTTJGJFTSFMBUJWFTBMTPHPWFSOT
UIFUZQFPGCFIBWJPSQBUUFSOTBOEBUUJUVEFTBQQMJFEUPUIFN
4IBQF $PMPS 4QBDF4FWFSBMTUVEJFTJOEJDBUFUIBUHSBNNBUJDBMGFBUVSFTNBZ
JOEFFEIBWFTPNFJOGMVFODFPONFNPSZBOEOPOWFSCBMCFIBWJPS"NPOH
UIFCFTULOPXOTUVEJFTPGUIJTUZQFJTUIFSFQPSUPOBOFYQFSJNFOUBENJOJT
UFSFEUP/BWBKPBOEXIJUF"NFSJDBODIJMESFOCZ+PIO#$BSSPMMBOE+PTFQI
#$BTBHSBOEF o
JOUIFMBUFT"TQFBLFSPG/BWBKPNVTUDIPPTF
GSPNBNPOHTFWFSBMGPSNTPG/BWBKPWFSCTPGIBOEMJOHBDDPSEJOHUPUIF
F I G U R E 1 2 . 1 Partial Comparison of the American and Arapaho Kinship Systems
237
238 Chapter 12: Language, Culture, and Thought

TIBQFPSTPNFPUIFSDIBSBDUFSJTUJDPGUIFPCKFDUCFJOHIBOEMFEGPSFYBNQMF
TPMJESPVOEJTI SPDL
TMFOEFSBOEGMFYJCMF SPQF
GMBUBOEGMFYJCMF DMPUI

TMFOEFSBOETUJGG TUJDL
OPODPNQBDU XPPM
BOETPPO&WFOUIPVHIUIFVTF
PGUIFBQQSPQSJBUFGPSNTJTPCMJHBUPSZ UIFTFMFDUJPOPQFSBUFTCFMPXUIFMFWFM
PGDPOTDJPVTBXBSFOFTTPOUIFQBSUPGUIFTQFBLFST BOEFWFODIJMESFOBT
ZPVOHBTUISFFPSGPVSNBLFOPFSSPST *OBTPNFXIBUTJNJMBSGBTIJPO JO
&OHMJTI POF TISVHT POFT TIPVMEFST BOE OPET POFT IFBE  BOE OP OBUJWF
TQFBLFSXPVMEFWFSVTFPOFUFSNGPSUIFPUIFS
0OFPGUIFIZQPUIFTFTPGUIF
JOWFTUJHBUPSTXBTUIBUUIJTGFBUVSFPG/BWBKPBGGFDUTUIFQFSDFQUJPOPGPCKFDUT
BOEDPOTFRVFOUMZUIFCFIBWJPSPGTQFBLFST
5FOQBJSTPGPCKFDUTXFSFVTFE FBDIQBJSTJHOJGJDBOUMZEJGGFSJOHJOUXP
DIBSBDUFSJTUJDT5IF/BWBKPDIJMESFOXIPUPPLQBSUJOUIFFYQFSJNFOU
JODMVEFETPNFXIPTQPLFPOMZ/BWBKP TPNFXIPXFSFNPSFQSPGJDJFOUJO
/BWBKPUIBOJO&OHMJTI TPNFXIPXFSFCBMBODFECJMJOHVBMT TPNFXIPTQPLF
QSFEPNJOBOUMZ&OHMJTI BOETPNFXIPTQPLFPOMZ&OHMJTI&BDIPGUIFTF
DIJMESFOXBTQSFTFOUFEXJUIPOFPGUIFQBJSTPGPCKFDUT TIPXOBUIJSEPCKFDU
TJNJMBSUPFBDINFNCFSPGUIFQBJSJOPOFDIBSBDUFSJTUJDPOMZ GPSFYBNQMF
BQBJSSFQSFTFOUFECZBZFMMPXTUJDLBOEBQJFDFPGCMVFSPQFPGDPNQBSBCMF
MFOHUI XJUIBZFMMPXSPQFBTUIFUIJSEPCKFDU
BOEUIFOBTLFEUPNBUDIPOF
PGUIFQBJSFEPCKFDUTXJUIUIFUIJSE5IFNBUDIJOHPOUIFQBSUPGUIF/BWBKP
EPNJOBOUDIJMESFOXBTQSFEPNJOBOUMZPOUIFCBTJTPGTIBQFSBUIFSUIBO
DPMPS UIJTUFOEFODZJODSFBTJOHXJUIUIFBHFPGUIFDIJME"NPOHUIF&OHMJTI
EPNJOBOU/BWBKPDIJMESFO DPMPSBQQFBSFEUPCFNPSFJNQPSUBOUBNPOHUIF
ZPVOHFTU CVUCZUIFBHFPGUFOUIFUXPHSPVQTIBEBMNPTUDPOWFSHFE XJUI
UIFTFMFDUJPOEPNJOBUFECZTIBQF
5IFQFSGPSNBODFPGXIJUFDIJMESFOJOUIF#PTUPOBSFBXBTNPSFTJNJMBS
UPUIBUPGUIF/BWBKPEPNJOBOUUIBOUIF&OHMJTIEPNJOBOU/BWBKPDIJMESFO
"DDPSEJOHUPUIFUXPJOWFTUJHBUPST UIJTSFTVMUNBZCFEVFBUMFBTUJOQBSUUP
UIFFBSMZBOEDPOUJOVFEQMBZPGXIJUFDIJMESFOXJUIUPZTPGUIFGPSNCPBSE
WBSJFUZ TUSFTTJOHGPSNBOETJ[FSBUIFSUIBODPMPS0OUIFCBTJTPGUIFEJGGFS
FODFCFUXFFOUIF/BWBKPEPNJOBOUBOE&OHMJTIEPNJOBOUHSPVQTPG/BWBKP
DIJMESFO UIFJOWFTUJHBUPSTDPODMVEFE

5IFUFOEFODZPGBDIJMEUPNBUDIPCKFDUTPOUIFCBTJTPGGPSNPSNBUFSJBM
SBUIFSUIBOTJ[FPSDPMPSJODSFBTFTXJUIBHFBOENBZCFFOIBODFECZ
MFBSOJOHUPTQFBLBMBOHVBHF MJLF/BWBKP XIJDICFDBVTFPGUIFDFOUSBMSPMF
QMBZFE CZ GPSN BOE NBUFSJBM JO JUT HSBNNBUJDBM TUSVDUVSF  SFRVJSFT UIF
Color Nomenclature and Other Challenges to Linguistic Relativity 239

MFBSOFSUPNBLFDFSUBJOEJTDSJNJOBUJPOTPGGPSNBOENBUFSJBMJOUIFFBSMJFS
TUBHFTPGMBOHVBHFMFBSOJOHJOPSEFSUPNBLFIJNTFMGVOEFSTUPPEBUBMM $BS
SPMMBOE$BTBHSBOEF

*OHFOFSBM UIPTFFYBNJOJOHUIFSFMBUJPOTIJQCFUXFFOMBOHVBHFBOEDVM
UVSFJOSFDFOUZFBSTIBWFBEWPDBUFENPSFFYQFSJNFOUBMSJHPS5IFZIBWFBS
HVFEUIBUSFTFBSDIDPODFSOJOHUIJTSFMBUJPOTIJQNVTUCFDPNQBSBUJWF UIBU
JT DPOUSBTUUXPPSNPSFMBOHVBHFT QSFGFSBCMZXJEFMZEJGGFSJOHUIBUJUNVTU
VTFTPNFiFYUFSOBMOPOMJOHVJTUJDSFBMJUZw TUJNVMVT
BTBTUBOEBSEGPSEFUFS
NJOJOHCZDPNQBSJTPOUIFDPOUFOUPGMJOHVJTUJDBOEDPHOJUJWFDBUFHPSJFTUIBU
JUNVTUDPOUSBTUUIFMBOHVBHFTPGUIFSFTQFDUJWFTQFFDIDPNNVOJUJFTUPEF
UFSNJOFIPXUIFZEJGGFSJOVOEFSTUBOEJOHBDPNNPOTUJNVMVTBOEUIBUJU
NVTUNBLFQMBJOUIFJNQMJDBUJPOPGEJGGFSFODFTJOMBOHVBHFGPSEJGGFSFODFT
JOUIPVHIUCFUXFFOUIFNFNCFSTPGUIFTFTQFFDIDPNNVOJUJFT TVNNBSJ[FE
GSPN-VDZB

'PSFYBNQMF TPNFBTTVNQUJPOTUIBUOPUJPOTPGTQBDF UIBUJT BUISFF
EJNFOTJPOBMBSFBJOXIJDIFWFOUTBOEPCKFDUTPDDVSBOEIBWFSFMBUJWFEJSFD
UJPOBOEQPTJUJPO
BSFVOJWFSTBMBSFCFJOHSFFYBNJOFE4UFQIFO-FWJOTPO

TIPXFEUIBUiTZTUFNTPGTQBUJBMSFDLPOJOHBOEEFTDSJQUJPODBO
JOGBDUCFRVJUFEJWFSHFOUBDSPTTDVMUVSFT MJOHVJTUJDEJGGFSFODFTDPSSFMBUJOH
XJUIEJTUJODUDPHOJUJWFUFOEFODJFTw.PSFTQFDJGJDBMMZ MBOHVBHFTWBSZJO
UIFJSVTFPGTQBUJBMDPODFQUTBOE JOTPNFJOTUBODFT EFUFSNJOFUIFDPHOJ
UJWFDBUFHPSJFTSFMBUJOHUPTQBDFDPODFQUTBMTP UIFTQFBLFSTPGBOVNCFS
PGMBOHVBHFTEPOPUVTFTQBUJBMUFSNTDPSSFTQPOEJOHUPUIFCPEJMZDPPSEJ
OBUFTPGMFGUSJHIUBOEGSPOUCBDL0OFFYBNQMFDPNFTGSPNUIF5FOFKBQB
5[FMUBMPG.FYJDP5IFJSMBOHVBHFVTFTOPSFMBUJWFGSBNFPGSFGFSFODFBOE
UIFSFGPSFIBTOPUFSNTGPSTQBUJBMSFGFSFODFUIBUXPVMEDPSSFTQPOEUPMFGU
SJHIU GSPOU BOECBDL "MUIPVHIUFSNTFYJTUGPSMFGUIBOE BOESJHIUIBOE
UIFZEPOPUFYUFOEUPPUIFSQBSUTPGUIFCPEZPSUPBSFBTFYUFSOBMUPJU
-FWJOTPO


Color Nomenclature and Other Challenges


to Linguistic Relativity
"TJOUSJHVJOHBTUIFMJOHVJTUJDSFMBUJWJUZIZQPUIFTJTJT JUJTEJGGJDVMUUPUFTUPC
KFDUJWFMZ"GUFSBMM JUTDMBJNTMJFJOUIFSFBMNPGTVCKFDUJWFFYQFSJFODFBOEJU
JTIBSEUPHFUJOTJEFQFPQMFTIFBET&BSMZPO JUXBTUIPVHIUUIBUPOFPGUIF
240 Chapter 12: Language, Culture, and Thought

BSFBTXIFSFMJOHVJTUJDSFMBUJWJUZNJHIUCFFNQJSJDBMMZFYBNJOFEXBTDPMPS
"SPVOEUIFUVSOPGUIFUXFOUJFUIDFOUVSZ'SBO[#PBTBOUJDJQBUFENVDIPG
UIJTMBUFSXPSLCZTUBUJOHUIBU

%JGGFSFODFTPGQSJODJQMFTPGDMBTTJGJDBUJPOBSFGPVOEJOUIFEPNBJOPGTFOTB
UJPOT'PSJOTUBODFJUIBTCFFOPCTFSWFEUIBUDPMPSTBSFDMBTTJGJFEJORVJUF
EJTUJODUHSPVQTBDDPSEJOHUPUIFJSTJNJMBSJUJFT XJUIPVUBOZBDDPNQBOZJOH
EJGGFSFODFJOUIFBCJMJUZUPEJTUJOHVJTITIBEFTPGDPMPS8IBUXFDBMMHSFFO
BOECMVFJTPGUFODPNCJOFEVOEFSBUFSNMJLFiHBMMDPMPS wPSZFMMPXBOE
HSFFOBSFDPNCJOFEJOUPPOFDPODFQUXIJDINBZCFOBNFEiDPMPSPGZPVOH
MFBWFTw*ODPVSTFPGUJNFXFIBWFCFFOBEEJOHOBNFTGPSBEEJUJPOBMIVFT
XIJDIJOFBSMJFSUJNFT JOQBSUBMTPOPXJOEBJMZMJGF BSFOPUEJTUJOHVJTIFE
5IFJNQPSUBODFPGUIFGBDUUIBUJOTQFFDIBOEUIPVHIUUIFXPSEDBMMTGPSUI
BEJGGFSFOUQJDUVSF BDDPSEJOHUPUIFDMBTTJGJDBUJPOPGHSFFOBOEZFMMPXPS
HSFFOBOECMVFBTPOFHSPVQDBOIBSEMZCFFYBHHFSBUFEw #PBT


$PMPSUFSNJOPMPHJFT UIFO IBWFCFFOBTPVSDFPGGBTDJOBUJPOGPSBOUISP


QPMPHJTUTFWFSTJODFFBSMZFUIOPHSBQIFSTOPUJDFEUIBUiOPO8FTUFSOwQFPQMFT
PGUFOIBWFWFSZEJGGFSFOUXBZTPGEJWJEJOHVQUIFDPMPSTQFDUSVN'PSJO
TUBODF TPNFMBOHVBHFT JUXBTGPVOE XPVMECMFOEUIFDPMPSTCMVFBOEHSFFO
VOEFSBTJOHMFUFSN BT#PBTOPUFEBCPWF
PUIFSTXPVMECSFBLVQUIF&OH
MJTISFETVTJOHUISFFPSGPVSTFQBSBUFOBNFT*UXBTQV[[MJOHUPGJOEUIBUTP
OBUVSBMBOEOFVUSBMBTUJNVMVTBTUIFDPMPSTQFDUSVNDPVMECFEJWJEFEVQJO
IVOESFETPGEJGGFSFOUXBZT4VDIGJOEJOHTTVQQPSUFEUIFOPUJPOTPGUIFMJO
HVJTUJDSFMBUJWJUZIZQPUIFTJTUIBUUIFEJTUJODUJPOTBMBOHVBHFNBLFTBSFBSCJ
USBSZ BOEUIBUUIFSFJTOPBQSJPSJ XBZUPQSFEJDUXIBUEJTUJODUJPOTBMBOHVBHF
NJHIU PSNJHIUOPU NBLF
"TQFDUTPG'PSNBM$PMPS/PNFODMBUVSF5IFPSZ0OFPGUIFNPTUJNQPSUBOU
UIPVHIBMTPTPNFXIBUOFHMFDUFETUVEJFTJODPMPSXBTDPOEVDUFECZ&SJD
-FOOFCFSHBOE+PIO3PCFSUT -FOOFCFSHBOE3PCFSUT
5IFJSJEFBXBT
UPVTFBOBSSBZPGTDJFOUJGJDBMMZDBMJCSBUFEDPMPSDIJQTTJNJMBSUPUIPTF
ZPVNJHIUTFFPOEJTQMBZBUBIBSEXBSFTUPSFGSPN5IF.VOTFMM#PPLPG
$PMPS WBSZJOHJOUIFEJNFOTJPOTPGIVFBOECSJHIUOFTT BOEQVUUIFNUP
HFUIFSJOBQIZTJDBMDIBSU"NPSFNPEFSOWFSTJPO JODMVEJOHUFOTIBEFTPG
HSBZPOUIFMFGU JTTIPXOCFMPX 4UBOMBX "SSJHP BOE"OEFSTPO
:PV
DBOGJOEUIFGVMMDPMPSWFSTJPOBUUIF7JSUVBM"OUISPQPMPHZ$PMPS-BC IUUQ
XXXNJOEJMTUVFEVDVSSJDVMVNNPEPWFSWJFXQIQ NPE(6*

Color Nomenclature and Other Challenges to Linguistic Relativity 241

-FOOFCFSHBOE3PCFSUTXPSLFEXJUIUIF;VOJGSPNUIF"NFSJDBO4PVUI
XFTUBOEOBUJWF&OHMJTITQFBLFST BOEBTLFEUIFNUPDJSDMFPOUIJTDIBSUBMM
UIFDIJQTPGTPNFDPMPSDBUFHPSZ FH iQMFBTFDJSDMFBMMUIFSFE DPMPSTw

-FOOFCFSHBOE3PCFSUTJNNFEJBUFMZGPVOETJHOJGJDBOUEJGGFSFODFTCF
UXFFOUIF;VOJBOE&OHMJTITQFBLFST CPUIJOUIFOVNCFSPGDPMPSUFSNT
GPVOEJOFBDIMBOHVBHFBOEJOUIFSBOHFTJOGPSNBOUTNBSLFEPGGGPSUIFTF
DPMPSUFSNT'PSFYBNQMF UIFZGPVOEUIBUXIJMF&OHMJTITQFBLFSTEJTUJO
HVJTIFEZFMMPX BOEPSBOHF DPMPSTBOEDJSDMFEUIFNPOUIFDIBSUBTUXPTFQ
BSBUFHSPVQT;VOJJOGPSNBOUTDJSDMFEBMMUIFZFMMPXTBOEPSBOHFTUPHFUIFS
BTPOFHSPVQ BOEHBWFJUBTJOHMFOBNF
"MTP UIFZEJTDPWFSFEUIBUGPS
TQFBLFSTPG&OHMJTIUIFDPMPSDBUFHPSJFTWBSJFEHSFBUMZJOTJ[F FH SFE CFJOH
WFSZTNBMMBOEHSFFO CFJOHWFSZMBSHF
'PS;VOJTQFBLFST UIFDBUFHPSJFTXFSF
HFOFSBMMZBCPVUUIFTBNFTJ[F5IPVHIUIFNBJOJOUFOUJPOPG-FOOFCFSHBOE
3PCFSUTXBTUPQSPWJEFBUPPM BOEBDPNQBSBCMFNFUIPEPMPHZ UIBUDPVMECF
VTFEGPSGVSUIFSSFTFBSDI NPTUBOUISPQPMPHJTUTBOEMJOHVJTUTUISPVHIUIF
TGFMUUIJTXBTTVGGJDJFOUFWJEFODFUPQSPWJEFTVQQPSUGPSUIFMJOHVJTUJD
SFMBUJWJUZIZQPUIFTJT
)PXFWFS #SFOU#FSMJOBOE1BVM,BZ  
UXPMJOHVJTUJDBO
UISPQPMPHJTUT FYQBOEFEUIF-FOOFCFSHBOE3PCFSUTFYQFSJNFOUTGPSUXFOUZ
MBOHVBHFT BOEFYBNJOFEXSJUUFONBUFSJBMTPOTFWFOUZFJHIUPUIFST#PUI
TUVEJFTSFWFBMFETFWFSBMTJNJMBSGJOEJOHT'PSFYBNQMF BMUIPVHI-FOOFCFSH
BOE3PCFSUTGPVOEUIBUOPUFWFSZMBOHVBHFVTFTUIFTBNFDPMPSUFSNT
BOEUIFJSOVNCFSXBTBQQBSFOUMZBSCJUSBSZ#FSMJOBOE,BZDPODMVEFEUIBU
242 Chapter 12: Language, Culture, and Thought

MBOHVBHFTUFOEUPVTFMFTTUIBOBEP[FOCBTJDDPMPSUFSNT5IFZBMTPGPVOE
UIBUUIFDIJQTDIPTFOCZJOGPSNBOUTUPSFQSFTFOUUIFJEFBMFYBNQMFPGB
DPMPS DBUFHPSZ FH  i8IJDI JT UIF CFTU SFE w
 XFSF PGUFO RVJUF TJNJMBS
BDSPTTMBOHVBHFT
5IFDSJUJDBMUIFPSFUJDBMJOTJHIUNBEFCZ#FSMJOBOE,BZXBTUIBUDPMPS
UFSNTOFFEUPCFPQFSBUJPOBMJ[FE.BOZMPDBMDPMPSTJOFWFSZMBOHVBHFNPTUMZ
EFQFOEPOUIFQBSUJDVMBSTPGUIFFOWJSPONFOU GPSFYBNQMF iUIFDPMPSPGUIF
TPBOETPQMBOUwPSUIJTPSUIBUBOJNBM4VDIDPMPSUFSNTBSFVTFGVMJGFWFSZ
POFJOUIFBSFBJTGBNJMJBSXJUIUIFQBSUJDVMBSSFGFSFOU&WFSZMBOHVBHFIBT
UIPVTBOETPGUIFTFiTFDPOEBSZDPMPSUFSNTwBTXFMM JODMVEJOH&OHMJTI EFOJN
CMVF GJSFFOHJOFSFE PSPMJWFHSFFO
#VUBSFUIFSFTPNFNPSFHFOFSBMBCTUSBDU
DPMPSTUIBUBMMDVMUVSFTTFFNUPIBWF *UXBTUIJTRVFTUJPOUIBU#FSMJOBOE,BZ
SFBMJ[FEOFFEFEUPCFBEESFTTFECFGPSFBOZSFBMDSPTTDVMUVSBMDPNQBSJTPOT
PGDPMPSOPNFODMBUVSFDPVMECFBUUFNQUFE5IFZEFDJEFEUPEFGJOFBCTUSBDU
iCBTJDwUFSNTVTJOHUIFGPMMPXJOHDSJUFSJB o


 "CBTJDDPMPSUFSNTIPVMECFNPOPMFYFNJD BOEVOBOBMZ[BCMF$PN
QPVOETBOEUFSNTUIBUBSFMFYJDBMMZPSNPSQIPMPHJDBMMZNPEJGJFEXJMM
OPUCFCBTJD5IVT iSFEwBOEiCMVFwBSFCBTJDDPMPSTJO&OHMJTI CVU
iSFEEJTI wiCMVFHSFFO wPSiMJHIUSFEwBSFOPU"MTP BUFSNTNFBOJOH
TIPVMEOPUCFQSFEJDUBCMFGSPNUIFNFBOJOHPGJUTQBSUT UIVTFYDMVE
JOHTVDIXPSETBTiPMJWFHSFFOwBTCBTJDJO&OHMJTI

 5IFNFBOJOHPGBCBTJDDPMPSUFSNTIPVMEOPUCFJODMVEFE JOUIFSBOHF
PGBOZPUIFSUFSN5IVT CFDBVTFiLIBLJwJTiBLJOEPGCSPXOwJUXPVME
OPUCFBO&OHMJTICBTJDDPMPSUFSN5IJTNFBOTUIBUTVCTFUTPGDPMPST
BSFOPUCBTJDDPMPSTi/BWZCMVFwJTBLJOEPGCMVFBOEUIFSFGPSFOPUB
CBTJDDPMPSUFSNJO&OHMJTI
 5IFUFSNJORVFTUJPONVTUIBWFXJEFBQQMJDBCJMJUZ BOEOPUCFSFTUSJDUFE
UPBOZTJOHMFPSKVTUBGFXSFGFSFOUTCVUTIPVMEFYJTUBTBOBCTUSBDU
MBCFMXJEFMZBQQMJDBCMFUPBMMPCKFDUT6TJOHUIJTDSJUFSJPO BUFSNTVDI
BTiCMPOEFwJTOPUCBTJDJO&OHMJTICFDBVTFJUVTVBMMZPOMZSFGFSTUPIBJS
DPMPS5IFTBNFBQQMJFTUPiQFBDI wXIJDIHFOFSBMMZSFGFSTPOMZUPUIF
MJHIUQJOLPGQFBDIFT
 5IFUFSNJORVFTUJPONVTUCFQTZDIPMPHJDBMMZTBMJFOU XJUISFTQFDUUPUIF
OVNCFSPGTQFBLFSTXIPVTFUIFUFSN BOEUIFOVNCFSPGPDDBTJPOTJU
JTVTFE5IBUJT UIFUFSNNVTUCFDPOTQJDVPVTFJUIFSJOUFSNTPGGSF
RVFODZPGVTBHFPSFYUFOTJWFPDDVSSFODFBOEBDDFQUBCJMJUZJOBTQFFDI
Color Nomenclature and Other Challenges to Linguistic Relativity 243

DPNNVOJUZ5IVT iTFQJBwJO&OHMJTIXPVMEOPURVBMJGZBTBCBTJDDPMPS
UFSNCFDBVTFJUJTOPUXFMMLOPXOUPBMMTQFBLFST$PNNPOUFSNTTVDI
BTiXIJUF wiSFE wiCMVF wBOEiCMBDLwXPVMECF
 #BTJDDPMPSUFSNTBSFDPOTJTUFOUMZQSPEVDUJWF VTJOHWBSJPVTNPSQIFNFT
JOUIFMBOHVBHF5IVT iSFEEJTIwBOEiHSFFOJTIwTVCTUBOUJBUFUIFTUB
UVTPGiSFEwBOEiHSFFOwBTCBTJDDPMPSUFSNTJO&OHMJTICFDBVTFJUNBLFT
TFOTFUPVTFUIFN)PXFWFS UIFQSPCMFNBUJDTUBUVTPGiDSJNTPOJTIw
DPOGJSNTUIBUiDSJNTPOwJTOPUBCBTJDUFSN
 5FSNTGPSCBTJDDPMPSTTIPVME OPUOBNFPCKFDUT5IVT UFSNTTVDIBT
iHPMEwPSiBTIwBSFOPUCBTJDDPMPSUFSNTJO&OHMJTI
 3FDFOUGPSFJHOMPBOXPSET BSFTVTQFDU BOEQSPCBCMZOPUCBTJDDPMPS
UFSNT
 .PSQIPMPHJDBMDPNQMFYJUZ DBOCFHJWFOTPNFXFJHIUJOEFUFSNJOJOHB
MFYFNFTTUBUVT QBSUJDVMBSMZJORVFTUJPOBCMFJOTUBODFT#BTJDDPMPSUFSNT
BSFUIFMFTTNPSQIPMPHJDBMMZDPNQMFYUFSNT

"DPNNPONFUIPEPMPHZXBTOPXFTUBCMJTIFE BTSFTFBSDIFSTLOFXXIBU
UIFZXFSFMPPLJOHGPSUPDPNQBSFTBMJFOUBCTUSBDUDPMPSTUIBUIBEOPTQFDJGJD
UJFTUPBOZSFGFSFOU"MJTUPGCBTJDDPMPSTXPVMECFFMJDJUFE BOEJOGPSNBOUT
UIFOBTLFE POUIF.VOTFMMDPMPSBSSBZ UPQJDLPVUUIFPOFDIJQUIBUCFTUDPS
SFTQPOEFEUPBUFSN GPDBMDPMPS
5IFZXPVMEUIFOCFBTLFEGPSUIFSBOHFPG
FBDIUFSN FH iDJSDMFBMMUIFDIJQTUIBUZPVUIJOLBSFDPMPS9w
5IPVHIMBUFS
XPSLBMUFSFEUIFTUFQTTPNFXIBU UIJTHFOFSBMJEFBIBTCFFOVTFEGPSJOWFT
UJHBUJOHDPMPSUFSNTJONBOZTUVEJFTGPSUIFQBTUGPVSEFDBEFT
5IFSFTVMUTPG#FSMJOBOE,BZTDBSFGVMMZEFTJHOFEFYQFSJNFOUTXFSFRVJUF
TVSQSJTJOH BOEUIFZTUJNVMBUFEOFXUZQFTPGSFTFBSDI*OCSJFG UIFZDPO
DMVEFEUIBU

 *OBMMMBOHVBHFT UIFSFXFSFBUMFBTUUXP CVUOPNPSFUIBOFMFWFOPS


UXFMWF DPMPSUFSNTUIBUDPVMECFDPOTJEFSFEBTCBTJD/PUFWFSZMBO
HVBHFIBTUIFTBNFOVNCFSPGCBTJDDPMPSUFSNT UIPVHIBMMMBOHVBHFT
IBWFNBOZTFUTPGDVMUVSFTQFDJGJDTFDPOEBSZDPMPSUFSNT
 5IFTFCBTJDDPMPSUFSNTMBCFMVOJWFSTBMQFSDFQUVBMDBUFHPSJFT iQTZ
DIPMPHJDBM SFGFSFOUTw
 PG XIJDI UIFSF BSF QSPCBCMZ OP NPSF UIBO
FMFWFO
 5IFTFCBTJDDPMPSDBUFHPSJFTBSFIJTUPSJDBMMZFODPEFEJOBHJWFOMBO
HVBHFJOPOFPGUXPQPTTJCMFPSEFSJOHT BTHJWFOPOUIFOFYUQBHF
244 Chapter 12: Language, Culture, and Thought

5IJTMBTUGJOEJOHJTNPTUJOUSJHVJOHBOEWFSZJNQPSUBOU-BOHVBHFTTFFN
UPEFWFMPQDPMPSDBUFHPSJFTJOTUSJDUMZMJNJUFEXBZTJOTFWFOTUFQTPSTUBHFT
BTMBCFMFEJO3PNBOOVNFSBMTBCPWF
"MMMBOHVBHFTJOUIFXPSMEIBWFBU
MFBTUUIFUFSNTGPSXIJUF BOECMBDL 4UBHF*
*GBMBOHVBHFIBTPOMZUISFFCBTJD
DPMPSUFSNT 4UBHF**
UIFTFDPMPSDBUFHPSJFTXPVMEBMXBZTDPWFSXIJUF CMBDL
BOESFE/FYUJTHSFFO GPMMPXFECZZFMMPX PSZFMMPX GPMMPXFECZHSFFO 4UBHFT
***BOE*7
5IFOFYUUFSNTUPBQQFBSBSFCMVF BOEUIFOCSPXO 4UBHFT7BOE
7* SFTQFDUJWFMZ
"U4UBHF7** QJOL PSBOHF PSQVSQMF DPVMEBQQFBSJOBOZ
PSEFSPSDPNCJOBUJPO(SFZ XBTUIPVHIUUPCFBXJMEDBSEUIBUDPVMEBQQFBS
BOZUJNFBGUFS4UBHF***
*OUIFEFDBEFTTJODFUIFPSJHJOBM#FSMJOBOE,BZXPSL 
NBOZTUVE
JFTIBWFHFOFSBMMZTVQQPSUFEUIFJSPSJHJOBMGJOEJOHT BMCFJUXJUITPNFNPEJ
GJDBUJPOT5PEBZ UIFJSBDDPVOUJTDPOTJEFSFEUPCFUIFTUBOEBSENPEFMPG
DPMPSOPNFODMBUVSFBHBJOTUXIJDIBMMEBUBBOEPUIFSNPEFMTBSFFWBMVBUFE
5IPVHINPEJGJFEBOESFGJOFE UIFVOJWFSTBMJTUBSHVNFOUTPG#FSMJOBOE,BZ
IBWFSFNBJOFEQSJODJQBMMZTVCTUBOUJBUFEGPSUIFQBTUGPSUZZFBST
-JOHVJTUJD3FMBUJWJUZBOE(FOEFS %PHSBNNBUJDBMGFBUVSFTIBWFBOZJOGMV
FODFPOIPXTQFBLFSTPGBMBOHVBHFQFSDFJWFBOEDBUFHPSJ[FUIFXPSMEBSPVOE
UIFN *OTPNFJOTUBODFTUIFZEP BUMFBTUUPTPNFFYUFOU CVUPGUFOUIFJO
GMVFODFJTOFHMJHJCMF JGBOZBUBMM5PHJWFKVTUPOFFYBNQMF DPOTJEFSHSBN
NBUJDBMHFOEFS*O&OHMJTIUIFXPSEUFBDIFS SFGFSTUPBQFSTPOXIPUFBDIFT
XIFUIFSJUJTBXPNBOPSBNBO'SPNBQVQJMTSFNBSLi0VSUFBDIFSJTUPP
TUSJDU wUIFSFJTOPJOEJDBUJPOPGUIFUFBDIFSTHFOEFS UIPVHIJOTVCTFRVFOU
DPOWFSTBUJPOHFOEFSNBZCFEJTDMPTFECZUIFVTFPGUIFUFBDIFSTOBNFPSUIF
HFOEFSTQFDJGJDQFSTPOBMQSPOPVO TIF PSIF
4VDIBNCJHVJUZJTOPUTPMJLFMZ
UPPDDVS GPSFYBNQMF JO(FSNBO XIJDIEJTUJOHVJTIFTCFUXFFOUIFNBTDV
Color Nomenclature and Other Challenges to Linguistic Relativity 245

MJOFGPSNPGUFBDIFS -FISFS
BOEUIFGFNJOJOFGPSN -FISFSJO
4JNJMBSMZ UIF
TVGGJYJO JO(FSNBODIBOHFT"S[U ANBMFQIZTJDJBOUPS[UJO AGFNBMFQIZTJ
DJBOBOE1SPGFTTPS ANBMFQSPGFTTPSUP1SPGFTTPSJO AGFNBMFQSPGFTTPS&OHMJTI
DMFBSMZEJGGFSTGSPN(FSNBOJOUIBUXIBUJTPQUJPOBMJOUIFGPSNFSJTPCMJHB
UPSZJOUIFMBUUFS#VUUIFDMBJNUIBUUIJTBOETJNJMBSEJTUJODUJPOTCFUXFFOUIF
UXPMBOHVBHFTIBWFBOJOGMVFODFPOUIFPVUMPPLPGUIFJSTQFBLFSTXPVMECF
IBSEUPQSPWF/PPOFXPVMEBSHVF GPSFYBNQMF UIBUTFYJTNJTNPSFPSMFTT
DPNNPOJODPVOUSJFTUIBUTQFBL(FSNBO JOXIJDIUIFNBSLJOHPGHFOEFSJT
NPSFDPNNPO CVUJOUIFTFBOENPTUPUIFSMBOHVBHFT UIFGFNJOJOFGPSNJT
EFSJWFEGSPNUIFNBTDVMJOF BTJOMJPOFTT GSPNMJPO BOE-XJO AMJPOFTTGSPN
-XF AMJPOJO(FSNBO

-JLFTPNFPUIFS*OEP&VSPQFBOMBOHVBHFT (FSNBOIBTUISFFHFOEFST
NBTDVMJOF GFNJOJOF BOEOFVUFSUIBUGPSUIFNPTUQBSUIBWFOPUIJOHUPEP
XJUINBMFOFTT GFNBMFOFTT PSBCTFODFPGTFYVBMDIBSBDUFSJTUJDT*O(FSNBO
GPSFYBNQMF XJOEPX EBT'FOTUFS
JTPGOFVUFSHFOEFS BTBSFHJSM EBT.E
DIFO
BOEXPNBO EBT8FJC
CMBDLCPBSE EJF5BGFM
JTGFNJOJOF BTJTDSPX
CBS EJF#SFDITUBOHF
BOECPTPN EFS#VTFO
JTNBTDVMJOF BTBSFUIFTFBTPO
PGTQSJOH EFS'SIMJOH
BOETLJSU EFS3PDL
%P(FSNBOTQFBLJOHQFPQMF
CFMJFWF UIBU DSPXCBST BOE CMBDLCPBSET BSF GFNJOJOF JO UIF TBNF XBZ BT
NPUIFS EJF.VUUFS
PSBXPNBOXJUIXIPNTPNFPOFJTJOMPWF EJF(FMJFCUF

JT 5IFBOTXFSJTOP
5IFPSFUJDBM BOE 1IJMPTPQIJDBM $PVOUFSBSHVNFOUT *U XBT OPU POMZ UIF
#FSMJOBOE,BZXPSLUIBUEJTDSFEJUFEWBSJPVTGPSNTPGUIFMJOHVJTUJDSFMB
UJWJUZBOEEFUFSNJOJTNPUIFSFYQFSJNFOUT BOEFYBNQMFTTVDIBTHSBN
NBUJDBMHFOEFSBCPWF DPOUSJCVUFBTXFMM5IFSFBSFBMTPTFSJPVTUIFPSFUJDBM
BOEQIJMPTPQIJDBMDIBMMFOHFT8FNFOUJPOIFSFFJHIUPGUIFNPSFQFSTVBTJWF
DPVOUFSBSHVNFOUT

 5SBOTMBUBCJMJUZ4JNQMZQVU USBOTMBUJPOBDSPTTMBOHVBHFTJTQPTTJCMFBOE
PDDVSTFWFSZEBZ FWFOCFUXFFORVJUFEJWFSTFMBOHVBHFT5IJTTIPVME
OPUCFQPTTJCMFJGXFBSFFYQFSJFODJOHEJGGFSFOUiSFBMJUJFTw5IVT BUMFBTU
BTUSPOH8IPSGJBOQPTJUJPOUIBUTQFBLJOHEJGGFSFOUMBOHVBHFTDBVTF
VTUPMJWFJOEJGGFSFOUQFSDFQUVBMXPSMETJTRVFTUJPOBCMF
 .VUVBMMJOHVJTUJDDPNQSFIFOTJPO-JLFXJTF FWFOJGXFHSBOUUIFQPTTJ
CJMJUZUIBUUSBOTMBUJPOTDBOOFWFSDPNQMFUFMZDBQUVSFXIBUXBTTBJEJO
UIFPSJHJOBM XFDBOTUJMMVTVBMMZHFUBUMFBTUUIFHFOFSBMJEFB"OEFWFO
JGXFDBOOPULOPXXIBUJUJTMJLFUPCFB/BWBKPPSB+BQBOFTFPSUP
246 Chapter 12: Language, Culture, and Thought

UIJOLUIFJSUIPVHIUTPSIBWFUIFJSFYQFSJFODFTXFDBOBUMFBTUFOUFS
UBJOUIFQPTTJCJMJUZPGHVFTTJOHXIBUBOPUIFSDVMUVSBMTZTUFNNJHIUCF
MJLF
 -BOHVBHFBOEUIPVHIU*UJTOPUDMFBSUIBUBMMUIJOLJOHJTMJOHVJTUJDJO
OBUVSF'PSFYBNQMF ,FMMFSBOE,FMMFS 
EFNPOTUSBUFEUIBUDSF
BUJOHBQIZTJDBMBSUJGBDUJTBWFSZEJGGFSFOUQSPDFTTGSPNWFSCBMMZEF
TDSJCJOH JU UP TPNFPOF *G UIJT JT USVF  IPX DBO 8IPSGJBO FGGFDUT
NBOJGFTUUIFNTFMWFTJOBOPOMJOHVJTUJDSFBMN
 .VMUJMJOHVBMJTN8IBUEPFTUIF4BQJS8IPSGIZQPUIFTJTTBZBCPVUB
QFSTPOXIPHSPXTVQMFBSOJOHUPTQFBLTFWFSBMEJGGFSFOUMBOHVBHFTBU
UIFTBNFUJNF *OXIJDIiMJOHVJTUJDXPSMEwEPFTTVDIBQFSTPOMJWF "
TUSPOH4BQJS8IPSGJBOQPTJUJPOEPFTOPUTFFNUPBMMPXGPSUIFQPTTJ
CJMJUZPGBQFSTPOCFJOHBCMFUPHPCBDLBOEGPSUICFUXFFOUXPEJGGFS
FOUiSFBMJUJFTwEFQFOEJOHPOUIFMBOHVBHFCFJOHTQPLFO/PSEPFTJU
TFFNUPBMMPXGPSTPNFTPSUPGNJYFENFOUBMTUSVDUVSFDPNCJOJOHUIFTF
UXPPSNPSFMJOHVJTUJDXPSMET
 -BOHVBHFDIBOHF0OFPGUIFQSPCMFNTPGUIFFYUSFNFMJOHVJTUJDEFUFS
NJOJTNPGUIF4BQJS8IPSGIZQPUIFTJTJTUIBUPGDIBOHF-BOHVBHFT
BOEDVMUVSFTDIBOHFPWFSUJNF#PUIUIF&OHMJTIBOEUIFQIZTJDTPG
/FXUPOTEBZBSFEJGGFSFOUGSPNUPEBZ)PXEJEUIFSFQMBDFNFOUPG
/FXUPOJBO QIZTJDT XJUI UIF UIFPSZ PG SFMBUJWJUZ PDDVS  0S EJE UIF
DIBOHFDPNFBCPVUCFDBVTFPGUIFDIBOHFJOMBOHVBHF 6OGPSUVOBUFMZ
UIF4BQJS8IPSGIZQPUIFTJTJTIBSEQSFTTFEUPBOTXFSUIFTFRVFTUJPOT
 6OUFTUBCJMJUZ 0OF PG UIF NBJO DSJUJDJTNT MFWFMFE BHBJOTU UIF 4BQJS
8IPSGIZQPUIFTJTJTUIBUJUJTVOUFTUBCMF BOEUIFSFGPSFWBDVPVTOPNBU
UFSIPXJOUSJHVJOHJUNBZTPVOE #MBDL
.BOZQIJMPTPQIFSTPG
TDJFODFSFRVJSFUIBUBVTFGVMUIFPSZCFGBMTJGJBCMFUIBUJT POFTIPVMECF
BCMFUPTUBUFXIBULJOETPGFWJEFODFXPVMECFOFFEFEUPFJUIFSTVQQPSU
PSSFGVUFJU6OUJMSFDFOUMZ UIFQPTTJCJMJUZPGGJOEJOHFYQFSJNFOUBMFWJ
EFODFGPSUIF4BQJS8IPSGIZQPUIFTJTXBTSBSF
 -BOHVBHFBOEQFSDFQUJPO*UBQQFBSTUIBUBUMFBTUTPNFBTQFDUTPGQFS
DFQUJPOBSFCFZPOEUIFSFBDIPGMBOHVBHFJOGMVFODFPSJOUFSQSFUBUJPO
'PSFYBNQMF DSPTTDVMUVSBMQTZDIPMPHJTUTGPVOEDFSUBJOCBTJDDPMPST
TVDIBTQVSFiGJSFFOHJOFwSFEBSFFBTJFSUPSFNFNCFSBOESFDBMMUIBO
PUIFSDPMPST FWFOJGBMBOHVBHFIBTOPOBNFGPSUIFN*UJTOPUZFUDMFBS
JGTVDIGJOEJOHTBSFEVFUPBOBUPNJDBMVOJWFSTBMT GPSFYBNQMF OFVSPM
PHZ
PSPUIFSGBDUPST8IBUFWFSUIFDBVTF JUTFFNTUIBUBUMFBTUTPNF
Theoretical Alternatives to Linguistic Relativity 247

DPODFQUTBSFOPUQFSDFQUVBMMZBSCJUSBSZ BOETPNFDBUFHPSJFTGPSFY
BNQMF DFSUBJOWPXFMTBOEDPOTPOBOUTBSFNPSFiOBUVSBMwUIBOPUIFST
 -BOHVBHFVOJWFSTBMT4JODFUIFTMJOHVJTUTIBWFXJUIHSFBUTVD
DFTTCFDPNFJODSFBTJOHMZBCTPSCFEJOUIFTFBSDIGPSUIPTFBTQFDUTBMM
MBOHVBHFTIBWFJODPNNPO'PSFYBNQMF BMMMBOHVBHFTBSFTQPLFOJO
TFOUFODFT BOETFFNUPIBWFTPNFOPUJPOPGTVCKFDUWFSTVTQSFEJDBUF
.PTUMBOHVBHFTIBWFNBOZTPVOETJODPNNPO5IFFYJTUFODFPGUIFTF
MJOHVJTUJD VOJWFSTBMT TFFNT UP TVHHFTU UIBU MBOHVBHFT  BOE UIF DPO
TUSVDUJPOPGMJOHVJTUJDDBUFHPSJFT NBZOPUCFBTUPUBMMZBSCJUSBSZBT4BQJS
BOE8IPSGIBWFJNQMJFE*OGBDU JUXBTUIFTUSFOHUIPGUIFVOJWFSTBMJTU
BSHVNFOUTCZMJOHVJTUTTVDIBT/PBN$IPNTLZUIBUMFEUPBHSBEVBM
EFDMJOFJOJOUFSFTUJOMJOHVJTUJDSFMBUJWJUZ

Theoretical Alternatives to Linguistic Relativity


*OUIFMBTUTFDUJPOXFTBXUIBUMJOHVJTUJDSFMBUJWJUZ BUMFBTUJOVONPEJGJFE
GPSN JTGBDJOHTPNFTFSJPVTDIBMMFOHFT*OUIJTTFDUJPOXFXJMMMPPLBUUXP
UIFPSFUJDBMBMUFSOBUJWFTUPMJOHVJTUJDSFMBUJWJUZUIFDPNNPOMZBDDFQUFEVOJ
WFSTBMJTNPG/PBN$IPNTLZ BOEUIFBQQSPBDIPGDVMUVSBMEFUFSNJOJTN
TVDIBTQSPQPTFECZ(BSZ8JUIFSTQPPOBOE%BOJFM&WFSFUU

$IPNTLZBOE6OJWFSTBMJTN*OUIFNJEUXFOUJFUIDFOUVSZUIFJOUFMMFDUVBM
DMJNBUFVOEFSXFOUBTVCTUBOUJBMDIBOHFJOBUUJUVEFUPXBSETMBOHVBHFTBOE
UIFJSTUSVDUVSFT6OUJMUIFT TDIPMBSTXFSFSFMBUJWJTUT5IFZXFSFNPTU
GBTDJOBUFE CZ UIF USFNFOEPVT MJOHVJTUJD EJWFSTJUZ GPVOE UISPVHIPVU UIF
XPSME/PO8FTUFSOMBOHVBHFTIBETPNFGFBUVSFTUIBUUIF*OEP&VSPQFBO
MBOHVBHFTEJEOPUUJNFXBTDPVOUFEJOEJGGFSFOUXBZT BOEXPSETXFSFGPVOE
GPSDPODFQUTUIBU&VSPQFBOTIBEOUBOJOLMJOHPG"OEJONBOZXBZTUIJTXBT
BIPMEPWFSGSPNUIFEBZTPG'SBO[#PBT XIPNBEFQBTTJPOBUFBSHVNFOUT
GPSSFMBUJWJTN NPTUMZJOBWBMJBOUBUUFNQUUPVOEFSNJOFTPNFPGUIFSBDJTU
DMBJNTQPQVMBSFWFOVOUJM8PSME8BS**5P#PBT BCFMJFGJOVOJWFSTBMJTN
VTVBMMZMFEUPDPNQBSJTPOTUIBUMFGUUIFOPO8FTUFSOXPSMEXBOUJOH"OE
TVDICFMJFGTXFSFPOMZPOFTNBMMTUFQBXBZGSPNEBOHFSPVTCJPMPHJDBMSF
EVDUJPOJTNQFPQMFTBOEUIFJSMBOHVBHFTBSFUIFXBZUIFZBSFEVFUPUIFJSCJ
PMPHZ UIBUJT UIFJSSBDF

#VUJOUIFT BCSJMMJBOUZPVOHMJOHVJTU /PBN$IPNTLZ XSPUFBTFSJFT
PGCPPLTBOENPOPHSBQITTIPXJOHUIBUHSBNNBSBDSPTTBMMUIFXPSMETMBO
HVBHFTJTWFSZNVDIUIFTBNFJGZPVFYBNJOFUIFNUIPSPVHIMZ$IPNTLZ
248 Chapter 12: Language, Culture, and Thought

IBTNBEFBDPNQFMMJOHDBTFUIBUUIFSFJTNVDINPSFMJOHVJTUJDTJNJMBSJUZJO
UIFXPSMEUIBOQSFWJPVTMZUIPVHIU#VU NPSFJNQPSUBOU IJTTPDBMMFEUSBOT
GPSNBUJPOBMHSBNNBSNPWFNFOUIBTTXBZFEUIFDPVSUPGTDIPMBSMZPQJOJPO
UPBSFKFDUJPOPGSFMBUJWJTNJOGBWPSPGVOJWFSTBMJTN4JNQMZQVU VOJWFSTBM
JTNJTUIFDVSSFOUTUBOEBSENPEFMJONBOZPGUIFTPDJBMTDJFODFT

5IFEPNJOBOUWJFXBNPOHDPOUFNQPSBSZMJOHVJTUTJTUIBUMBOHVBHFJTQSJ
NBSJMZBOJOTUJODUJOPUIFSXPSET UIBUUIFGVOEBNFOUBMTPGMBOHVBHFBSF
DPEFEJOPVSHFOFTBOEBSFUIFTBNFBDSPTTUIFIVNBOSBDF/PBN$IPN
TLZIBTGBNPVTMZBSHVFEUIBUB.BSUJBOTDJFOUJTUXPVMEDPODMVEFUIBUBMM
FBSUIJOHTTQFBLEJBMFDUTPGUIFTBNFMBOHVBHF%FFQEPwn... BMMMBOHVBHFT
TIBSFUIFTBNFVOJWFSTBMHSBNNBS UIFTBNFVOEFSMZJOHDPODFQts...5IF
POMZJNQPSUBOUBTQFDUTPGMBOHVBHF UIFSFGPSF PSBUMFBTUUIFPOMZPOFTXPSUI
JOWFTUJHBUJOH  BSF UIPTF UIBU SFWFBM MBOHVBHF BT BO FYQSFTTJPO PG JOOBUF
IVNBOOBUVSF %FVUTDIFS


$IPNTLZUVSOFEBSPVOETPNFPGUIFRVFTUJPOTBTLFECZUIFFBSMZTUSVD
UVSBMMJOHVJTUT*OTUFBEPGUSZJOHUPEFTDSJQUJWFMZBOBMZ[FTFOUFODFTUIBUBO
JOGPSNBOUIBEVUUFSFE $IPNTLZBSHVFEUIBUXFOFFEFEUPGJOEUIFNFOUBM
SVMFTUIBUXPVMEHFOFSBUFUIFTFTFOUFODFT0WFSUIFDPVSTFPGTFWFSBMEFDBEFT
$IPNTLZTGPSNBMBQQSPBDIFTIBWFHPOFUISPVHITFWFSBMSFWJTJPOT FBDISF
GJOJOHVOJWFSTBMJTUBSHVNFOUTJONPSFTVCUMFXBZT1FSIBQT$IPNTLZTNPTU
DPNQFMMJOHDMBJNGPSVOJWFSTBMJTNXBTXIBUIFDBMMTUIFiQPWFSUZPGTUJNV
MVTwBSHVNFOUw 
"DDPSEJOHUPIJN UIFSFJTTJNQMZOPXBZGPSBDIJME
UPJOGFSBMMUIFDPNQMFYSVMFTPGHSBNNBSGSPNNFSFFYQPTVSFUPJUTTQFBL
FST5IFSFNVTUCFTPNFLOPXMFEHFPSQSFEJTQPTJUJPOTBMSFBEZQSFTFOUJOUIF
DIJMETCSBJOUPFOBCMFJUUPNBLFTFOTFPGXIBUJUJTFYQPTFEUP$IJMESFO
BGUFSBMM BSFOFWFSSFBMMZUBVHIU UIFJSOBUJWFMBOHVBHF
5IF$MBJNTPG$VMUVSBM%FUFSNJOJTN5IFSFBSFTFWFSBMXBZTUPWJFXUIFSF
MBUJPOTIJQTCFUXFFOMBOHVBHF UIPVHIU BOEDVMUVSF"TXFIBWFTFFO MJO
HVJTUJDSFMBUJWJTUTTVDIBT8IPSGBOE4BQJSDMBJNUIBUMBOHVBHFTJOGMVFODF
DVMUVSF UIPVHIU BOEQFSDFQUJPO6OJWFSTBMJTUTTVDIBT$IPNTLZBSHVFUIBU
MBOHVBHF JT BO JOOBUF IVNBO QSPQFSUZ BOE UIBU MBOHVBHF  DVMUVSF  BOE
UIPVHIUIBWFOPDPOOFDUJPOT FYDFQUJOTPGBSBTEJDUBUFECZUIFMJNJUBUJPOT
BOEQTZDIPCJPMPHJDBMTUSVDUVSFPGUIFIVNBONJOE
8FNJHIUBTLJGUIFSF
BSFUIPTFXIPBSHVFGPSDVMUVSBMEFUFSNJOJTNXIFSFDVMUVSFEFUFSNJOFTUP
BMBSHFEFHSFFHSBNNBUJDBMQBUUFSOTBOENPEFTPGUIJOLJOH4VDIDMBJNTIBWF
Theoretical Alternatives to Linguistic Relativity 249

CFFONBEF BOEXFXJMMFYBNJOFUXPDBTFT UIF/BWBKPJOUIFTPVUIXFTUFSO


6OJUFE4UBUFTBOEUIF1JSBIJO4PVUI"NFSJDB
$POUSPMMJOHUIF8PSME5ISPVHI-BOHVBHF"NPOHUIF/BWBKP5IF/BWBKP
BSFBNPOHUIFNPTUFYUFOTJWFMZTUVEJFE/BUJWF"NFSJDBOQFPQMFT BOEUIF
EFQUIPGPVSVOEFSTUBOEJOHPG/BWBKPDVMUVSFJTEVFJOMBSHFNFBTVSFUP
UIPTFJOEJWJEVBMTXIPXFSFFYQPTFEUPUIFDVMUVSFGPSBOFYUFOEFEQFSJPE
PGUJNF0OFTVDIQFSTPOJTUIFBOUISPQPMPHJTU(BSZ8JUIFSTQPPO XIP
NBEFUIF/BWBKPDPVOUSZIJTIPNFGPSNPSFUIBOUFOZFBST1SJPSUPIJTBD
BEFNJDDBSFFS IFXPSLFEGPS/BWBKPDPNNVOJUJFTBOEMPDBMCPBSETPGFEV
DBUJPOBOECFDBNFBOJOUFSFTUFEBOEDPODFSOFEQBSUJDJQBOUJOUIFMJGFPGUIF
MPDBMDPNNVOJUJFT)FMFBSOFEUIF/BWBKPMBOHVBHFCZMJTUFOJOHUP/BWBKPT
BOEUBMLJOHXJUIUIFN
*O-BOHVBHFBOE"SUJOUIF/BWBKP6OJWFSTF 
8JUIFSTQPPOTIBSFE
TPNFPGUIFSFTVMUTPGIJTVOJRVFFYQFSJFODFXJUIUIF/BWBKPMBOHVBHFBOE
DVMUVSFi*OUIF/BWBKPWJFXPGUIFXPSME wOPUFE8JUIFSTQPPO 

iMBOHVBHFJTOPUBNJSSPSPGSFBMJUZSFBMJUZJTBNJSSPSPGMBOHVBHFw3JUVBM
MBOHVBHFJO/BWBKPDVMUVSFJTQPXFSGVM JUTQSJNBSZQVSQPTFCFJOHUPNBJO
UBJOPSSFTUPSFhzho:> UIFTZNCPM<}>NBSLTIJHIUPOFo: JTOBTBMJ[FEP
"M
UIPVHI UIJT XPSE SFGFST UP UIF DFOUSBM UIFNF PG /BWBKP XPSMEWJFX BOE
SFMJHJPVTUIJOLJOH JUTVTFJTOPUSFTUSJDUFEUPSJUVBMDPOUFYUTUIFXPSEJT
IFBSEGSFRVFOUMZJOFWFSZEBZTQFFDI8IBUJThzho:> 5IFTUFNzho:> SFGFSTUP
B TUBUF DIBSBDUFSJ[FE CZ HPPEOFTT  QFBDF  PSEFS  IBQQJOFTT  CMFTTFEOFTT
IFBMUI CFBVUZ PGUIFOBUVSBMTVSSPVOEJOHT
TBUJTGBDUJPO QFSGFDUJPO XFMM
CFJOH EFMJCFSBUJPO DBSF TVDDFTT BOEIBSNPOZJOPOFTSFMBUJPOTXJUIPUIFST
UIFMJTUJTOPUFYIBVTUJWFCVUTIPVMETFSWF
5IFGPSNUIFSFGPSFSFGFSTOPU
POMZUPBFTUIFUJDCVUBMTPUPNPSBM FNPUJPOBM BOEJOUFMMFDUVBMRVBMJUJFT BOE
JUJTEJGGJDVMUUPUSBOTMBUFJOUP&OHMJTICZBTJOHMFXPSEPSFWFOBQISBTF5IF
WFSCBMQSFGJYI XIJDIJTQBSUPGhzho:> BEETUPUIFNFBOJOHPGUIFTUFNUIF
JEFBPGiUPUBMFOWJSPONFOUwUIFXIPMF UIFHFOFSBM UIFBCTUSBDU UIFJOEFG
JOJUF UIFJOGJOJUF"T8JUIFSTQPPOQVUJU i/BWBKPMJGFBOEDVMUVSFBSFCBTFE
POBVOJUZPGFYQFSJFODF BOEUIFHPBMPG/BWBKPMJGFUIFDSFBUJPO NBJOUF
OBODF BOESFTUPSBUJPOPGhzho:> FYQSFTTFTUIBUVOJUZPGFYQFSJFODFw 8JUI
FSTQPPO

5IF*NNFEJBDZPG&YQFSJFODF"NPOHUIF1JSBI-JOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHJTU
%BOJFM&WFSFUU  
IBTPGGFSFETPNFTFSJPVTGPSNBMDIBMMFOHFTUP
$IPNTLJBOVOJWFSTBMJTUHSBNNBS"NVDIEJTDVTTFEBSUJDMFJO$VSSFOU"O
UISPQPMPHZ UIBUDBQUVSFEUIFBUUFOUJPOPGNBOZMJOHVJTUTBOEBOUISPQPMPHJTUT
250 Chapter 12: Language, Culture, and Thought

TPPOBGUFSJUBQQFBSFEXBTDBMMFEBiCPNCUISPXOJOUPUIFQBSUZwCZUIF
OPUFEQTZDIPMJOHVJTU4UFWF1JOLFS $PMBQJOUP

5IF1JSBIBTEFTDSJCFECZ&WFSFUU 
BSFPOFPGUIFNPTUJOUFS
FTUJOHQFPQMFTJOUIFMJOHVJTUJDBOEFUIOPHSBQIJDMJUFSBUVSF5IFJSMBOHVBHF
TVQQPTFEMZIBTOPDPODFQUPGDPVOUJOHPSPSEJOBMOVNCFST GFX JGBOZ UFSNT
GPSDPMPS BQPWFSUZPGLJOTIJQUFSNT OPUSBEJUJPOPGBSUPSESBXJOHUPTQFBL
PG BOEPOFPGUIFTJNQMFTUQSPOPVOJOWFOUPSJFTFWFSEPDVNFOUFE'PSFY
BNQMF GPSDPVOUJOH UIFSFBQQFBSUPCFPOMZUISFFUFSNTIJ iTNBMMTJ[FPS
BNPVOUw
IP iTPNFXIBUMBSHFSTJ[FPSBNPVOUw
BOECBBHJTP iDBVTFUP
DPNFUPUPHFUIFSw
"TJOHMFUFSN CBYJ JTBQQMJFEUPCPUIPOFTCJPMPHJDBM
NPUIFSBOEGBUIFS BOEHFOFSBMMZUIFSFBSFOPHFOEFSEJTUJODUJPOTJOUIF1J
SBILJOTIJQTZTUFN
#VUJUJTQFSIBQTDVMUVSBMMZUIBUUIF1JSBIBSFFTQFDJBMMZJOUSJHVJOH5IFZ
IBWFOPUBMFTPSDSFBUJPONZUIT BOEUIFJSEJTDPVSTFBMNPTUBMXBZTDPOTJTUT
PGEFTDSJQUJPOTPGJNNFEJBUFFYQFSJFODFPSJOUFSQSFUBUJPOTPGFYQFSJFODF
4UPSJFTPGUIFQBTUHPCBDLPOMZBGFXHFOFSBUJPOT"MTP UIF1JSBIDPOUJOVF
UPCFNPOPMJOHVBMJOTQJUFPGNPSFUIBOUXPDFOUVSJFTPGSFHVMBSDPOUBDUXJUI
#SB[JMJBOTBOEPUIFSQFPQMFT*OGBDU &WFSFUUBSHVFTUIBUUIFSFJTTUSJLJOHFW
JEFODFGPSUIFJOGMVFODFPGDVMUVSFPONBKPSHSBNNBUJDBMGFBUVSFTPGUIF
1JSBIMBOHVBHF&WFSFUUIZQPUIFTJ[FEUIBUUIF1JSBIFNCPEZBMJWJOHJO
UIFQSFTFOU DVMUVSBM FUIPTBO iJNNFEJBDZ PG FYQFSJFODFw QSJODJQMF

UIBUBGGFDUTFWFSZBTQFDUPGUIFMBOHVBHF'PSFYBNQMF DPOTJEFS
UIFDVMUVSBMOPUJPO YJCJQP"TBNFSFHMPTT JUNJHIUUSBOTMBUFBTiKVTUOPX w
BTJOTPNFPOFBSSJWJOH CVUJUSFBMMZFODBQTVMBUFTBDPOEJUJPOXIFSFCZBOFO
UJUZDPNFTJOUPTJHIUPSHPFTPVUPGTJHIU 
*UEFMJNJUTBCPVOEBSZ
PGEJSFDUFYQFSJFODFi8IFOTPNFPOFXBMLTBSPVOEUIFCFOEJOUIFSJWFS
UIF1JSBITBZUIBUUIFQFSTPOIBTOPUTJNQMZHPOFBXBZ CVUYJCJQPAHPOF
PVUPGFYQFSJFODF5IFZVTFUIFTBNFQISBTFXIFOBDBOEMFGMJDLFST5IF
MJHIUAHPFTJOBOEPVUPGFYQFSJFODFw RVPUFEJO$PMBQJOUP
5IVT
i5IF1JSBIMBOHVBHFBOEDVMUVSFBSFDPOOFDUFECZBDVMUVSFDPOTUSBJOUPO
UBMLJOHBCPVUBOZUIJOHCFZPOEJNNFEJBUFFYQFSJFODF5IFDPOTUSBJOU BT*
IBWFEFWFMPQFENZDPODFQUJPOPGJU DBOCFTUBUFEBTGPMMPXT%FDMBSBUJWF1J
SBI VUUFSBODFT DPOUBJO POMZ BTTFSUJPOT SFMBUFE EJSFDUMZ UP UIF NPNFOU PG
TQFFDI FJUIFSFYQFSJFODFECZUIFTQFBLFSPSXJUOFTTFECZTPNFPOFBMJWFEVSJOH
UIFMJGFUJNFPGUIFTQFBLFSw FNQIBTJTJOUIFPSJHJOBM&WFSFUU

5PCFTVSF &WFSFUUIBTIJTEFUSBDUPST BTOPUFEJOUIFDPNNFOUBSZUPUIF
$VSSFOU"OUISPQPMPHZ BSUJDMFJUTFMGBOEPUIFSQMBDFT&WFSFUURVFTUJPOTNBOZ
Future Tests of Linguistic Relativity and Linguistic Determinism 251

PGUIFUFOFUTPGUIFTVQQPTFEJOOBUFTUSVDUVSFPGVOJWFSTBMHSBNNBSQSP
QPTFECZ$IPNTLZBOEJOBEEJUJPO IFBMTPRVFTUJPOTB8IPSGJBOBQQSPBDI
BSHVJOHJOFTTFODFUIBUJUJTDVMUVSFUIBUEJDUBUFTIPXMBOHVBHFBOEUIPVHIU
CFDPNFNBOJGFTUFESBUIFSUIBOTBZJOHUIBUMBOHVBHFEFUFSNJOFTUIPVHIU
QFSDFQUJPO BOEDVMUVSF)JTXPSLUIFSFGPSFPGGFSTEJGGFSFOUQFSTQFDUJWFTUIBU
VOJWFSTBMJTUTBOESFMBUJWJTUTBMJLFNJHIUXJTIUPUBLFJOUPBDDPVOU

Future Tests of Linguistic Relativity


and Linguistic Determinism
*OUIJTTFDUJPOXFFYBNJOFBGFXPGUIFMBUFTUFYQFSJNFOUBMGJOEJOHTDPO
DFSOJOHUIF4BQJS8IPSGIZQPUIFTJT8FTBXUIBUUIF#FSMJOBOE,BZDPMPS
FYQFSJNFOUTTFFNFEUPDBTUEPVCUPOUIFXIPMFFOUFSQSJTFPGMJOHVJTUJDSFM
BUJWJUZ8FXJMMTFFUIJTUJNF IPXFWFS UIBUUIFSFJTBMTPTPNFFYQFSJNFOUBM
FWJEFODFGPSUIFDMBJNTPGUIF4BQJS8IPSGIZQPUIFTJT BUMFBTUJOTPNFXIBU
XFBLFOFEGPSNT
:VDBUFD.BZBOBOE&OHMJTI/VNCFS +PIO-VDZIBTFYBNJOFEUIF4BQJS
8IPSGIZQPUIFTJTJOTFWFSBMEPNBJOTPUIFSUIBODPMPS'PSFYBNQMF IFDPN
QBSFE:VDBUFD B.BZBOMBOHVBHF
BOE"NFSJDBO&OHMJTI5IFGPDVTPGIJT
TUVEZIBTCFFOPOUIFNBSLJOHPGUIFHSBNNBUJDBMDBUFHPSZPGOVNCFS GPS
FYBNQMF UIFQMVSBMJ[BUJPOPGOPVOT
*TUIFSFBOZDPSSFTQPOEFODFCFUXFFO
UIFHSBNNBUJDBMUSFBUNFOUPGOVNCFSBOEUIFIBCJUVBMUIPVHIU DPHOJUJPO

PGUIFTQFBLFSTPG:VDBUFDPOUIFPOFIBOEBOEUIPTFPG"NFSJDBO&OHMJTI
POUIFPUIFS
'PSFYBNQMF JO&OHMJTI UIFNBSLJOHPGUIFQMVSBMJTPCMJHBUPSZGPSOV
NFSPVTiUIJOHwOPVOT PSDPVOUBCMFT TVDIBTDIJME IPSTF PSDIBJSUIFPOMZ
FYDFQUJPOTJOOPOUFDIOJDBMDPOUFYUTBSFNBTTBOEBCTUSBDUOPVOT PSVO
DPVOUBCMFT TVDIBTTBOE XBUFS CVUUFS BOEIPOFTUZ #ZDPOUSBTU TQFBLFSTPG
:VDBUFDNBSLQMVSBMPQUJPOBMMZBOEGPSBSFMBUJWFMZTNBMMOVNCFSPGOPVOT
5IFUXPMBOHVBHFTBMTPEJGGFSGVOEBNFOUBMMZJOUIFVTFPGOVNFSBMT*O&OH
MJTI OVNFSBMTNPEJGZBOPVO BTJOPOFDBOEMF BOEUXPCBTLFUT *O:VDBUFD
OVNFSBMTNVTUCFBDDPNQBOJFECZBTQFDJBMQJFDFPGTUSVDUVSF BDMBTTJGJFS
UIBUJEFOUJGJFTUIFDPVOUFEPCKFDUBTUPJUTNBUFSJBMQSPQFSUJFT BTJOVOU[JU
LJC APOFMPOHUIJOXBY SFGFSSJOHUPBDBOEMF
*OOPOWFSCBMFYQFSJNFOUBMUBTLT TQFBLFSTPG&OHMJTIBOE:VDBUFDXFSFSF
TQPOTJWFUPUIFOVNCFSPGPCKFDUTQSFTFOUFEUPUIFNBDDPSEJOHUPIPXUIFPC
KFDUTXFSFUSFBUFEHSBNNBUJDBMMZJOUIFSFTQFDUJWFMBOHVBHF4QFBLFSTPG&OHMJTI
252 Chapter 12: Language, Culture, and Thought

XFSFBXBSFPGUIFOVNCFSPGBOJNBUFFOUJUJFTBOEPCKFDUTCVUOPUPGUIFTVC
TUBODFTSFQSFTFOUFECZNBTTOPVOTTQFBLFSTPG:VDBUFDXFSFTFOTJUJWFUPOVN
CFSPOMZGPSBOJNBUFFOUJUJFT*ODMBTTJGZJOHUISFFUFTUPCKFDUTBTUPXIJDIUXP
PGUIFUISFFXFSFNPSFTJNJMBS BTNBMMDBSECPBSECPY BQMBTUJDCPYTJNJMBSJO
GPSN BOEBQJFDFPGDBSECPBSE
TQFBLFSTPG&OHMJTIQSFGFSSFEUPDMBTTJGZUIFN
BDDPSEJOHUPTIBQF TFMFDUJOHUIFDBSECPBSECPYBOEUIFQMBTUJDCPY
XIFSFBT
UIFTQFBLFSTPG:VDBUFDQSFGFSSFEUPDMBTTJGZUIFNBDDPSEJOHUPNBUFSJBM TF
MFDUJOHUIFDBSECPBSECPYBOEUIFTNBMMQJFDFPGDBSECPBSE
"MUIPVHI-VDZ
DPOTJEFSFEIJTTUVEZFYQMPSBUPSZJOOBUVSF IJTGJOEJOHTTVHHFTUUIBUiMBOHVBHF
QBUUFSOTEPBGGFDUDPHOJUJWFQFSGPSNBODFwPS JOPUIFSXPSET UIBUiUIFSFJTHPPE
QSFMJNJOBSZFWJEFODFUIBUEJWFSTFMBOHVBHFGPSNTCFBSBSFMBUJPOTIJQUPDIBS
BDUFSJTUJDDPHOJUJWFSFTQPOTFTJOTQFBLFSTw -VDZC 

5IFPSFUJDBM$POTJEFSBUJPOT 8FIBWFMPPLFEBUUISFFXBZTUPEFTDSJCFUIF
SFMBUJPOTIJQTCFUXFFOMBOHVBHF DVMUVSF BOEUIPVHIU"UUIFSJTLPGPWFS
TJNQMJGZJOH  XF NJHIU TVNNBSJ[F UIFN BT GPMMPXT XJUI UIF BSSPX TJHO
NFBOJOHiEFUFSNJOFT wiBGGFDUT wiQSFEJTQPTFT wPSiJOGMVFODFT wEFQFOEJOHPO
IPXTUSPOHBDMBJNPOFXBOUTUPNBLF


-BCFM 1SPQPOFOUT $MBJN


MJOHVJTUJDEFUFSNJOJTN 8IPSG 4BQJS -VDZ MBOHVBHF  DVMUVSF UIPVHIU QFSDFQUJPO
VOJWFSTBMJTN $IPNTLZ 1JOLFS iUIPVHIUw
 MBOHVBHF DVMUVSF UIPVHIU
DVMUVSBMEFUFSNJOJTN 8JUIFSTQPPO &WFSFUU DVMUVSF  MBOHVBHF UIPVHIU

)FSF VOEFSiUIPVHIUwGPSUIFVOJWFSTBMJTNSPX XFBSFBDUVBMMZSFGFSSJOH


UPUIFQTZDIPCJPMPHJDBMTUSVDUVSFTPGUIFIVNBONJOE"OEXFTIPVMEOPUF
UPP UIBUQSPCBCMZTPNFPGUIFTFJOEJWJEVBMTNJHIUOPUCFDPNGPSUBCMFCFJOH
QMBDFEJOUIFTBNFQJHFPOIPMFPOBUBCMF'PSFYBNQMF XIJMFCPUI$IPNTLZ
BOE1JOLFSCFMJFWFUIBUMBOHVBHFJTJOOBUFBCJPMPHJDBMJOTUJODUFBDIEJG
GFSTJOUIFJSWJFXPOIPXUIJTDBNFBCPVU'PS1JOLFS 
MBOHVBHFXBT
BOFWPMVUJPOBSZBEBQUBUJPO BOEXBTTFMFDUFEGPSCZJUTFMG'PS$IPNTLZ

MBOHVBHFXBTBCJPMPHJDBMCZQSPEVDUPGPUIFSFWPMVUJPOBSZBEBQUB
UJPOT BOEXBTOPUOFDFTTBSJMZTFMFDUFEGPSPOJUTPXO
"SFBMMUIFTFQPTJUJPOTJSSFDPODJMBCMF 1FSIBQTOPU JGXFWJFX4BQJSBOE
8IPSG TQPTJUJPOJOBNPSFOVBODFEXBZ4BQJSTVHHFTUFEUIBUUIFMFYJDPOBOE
TZOUBYPGBMBOHVBHFNJHIUDPNQFMBTQFBLFSUPBUUFOEUPDFSUBJOFOWJSPO
NFOUBMGFBUVSFTBOEQSFTVNBCMZQBZMFTTBUUFOUJPOUPPUIFST'PSFYBNQMF
XIFOVTJOHQSPOPVOTJO&OHMJTIXFNVTULOPXTPNFUIJOHBCPVUUIFTFYPG
Future Tests of Linguistic Relativity and Linguistic Determinism 253

UIFSFGFSFOUXFBSFUBMLJOHBCPVU BTXFIBWFUPDIPPTFBNPOHiIF wiTIF wPS


iJUwXIFOTQFBLJOH"OPUIFSXBZPGTUBUJOHUIF4BQJS8IPSGIZQPUIFTJTJTUIJT

t -BOHVBHFTIBWFDBUFHPSJFT
t 5IFTFDBUFHPSJFTBSFFODPEFEJOMJOHVJTUJDGFBUVSFT
t 5IFTFMJOHVJTUJDGFBUVSFTBGGFDUDPHOJUJPOBOECFIBWJPS

)PXFWFS XIBU4BQJSBOE8IPSGCFMJFWFEXBTUIBUUIFNPTUJNQPSUBOU
QBSUPGUIFTFDPNQVMTPSZMJOHVJTUJDDIPJDFTXBTOPUUIFQBSUJDVMBSTZOUBDUJD
GFBUVSFJUTFMGCVUUIFDBUFHPSJ[BUJPOUIBUXBTUIFVOEFSQJOOJOHPGUIJTGFB
UVSF#VUXIFSFEJEUIFTFDBUFHPSJFTDPNFGSPN $BUFHPSJFTBSFOPUHJWFOUP
BMBOHVBHFPVUPGUIJOBJS5IFZNVTUCFNPUJWBUFE BOEDPNFGSPNTPNF
XIFSF*UJTNPTUMJLFMZUIBUUIJTVOEFSQJOOJOHPSDPODFQUVBMGSBNFXPSLJT
MBSHFMZDVMUVSBMMZEFQFOEFOU
5IVT UIFSFJTBOPUIFSXBZPGMPPLJOHBUUIF4BQJS8IPSGIZQPUIFTJTUIBUJT
PGUFOOFHMFDUFE OBNFMZ UIFDPHOJUJWFPSNFOUBMTDIFNBUIBUVOEFSMJFUIFDBU
FHPSJFT BOEVMUJNBUFMZUIFMBOHVBHFJUTFMG*OTUFBEPGWJFXJOHMBOHVBHFBTNPE
JGZJOHQFSDFQUJPOCZXBZPGHSBNNBSPSWPDBCVMBSZ BOPUIFSXBZJTUPMPPLBU
UIFDPODFQUVBMTZTUFNUIBUNVTUCFVOEFSMZJOHJU8FTFFUIJTOPUBTUVSOJOHUIF
4BQJS8IPSGIZQPUIFTJTBSPVOECVUBTFYUFOEJOHJU5IJTFYUFOEFEWFSTJPOPG
UIF4BQJS8IPSGIZQPUIFTJT UIFO NJHIUMPPLTPNFUIJOHMJLFUIJT

t $VMUVSF TPDJFUZ BOEFOWJSPONFOUJOUFSBDUUPQSPEVDFQIZTJDBMQTZ


DIPMPHJDBMSFBMJUZ
t 1FPQMFIBOEMFUIJTSFBMJUZUISPVHINFOUBMNPEFMTBOEDVMUVSBMTDIFNBT
t 5IFTFNFOUBMNPEFMTBOEDVMUVSBMTDIFNBTBSFJOTUSVNFOUBMJOUIFDSF
BUJPOPGDBUFHPSJFT
t -BOHVBHFTPCUBJOUIFTFDBUFHPSJFTGSPNUIFBCPWFNPEFMTBOETDIFNBT
t 5IFSFGPSFMBOHVBHFTIBWFDBUFHPSJFT
t 5IFTFDBUFHPSJFTBSFFODPEFEJOMJOHVJTUJDGFBUVSFT
t 5IFTFMJOHVJTUJDGFBUVSFTBGGFDUDPHOJUJPOBOECFIBWJPS

5IFSFBTPOXIZXFQBZBUUFOUJPOUPBOPCKFDUTTFYXIFOTQFBLJOH&OHMJTI
UIFSFGPSF JTOPUCFDBVTFXFVTFUIFXPSEiIF wiTIF wPSiJUwXIFODIPPTJOHB
QSPOPVO CVUCFDBVTFXFLOPXBIFBEPGUJNFUIBUXFNVTUCFNBLJOHB
HFOEFSCBTFEQSPOPVODIPJDFUIBUXFXJMMCFMPPLJOHBUUIFTFYPGUIJOHTBTXF
TQFBL8IBUUIJTNFBOTJTUIBUXFNVTUBIBWFBNFOUBMDPOTUSVDUPSTDIFNB JO
254 Chapter 12: Language, Culture, and Thought

PVSIFBETGPSIPXSFBMJUZXPSLTJOUIJTDBTF BXPSMEXIFSFHFOEFSJTJN
QPSUBOU JOEFFETPJNQPSUBOUUIBUJUJTFODPEFEJOPVSQBSUJDVMBSMBOHVBHF
/PUJOHUIBUTQFBLFSTPGBQBSUJDVMBSMBOHVBHFNJHIUOFHMFDUPCKFDUTPS
FWFOUTUIBUTQFBLFSTPGBOPUIFSMBOHVBHFOPSNBMMZUBLFJOUPBDDPVOU +PIO
$BSSPMMBMTPSFTUBUFEUIFIZQPUIFTJTPGMJOHVJTUJDSFMBUJWJUZBOEEFUFSNJOJTN
JOBNPSFNPEFTUCVUNPSFBDDFQUBCMFGPSNi*OTPGBSBTMBOHVBHFTEJGGFSJO
UIFXBZTUIFZFODPEFPCKFDUJWFFYQFSJFODF MBOHVBHFVTFSTUFOEUPTPSUPVU
BOEEJTUJOHVJTIFYQFSJFODFTEJGGFSFOUMZBDDPSEJOHUPUIFDBUFHPSJFTQSPWJEFE
CZUIFJSSFTQFDUJWFMBOHVBHFT5IFTFDPHOJUJPOTXJMMUFOEUPIBWFDFSUBJOFG
GFDUTPOCFIBWJPSw $BSSPMMGPSIJTFYBNQMFT TFF#PY


Summary and Conclusions


5PEBZ QFPQMFGSPNBWBSJFUZPGEJTDJQMJOFTBSFDPNJOHUPHFUIFSUPTUVEZTPNF
PGUIFNPTUCBTJDQSPCMFNTPGIVNBOJUZ8IBUJTUIFOBUVSFPGLOPXMFEHF
8IBUJTUIFOBUVSFPGUIPVHIU )PXJTUIFNJOETUSVDUVSFE 8IBU JGBOZ
UIJOH JTJOOBUFPSCJPMPHJDBM 8IBUJTDVMUVSBMPSFOWJSPONFOUBM +VTUXIBU
DBO XFUIJOLBCPVUPSDBOOPU UIJOLBCPVU -JOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHZIBT
NVDIUPDPOUSJCVUFUPUIFTFEJTDVTTJPOT
5IFSFJTOPRVFTUJPOUIBUMBOHVBHFTEJGGFSJGPOMZTVQFSGJDJBMMZ BTDPO
UFNQPSBSZVOJWFSTBMJTUMJOHVJTUTXPVMEBEE#VUMJOHVJTUTXPVMEBHSFFUIBU
BOZOPOUFDIOJDBMVUUFSBODFDBOCFFYQSFTTFEXJUISFBTPOBCMFBDDVSBDZJO
BOZMBOHVBHF BMUIPVHIVTVBMMZOPUPOBXPSECZXPSECBTJT8IFOJUDPNFT
UPUFDIOJDBMTVCKFDUT TPNFMBOHVBHFTIBWFIJHIMZTQFDJBMJ[FEUFSNJOPMPHJFT
UIBUNBZCFMBDLJOHJOPUIFSTPOFDPVMEIBSEMZFYQFDUUPHJWFBSFQPSUPO
RVBOUVNDISPNPEZOBNJDTJO TBZ )PQJ:FU)PQJIBTTQFDJBMJ[FEBSFBTJO
JUTMFYJDPOUIBUBSFOPUNBUDIFEJO&OHMJTI*OHFOFSBM UIFBTQFDUTPGBOZDVM
UVSFUIBUBSFXPSLFEPVUJOTPNFEFUBJMSFDFJWFDPSSFTQPOEJOHBUUFOUJPOJO
UIFWPDBCVMBSZPGUIFMBOHVBHFTPUIBUUIFTQFBLFSTPGUIFMBOHVBHFDBOEJT
DVTTUIFNXJUIFBTFBOEBDDVSBDZ
8IPSGDPODFSOFEIJNTFMGXJUIUIFJNQPSUBOURVFTUJPOPGMBOHVBHFDVMUVSF
EFQFOEFODZ CVUIFPWFSTUBUFEIJTDBTF4PNFPGIJTFWJEFODFJTBOFDEPUBM
UIBUJT TIPSUBOEBNVTJOHCVUOPUOFDFTTBSJMZSFQSFTFOUBUJWFPGBTQFDJGJDMBO
HVBHFUBLFOBTBXIPMF0OFNBZBMTPXPOEFSIPXSFMJBCMFGPSUIFQVSQPTFT
PG8IPSG TJMMVTUSBUJPOTXBTIJT)PQJJOGPSNBOU XIPSFTJEFEJO/FX:PSL
$JUZBOENVTUIBWFCFFOOFBSMZPSGVMMZCJMJOHVBM*GUIFQFSDFQUJPOPGPOFT
FOWJSPONFOUJTBGGFDUFECZUIFQBSUJDVMBSMBOHVBHFPOFTQFBLT UIFOGMVFODZ
Summary and Conclusions 255

B O X 1 2 . 2 C A R R O L L O N L I N G U I S T I C R E L AT I V I T Y

The speakers of one language . . . may tend to ignore differences which are
regularly noticed by the speakers of another language. This is not to say that
they always ignore them, for these differences can indeed be recognized
and talked about in any language, but they are differences which are not al-
ways salient in their experiences. The effect of any one language category
is to lead language users to assume, perhaps mistakenly, that there is uni-
formity of some sort within the category. . . . For example, historians have
pointed out that the use of the term the Middle Ages may lead to the false
impression that the period between the fall of Rome and the Italian Ren-
aissance was in truth a distinct historical period which had uniform char-
acteristics, throughout its length, which set it apart from other periods. . . .
Let us now analyze a simple cross-linguistic example. In English, it is
possible to report about someone, He went to town. Nothing is said
about his mode of travel: he might have walked, run, rode a horse, driven
a car, or taken a bus or even a boat or a helicopter. It is well known that
in German one would have to specify at least a minimum of information
about the mode of travel. Use of the verb gehen (as a cognate of go, ap-
parently the most direct translation) would imply walking or some other
form of self-propelled movement; use of fahren would imply going in a
vehicle; of reiten, going on horseback; etc. Russian, and, it so happens,
Navaho, could use an even longer list of verbs to distinguish modes of
transportation. Thus, in English, it is possible to focus attention on the
mere fact of someones having departed in the direction of town, even
though the speaker of English can be more specific if he wants to: walked,
ran, drove, rode, flew, bicycled, rowed, helicoptered could be substituted
for went in the sentence indicated. . . . As compared with German speak-
ers, English speakers are sometimes benefited, sometimes disadvantaged
by the possible lack of specificity in the meaning of the English term go.
from John B. Carroll, Linguistic Relativity,
Contrastive Linguistics, and Language Learning (1963), 1213

JO)PQJBOE&OHMJTIBMJLFNJHIUPCTDVSFUIFDPOUSBTUCFUXFFOUIFUXP"D
DPSEJOHUP8IPSG iUIF)PQJMBOHVBHFDPOUBJOTOPSFGFSFODFUP5*.& FJUIFS
FYQMJDJUPSJNQMJDJUw 8IPSG
)PQJNBZJOEFFEOPUIBWFUFOTFTJO
UIFTBNFTFOTFUIBU&OHMJTIIBT BTJO*HP *XFOU *XJMMHP *IBEHPOF BOE
256 Chapter 12: Language, Culture, and Thought

TPPO
CVUTQFBLFSTPG)PQJBSFBCMFUPSFGFSUPUIFUJNFBUPSEVSJOHXIJDI
BOBDUJPOUBLFTQMBDFCZVTJOHNPSQIFNFTPSXPSETUIBUQFSUBJOUPTVDIUJNF
SFGFSFODFTBTiUPEBZ MBUFNPSOJOH OPPO MBTUOJHIU UPXBSETFWFOJOH ZFT
UFSEBZ UPNPSSPX EBZBGUFSEBZ PODFJOBXIJMF GSPNUPNPSSPXPOVOUJMUIF
OFYUEBZwBOEiOFYUZFBSw 7PFHFMJOBOE7PFHFMJO

8FIBWFTFFOUIBUUIFCSFBLUISPVHITPGUIF#FSMJOBOE,BZDPMPSSFTFBSDI
FTUBCMJTIFETPNFJNQPSUBOUVOJWFSTBMDPOTUSBJOUTPOUIFXBZDPMPSDBUFHPSJFT
DBOPQFSBUFJOBMBOHVBHFTZTUFNBOEDVMUVSF5IFTFVOJWFSTBMDPOTUSBJOUT
TFFNFEUPCFTPTUSPOHBOEUIFFWJEFODFQSFTFOUFETPPWFSXIFMNJOHUIBU
NBOZCFMJFWFEQPTJUJPOTTVDIBTUIF4BQJS8IPSGIZQPUIFTJTDPVMECFEJT
DBSEFE#VUXFIBWFBMTPGPVOEJOUIFFYQFSJNFOUTEJTDVTTFEJOUIJTDIBQUFS
UIBUUIFSFTUJMMTFFNTUPCFNVDIMJGFMFGUJOUIFMJOHVJTUJDSFMBUJWJUZIZQPUIFTJT
$BOUIFUXPFYUSFNFTCFVOJUFE XJUIPVUDPOUSBEJDUJPO *UNJHIUCFQPTTJCMF
4BQJSXBTOPUPOMZBMJOHVJTUBOEQTZDIPMPHJTUCVUBMTPBOBOUISPQPMPHJTU
BOEQPFU)FBTLFERVFTUJPOTBCPVUUIFSFMBUJPOTIJQTCFUXFFOMBOHVBHF DVM
UVSF BOEUIPVHIUUIBUJONBOZXBZTXFSFZFBSTBIFBEPGUIFJSUJNF5IF
iDPHOJUJWFBOUISPQPMPHZwSFWPMVUJPOJO"NFSJDB XIJDICFHBOJOUIFNJE
T XPVMEIBWFEJTBQQPJOUFEIJNTFWFSBMXBZT'JSTU NBOZBOUISPQPMP
HJTUT TJNQMZ FRVBUFE DPHOJUJWF DBUFHPSJFT XJUI MJOHVJTUJD DBUFHPSJFT 5IF
BTTVNQUJPOXBTUIBUJGXFXFSFMPPLJOHBUMBOHVBHF XFXFSFMPPLJOHBUUIF
NJOE4FDPOE NBOZBOUISPQPMPHJTUTCFMJFWFEUIBUGPSNBMEFWJDFTTVDIBT
iFMJDJUBUJPOQSPDFEVSFTwXPVMEFOTVSFDSPTTJOGPSNBOU DSPTTSFTFBSDIFS BOE
DSPTTDVMUVSBMSFQMJDBCJMJUZ4BQJSVOEFSTUPPEUIBUUIJOHTXFSFOPUUIBUFBTZ
5PEBZ MJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHJTUTBSFNPSFTPQIJTUJDBUFE BOENPTUBSF
RVJUFTFOTJUJWFUPTVDIQIJMPTPQIJDBMMZOBJWFBTTVNQUJPOT4PBNPSFOVBODFE
XBZPGWJFXJOHUIF4BQJS8IPSGIZQPUIFTJTEPFTOPUNBLFUIFDMBJNUIBU
MBOHVBHFEFUFSNJOFTCFIBWJPSPSUIPVHIUJOBTJNQMFPSSFEVDUJPOJTUXBZ
8IBUXFNVTUDPOTJEFSJTXIFSFUIFDBUFHPSJFTBOETDIFNBUIBUVOEFSMJF
MBOHVBHFDPNFGSPN5IBUJT UIFSFJTSPPNGPSDVMUVSFJOUIFFYQMBOBUJPOBT
XFMM BT8JUIFSTQPPOBOE&WFSFUUSFNJOEVT"OEXFNVTUBMXBZTSFNFNCFS
UIBUiMBOHVBHF DVMUVSF BOENFBOJOHIBWFJOFYUSJDBCMZDPOUBNJOBUFEFBDI
PUIFSw )JMMBOE.BOOIFJNo

13

Language and Ideology:


Va riations in Class, Gender,
Ethnicity, and Nationality

*UJTPCWJPVTQFPQMFTQFBLRVJUFEJGGFSFOUMZ FWFOUIPTFXIPTIBSFUIFTBNF
OBUJWFMBOHVBHF#VUUIFSFBSFPUIFSSFBTPOTXIZQFPQMFTQFBLUIFTBNFMBO
HVBHFJOEJGGFSFOUXBZT'PSFYBNQMFUPTQFBLJOCSPBEHFOFSBMJ[BUJPOTB
QSFTJEFOUJBMTQFFDITPVOETEJGGFSFOUGSPNUXPZPVOHNFOKPLJOHJOBMPDLFS
SPPN BOEBSFUJSFEXPNFOTHBSEFOQBSUZIBTMJUUMFJODPNNPOXJUIUIF
MZSJDTPGBIJQIPQBSUJTUTTPOH*OUIJTDIBQUFSXFXJMMEJTDVTTTPNFPGUIF
TPVSDFTPGMBOHVBHFWBSJBUJPO
"T XF TBX JO $IBQUFS   EVSJOH UIF OJOFUFFOUI DFOUVSZ NPTU QFPQMF
UIPVHIUUIBUQIZTJDBMEJGGFSFODFBOEMBOHVBHFXFSFDMPTFMZDPOOFDUFE5IBU
JT QFPQMFXFSFUIPVHIUUPTQFBLEJGGFSFOUMZCFDBVTFPGSBDF*OUIFFBSMZ
UXFOUJFUIDFOUVSZ 'SBO[#PBTWFIFNFOUMZBSHVFEUIBUUIFSFJTOPSFMBUJPO
TIJQCFUXFFOSBDF MBOHVBHF BOEDVMUVSF UIPVHIUIJTPGUFOGFMMPOEFBGFBST
5IBUDIJMESFOPGJNNJHSBOUTMFBSOUPTQFBLUIFMBOHVBHFPGUIFOFXDPVOUSZ
TIPVMECFUIFPCWJPVTQSPPGPGUIJTTUBUFNFOU)PXFWFS FWFOUPEBZ UIJTJT
GPSHPUUFOBUUJNFT'PSFYBNQMF $IJOFTF"NFSJDBOTBSFTPNFUJNFTDPNQMJ
NFOUFEPOUIFJSFYDFMMFOU&OHMJTI FWFOUIPVHIUIFZ BOEQFSIBQTFWFOUIFJS
HSBOEQBSFOUT
XFSFCPSOJOUIF6OJUFE4UBUFTBOEOFWFSMFBSOFEUPTQFBL
$IJOFTF-JLFXJTF MBOHVBHFBCJMJUZJTTFQBSBUFGSPNSFMJHJPO PDDVQBUJPO GJ
OBODJBMTUBUVT PSPUIFSBTQFDUTPGDVMUVSF6OMJLFNBOZQIZTJDBMBUUSJCVUFT
MBOHVBHFBOEDVMUVSFBSFTVCKFDUUPDIBOHFGSPNHFOFSBUJPOUPHFOFSBUJPO
*OPOFTFOTF UIFO POFTMBOHVBHFBOEDVMUVSFJTBOJOEJWJEVBMDIPJDF5IVT

257
258 Chapter 13: Language and Ideology

EJGGFSFODFTJOMBOHVBHFDBOCFSFBEJMZPCTFSWFEBNPOHQFPQMFJOUIFTBNF
TQFFDIDPNNVOJUZ
&BSMZTPDJPMJOHVJTUTBOEBOUISPQPMPHJTUTUIPVHIUUIBUTVDIWBSJFUZXBT
BOBMPHPVTUPHFPHSBQIJDEJBMFDUT5IBUJT KVTUBTEJGGFSFODFTJOTQFFDIDPVME
SFTVMUGSPNHFPHSBQIJDJTPMBUJPO TPDJBMJTPMBUJPOEVFUPFUIOJDJUZ OBUJPOBMJUZ
PSSBDFDPVMEBMTPDSFBUFMJOHVJTUJDWBSJBUJPO&WFOHFOEFSDPVMECFBGBDUPS
CFDBVTFBMUIPVHIXPNFOBOENFOTIBSFUIFTBNFTQBDFHFPHSBQIJDBMMZ UIFZ
NJHIUMJWFJOEJGGFSFOUTPDJBMFOWJSPONFOUT'PSFYBNQMF XIZEPOUQFPQMF
BMXBZTDIPPTFUIFTQFFDIWBSJFUZUIBUXPVMECSJOHUPUIFNUIFNPTUCFOFGJU
JOTPDJFUZ "OTXFSJOHTVDIBRVFTUJPOIBTUPEPXJUIMBOHVBHFJEFPMPHZ
CFMJFGTBCPVUBMBOHVBHFFYQSFTTFECZTQFBLFSTBTUIFJSDPODFQUVBMJ[BUJPOPG
UIFOBUVSFBOEGVODUJPOPGMBOHVBHF*OPUIFSXPSET MBOHVBHFJEFPMPHZJTUIF
NFEJBUJOHMJOLCFUXFFOTPDJBMGPSNBOEUIFGPSNTPGTQFFDI

Language, Social Class, and Identity


0OFPGUIFNPTUPCWJPVTNBOJGFTUBUJPOTPGTPDJBMDMBTTJTGPVOEJOMBOHVBHF
QFSIBQTNPSFTPUIBOQFSTPOBMQPTTFTTJPOT TUZMF PSQMBDFPGSFTJEFODF'PS
PVSQVSQPTFT XFXJMMSFEVDFDMBTTEJTUJODUJPOTUPEJGGFSFODFTJOFDPOPNJDT
FEVDBUJPO GBNJMJBMQSFTUJHF BOETPNFPUIFSXBZTQFPQMFNJHIUSBOLUIFN
TFMWFTJOTPDJFUZ4QFFDIEJGGFSFODFTDBODIBSBDUFSJ[FEJGGFSFOUFDPOPNJDPS
TPDJBMTUBUVT*OUIFNPTUFYUSFNFTJUVBUJPOT TVDIBTUIFDBTUFTPG*OEJB IFSFE
JUBSZTPDJBMDMBTTFTSFTUSJDUUIFBTTPDJBUJPOPGUIFJSNFNCFSTXJUINFNCFSTPG
PUIFS DMBTTFT  BOE UIJT JT PGUFO SFGMFDUFE JO MBOHVBHF 'PS FYBNQMF  +PIO
(VNQFS[ 
XIPTQFOUUXPZFBSTJOUIF*OEJBOWJMMBHFPG,IBMBQVS BCPVU
FJHIUZNJMFTOPSUIPG%FMIJ SFQPSUFEUIBUBMUIPVHIUIFQPQVMBUJPOBUUIFUJNF
PGIJTSFTFBSDIXBTPOMZBCPVU  JUXBTEJWJEFEJOUPUIJSUZPOFFOEPHB
NPVTDBTUFT OPOFPGXIJDIIBEFRVBMTUBUVT5IFMJOHVJTUJDEJGGFSFODFTXFSF
PGTFWFSBMUZQFT'PSJOTUBODF XIFSFUIFNBKPSJUZTQFFDI PS4UBOEBSE IBEB
DPOUSBTUCFUXFFOTJOHMFWPXFMTB V BOEPBOEUIFDPSSFTQPOEJOHEJQI
UIPOHT/aI/, /uI/, and /oI/ CFGPSFDPOTPOBOUT UIJTDPOUSBTUXBTBCTFOUJOUIF
TQFFDIPGUIF4XFFQFSDBTUF XIPIBEPOMZUIFTJNQMFWPXFMT8IFSFUIF
TQFBLFSTPGUIF4UBOEBSEIBE6CFGPSFBTUSFTTFEWPXFMJOUIFOFYUTZMMBCMF
UIFTQFFDIPGNPTUPGUIF4IPFNBLFSDBTUFBOENBOZPGUIFVOUPVDIBCMFMBOE
MFTTMBCPSFSTIBE//"OEUIFSFXFSFBMTPTPNFMFYJDBMEJGGFSFODFTCFUXFFO
UIFWPDBCVMBSJFTPGUIFEJGGFSFOUDBTUFT5IFMBSHFSDBTUFTIBETQFDJBMXPSET
GPSJUFNTPGUIFJSTVCDVMUVSFT TVDIBTGPPE DMPUIJOH BOEUIFMJLF
Language, Social Class, and Identity 259

#VUFWFOJOQMBDFTXIFSFUIFDMBTTEJGGFSFODFTBSFMFTTQSPOPVODFE TJNJ
MBS LJOET PG MJOHVJTUJD TUSBUJGJDBUJPO DBO CF GPVOE *O UIF 6OJUFE 4UBUFT
8JMMJBN-BCPWDPOEVDUFEBXFMMLOPXOTUVEZPGTPDJPMJOHVJTUJDDIBOHF
MJOHVJTUJDDIBOHFVOEFSTUPPEJOUIFDPOUFYUPGUIFTPDJFUZJOXIJDIJUPDDVST
-BCPWTQJPOFFSJOHXPSLXBTDPODFSOFEXJUIUIFSFMBUJPOTIJQCFUXFFOUIF
TPDJBMTUBUVTPGTQFBLFSTJO/FX:PSL$JUZBOEUIFJSQSPOVODJBUJPOPGS
TPVOET5IFTUVEZXBTDPOEVDUFEJOTPNFPGUIFEFQBSUNFOUTUPSFTPGUIF
DJUZ JO  5IF WBSJBUJPO PG UIF QIPOFUJD GFBUVSF VOEFS DPOTJEFSBUJPO
SBOHFEGSPNUIFBCTFODFPG S
BMUPHFUIFSUPJUTQSFTFODFJOQPTUWPDBMJDQP
TJUJPO BTJOUIFXPSETDBS DBSE GPVS BOEGPVSUI
0OUIFCBTJTPGFYQMPSBUPSZJOUFSWJFXT -BCPWEFDJEFEUPUFTUUIFGPMMPX
JOHIZQPUIFTJTi*GBOZUXPTVCHSPVQTPG/FX:PSL$JUZTQFBLFSTBSFSBOLFE
JOBTDBMFPGTPDJBMTUSBUJGJDBUJPO UIFOUIFZXJMMCFSBOLFEJOUIFTBNFPSEFS
CZUIFJSEJGGFSFOUJBMVTFPG S
w -BCPWC
3BUIFSUIBOTJNQMZDPN
QBSJOHUIFQSPOVODJBUJPOTPGPDDVQBUJPOBMHSPVQTSFQSFTFOUJOHUIFDJUZTTP
DJBMTUSBUJGJDBUJPO XIJDIXPVMECFEJGGJDVMUUPPQFSBUJPOBMJ[FBOERVBOUJGZ
JOBOFMFHBOUFYQFSJNFOU-BCPWDIPTFUPUSZUPGJOEPVUUPXIBUFYUFOUTUSBU
JGJDBUJPOJTJEFOUJGJBCMFXJUIJOBTJOHMFPDDVQBUJPOBMHSPVQ5IFQPQVMBUJPOIF
TFMFDUFEGPSIJTTUVEZDPOTJTUFEPGTBMFTQFPQMFJOUIFTUPSFTPG4BLT'JGUI"W
FOVF .BDZTBU)FSBME4RVBSF BOE4,MFJOBU6OJPO4RVBSF5IFTFUISFF
TUPSFT SFQSFTFOUFE SFTQFDUJWFMZ UISFF TUBUVT SBOLJOHTIJHI  NJEEMF  BOE
MPXBDDPSEJOHUPOFXTQBQFSBEWFSUJTFNFOUT UIFQSJDFTPGUIFJSNFSDIBO
EJTF UIFQIZTJDBMBQQFBSBODFPGUIFTUPSF BOEUIFTPDJPFDPOPNJDTUBUVTPG
UIFJSDVTUPNFST
"TTVNJOHUIBUTBMFTQFPQMFJOMBSHFEFQBSUNFOUTUPSFTXFSFMJLFMZUPiCPS
SPXQSFTUJHFwGSPNUIFJSDVTUPNFST -BCPWIZQPUIFTJ[FEUIBUiTBMFTQFPQMFJO
UIFIJHIFTUSBOLFETUPSFXJMMIBWFUIFIJHIFTUWBMVFTPG S
UIPTFJOUIFNJE
EMFSBOLFETUPSFXJMMIBWFJOUFSNFEJBUFWBMVFTPG S
BOEUIPTFJOUIFMPXFTU
SBOLFETUPSFXJMMTIPXUIFMPXFTUWBMVFTw -BCPWC
5PFMJDJUUIF
SFMFWBOUMJOHVJTUJDEBUB -BCPWBTLFEBRVFTUJPOUIBUXBTCFTUBOTXFSFEi<0O
UIF>GPVSUIGMPPSw1SFUFOEJOHOPUUPVOEFSTUBOEUIFBOTXFS IFIBEUIFJO
GPSNBOUSFQFBUUIFQISBTFJOBNPSFFNQIBUJDTUZMFPGTQFFDI"TTPPOBTIF
XBTPVUPGWJFXPGIJTJOGPSNBOUT -BCPWSFDPSEFEUIFUXPXPSETQIPOFUJ
DBMMZ OPUJOHOPUPOMZUIFTUPSFJOXIJDIUIFEBUBXFSFPCUBJOFECVUBMTPUIF
HFOEFS GVODUJPO SBDF BOEBQQSPYJNBUFBHFPGUIFJOGPSNBOU
5IFSFTVMUTTVQQPSUFEIJTIZQPUIFTJT"U4BLT QFSDFOUPGUIFTBMFT
QFPQMF JOUFSWJFXFE BMXBZT QSPOPVODFE CPUI STPVOET PG UIF UFTU QISBTF
260 Chapter 13: Language and Ideology

iGPVSUIGMPPS wXIFSFBTQFSDFOUQSPOPVODFEUIFNTPNFUJNFTBOETPNF
UJNFTOPU BTUIPVHIiGPVSUIGMPPSwXFSFXSJUUFOiGBXUIGMPBIw
'PS.BDZT
SFTVMUTXFSFQFSDFOUBOEQFSDFOU BOEGPS,MFJOTQFSDFOUBOEQFS
DFOU'VSUIFSNPSF BU4BLTUIFEJGGFSFODFCFUXFFODBTVBMBOEFNQIBUJDQSP
OVODJBUJPOXBTJOTJHOJGJDBOU XIFSFBTBUUIFPUIFSUXPTUPSFTUIFEJGGFSFODF
XBTDPOTJEFSBCMF$BSFGVM FNQIBUJDTQFFDIBQQFBSFEUPDBMMGPSUIFGJOBM S

PGGMPPS CVUDBTVBMTQFFDIEJEOPU
"MUIPVHIQSJPSUP8PSME8BS**DFSUBJOSTPVOETXFSFiESPQQFEw FYDFQU
CFGPSFBWPXFM
JOUIFNPSFQSFTUJHJPVTQSPOVODJBUJPOPG/FX:PSL$JUZ JO
UIFZFBSTTJODFUIFOJUIBECFDPNFPOFPGUIFNBSLFSTPGTPDJBMQSFTUJHF#Z
UIFT JUTPDDVSSFODFIBEJODSFBTFE QBSUJDVMBSMZJOGPSNBMTQFFDI*O
GBDU TPNF/FX:PSLFSTQSPOPVODFESTPVOETFWFOXIFSFUIFZEJEOPUPDDVS
JOTQFMMJOH BTJOUIFXPSETJEFB $VCB BOETBX XIFOUIFOFYUXPSECFHBO
XJUIBWPXFM4VDIBQSPOVODJBUJPOPSVTBHF XIJDIJOBOBUUFNQUUPBQ
QSPBDIBQSFTVNFETUBOEBSEHPFTUPPGBSBOEQSPEVDFTBOPOTUBOEBSEGPSN
JTDBMMFEIZQFSDPSSFDUJPO *OTIPSU BT-BCPWTTUVEZTIPXFE UIFQSPOVODJ
BUJPOPGSTPVOETJOUIFEJBMFDUPG/FX:PSL$JUZXBTRVJUFWBSJBCMF EF
QFOEJOHPOTPDJBMGBDUPSTTVDIBTTUBUVTPSDMBTT BOETQFFDIDPOUFYUTVDIBT
DBTVBMWFSTVTFNQIBUJDTQFFDI
$PMMFDUJOHBVUIFOUJDTPDJPMJOHVJTUJDEBUBJTOPUBTJNQMFNBUUFSCFDBVTF
TQFBLFSTBSFMJLFMZUPBEKVTUUIFJSNBOOFSPGTQFBLJOHJGUIFZBSFBXBSFPG
CFJOHDBSFGVMMZPCTFSWFEPSSFDPSEFE0OFXBZGPSUIFJOWFTUJHBUPSUPEJWFSU
TQFBLFSTBUUFOUJPOGSPNUIFJSPXOTQFFDIJTUPMFBEJOGPSNBOUTJOUPBSFMBYFE
EJBMPHVF/BUVSBMTQFFDIBMTPUFOETUPDIBSBDUFSJ[FUPQJDTUIBUIFMQSFDSFBUF
FNPUJPOT BTXIFOPOFBTLTBOJOGPSNBOU i)BWFZPVFWFSCFFOJOBTJUVBUJPO
XIFSFZPVXFSFJOTFSJPVTEBOHFSPGCFJOHkilled?..8IBUIBQQFOFE w5IF
BOTXFSUPTVDIBRVFTUJPOJTMJLFMZUPCFTQPOUBOFPVT UIBUJT HJWFOJOBOVO
BGGFDUFENBOOFS -BCPWCo
5BQFSFDPSEJOHEBUBIBTBHSFBUBE
WBOUBHF PWFS XSJUJOH PVU B QIPOFUJD USBOTDSJQUJPO PG TQFFDI 3FDPSEJOH
DPOWFSTBUJPOCFUXFFOUXPPSNPSFTQFBLFST PSSFDPSEJOHPOFTQFBLFSMPOH
FOPVHIPSPGUFOFOPVHIGPSUIFQFSTPOUPCFDPNFVODPODFSOFE JTQSFGFSBCMF
UPSFDPSEJOHBNPSFPSMFTTGPSNBMJOUFSWJFXUIBUNBZXFMMLFFQUIFJOGPSN
BOUGSPNSFMBYJOHJOUPUIFWFSOBDVMBSUIFDBTVBM OPSNBMTQPLFOGPSNPG
UIFMBOHVBHFPSEJBMFDUPGUIFQFSTPOTTQFFDIDPNNVOJUZ
*OFBSMZTPDJPMJOHVJTUJDTUVEJFT TDIPMBSTTPVHIUUPJEFOUJGZMBOHVBHFWBSJ
FUJFTBOESFMBUFUIFNUPTPDJBMEJGGFSFODFTBNPOHTQFBLFST4JODFUIFNJE
T  MBSHFMZ CFDBVTF PG UIF TUJNVMVT PG -BCPWT XPSL  MJOHVJTUT IBWF
Language and Gender 261

FNQIBTJ[FEUIFVTFPGUIFRVBOUJUBUJWFNFUIPEJOPSEFSUPCFBCMFUPEFTDSJCF
XJUITPNFBDDVSBDZUIFSFMBUJPOTIJQCFUXFFOTPDJBMEJGGFSFODFTBOEMJOHVJT
UJDWBSJFUJFT'SPNUIFJODJEFODFBOEEJTUSJCVUJPOPGMBOHVBHFWBSJBCMFTJO
EJGGFSFOUTPDJBMHSPVQT TDIPMBSTFYQFDUOPUPOMZUPMFBSOUIFSBUFBOEEJSFD
UJPOPGMJOHVJTUJDDIBOHFCVUBMTPUPPCUBJOWBMVBCMFDMVFTDPODFSOJOHUIFNP
UJWBUJPOTUIBUMFBEUPTVDIDIBOHF
*OUIJTDPOOFDUJPO JUNBZCFBQQSPQSJBUFUPJOUSPEVDFUIFDPODFQUPGTPDJBM
OFUXPSL &BDITQFBLFSIBTBTPDJBMOFUXPSLUIBUJODMVEFTBMMUIPTFQFPQMFXJUI
XIPNBTQFBLFSJOUFSBDUT"IJHIEFOTJUZOFUXPSLSFGFSTUPBHSPVQPGJOEJ
WJEVBMTXIPBSFJOGSFRVFOUDPOUBDUBOEBSFUIFSFGPSFGBNJMJBSXJUIFBDIPUIFS
"NVMUJQMFYTPDJBMOFUXPSLJTPOFJOXIJDIJOUFSBDUJOHQBSUJFTTIBSFNPSFUIBO
POFSPMF PGUFOSFDJQSPDBMGPSFYBNQMF FNQMPZFSFNQMPZFFBTXFMMBTGBUIFS
JOMBXTPOJOMBX5IFEFOTFSBOENPSFNVMUJQMFYUIFOFUXPSL UIFTUSPOHFS
JUJT QFSIBQTUIFGBUIFSJOMBXBOETPOJOMBXBSFBMTPNFNCFSTPGBDIFTT
DMVCBOEBDIPSBMTPDJFUZ
.FNCFSTPGBTUSPOHOFUXPSLUFOEUPNBLFVTFPG
XIBUJTSFGFSSFEUPBTSFTUSJDUFEDPEFJOGPSNBMTQFFDIMBDLJOHJOTUZMJTUJD
SBOHFCFDBVTFUIFTQFBLFSTTIBSFFOPVHIBTTVNQUJPOTUIBUTPNFPGUIFNFBO
JOHPGUIFJSNFTTBHFTJTEFSJWFEGSPNDPOUFYUBOEHFTUVSFT#ZDPOUSBTU FMBC
PSBUFEDPEF SFGFSTUPUIFWBSJFUZPGMBOHVBHFVTFDIBSBDUFSJTUJDPGSFMBUJWFMZ
GPSNBMTQFFDITJUVBUJPOT*OTVDITJUVBUJPOT MJUUMFJGBOZ SFMJBODFJTQMBDFEPO
FYUSBMJOHVJTUJDDPOUFYUUPNBLFUIFNFTTBHFGVMMZNFBOJOHGVM

Language and Gender


+,$IBNCFSTJOIJTUFYUCPPLPOTPDJPMJOHVJTUJDUIFPSZ 
TUBUFT
DBUFHPSJDBMMZUIBUiJOWJSUVBMMZBMMTPDJPMJOHVJTUJDTUVEJFTUIBUJODMVEFBTBN
QMFPGNBMFTBOEGFNBMFTwUIFSFJTVOFRVJWPDBMFWJEFODFUIBUiXPNFOVTF
GFXFSTUJHNBUJ[FEBOEOPOTUBOEBSEWBSJBOUTUIBOEPNFOPGUIFTBNFTPDJBM
HSPVQJOUIFTBNFDJSDVNTUBODFTw"MUIPVHIBENJUUJOHTQFDJGJDDVMUVSBMEJG
GFSFODFT IFDMBJNTUIJTGJOEJOHIPMETUSVFDSPTTDVMUVSBMMZBTXFMM
'JSTU BGFXHFOFSBMSFNBSLTBCPVUUIFUFSNHFOEFS BTJUJTVTFEIFSF"NPOH
UIFTFWFSBMTFOTFTPGUIJTUFSNJTTFYNFBOJOHPOFPGUIFUXPGPSNTPGNPTU
PSHBOJTNTUIBUBSFDIBSBDUFSJ[FECZEJGGFSFODFTJOSFQSPEVDUJWFPSHBOTBOESF
MBUFETUSVDUVSFT5IFVTFPGUIFUFSNHFOEFS SBUIFSUIBOTFY BWPJETUIFNJT
MFBEJOHBTTPDJBUJPOXJUITFYVBMJUZ CVUNBJOMZJUBDLOPXMFEHFTUIBUHFOEFSJTB
TPDJBMDPOTUSVDUUIBUJTMJLFMZUPWBSZGSPNPOFTPDJFUZUPUIFOFYU PSFWFOGSPN
POFTPDJBMHSPVQUPBOPUIFSXJUIJOBOFNCSBDJOHTPDJFUZPSDVMUVSF
262 Chapter 13: Language and Ideology

)FSFXFBSFDPODFSOFEXJUIUIFDPODFQUPGHFOEFSBTBTUBUVTBTDSJCFEUP
DFSUBJOJOEJWJEVBMTPSHSPVQTCZNFNCFSTPGBQBSUJDVMBSDVMUVSFPSTPDJFUZ
"NPOHUIFRVFTUJPOTUPCFBTLFEBSF%PNFNCFSTPGBTPDJFUZ HSPVQ
EJG
GFSFOUJBUFHFOEFSJOUIFJSTQFFDICFIBWJPS *GTP XIBUGPSNTEPFTUIJTEJG
GFSFOUJBUJPO UBLF  VOEFS XIBU DVMUVSBMMZ BVUIFOUJD DJSDVNTUBODFT EPFT JU
PDDVS BOEEPFTJUIBWFBOZFGGFDUPOUIFOPOWFSCBMCFIBWJPSPGBTPDJFUZT
NFNCFST 5PXIBUFYUFOUJTBOZEJGGFSFOUJBUJPOPGHFOEFSJOTQFFDIUIFSF
TVMUPGTPDJBMJ[BUJPO BOENPSFTQFDJGJDBMMZ IPXEPFTUIFFYQSFTTJPOPGHFO
EFSJOTQFFDISFMBUFUPTVDIBTQFDUTPGTPDJBMJEFOUJUZBTFUIOJDJUZ TPDBMMFE
SBDF BHF BOETPDJPFDPOPNJDDMBTT 6OEFSXIBUDJSDVNTUBODFTEPNFOBOE
XPNFOJOUFSBDUBTFRVBMT PSOFBSMZTP
BOEVOEFSXIBUDJSDVNTUBODFTEP
UIFZOPU
(FOEFSBOE4QFFDIJO"NFSJDBO4PDJFUZ*O"NFSJDBO&OHMJTI TPNFEJG
GFSFODFTIBWFCFFOOPUFEJOJOUPOBUJPOBMQBUUFSOTCFUXFFONBMFBOEGFNBMF
TQFBLFST*GPOFBOBMZ[FTJOUPOBUJPOBMDPOUPVSTBTGPVSSFMBUJWFQJUDIMFWFMT
UIFONFOUFOEUPVTFPOMZUISFF IBSEMZFWFSSFBDIJOHUIFIJHIFTUPOF$PO
TJEFS GPSFYBNQMF IPXNFOBOEXPNFOTBZUIFQISBTFi0I UIBUTUFSSJCMFw
8PNFOTSBOHFGSFRVFOUMZJODMVEFTBMMGPVS"NPOHUIFDPOUPVSTWFSZSBSFMZ
IFBSEGSPNNFOJTUIFGVMMEPXOHMJEFGSPNUIFIJHIFTUUPUIFMPXFTUQJUDI
MFWFM BTXIFOFYQSFTTJOHTVSQSJTF FYDJUFNFOU DPODFSO BOEUIFMJLF*OHFO
FSBM XPNFOTTQFFDIBQQFBSTUPCFNPSFEZOBNJD NBLJOHHSFBUFSVTFPG
QBSBMJOHVJTUJDGFBUVSFTBOEFYUFOEJOHPWFSBCSPBEFSQJUDISBOHF
4DIPMBSTIBWFEFTDSJCFEBWBSJFUZPGEJGGFSFODFTCFUXFFOUIFTQFFDIPG
NFOBOEXPNFO'PSFYBNQMF JOBTNBMMTBNQMFPGDIJMESFOJOBTFNJSVSBM
/FX&OHMBOEWJMMBHFTUVEJFECZ+PIO-'JTDIFS 
UIFHJSMTXFSFNPSF
MJLFMZUPQSPOPVODFUIFQSFTFOUQBSUJDJQMFTVGGJYJOH[I] SBUIFSUIBOJO
[In] BGPSNVTFENPSFGSFRVFOUMZBNPOHUIFCPZT5IFDIPJDFCFUXFFOJOH
BOEJO BQQFBSFEUPCFSFMBUFEOPUPOMZUPHFOEFSCVUBMTPUPUIFQFSTPOBMJUZ
BHHSFTTJWF WFSTVT DPPQFSBUJWF
 BOE NPPE UFOTF WFSTVT SFMBYFE
 PG UIF
TQFBLFS UIFOBUVSFPGUIFDPOWFSTBUJPO GPSNBMWFSTVTJOGPSNBM
UIFTP
DJPFDPOPNJDDJSDVNTUBODFTPGUIFGBNJMZ BCPWFWFSTVTCFMPXNFEJBO
BOE
UIFWFSCVTFE GPSFYBNQMF BUUFOEJOHWFSTVT HPJOUP

5IFDIPJDFPGXPSETCZNFOBOEXPNFOWBSJFTBDDPSEJOHUPUIFPDDBTJPO
UIFUZQFPGBVEJFODFQSFTFOU BOEWBSJPVTPUIFSDJSDVNTUBODFT1SPGBOFPS
DPBSTFTQFFDIJTMFTTMJLFMZUPCFIFBSEXIFODIJMESFOPSQFPQMFIFMEJOSF
TQFDUBSFXJUIJOFBSTIPU BOEBKPCJOUFSWJFXDBMMTGPSBNPSFDPOTJEFSFEWP
DBCVMBSZUIBOBDBTVBMDPOWFSTBUJPOCFUXFFOUXPDMPTFGSJFOET/FWFSUIFMFTT
Language and Gender 263

TPNFMFYJDBMEJGGFSFODFTCFUXFFOUIFTQFFDIPGNFOBOEXPNFOBSFGBJSMZ
DPNNPOBOEDBOCFJMMVTUSBUFEGSPN"NFSJDBO&OHMJTI$FSUBJOXPSETBSF
VTFECZXPNFONVDINPSFGSFRVFOUMZUIBOCZNFO"NPOHTVDIXPSET
BSFFYQSFTTJWFBEKFDUJWFTUIBUDPOWFZBQQSPWBMPSBENJSBUJPOGPSFYBNQMF
EFMJHIUGVM TQFDUBDVMBS DIBSNJOH EJWJOF MPWFMZ GBTDJOBUJOH BOETXFFUBOE
GBTIJPOBCMFDPMPSOBNFTGPSFYBNQMF CFJHF DIBSUSFVTF GVDITJB NBHFOUB
BOENBVWF
.FOBSFNVDINPSFMJLFMZUPQISBTFUIFJSBQQSPWBMPSMJLJOHGPSTPNFUIJOH
CZVTJOHBOFVUSBMBEKFDUJWF TVDIBTGJOF HPPE PSHSFBU BOESFJOGPSDJOHJU JG
OFDFTTBSZ XJUITVDIBOBEWFSCBTEBNO BTJOi5IBUXBTBEBNOHPPETIPXw
"TBSVMF NFOTDPMPSWPDBCVMBSZJTNVDIMFTTEJTDSJNJOBUJOH  BOEIFODF
TPNFXIBUQPPSFS UIBOXPNFOT#VUJOUIF6OJUFE4UBUFTEJGGFSFODFTCFUXFFO
NFOTBOEXPNFOTXPSEDIPJDFTTFFNUPCFTUFBEJMZHSPXJOHTNBMMFS'PSFY
BNQMF VOUJMBEFDBEFBHP TXFFU BOEBXFTPNF XFSFTMBOHUFSNTFYDMVTJWFMZ
VTFECZZPVOHXPNFO CVUOPXUIFTFBEKFDUJWFTBSFDPNNPOMZVTFECZCPUI
HFOEFST"OEQSPGBOJUJFTBSFOPXDBTVBMMZVTFECZNBOZZPVOHXPNFOXIPTF
NPUIFST BOE HSBOENPUIFST OPU POMZ XPVME OFWFS IBWF VUUFSFE UIFN CVU
XPVMEQSPCBCMZIBWFCFFOFNCBSSBTTFEFWFOUPIFBSUIFN/POFUIFMFTT PO
UIFXIPMF BTTFWFSBMBVUIPSTIBWFOPUFE JODBSFGVMTQFFDIXPNFOBSFMJLFMZ
UPVTFGFXFSTUJHNBUJ[FEXPSETUIBOBSFNFO"OFYBNQMFPGTQFFDICFIBW
JPSEJGGFSFODFTCFUXFFONFOBOEPMEFSXPNFOJTJMMVTUSBUFEJO#PY
0OF PG UIF DIBSBDUFSJTUJDT PG XPNFOT TQFFDIQBSUJDVMBSMZ PG PMEFS
XPNFOJTUIFVTFPGBiUBHRVFTUJPOwJODFSUBJODPOUFYUT5IFUFSNSFGFST
UPBRVFTUJPOBUUBDIFEUPBOVUUFSBODFUPPCUBJOUIFBTTFOUPGUIFBEESFTTFF
BTJOi5IBUXBTBTJMMZUIJOHGPSUIFNUPEP XBTOUJU w4FFLJOHDPOGJSNBUJPO
PSWBMJEBUJPOPGBTUBUFNFOUNBZJOEJDBUFUIFTQFBLFSTEFTJSFUPBWPJEBT
TFSUJWFOFTT"iUBHwJOUIFGPSNPGBRVFTUJPONBZBMTPCFBUUBDIFEUPBO
PSEFSPSBDSJUJDJTNUPTPGUFOJU BTJOi"OTXFSUIFQIPOF XPVMEZPV wPSi:PV
BSFESJOLJOHBCJUUPPNVDI EPOUZPVUIJOL w"OPUIFSQVSQPTFPGUIFUBH
RVFTUJPOJTUPJODMVEFUIFQFSTPOTQPLFOUPJOGSJFOEMZDPOWFSTBUJPOCZPG
GFSJOHUIFPQQPSUVOJUZUPSFTQPOE BTJOi*UTBCFBVUJGVMEBZ JTOUJU w5PEBZ
ZPVOHFSXPNFOVTFUBHRVFTUJPOTNVDIMFTTGSFRVFOUMZ8IFONFOVTFUBHT
UIFZEPTPUPPCUBJOPSDPOGJSNJOGPSNBUJPO BTJOi5PHFUUIJTXPSLEPOF *
XPVMEIBWFUPMFBWFUIFDBSIFSFVOUJMTPNFUJNFUPNPSSPX XPVMEOU* w0O
UIFTVCKFDUPGUBHRVFTUJPOT TPNFTDIPMBSTIBWFBSHVFEUIBUiBNPSFTPQIJT
UJDBUFEWJFXPGUIFDPNQMFYJUZPGCPUIMJOHVJTUJDBOETPDJBMCFIBWJPVSwJT
OFFEFE $BNFSPO .D"MJOEFO BOE0-FBSZ

264 Chapter 13: Language and Ideology

B O X 1 3 . 1 TA L K I N G L I K E A L A D Y

Aside from specific lexical items like color names, we find differences be-
tween the speech of women and that of men in the use of particles that
grammarians often describe as meaningless. There may be no referent
for them, but they are far from meaningless: they define the social context
of an utterance, indicate the relationship the speaker feels between him-
self and his addressee, between himself and what he is talking about.
As an experiment, one might present native speakers of standard Amer-
ican English with pairs of sentences, identical syntactically and in terms
of referential lexical items, and differing merely in the choice of mean-
ingless particle, and ask them which was spoken by a man, which a
woman. Consider:
(a) Oh dear, youve put the peanut butter in the refrigerator again.
(b) Shit, youve put the peanut butter in the refrigerator again.
It is safe to predict that people would classify the first sentence as part
of womens language, the second as mens language. It is true that
many self-respecting women are becoming able to use sentences like (b)
publicly without flinching, but this is a relatively recent development, and
while perhaps the majority of Middle America might condone the use of
(b) for men, they would still disapprove of its use by women. (It is of in-
terest, by the way, to note that mens language is increasingly being used
by women, but womens language is not being adopted by men, apart
from those who reject the American masculine image [for example, ho-
mosexuals]. This is analogous to the fact that mens jobs are being sought
by women, but few men are rushing to become housewives or secretaries.
The language of the favored group, the group that holds the power, along
with its nonlinguistic behavior, is generally adopted by the other group,
not vice versa. In any event, it is a truism to state that the stronger ex-
pletives are reserved for men, and the weaker ones for women.
from Robin Lakoff, Language and Womans Place (1975), 910

"OPUIFSXBZXPNFONBZUSZUPBWPJEBTTFSUJWFOFTTJTUPVTFTPDBMMFE
IFEHFXPSET PSQISBTFT TVDIBTNBZCF SBUIFS QFSIBQT *HVFTT TPSUPG *BN
XPOEFSJOH BOEPUIFST"TFOUFODFVTJOHBIFEHFXPSENBZFWFOCFDPN
CJOFEXJUIUBHRVFTUJPOT BTJOUIFGJSTUPGUIFGPMMPXJOHFYBNQMFTi:PVBSF
SBUIFSUJSFE BSFOUZPV wi*IBWFCFFOLJOEPGXPOEFSJOHJG*TIPVMEHP wi8FMM
Language and Gender 265

*HVFTT*NJHIUIBWFCFFOSJHIU wBOEi.BZCFXFDPVMEUSZBEEJOHTPNFTFB
TPOJOHw0ODFBHBJO ZPVOH"NFSJDBOXPNFOUFOEUPVTFMFTTPGUIJTUZQFPG
TQFFDICFIBWJPS PSUPCFGSFFPGJUBMUPHFUIFS
5PTVNVQ JO"NFSJDBO&OHMJTIUIFSFBSFOPQSPOVODJBUJPOT HSBNNBU
JDBMGPSNT XPSET PSTFOUFODFDPOTUSVDUJPOTUIBUBSFFNQMPZFEFYDMVTJWFMZ
CZNFOPSCZXPNFO3BUIFS XIBUEJGGFSFODFTUIFSFBSFCFUXFFONBMFBOE
GFNBMFTQFFDIIBWFUPEPXJUIUIFGSFRVFODZXJUIXIJDITPNFVTBHFTBSF
FNQMPZFECZPOFTFYPSUIFPUIFS5IBUUIFTFEJGGFSFODFTBSFEFDSFBTJOH
SBUIFSUIBONBJOUBJOJOHUIFNTFMWFTPSHSPXJOHJTBOJOEJDBUJPOUIBUMPOH
TUBOEJOHTPDJBMEJGGFSFODFTCFUXFFOXPNFOBOENFOBSFJOUIFQSPDFTTPG
CSFBLJOHEPXO
0UIFSEJGGFSFODFTCFUXFFOUIFTQFFDICFIBWJPSPGNFOBOEXPNFOXFSF
TVHHFTUFE'PSFYBNQMF TPNFJOWFTUJHBUPSTGPVOEUIBUXIFOXPNFOUBML
XJUIPUIFSXPNFOPOBTPDJBMCBTJT GBWPSFEUPQJDTBSFSFMBUJPOTIJQT TPDJBMJT
TVFT IPVTFBOEGBNJMZ UIFXPSLQMBDF BOEQFSTPOBMBOEGBNJMZGJOBODFT
8IFONFOUBMLXJUIPUIFSNFO UIFGBWPSFEUPQJDTIBWFCFFOXPSL SFDSF
BUJPOBOETQPSUT BOEXPNFO*OPUIFSTUVEJFTPGTQFFDICFIBWJPS XPNFO
JOUFSWJFXFFTXFSFGPVOENPSFDPPQFSBUJWFBOEQPMJUF BOEPGGFSFENPSFJO
GPSNBUJPOUIBOEJENFO
"OEXJUISFTQFDUUPBOZTPDJFUZ UIFGPMMPXJOHJTTVFTNBZCFDPOTJEFSFE
XIBUDPVOUTBTBUVSO SPUBUJPOPGTQFBLFST
JOBEJTDPVSTFIPXUVSOTBOEJO
UFSSVQUJPOTBSFIBOEMFEUPXIBUFYUFOUDVMUVSFTQFDJGJDHFOEFSEJGGFSFODFT
NBZCFPWFSSJEEFOCZDVMUVSFTQFDJGJDTPDJPFDPOPNJDBOEPUIFSIJFSBSDIJFT
XIBUDVFTNBMFBOEGFNBMFTQFBLFSTVTFUPBMMPDBUFUVSOTBOETPPO*OTIPSU
JNQPSUBOUBTUIFNBMFGFNBMFEJTUJODUJPONBZCFJOBQBSUJDVMBSTPDJFUZ POF
TIPVMEOFWFSBTTVNFUIBUJUJTUIFPOMZ PSUIFNBJO DSJUFSJPOBTUPIPXUIF
WBSJPVTBTQFDUTPGDPNNVOJDBUJWFCFIBWJPSBSFDIPTFOBOEFNQMPZFE
4PNFTDIPMBSTIBWFBQQSPBDIFEUIFUPQJDPGTQFFDICFIBWJPSPGUIFHFO
EFSTXJUIUIFWJFXUIBUXPNFOTMBOHVBHFSFGMFDUTNFOTEPNJOBODFPWFS
UIFN5IFZOPUFUIBUJONBOZTPDJFUJFT "NFSJDBOTPDJFUZJODMVEFE NFO
UFOEUPDPOUSPMDPOWFSTBUJPOT'VSUIFSNPSF UIFJSUBMLJTVTVBMMZCMVOU TPNF
UJNFTFWFOUPVHI
TUSBJHIU BOEDPMMPRVJBMJOTUZMF0UIFSTIBWFQPJOUFEPVU
UIBUXPNFOBSFVTVBMMZCFUUFSDPOWFSTBUJPOBMJTUT SBJTJOHUIFMFWFMPGEJT
DPVSTFCZTUSJWJOHGPSNPSFIBSNPOJPVTSFMBUJPOTXJUIUIFJSGBDFUPGBDFJO
UFSBDUBOUT 5IF HSFBU NBKPSJUZ PG MBOHVBHFT  IPXFWFS  HJWF HSBNNBUJDBM
QSJPSJUZUPNBMFT*OEFSJWJOHOPVOTEFTJHOBUJOHGFNBMFTGSPNOPVOTEFTJH
OBUJOHNBMFTGPSFYBNQMF BWJBUPSBWJBUSJY EVLFEVDIFTT IFSPIFSPJOF BOE
266 Chapter 13: Language and Ideology

XBJUFSXBJUSFTTJOTUBODFTPGEFSJWBUJPOJOUIFPQQPTJUFEJSFDUJPOBSFGFXPOMZ
UXPDPNFSFBEJMZUPNJOEXJEPXXJEPXFS BOECSJEFCSJEFHSPPN
(FOEFSBOE4QFFDIJO4PNF/BUJWF"NFSJDBO4PDJFUJFT*O/BUJWF"NFSJDBO
MBOHVBHFT EJGGFSFODFTJOUIFTQFFDIPGNFOBOEXPNFOBSFGBJSMZDPNNPO
4PNFBSFNPSQIPQIPOFNJD UIBUJT TPNFNPSQIFNFTPGBMBOHVBHFIBWFB
TMJHIUMZEJGGFSFOUQIPOFNJDTIBQFXIFOVTFECZXPNFOPSCZNFO
PUIFST
BSFMFYJDBM TPNFUJNFTNFOBOEXPNFOVTFEJGGFSFOUXPSETGPSUIFTBNF
UIJOHPSDPODFQU

"NPOHUIFMBOHVBHFTJOXIJDIDFSUBJONPSQIFNFTIBWFBEJGGFSFOUQIPOF
NJDTIBQFEFQFOEJOHPOXIFUIFSXPNFOPSNFOBSFTQFBLJOHJT,PBTBUJ B
.VTLPHFBOMBOHVBHFTQPLFOJOTPVUIXFTUFSO-PVJTJBOB"DDPSEJOHUP)BBT

UIFTQFFDIPGNJEEMFBHFEBOEPMEFS,PBTBUJXPNFOJOUIFMBUFT
EJGGFSFEGSPNUIBUPGNFOJODFSUBJOJOEJDBUJWFBOEJNQFSBUJWFWFSCGPSNT
#FDBVTFJOBGFXJOTUBODFTUIFTQFFDIPGXPNFOBQQFBSFEUPCFPMEFSBOE
NPSFCBTJD )BBTEFTDSJCFEUIFNFOTGPSNTBTEFSJWFEGSPNUIFXPNFOT
GPSNT'PSFYBNQMF WFSCGPSNTFOEJOHJOBOBTBMJ[FEWPXFM TVDIBTH JO
lakawwH AIFXJMMMJGUJU<XPNBOTQFBLJOH> BEEBOTBGUFSUIFDPSSFTQPOEJOH
PSBMWPXFM ZJFMEJOHMBLBXXrTAIFXJMMMJGUJU<NBOTQFBLJOH>4JNJMBSMZ UIF
XPNFOTXPSEMBLBXIMAMJGUJU<BEESFTTFEUPTFDPOEQFSTPOQMVSBM>ZJFMETUIF
NFOTGPSNMBLBXIT*OPUIFSJOTUBODFT BWPXFMJTMFOHUIFOFEBOEUIFGJOBMO
CFDPNFTBOT BOEJOTUJMMPUIFSTUIFNFOTGPSNTJNQMZBEETBOT UPUIFGPSN
PDDVSSJOHJOXPNFOTTQFFDI0OFNBZTVNNBSJ[FUIFDIBOHFTBUUIFFOEPG
DFSUBJO,PBTBUJWFSCGPSNTBTGPMMPXT8XPNFOTGPSN .NFOTGPSN
7BOZWPXFM 7 : OBTBMJ[FEWPXFM $BOZ
} IJHIQJUDI V GBMMJOHQJUDI V
DPOTPOBOU BOE r
TIPSUPSMPOH

W M
:()
V V()s
Vl } s
7
Vn Vs
V()C V()Cs
V()CC V()CCs

)BBTGVSUIFSSFQPSUFEUIBUJOUFMMJOHUSBEJUJPOBMOBSSBUJWFT ,PBTBUJXPNFO
VTFENFOTGPSNTXIFORVPUJOHNBMFDIBSBDUFST BOEDPOWFSTFMZ
'PSUIFMBOHVBHFPGUIF"UTJOB BMTPSFGFSSFEUPBT(SPT7FOUSF
PG'PSU
#FMLOBQ3FTFSWBUJPOJOOPSUIDFOUSBM.POUBOB OPXTQPLFOCZBSBQJEMZEF
Language and Gender 267

DSFBTJOHOVNCFSPGUSJCBMNFNCFST XFIBWFCPUIGBJSMZSFDFOUJOGPSNBUJPO
"MMBO5BZMPS
BOEBOBDDPVOUGSPN 'MBOOFSZ
"DDPSEJOH
UP5BZMPS CFGPSFUIFWPXFMTJ F BOEB NFOPGUFOVTFUIFTPVOEO BTJOUIFXPSE
DIVSDI
XIFSFXPNFOIBWFBLTPVOEGPSFYBNQMF ankyaa ACVGGBMPCVMM
JOUIFTQFFDIPGXPNFOXPVMECFanOaa JONFOTTQFFDI*OBEEJUJPOUP
EJGGFSFODFTJOQSPOVODJBUJPO 'MBOOFSZNFOUJPOFEMFYJDBMEJGGFSFODFTUIFVTF
PGUXPDPNQMFUFMZEJGGFSFOUXPSET IBWJOHUIFTBNFNFBOJOH EFQFOEJOHPO
UIFTFYPGUIFTQFBLFS0GJOUFSFTUBSFTPNFPGIFSGJOEJOHTDPODFSOJOHUIFBU
UJUVEFTPGUIF"UTJOBUPXBSEHFOEFSEJGGFSFODFTJOTQFFDI

"NVDIPMEFSXPNBOTBJEUIBUJGBNFNCFSPGFJUIFSTFYiUBMLFEMJLFUIF
PUIFSwIFPSTIFXBTDPOTJEFSFECJTFYVBM5IJTTIFJMMVTUSBUFECZUFMMJOHPG
UIFNPSUJGJDBUJPOTVGGFSFECZUIFQBSFOUTPGBCPZXIPQFSTJTUFEJOBDUJOH
MJLFBHJSMJOFWFSZXBZ5IFCPZTNPUIFSXBTTPTFOTJUJWFUIBUiTIFOFWFS
XFOUBCPVUBOETIFKVTUCPXFEIFSIFBEJOTIBNFXIFOIFSTPOXBTIFBSE
UBMLJOHMJLFBXPNBOw*UJTSFDPHOJ[FE IPXFWFS UIBUPOF(SPT7FOUSFNBO
XIPBUQSFTFOUVTFTXPNBOTQSPOVODJBUJPOBOEFYQSFTTJPOTEPFTTPCFDBVTF
IFIBEUIFNJTGPSUVOFPGIBWJOHCFFOSFBSFEJOBIPVTFIPMEDPOTJTUJOHPG
XPNFOPOMZ 'MBOOFSZ

#PBT XIPTFBOUISPQPMPHJDBMGJFMEXPSLXBTJOJUJBUFEBNPOHUIF&TLJNP
SFQPSUFE #PBT
UIBUUIFNFOPGTPNFHSPVQTQSPOPVODFEUIFGJOBM
DPOTPOBOUTQ U L BOER BCBDLWFMBSTUPQ
RVJUFEJTUJODUMZ CVUUIBUUIF
XPNFOTVCTUJUVUFEGPSUIFTFGPVSTPVOETUIFDPSSFTQPOEJOHOBTBMTN O ,
and 4 BCBDLWFMBSOBTBM
)FBEEFEUIBUJOTPNFEJBMFDUTUIFNFOBEPQUFE
UIFXPNFOTQSPOVODJBUJPO GBWPSJOHUIFGFNBMFTQFFDIGPSNT
" GFX MFYJDBM EJGGFSFODFT CFUXFFO NBMF BOE GFNBMF TQFFDI IBWF CFFO
SFDPSEFEGPSUIF1VFCMPQFPQMFTPGUIF4PVUIXFTUTQFDJGJDBMMZBNPOHUIF
)PQJPGUIF5IJSE.FTB UIF"SJ[POB5FXB BOEUIF5JXB -BHVOB BOE"DPNB
PG/FX.FYJDP8JUIUIFFYDFQUJPOPGUIF)PQJXPSET TPNFGPSNBMTJNJMBS
JUZBQQFBSTUPFYJTUCFUXFFOUIFUXPHFOEFSGPSNT*UJTJOUFSFTUJOHUIBUUIF
MBOHVBHFT MJTUFE BCPWF CFMPOH UP UISFF EJGGFSFOU MBOHVBHF GBNJMJFT 6UP
"[UFDBO ,JPXB5BOPBO BOE,FSFTBO
8FNBZCFEFBMJOHIFSFXJUIBOBSFBM
GFBUVSF"MUIPVHIUIFOVNCFSPGHFOEFSTQFDJGJDQBJSTPGXPSETJTTNBMM UIFZ
PDDVSJOLJOTIJQUFSNJOPMPHZBDDPSEJOHUPUIFTFYPGUIFFHP BTXFMMBTJOSF
TQPOTFTHJWFOEVSJOHDFSFNPOJBMPCTFSWBODFT BOEUIFZNVTUUIFSFGPSFCF
KVEHFEBTDVMUVSBMMZTJHOJGJDBOU ,SPTLSJUZ4JNTBOE7BMJRVFUUF

268 Chapter 13: Language and Ideology

"OJOUFSFTUJOHDBTFXBTSFQPSUFEJOCZ"MFYBOEFS'$IBNCFSMBJO
"DDPSEJOHUPIJN UIFNFOTMBOHVBHFPGUIF$BSBZB BQFPQMFPGFBTUFSO
#SB[JM EJGGFSTGSPNUIFXPNFOTMBOHVBHFCZUIFBEEJUJPOPSDIBOHFPGBDPO
TPOBOU*GUIFJOGPSNBUJPOJTDPSSFDU UIJTJTBOPUIFSPGUIFSFMBUJWFMZSBSFDBTFT
XIFSFNFOTGPSNTBSFEFSJWFEGSPNXPNFOTGPSNT
%PVHMBT5BZMPS 
SFQPSUFEPOBNPSFDPNQMFYTJUVBUJPOJO$FOUSBM
"NFSJDBO$BSJC BNPEFSOEJBMFDUPG*TMBOE$BSJC5XPHFOEFST NBTDVMJOF
BOEGFNJOJOF BSFEJTUJOHVJTIFEJOUIJTEJBMFDU(FOEFSJTJOQBSUOBUVSBM BT
TJHOFEBTBSVMFJOBDDPSEBODFXJUIUIFTFYPGBMJWJOHUIJOH
JOQBSUHSBN
NBUJDBM GPSFYBNQMF UIFXPSETGPSTVO NJML SJWFS BOENBJ[F BSFNBTDVMJOF
XIFSFBTUIPTFGPSTUBS MJWFS LOJGF BOETOBLFBSFGFNJOJOF
)PXFWFS XPSET
EFOPUJOHRVBMJUJFT TUBUFT BDUJPOT BOEUIFFRVJWBMFOUPGUIFQSPOPVOJUJO
TVDI&OHMJTITFOUFODFTBTiJUJTSBJOJOHwUFOEUPCFBTTJHOFEUPUIFGFNJOJOF
HFOEFSCZNFOCVUUPNBTDVMJOFCZXPNFO5IFFRVJWBMFOUPGiUIFPUIFS
EBZ wGPSFYBNQMF JTMJHSBCVHBXIFOTBJECZXPNFOCVUUVHSBCVHB XIFO
TBJECZNFO CVHB JTBQBTUUFOTFQBSUJDMF

4VDIEJGGFSFODFTBTUIPTFEFTDSJCFEUIVTGBSBSFGPVOEUIFXPSMEPWFS
'PSFYBNQMF JO/PSUI"GSJDB "SBCTXIPTQFBL'SFODIBTBTFDPOEMBO
HVBHFBSUJDVMBUFUIF'SFODI S
BDDPSEJOHUPUIFTQFBLFSTHFOEFS*ONFOT
TQFFDIJUJTBOBQJDBMDPOTPOBOU QSPEVDFEXJUIUIFUJQPGUIFUPOHVFTFSW
JOHBTUIFBDUJWFBSUJDVMBUPS
JOXPNFOTTQFFDIJUJTBVWVMBSDPOTPOBOU
NBEFCZUIFCBDLPGUIFUPOHVFXJUIUIFBJEPGUIFVWVMB
#FDBVTFCPUI
PGUIF S
TPDDVSBOEBSFQIPOFNJDBMMZEJTUJODUJOUIF"SBCJDEJBMFDUTOB
UJWFUPUIFTFQFPQMF UIFUXPWBSJBOUTBSFFBTJMZQSPOPVODFBCMFCZNFOBOE
XPNFOBMJLF"DDPSEJOHUPBTVSWFZPG'SFODIEJBMFDUTCZ)FOSJFUUF8BM
UFS 
/PSUI"GSJDBONFOXPVMEOPXQSFGFSUPBQQSPBDIUIFDPO
UFNQPSBSZ'SFODIOPSN XIJDIIBQQFOTUPCFUIFVWVMBS S <3>8IBU
QSFWFOUTUIFNGSPNEPJOHTPJTBGBJSMZSJHJEDPOWFOUJPO BDDPSEJOHUP
XIJDIUIFVWVMBSBSUJDVMBUJPOPGSJO/PSUI"GSJDBO'SFODIJTBTPDJBMDIBS
BDUFSJTUJDPGXPNFO
(FOEFSBOE4QFFDI5IFPSFUJDBM.PWFNFOUT*OUIFNJETBOEFBSMZ
T XIFOQIPOPMPHJDBMEJGGFSFODFTBTNBSLFSTPGTPDJBMDMBTTXFSFCFJOH
JOWFTUJHBUFECZ8JMMJBN-BCPWBOEIJTTUVEFOUT IFBMTPTVHHFTUFEUIBUHFO
EFSNJHIUCFNBSLFEJOBTJNJMBSGBTIJPO1SPCBCMZUIFNPTUJOGMVFOUJBMXPSL
BUUIBUUJNFXBT3PCJO-BLPGG T-BOHVBHF BOE8PNFOT1MBDF 
4IF
GPVOEOPUPOMZQIPOPMPHJDBMEJGGFSFODFTCVUBMTPTVCUMFEJGGFSFODFTJOUIF
MFYJDPOBOETZOUBY4PNFJOTUBODFTPGUIFTFJODMVEFE
Language and Gender 269

HSFBUFSVTFPGUBHRVFTUJPOT(.. SJHIU w..EPOUZPVUIJOL w

HSFBUFSVTFPGQPMJUFGPSNT i*GZPVEPOUNJOE DPVMEZPV ..w

HSFBUFSVTFPGXIXPSET i8IZEPOUXFHPUPUIFTUPSF w

HSFBUFSVTFPGIFEHFT i*LJOEBMJLFJUw

HSFBUFSVTFPGBQPMPHJFT i4PSSZUPCPUIFSZPV CVU ..w

HSFBUFSVTFPGJOUFOTJGJFST i5IBUTTPTPBEPSBCMFw

HSFBUFSVTFPGDFSUBJOiXPNFOTWPDBCVMBSZw FH DPMPST

HSFBUFSVTFPGNPEBMBVYJMJBSJFT i8FPVHIUUPTIPVMENJHIU ..w

XJEFSSBOHFPGJOUPOBUJPO
HSFBUFS VTF PG BEKFDUJWFT FYQSFTTJOH BENJSBUJPO i4IF XPSF B EJWJOF
ESFTTw

MFTTVTFPGTXFBSXPSETPSQSPGBOJUZ

*OBEEJUJPO -BLPGGFYQMPSFEIPXMBOHVBHFXBTVTFEGPSEJGGFSFOUDPNNV
OJDBUJWFQVSQPTFTCZNFOBOEXPNFO
8FNJHIUWJFXDVSSFOUXPSLPOHFOEFSBOEMBOHVBHFUISPVHIUISFFBQ
QSPBDIFTTVCDVMUVSFUIFPSZ TPDJBMQPXFSUIFPSZ BOEDPNNVOJDBUJWFTUSBU
FHZUIFPSZ
4VCDVMUVSFUIFPSZDMBJNTUIBUUIFTPDJBMMJWFTPGXPNFOMJFJOBTVCDVM
UVSFTPNFXIBUBQBSUGSPNUIFNBJOTUSFBN8PNFOBOEXPNFOTMBOHVBHF
BSFNBSLFEBTEJGGFSFOUGSPNNFOBOENFOTMBOHVBHF"TXFTBXJOBQSF
WJPVTTFDUJPO UIJTJTXIZXFGJOEDFSUBJONBSLFEUFSNTGPSXPNFO TVDIBT
BDUSFTT XBJUSFTT XPNBO CBDIFMPSFUUF BOEGFNBMF EFSJWFEGSPNUIFNBTDV
MJOFGPSNT*OPUIFSXPSET NFOTMBOHVBHFJTUIPVHIUUPPGGFSUIFOPSNBUJWF
GPSNTGSPNXIJDIXPNFOTUFSNTBSFEFSJWFE TFF#PY

5IFMJOHVJTU%FCPSBI5BOOFOJTQFSIBQTUIFNPTUBDUJWFQSPQPOFOUPGUIF
TVCDVMUVSFUIFPSZ BOEBEWPDBUFEUIJTOPUJPOJOBTFSJFTPGQSPGFTTJPOBMBOE
QPQVMBSCFTUTFMMJOHCPPLTTVDIBT:PV+VTU%POU6OEFSTUBOE8PNFOBOE
.FOJO$POWFSTBUJPO 
5BMLJOHGSPN/JOFUP'JWF.FOBOE8PNFOBU
8PSL C
BOE5IBUT/PU8IBU*.FBOU)PX$POWFSTBUJPOBM4UZMF.BLFT
PS#SFBLT:PVS3FMBUJPOTXJUI0UIFST 
5BOOFODBMMTHFOEFSBTTPDJBUFE
WBSJFUJFTPGMBOHVBHFHFOEFSMFDUT"DDPSEJOHUP5BOOFO FBDIHFOEFSIBTEJG
GFSFOUNFBOTPGBDDPNQMJTIJOHDPOWFSTBUJPOBMHPBMT BOEQFSIBQTVMUJNBUF
FOETBTXFMM5IFHPBMGPSNFOJODPNNVOJDBUJPOJTUPTFOEGBDUVBMJOGPS
NBUJPO XIJDI5BOOFODBMMTUIFSFQPSUTUZMF0OUIFPUIFSIBOE XPNFOXBOU
UPCVJMEBOENBJOUBJOSFMBUJPOTIJQTBNPOHQBSUJDJQBOUTPGUIFDPOWFSTBUJPOT
XIJDITIFDBMMTUIFSBQQPSUTUZMF
270 Chapter 13: Language and Ideology

B O X 1 3 . 2 W H AT D O E S T H E W O R D M A N M E A N ?

It has been argued that the word man, as in man is a primate, is inde-
pendent of sex, that it refers to all members of the species, and that it is just
an etymological coincidence that the form for the species is the same as
that for the male members of the species. Certainly, using the same form
for the entire species and for half the species creates the possibility of con-
fusion, as those colonial women discovered who rashly thought that the
word man in the sentence All men are created equal included them.
More confusion may come about when we use phrases like early man. Al-
though this presumably refers to the species, notice how easy it is to use
expressions like early man and his wife and how hard it is to say things
like man is the only animal that menstruates or even early woman and her
husband. . . . The common theme running through these last examples is
that the male is taken as the normal, that masculine forms refer both to the
sex and the species, while women are the exception, usually absorbed by
the masculine, but needing special terms when they become noticeable.
If the above examples have not convinced you that man as a generic is
at best ambiguous, consider the following quote from Alma Graham . . . :
If a woman is swept off a ship into the water, the cry is Man over-
board! If she is killed by a hit-and-run driver, the charge is manslaughter.
If she is injured on the job, the coverage is workmens compensation. But
if she arrives at a threshold marked Men Only, she knows the admoni-
tion is not intended to bar animals or plants or inanimate objects. It is
meant for her.
from Francine Frank and Frank Anshen,
Language and the Sexes (1983), 7172

4PDJBMQPXFSUIFPSZ HPFTCBDLUPUIFTXIFO8JMMJBN.0#BSSBOE
#PXNBO,"ULJOT 
TUVEJFEIPXXJUOFTTFTTQFBLJODPVSU*OTFWFSBM
JNQPSUBOUXBZTUIFJSXPSLDIBMMFOHFTUIFBQQSPBDIFTPG-BLPGG TBOE5BO
OFOTWJFXTPGXPNFOTMBOHVBHF0#BSSBOE"ULJOTTUVEJFEDPVSUSPPNXJU
OFTTUFTUJNPOZGPSBUXPBOEIBMGZFBST MPPLJOHBUUIFUFOTQFFDIEJGGFSFODFT
CFUXFFONFOBOEXPNFOQSPQPTFECZ-BLPGGBOEPUIFST5IFZDPODMVEFE
UIBUTQFFDIQBUUFSOTXFSFiOFJUIFSDIBSBDUFSJTUJDPGBMMXPNFOOPSMJNJUFE
POMZUPXPNFOw*OTUFBE UIFZGPVOEUIBUXPNFOXIPVTFEUIFMPXFTUGSF
Language and Gender 271

RVFODZ PGXPNFOTMBOHVBHFUSBJUTIBEVOVTVBMMZIJHITPDJBMPSFDPOPNJDTUB
UVT GPSFYBNQMF CFJOHXFMMFEVDBUFEQSPGFTTJPOBMTXJUINJEEMFDMBTTCBDL
HSPVOET
"TJNJMBSQBUUFSOXBTGPVOEGPSNFO JF NFOXJUIIJHITPDJBMPS
FDPOPNJDTUBUVTTQPLFXJUIGFXXPNFOTMBOHVBHFUSBJUT
0#BSSBOE"ULJOT
BSHVFEUIBUJUXBTQPXFSBOETUBUVT SBUIFSUIBOHFOEFS UIBUBDDPVOUFEGPS
UIFTFEJGGFSFODFT"QPXFSGVMQPTJUJPOUIBUiNBZEFSJWFGSPNFJUIFSTPDJBM
TUBOEJOHJOUIFMBSHFSTPDJFUZBOEPSTUBUVTBDDPSEFECZUIFDPVSUwBMMPXFE
TQFBLFSTCPUINBMFBOEGFNBMFDFSUBJOMJOHVJTUJDBEWBOUBHFT5IVT XIBU
UIFTPDBMMFEXPNFOTTQFFDIJTSFBMMZNBOJGFTUJOHJTEJGGFSFODFJOQPXFS
XJUIJONBJOTUSFBNTPDJFUZ XIFSFXPNFOUZQJDBMMZBSFBUBEJTBEWBOUBHF
0UIFSTUVEJFTIBWFBMTPFYBNJOFEUIFQPTJUJPOPGQPXFSPGXPNFOJOTP
DJFUZBTJUJTSFGMFDUFEJOMBOHVBHF'PSFYBNQMF #POOJF.D&MIJOOZEJEBZFBS
PGGJFMEXPSLJOXJUIUIF1JUUTCVSHIQPMJDFEFQBSUNFOU PCTFSWJOHUIF
FGGFDUTPGHFOEFS SBDF BOEBHFPOQPMJDFPGGJDFSTMBOHVBHF4IFGPVOEUIBUGF
NBMFPGGJDFSTUSJFEUPQPSUSBZUIFNTFMWFTBTDPNQFUFOUCFZPOERVFTUJPO BOE
SBUJPOBM FGGJDJFOU BOEQSPGFTTJPOBMCFZPOESFQSPBDI5IFZBEPQUFEOFJUIFS
UIF BDDPNNPEBUJOH BOE FNQBUIFUJD NBOOFST UZQJDBMMZ BTTPDJBUFE XJUI
XPNFO OPSEJEUIFZEFNPOTUSBUFUIFDPNNBOEJOHQIZTJDBMQSFTFODFBOE
FNPUJPOBMBHHSFTTJPOPGUFOBTTPDJBUFEXJUIUIFQPMJDF*OTUFBE UIFZDIPTFUP
BEPQUBDPNNVOJDBUJWFTUZMFNPSFUZQJDBMPGUIFiNJEEMFDMBTTNBTDVMJOF
OPSNw 
5IVT BMUIPVHIUIFGFNBMFQPMJDFPGGJDFSTIBEOPJOUFOUJPO
PGBDUJOHBTTPDJBMXPSLFST UIFJSQSFTFODFBOEMBOHVBHFTFSWFEBTBOJNQMJDJU
DIBMMFOHFUPUIFiIFHFNPOJDNBTDVMJOJUZwGPVOEPOUIFQPMJDFGPSDF SFQMBD
JOHJUXJUIBEFGJOJUJPOPGQPMJDJOHDFOUFSFEBSPVOENFOUBMBCJMJUZBOEDPPM
OFTTVOEFSQSFTTVSF 
"OE%FCPSBI5BOOFO 
UPP NPEJGJFE
TPNFPGIFSFBSMZJEFBTJOIFSTUVEZPGDPOWFSTBUJPOTJOUIFXPSLQMBDFCZJO
DPSQPSBUJOHTPNFPGUIFXPSLPG&SWJOH(PGGNBO 
POGSBNFTBOEUIF
QSFTFOUBUJPOPGTFMG4IFTIPXFEIPXTQFBLFSTTJNVMUBOFPVTMZCBMBODFUIF
EJNFOTJPOTPGTUBUVTBOEDPOOFDUJPO BOEBSHVFEUIBUHFOEFSQBUUFSOTPGCF
IBWJPSBSFDMBTTMJOLFEBTXFMMBTTFYMJOLFE*OPUIFSXPSET XPNFOTBOE
NFOTTVCDVMUVSFTBSFFBDIEFFQMZBTTPDJBUFEXJUITPDJBMTUBUVT
4PNFTDIPMBSTBSHVFUIBUXPNFOTMBOHVBHFJTBMTPTJHOJGJDBOUMZTIBQFE
CZUIFTUZMFPGDPNNVOJDBUJWFTUSBUFHZ 'PSFYBNQMF +BOF)JMM 
TUVE
JFEUIFTPDJBMFYQFDUBUJPOT HFOEFSSPMFT QPXFSEJGGFSFODFT BOEMBOHVBHFJO
UIF.BMJODIF7PMDBOPDPNNVOJUJFTOFBS.FYJDP$JUZ4IFGPVOEUIBUMPDBM
XPNFODIBOHFEUIFJSOBUJWFMBOHVBHF /BIVBUM UPCFiNPSF4QBOJTIw#ZUIF
NJET NBOZ/BIVBUMTQFBLJOHNFOXFSFFBSOJOHSFMBUJWFMZHPPEXBHFT
272 Chapter 13: Language and Ideology

JO.FYJDP$JUZ XIFSF4QBOJTIXBTUIFFMJUFMBOHVBHF5IFNFOTBX4QBOJTI
BTUIFMBOHVBHFPGDBQJUBMJTNBOEIFHFNPOJDQPXFS CVU UIFZVTFE/BIVBUM
UPNBJOUBJOMPDBMTPDJBMTPMJEBSJUZ5IFXPNFOSFNBJOFECFIJOEUPUBLFDBSF
PGUIFGBSNGJFMET5IFZIBEUIFSFTQPOTJCJMJUZUPQBTTUIF/BIVBUMMBOHVBHF
POUPUIFDIJMESFO5IFZTBXUIF4QBOJTIMBOHVBHFBTBNPEFSOBOEFMJUFMBO
HVBHFBOE/BIVBUMBTBUSBEJUJPOBMMBOHVBHF6OEFSTUBOEJOHUIFJNQPSUBODF
PGNBJOUBJOJOHUIFMBOHVBHFPGUIFJSFUIOJDHSPVQ CVUBMTPXJTIJOHUPTIPX
UIFJSBQQSFDJBUJPOPGNPEFSOUIJOHTBOEFEVDBUJPO UIFXPNFOCFHBOUP
TQFBLBGPSNPG/BIVBUMIJHIMZJOGMVFODFECZ4QBOJTIQSPOVODJBUJPO)JMM
BSHVFT IPXFWFS UIBUUIJTXBTMBSHFMZVODPOTDJPVT5PNBJOUBJO/BIVBUM
UIFZJOUFOUJPOBMMZEJEOPUVTF4QBOJTIMPBOXPSET CVUMFTTPCWJPVTGFBUVSFT
TVDIBT4QBOJTIQIPOPMPHZJOGMVFODFEUIFVTFPGUIFJSOBUJWFMBOHVBHF
"OPUIFSFYBNQMFDBOCFTFFOJOUIFVTFPG&OHMJTIBOE&OHMJTIMPBOXPSET
CZ+BQBOFTFXPNFO5IFBOUISPQPMPHJTU,BSFO,FMTLZ 
DMBJNTUIBU
&OHMJTI BOEPUIFSGPSFJHOMBOHVBHFT
BSFUIPVHIUUPCFUIFNPTUWBMVBCMF
XFBQPO CVLJ
JOUIFXPNFOTXBSGPSFRVBMJUZJOUIF+BQBOFTFXPSLQMBDF
5IFGFNJOJTUDSJUJD.BUTVCBSB+VOLPTBZTUIBUiCVTJOFTTDPNFTGJSTUGPSNFO
BOE&OHMJTIPOMZTFDPOE CVUGPSXPNFO&OHMJTIJTBMXBZTGJSTt...JGZPV
DBOOPUTQFBL&OHMJTI ZPVIBWFOPDIBODFPGFWFOHFUUJOHZPVSGPPUJOUPUIF
CVTJOFTTXPSMEw ,FMTLZ
'PSFYBNQMF NPSFUIBOQFSDFOUPGJO
UFSQSFUFSTGPSUIF+BQBOFTFOBUJPOBMCSPBEDBTUJOHDPSQPSBUJPOBOEQFS
DFOUPGBMMPUIFSJOUFSQSFUFSTBSFXPNFO ,FMTLZ
.POPQPMJ[JOH
GJFMETTVDIBTJOUFSQSFUJOH USBOTMBUJOH PSCJMJOHVBMHVJEJOHHJWFTXPNFO
QPXFSGVMUIPVHIPGUFOVOBDLOPXMFEHFEDMPVUJONBOZEPNBJOT5IFWBS
JPVT+BQBOFTFNBMFBUUBDLTPOUIFDVSSFOUXPSMEXJEFIFHFNPOZPG&OHMJTI
GPSFYBNQMF FJHPCZP<i&OHMJTINBOJBw>BT5TVEB   
DBMMT
JUNJHIUCFDBVTFECZUIFJSJOBEFRVBDZJOUIFMBOHVBHF5PCFGBJS NBOZ
PGUIFTFTDIPMBSTTQFBLWFSZHPPEBDBEFNJD&OHMJTI BOEUIFJSUIFPSFUJDBM
BOEQPMJUJDBMDSJUJDJTNTPG&OHMJTITIPVMECFUBLFOTFSJPVTMZ#VUBSUJDMFTJO
QPQVMBSNBHB[JOFTXJUIUJUMFTTVDIBT/JIPOKJOOP&JLBJXB4IJKPTIVHJOP(V
<i5IF4UVQJEJUZPGUIF+BQBOFTF8PSTIJQPG&OHMJTIw>EPHJWFPOFQBVTF
)PXFWFS &OHMJTIDBOCFNPSFUIBOBNFSFUPPMGPSDBSFFSBEWBODFNFOU
'PSFJHOMBOHVBHFTNJHIUCFUIFiNFBOTCZXIJDIXPNFOFOUFSCPEJMZJOUP
BMUFSOBUJWFTZTUFNTPGUIPVHIUBOEWBMVFw ,FMTLZ
"T.BUTVCBSB
TBZT i&OHMJTIJTOPUKVTUBMBOHVBHFJUJTTPNFUIJOHUIBUIBTUIFQPXFS
FWFOUPUSBOTGPSNXPNFOTMJWFTw"TPOFPGIFSJOUFSWJFXFFTBSHVFT i*ONZ
DBTF JGZPVUPPLBXBZNZ&OHMJTI UIFSFXPVMECFOPUIJOHMFGU*DBOUJNBH
Language, Race, and Ethnicity 273

JOFNZTFMGFYJTUJOHXJUIPVU&OHMJTIw"OPUIFS FWFONPSFQMBJOMZ TUBUFE i*


IBETPNBOZPQJOJPOT*XBOUFEUPFYQSFTT*GFMU*DPVMEOUQPTTJCMZTBZUIFN
JO+BQBOFTF*XBOUFEUPMFBSOUIJTOFXWPDBCVMBSZUPFYQSFTTNZTFMGCFUUFS
4P*XPSLFESFBMMZIBSE5IFBWFSBHF+BQBOFTFEPFTOUIBWFBOZPQJOJPO&WFO
JO+BQBOFTF#VU*IBEMPBETPGPQJOJPOT BOECFDBVTFPGUIBU*MFBSOFE&OH
MJTIGBTUw ,FMTLZo

&OHMJTI MPBOXPSET BMTPPGGFSUIF+BQBOFTFBDIBODFUPBWPJETPNFPGUIF
DPOTUSBJOUTJNQPTFEVQPOUIFNCZUIFHFOEFSSFRVJSFNFOUTPGTQFBLJOHUIF
+BQBOFTFMBOHVBHF/PUPOMZEPFTUIFVTFPG&OHMJTIMPBOXPSETIFMQUIFN
DIBOHFUIFJSJNBHFTPGUIFNTFMWFT &OHMJTIBMMPXT+BQBOFTFXPNFOUPTQFBL
BCPVUTPDJBMJTTVFTPSQSPCMFNTJOXBZTUIFZPUIFSXJTFNJHIUOPUCFBCMFUP
EPTPDPNGPSUBCMZ'PSFYBNQMF UIF+BQBOFTFUFSNHLBO iSBQFw
DBSSJFT
TPNFTPDJBMTUJHNBCFDBVTFJUTVHHFTUTBOBDUPGQIZTJDBMJOUFSDPVSTFJOTUFBE
PGBDSJNF"TBSFTVMU WJDUJNTPGHLBO JO+BQBOBSFPGUFOUIPVHIUUPCFMFTT
EFTJSBCMFNBSSJBHFQBSUOFST BOEUIFXPNFOBOEUIFJSGBNJMJFTPGUFOIJEF
TVDIJODJEFOUT)PXFWFS CFDBVTFUIFNPEFSO&OHMJTIMPBOXPSESQV GPDVTFT
POUIFDSJNFBOEPOCFJOHBWJDUJNPGBDSJNFSBUIFSUIBOCFJOHDPOTJEFSFE
BTDPNQMJDJUNPSFXPNFOBSFOPXSFQPSUJOHSQVTUPUIFQPMJDF8PNFO
BSFPGUFONBLJOHBOFGGPSUUPFGGFDUTPDJBMDIBOHFCZVTJOH&OHMJTIMPBOXPSET
UIBUEPOPUDBSSZUIFUSBEJUJPOBMiMJOHVJTUJDCBHHBHFwBTTPDJBUFEXJUIOBUJWF
+BQBOFTFUFSNT 4UBOMBXB )PHBO


Language, Race, and Ethnicity


"GSJDBO"NFSJDBO&OHMJTI"HPPEFYBNQMFPGBOFUIOJDMBOHVBHFWBSJFUZJT
"GSJDBO"NFSJDBO&OHMJTI ""&
JOUIF6OJUFE4UBUFT5PCFHJOXJUI XF
TIPVMETBZUIBUTVDIUFSNTBTi"GSJDBO"NFSJDBO&OHMJTIwPSi#MBDL&OHMJTIw
BSFPQFOUPTPNFDSJUJDJTNCFDBVTFUIFZJNQMZUIBUBMMQFPQMFPG"GSJDBOBO
DFTUSZJO"NFSJDBTQFBLUIFTBNFXBZ5IVT UIFTFMBCFMTTIPVMECFVTFEXJUI
TPNFEFHSFFPGDBVUJPO
""&JTDIBSBDUFSJ[FECZQSPOVODJBUJPOT TZOUBDUJDTUSVDUVSFT BOEWPDBC
VMBSZBTTPDJBUFEXJUIBOEVTFECZBGBJSMZMBSHFOVNCFSPG"GSJDBO"NFSJ
DBOT4PNFPGUIPTFXIPTQFBL""&VTFJUIBCJUVBMMZPUIFSTVTFJUJODFSUBJO
TJUVBUJPOT 4UBOEBSE&OHMJTIJOPUIFST"TUIFTQFFDIPGBTJ[BCMFQPSUJPOPG
BQPQVMBUJPOMJWJOHJOBDPOUJOFOUTJ[FEBSFB ""&JTOPNPSFVOJGPSNUIBO
UIF&OHMJTITQPLFOCZPUIFS"NFSJDBOT*UFYIJCJUTBXJEFSBOHFPGQSPOVO
DJBUJPOTBOEGPSNTWBSZJOHBTUPUIFEFHSFFJOXIJDIUIFZEJGGFSGSPNFBDI
274 Chapter 13: Language and Ideology

PUIFSBOEGSPN4UBOEBSE&OHMJTI4PNF""&QSPOVODJBUJPOTDIBSBDUFSJ[F
4PVUIFSOTQFFDIJOHFOFSBM CMBDLBOEXIJUF BMUIPVHIUIFZBSF MJLFMZUP
PDDVSJO""&XJUIHSFBUFSGSFRVFODZPSUPBMBSHFSEFHSFF
4QPLFOSBUIFSUIBOXSJUUFO XJUIUIFFYDFQUJPOPGUIPTFXSJUFSTXIPUSZ
UPSFQSFTFOUGBJUIGVMMZUIF""&PGUIFJSDIBSBDUFST
""&JTVTFEUPHSFBUFG
GFDUCZ"GSJDBO"NFSJDBOTSBOHJOHGSPNSFMJHJPVTBOEDJWJMSJHIUTMFBEFSTUP
TDIPPMESPQPVUTTQFOEJOHNPTUPGUIFJSUJNFJOUIFTUSFFUTPGCMBDLHIFUUPT
4UVEJFTNBEFPGUIFJSTQFFDIIBWFSFQFBUFEMZFTUBCMJTIFEUIFJNQPSUBODFBT
TJHOFEUPWFSCBMTLJMMTBUBMMMFWFMT'BSGSPNCFJOHMJNJUFEUPPSEJOBSZDPN
NVOJDBUJWFGVODUJPOT ""&SBOHFTGSPNUIFSIZNJOHOBSSBUJWFQPFUSZPG
TPDBMMFEUPBTUTUPUIFBDDPNNPEBUJOHTUZMFPGiTIVDLJOH JU
wBOEiKJWJOHwPO
UIFPOFIBOEBOEUIFNPSFBHHSFTTJWFOFFEMJOHPSHPBEJOHSFGFSSFEUPBTiTJH
OJGZJOHwPOUIFPUIFS
#FDBVTFPGUIFEJBMFDUBMWBSJBUJPOUIBUFYJTUTJO""& POMZTPNFPGJUTNPTU
QSPNJOFOUBOEDPNNPODIBSBDUFSJTUJDTBSFEJTDVTTFEIFSF5IFTFGFBUVSFT
BSFOPUGPVOEJOUIFTQFFDIPGBMM"GSJDBO"NFSJDBOT QBSUJDVMBSMZTPNFPG
UIPTFXIPIBWFMJWFEJOUIF/PSUIGPSTFWFSBMHFOFSBUJPOT'PSUIFNPTUQBSU
UIFTFGFBUVSFTDIBSBDUFSJ[FUIFOPOTUBOEBSEWBSJFUZPG&OHMJTITQPLFOCZ
"GSJDBO"NFSJDBOTJOVSCBOHIFUUPTPGUIF6OJUFE4UBUFT BWBSJFUZSFGFSSFE
UPBT"GSJDBO"NFSJDBO7FSOBDVMBS&OHMJTI ""7&

*OQSPOVODJBUJPO UIFWPXFMTPG""7&UFOEUPCFNVDINPSFWBSJBCMF
UIBODPOTPOBOUT5IFNPTUDPNNPOWPXFMDPOUSBTUTPG4UBOEBSE&OHMJTI
UIBUBSFMJLFMZUPCFMPTUBSFJOTVDIXPSEQBJSTBTQSJEF BOEQSPE PSGJOE BOE
GPOEBTXFMMBTQSJEF BOEQSPVEPSGJOE BOEGPVOE XIJDIJO""7&UFOEUPCF
QSPOPVODFEBMJLF5IFMPTTPGDPOUSBTUJOUIFTFBOETJNJMBSXPSEQBJSTJTVTV
BMMZMJNJUFEUPUIFQPTJUJPOCFGPSFUIFDPOTPOBOUTC E H N O S BOEM5IF
XPSETPJMBOEBMM BOETJNJMBSXPSEQBJSTBMTPGSFRVFOUMZTPVOEBMJLFJO""7&
JOQBSUJDVMBSXIFOWPXFMTBSFGPMMPXFECZUIFDPOTPOBOU M'JOBMMZ TVDIXPSE
QBJSTBTGFBS BOEGBJS BOETVSF BOETIPSFNBZCFQSPOPVODFEBMJLFJOUFSNT
TVDIBTUIFTF UIFMPTTPGWPXFMDPOUSBTUJTDPOEJUJPOFECZUIFDPOTPOBOUS
UIBUGPMMPXTUIFWPXFMT
5IFMFBTUTUBCMFDPOTPOBOUTPG""7&BSFUIPTFGPVOEBUUIFFOEPGXPSET
5IFTPVOEXSJUUFOBT UINBZCFIFBSEJOUIFGJOBMQPTJUJPOBTG NBLJOHUIF
XPSETCPUI BOEXJUI SIZNFXJUIMPBG BOETOJGG SFTQFDUJWFMZ5IFDPOTPOBOUT
S BOEM UFOEUPCFXFBLFOFEPSBSFDPNQMFUFMZMPTU"GUFSBWPXFM UIFXFBL
FOFES NBLFTTVDIXPSETBTTVSF TIPF BOETIPX PSZPVS BOEZPV TPVOEBMJLF
PSOFBSMZTPS CFUXFFOWPXFMTNBZCFMPTUDPNQMFUFMZ MFBEJOHUPTVDIQSP
Language, Race, and Ethnicity 275

OVODJBUJPOTBTJOUFFTUJO QBTT BOEUFTT GPSJOUFSFTUJOH 1BSJT BOEUFSSBDF SF


TQFDUJWFMZ"XFBLFOFEMCFGPSFBDPOTPOBOUNBZCFIFBSEJOTVDIXPSETBT
IFMQ PSXPMGXIFOJUJTDPNQMFUFMZMPTU TVDIXPSEQBJSTBTGPPMFE BOEGPPE UPMM
BOEUPF PSCPMU BOECPBUDPNFUPTPVOEBMJLF
5IFTUPQTU BOEE BSFRVJUFDPNNPOMZMPTUPSNPEJGJFEBGUFSBOPUIFSDPO
TPOBOU5IVTMBTUNBZDPNFUPTPVOEMJLFMBTT NFOEMJLFNFO SJGU MJLFSJGG
BOEUPME MJLFUPMM0UIFSGJOBMDPOTPOBOUDMVTUFSTBSFGSFRVFOUMZTVCKFDUUPTJN
JMBSTJNQMJGJDBUJPO SFTVMUJOHJOUIFQSPOVODJBUJPOEFTT GPSEFTL PSMJTT GPSMJTQ
0UIFSEJGGFSFODFTGSPN4UBOEBSE&OHMJTIBSFMFTTHFOFSBMJ[BCMF
(SBNNBUJDBMEJGGFSFODFTBSFVTVBMMZNPSFOPUJDFBCMFUIBOEJGGFSFODFTJO
QSPOVODJBUJPOPSWPDBCVMBSZ5IJTJTTPCFDBVTFJUJTUIFVTFPGiQSPQFSwHSBN
NBSUIBUJTBTTPDJBUFEXJUIBTUZMFPGTQFBLJOHDPOTJEFSFEQSFTUJHJPVTBOEXPS
UIZ PG JNJUBUJOH 'SPN UIF QFSTQFDUJWF PG MJOHVJTUJD BOUISPQPMPHZ  UIF
HSBNNBSVTFECZOBUJWFTQFBLFSTPGBOZMBOHVBHFWBSJFUZDBOOPUCFUFSNFE
JODPSSFDU FWFOXIFOJUEJGGFSTGSPNPUIFSEJBMFDUTPSUIFTUBOEBSEJUTFMG4PNF
PGUIFGFBUVSFTUIBUEJGGFSFOUJBUFUIFHSBNNBSPG""7&GSPN4UBOEBSE&OH
MJTIBSFUPCFGPVOEJOUIFTQFFDIPGOPO"GSJDBO"NFSJDBOTBTXFMM
8IFODPNQBSFEUPPUIFS&VSPQFBOMBOHVBHFT &OHMJTIIBTGFXJOGMFD
UJPOBMTVGGJYFTUIFUFOEFODZJO""7&JTGPSFWFOUIFTFGFXUPCFXFBLFOFE
PSMPTU5IFT PGUIFUIJSEQFSTPOTJOHVMBSJTGSFRVFOUMZMBDLJOHJO""7&
WFSCT BTJOi+PIOOZSVOwPSi)FFBUNFBUw5IFT NBSLJOHUIFQPTTFTTJWF
TQFMMFET
NBZCFMPTU BTJOi)BOENFUIBUNBODPBUw5IFT JOUIFQMVSBM
PGOPVOTJTSFUBJOFE BTJOEFTTFT GPSEFTLTBGUFSUIFTJNQMJGJDBUJPOPGUIFXPSE
GJOBMDPOTPOBOUDMVTUFSTL JOUIFTJOHVMBS CVUUIFSFJTBUFOEFODZUPXBSE
NBLJOHJSSFHVMBSQMVSBMTSFHVMBS UIBUJT NBLJOHVTFPGTVDIGPSNTBTGPPUT
NFOT BOEDIJMESFOT GPSGFFU NFO BOEDIJMESFO
5IFQBTUUFOTFPGWFSCTJTFJUIFSSFUBJOFEBTJOHBWF XFBLFOFEBTJOLFQ
JOTUFBEPG LFQU
PSUPMM JOTUFBEPGUPME
PSMPTUBMUPHFUIFSBTJOi)FQBZNF
ZFTUFSEBZw8IFOUIFSFJTBOPQUJPOJO4UBOEBSE&OHMJTIUPVTFBDPOUSBDUJPO
GPSFYBNQMF i)FJTHPJOHwUPi)FTHPJOH w""7&PGGFSTUIFBEEJUJPOBMPQ
UJPOPGGVMMEFMFUJPOPGUIFGPSNPGCF SFTVMUJOHJOi)FHPJOHw8IFOUIFPQ
UJPOUPDPOUSBDUEPFTOPU FYJTUJO4UBOEBSE&OHMJTI BTJOUIFMBUUFSQBSUPGUIF
TFOUFODFi5IBUTUIFXBZJUJTIFSFw POFXPVMEOFWFSTBZi5IBUTUIFXBZJUT
IFSFw
UIFPQUJPOUPEFMFUFUIFGPSNPGCF MJLFXJTFEPFTOPUPDDVSJO""7&
XIJDIXPVMEVTFi5IBUUIFXBZJUJT<PS CF>IFSFw5IFQISBTFUIFSFJT UIBU
JOUSPEVDFTBTFOUFODFPSDMBVTFJTSFQMBDFEJO""7&CZJUJT PSUIFDPOUSBD
UJPOTJUT PSTJNQMZT
276 Chapter 13: Language and Ideology

*ODPNQBSJTPOXJUI4UBOEBSE&OHMJTI ""7&JTDIBSBDUFSJ[FECZNVMUJ
QMFOFHBUJPO BTJOUIFGPMMPXJOHTFOUFODFTUIBUBSFUPCFVOEFSTUPPEBTTUBUF
NFOUTSBUIFSUIBORVFTUJPOTi%JEOUOPCPEZTFFJU wi8BTOUOPCPEZIPNF w
i"JOUOPCPEZDPNQMBJOJOCVUZPV NBO wBOEi*EPOUHPUOPOFw
5IFWFSCGPSNCF BTJOi4IFCFCVTZ wDPOUSBTUTJO""7&XJUIJUTBC
TFODF BTJOUIFDPSSFTQPOEJOHi4IFCVTZw5IFMBUUFS i4IFCVTZ wNFBOTUIBU
UIFQFSTPOSFGFSSFEUPJTCVTZBUUIFUJNFUIFTUBUFNFOUJTNBEFi4IFCF
CVTZwEFOPUFTBIBCJUVBMPSSFQFBUFETUBUFPGCVTZOFTT XIBUJO4UBOEBSE
&OHMJTIXPVMECFFYQSFTTFEBTi4IFJTBMXBZTCVTZ wi4IFLFFQTCVTZ wPS
i4IFJTPGUFOCVTZw
"TGPSPQUJPOBMUFOTFT UIFTJUVBUJPOPGPOFQBSUJDVMBSWBSJFUZPG""7&IBT
CFFOEFTDSJCFEBTGPMMPXT

*EPTFFIJN JTKVTUBOUFSJPSUPUIFQSFTFOUBOEJOUSVEFTVQPOJU BOEJTUIFSFGPSF


UIFQBTUJODFQUJWFUFOTF*EJETFFIJN JTTMJHIUMZMPOHFSBHP PSUIFQSFQSFTFOU
UFOTF*EPOFTFFOIJN JTTUJMMGVSUIFSBHP PSUIFSFDFOUQBTU*CFFOTFFOIJN
JTFWFOGBSUIFSBHPBOEEFTJHOBUFEBTUIFQSFSFDFOUQBTU.PWJOHBIFBEGSPN
UIFQSFTFOU JGTPNFPOFTBZT*NBEP JU IFXJMMEPJUJOBQQSPYJNBUFMZ
TFDPOET PSJOUIFJNNFEJBUFGVUVSF*GTPNFPOFTBZT*NBHPOOBEPJU IF
XJMMEPJUTPPO UIBUJT JOUIFQPTUJNNFEJBUFGVUVSF*GIFTBZT*HPOOBEPJU
IPXFWFS UIFFYFDVUJPONBZCFJOEFGJOJUFMZEFMBZFE 'JDLFUU

""7&GVSUIFSEJGGFSTGSPN4UBOEBSE&OHMJTIJOTQFDJBMJ[FEWPDBCVMBSZ
WBSJBOUTUSFTTQBUUFSOTPODFSUBJOXPSET BOEUIFMJLF%FTQJUFUIFTFBOEPUIFS
GFBUVSFTUIBUTFUUIFUXP&OHMJTIFTBQBSU IPXFWFS UIFBEKVTUNFOUBOPO
TQFBLFSPG""7&IBTUPNBLFUPDPNQSFIFOEJUJTOPNPSFUIBOUIFFGGPSU
OFFEFEUPVOEFSTUBOEDPDLOFZ
4DIPMBSTEJTBHSFFPOUIFDVSSFOUEFWFMPQNFOUBMUFOEFODJFTJO""7&4PNF
CFMJFWFUIBUUIFMPOHTUBOEJOHCVUTMPXEFDSFPMJ[BUJPOJTDPOUJOVJOH UIBUJT
UIBUUIFTQFFDIPG"GSJDBO"NFSJDBOTJTDPOWFSHJOHXJUIUIF&OHMJTITQPLFO
CZOPOo"GSJDBO"NFSJDBOT0UIFST JODMVEJOH-BCPW IBWFSFQPSUFEUIBUBTB
SFTVMUPGUIFJODSFBTJOHTFHSFHBUJPOBOEJTPMBUJPOPGVSCBO"GSJDBO"NFSJDBOT
GSPNUIFSFTUPGUIFTPDJFUZ BOEEFTQJUFUIFIPNPHFOJ[JOHJOGMVFODFPGUIF
NFEJBPOMBOHVBHF ""7&BQQFBSTUPCFTUFBEJMZEJWFSHJOHOPUPOMZGSPN
4UBOEBSE&OHMJTICVUGSPNSFHJPOBMBOEMPDBMXIJUFEJBMFDUTBTXFMM*GUIJTJT
TP DIJMESFOXIPTQFBLJUXJMMFODPVOUFSFWFONPSFEJGGJDVMUJFTXIFOBUBHFTJY
UIFZFOUFSBOFOWJSPONFOUUIBUVTFTBTUSJLJOHMZEJGGFSFOUDPEF
Language, Race, and Ethnicity 277

)PX%JE"GSJDBO"NFSJDBO&OHMJTI$PNF"CPVU5IJTRVFTUJPOJTDMPTFMZ
UJFEUPUIFRVFTUJPO )PXEPWBSJFUJFTPG""&SFMBUFUP"NFSJDBO&OHMJTIJO
HFOFSBM 4DIPMBSMZPQJOJPOTPOUIFTVCKFDUWBSZ4PNFIBWFBSHVFEUIBU""&
JTKVTUBOPUIFSEJBMFDUPG"NFSJDBO&OHMJTI5IFZBUUFNQUUPKVTUJGZUIJTJO
UFSQSFUBUJPOCZQPJOUJOHPVUUIBUOPOFPGUIFGFBUVSFTPG""&EFQBSUTTJH
OJGJDBOUMZGSPNUIPTFGPVOEJOPUIFSEJBMFDUTPG&OHMJTIPSGSPNUIFIJTUPSJDBM
EFWFMPQNFOUPG&OHMJTIBTBXIPMF'PSFYBNQMF NVMUJQMFOFHBUJPO DPN
NPOMZSFGFSSFEUPBTUIFEPVCMFOFHBUJWF XIJDIJTGSPXOFEVQPOBTPOFPG
UIFNBJOTJOTBHBJOTUiHPPE&OHMJTIHSBNNBS wXBTXJEFMZVTFEJO&MJ[B
CFUIBOUJNFTJUTSFUFOUJPOJO""&DBOCFJOUFSQSFUFEBTBDPOTFSWBUJWFGFB
UVSF#ZDPOUSBTU UIFMPTTPGTJOUIFUIJSEQFSTPOTJOHVMBSDBOCFWJFXFEBT
UIFDPOUJOVBUJPOPGBUFOEFODZUPXBSETJNQMJGJDBUJPOUIBUIBTDIBSBDUFSJ[FE
UIF&OHMJTIWFSCUISPVHIPVUJUTIJTUPSZ8IBU""&IBTEPOFJTUPFMJNJOBUF
UIFMBTUSFNBJOJOHTVGGJYPGUIFQSFTFOUUFOTFWFSCQBSBEJHN TPNFUIJOHUIBU
NBZXFMMIBQQFOJO4UBOEBSE&OHMJTIJOUIFOFYUGFXIVOESFEZFBST 4JN
QMJGJDBUJPOPG4UBOEBSE&OHMJTIDPOUJOVFTVOBCBUFE BTDBOCFTFFOGSPNUIF
FWFSNPSFGSFRVFOUTVCTUJUVUJPOPG* GPSUIFPCKFDUGPSNPGUIJTQSPOPVO NF
BTJOiCFUXFFOZPVBOE* wUIBUDBOOPXCFIFBSEFWFOGSPNNBKPSOFUXPSL
UFMFWJTJPOBODIPSTBOENFNCFSTPGUIF64$POHSFTT

0QQPTFEUPUIFEJBMFDUBMJOUFSQSFUBUJPOJTUIFDPOUFOUJPOUIBU""&JTTVG
GJDJFOUMZEJTUJODUGSPNBOEJOEFQFOEFOUPG4UBOEBSE&OHMJTIUPNFSJUBT
TJHONFOU UP &OHMJTICBTFE DSFPMFT  XIFSF JU XPVME KPJO DPNQBOZ XJUI
+BNBJDBO$SFPMFBOE(VMMBI UIFDSFPMFTVSWJWJOHJOUIF4FB*TMBOETPGGUIF
DPBTUTPG4PVUI$BSPMJOBBOE(FPSHJB"MUIPVHI""&JTUPEBZMFTTEJWFSHFOU
GSPN4UBOEBSE&OHMJTIUIBOFJUIFS+BNBJDBO$SFPMFPS(VMMBI BOVNCFSPG
TJNJMBSJUJFTCFUXFFOJUBOEUIFUXPDSFPMFTBSFXPSUIOPUJOH GPSFYBNQMF
DFSUBJOQBUUFSOTPGQSPOVODJBUJPO UIFMPTTPGUIFUIJSEQFSTPOTJOHVMBST BOE
UIFQPTTFTTJWFT NVMUJQMFOFHBUJPO UIF[FSPDPQVMB MPTTPGGPSNTPGCF BTJO
i)FSJDIw
BOETPNFSFTJEVBM"GSJDBOJTNT$POTFRVFOUMZ BSFBMQPTTJCJMJUZ
FYJTUTUIBUUIFQSPDFTTPGDSFPMJ[BUJPODPOUSJCVUFEUPUIFGPSNBUJPOPG""&
5IFNBLJOHPG""&EBUFTCBDLUPUIFTFWFOUFFOUIDFOUVSZ XIFOTMBWF
TIJQTDBSSZJOHDIFBQHPPETTBJMFEGSPN#SJTUPM -JWFSQPPM BOEPUIFS&OHMJTI
QPSUTUIFDBSHPFTXFSFFYDIBOHFEBMPOHUIF8FTU"GSJDBODPBTUGPSDBQUVSFE
"GSJDBOTXIP JOUVSO XFSFTPMEBTTMBWFTJOUIF$BSJCCFBOBOEUIF/PSUI
"NFSJDBO4PVUIGPSXPSLPOQMBOUBUJPOT5IFTIJQTXPVMEUIFOSFUVSOUP
&OHMBOEMPBEFEXJUITVHBS UPCBDDP DPUUPO BOEPUIFSDPNNPEJUJFT BOEUIF
DZDMFXPVMECFSFQFBUFE5PNJOJNJ[FUIFSJTLPGPSHBOJ[FEVQSJTJOHT UIF
278 Chapter 13: Language and Ideology

DBSHPFTPGGVUVSFTMBWFTXFSFBTTFNCMFEGSPNBWBSJFUZPGUSJCFTTQFBLJOHEJG
GFSFOUMBOHVBHFT"DDPSEJOHUPUIFSFWFBMJOHUFTUJNPOZPGPOF$BQU8JMMJBN
4NJUIJO

"TGPSUIF-BOHVBHFTPG(BNCJB UIFZBSFTPNBOZBOETPEJGGFSFOU UIBUUIF


/BUJWFT POFJUIFS4JEFUIF3JWFS DBOOPUVOEFSTUBOEFBDIPUIFSXIJDI JG
SJHIUMZDPOTJEFSE JTOPTNBMM)BQQJOFTTUPUIF&VSPQFBOTXIPHPUIJUIFSUP
USBEFGPS4MBWes;... UIFTBGFTU8BZJTUPUSBEFXJUIUIFEJGGFSFOU/BUJPOs,...
BOEIBWJOHTPNFPGFWFSZ4PSUPOCPBSE UIFSFXJMMCFOPNPSF-JLFMJIPPE
PGUIFJSTVDDFFEJOHJOB1MPU UIBOPGGJOJTIJOHUIF5PXFSPG#BCFM 

*UJTVOEFSTUBOEBCMFUIBUOFFEGPSBQJEHJO PSQJEHJOT IBEEFWFMPQFEFWFO


CFGPSFUIFTIJQTMFGUUIF"GSJDBODPBTU5IFDBQUJWFTIBEUPGJOEBNFBOTPG
DPNNVOJDBUJOH BUMFBTUBCPVUUIFNPTUWJUBMNBUUFST OPUPOMZXJUIFBDI
PUIFSCVUXJUIUIFJSDBQUPSTBOEPWFSTFFSTBTXFMM&WFOBGUFSUIFDBQUJWFTIBE
CFFOTPMEJOUPTMBWFSZJOUIF/FX8PSME UIFOFFEGPSQJEHJOTDPOUJOVFEGPS
SFBTPOT TJNJMBS UP UIPTF UIBU HBWF SJTF UP UIFN JO UIF GJSTU QMBDF *O UIF
-PVJTJBOBBSFB UIFQJEHJOXBT'SFODICBTFEFMTFXIFSFJOUIF4PVUI JUXBT
&OHMJTICBTFE"DDPSEJOHUP+-%JMMBSE POFPGUIFFYQPOFOUTPGUIFDSFPMF
IZQPUIFTJT i8IFOOFXHFOFSBUJPOTHSFXVQXIJDIVTFEPOMZUIFQJEHJO
UIFQJEHJOCFDBNFDSFPlized..<UP>1MBOUBUJPO$SFPMFw 

8IJDIPGUIFUXPJOUFSQSFUBUJPOTJTUIFNPSFQMBVTJCMF UIFEJBMFDUBMPS
UIFDSFPMJTU "DDPSEJOHUP#VSMJOH 
UIFFWJEFODFBQQFBSTUPTVQQPSU
CPUIJOUIBU""&TIBSFTTPNFGFBUVSFTXJUI4UBOEBSE&OHMJTIBOEPUIFST
XJUIDSFPMFTTVDIBT(VMMBIBOE+BNBJDBO'JHVSFCFMPXTIPXTUIFDPN
QMFYJOUFSSFMBUJPOTIJQTUIBU#VSMJOHCFMJFWFTFYJTUFEBNPOHUIFWBSJPVTGPSNT
PGTQFFDIUIBUMJLFMZDPOUSJCVUFEUP""&
"GSJDBO"NFSJDBO&OHMJTI.ZUITBOE'BDUT8JUIPVURVFTUJPO ""&JTB
NVDITUJHNBUJ[FEMBOHVBHFWBSJFUZ"HSFBUNBOZQFPQMF SFHBSEMFTTPGFUI
OJDCBDLHSPVOE DPOTJEFSJUBCBEMZDPSSVQUFE EFGJDJFOUGPSNPG&OHMJTI*G
UIFWBSJPVTEJBMFDUTPG&OHMJTIBSFBDDPSEFEEJGGFSFOUEFHSFFTPGTPDJBMQSFT
UJHF  4UBOEBSE &OHMJTI SBOLT IJHIFTU  BOE ""& JT BNPOH UIPTF MFBTU FT
UFFNFE 5IF OFHBUJWF BUUJUVEF UPXBSE ""& JO 64 TPDJFUZ JT JO QBSU
SFJOGPSDFECZUIFMPXTPDJPFDPOPNJDTUBUVTPGNBOZ"GSJDBO"NFSJDBOTSF
TVMUJOHGSPNBMPOHTUBOEJOHQBUUFSOPGSBDJBMEJTDSJNJOBUJPO
.BOZQFPQMFCFMJFWF BOEFWFOTPNFFEVDBUPSTBOEFEVDBUJPOBMQTZDIPM
PHJTUTIBWFDMBJNFE UIBU"GSJDBO"NFSJDBODIJMESFOGSPNVSCBOHIFUUPTJO
Language, Race, and Ethnicity 279

F I G U R E 1 3 . 1 Languages That Shaped African-American (Black) English


*OUIJTEJBHSBNUIFGPVSEFHSFFTPGUIJDLOFTTPGUIFBSSPXTTVHHFTUUIFEJGGFSFOUJBMXFJHIUPGJO
GMVFODFTUIBUFBSMJFSGPSNTPGWBSJPVTMBOHVBHFTIBWFIBEVQPOMBUFSPOFT
4PVSDF'SPN3PCCJOT#VSMJOH &OHMJTIJO#MBDLBOE8IJUF $PQZSJHIUCZ)PMU 3JOF
IBSUBOE8JOTUPO *OD3FQSJOUFECZQFSNJTTJPOPG)PMU 3JOFIBSUBOE8JOTUPO

QBSUJDVMBSBSFWFSCBMMZEFQSJWFE5IFTFDIJMESFOBSFTBJEUPNJTQSPOPVODF
XPSET TMVSFOEJOHT BOENVNCMFUPBOTXFSJONPOPTZMMBCMFTPSJODPNQMFUF
TFOUFODFTSFQMFUFXJUIHSBNNBUJDBMFSSPSTUPNBLFVTFPGBWFSZMJNJUFEWP
DBCVMBSZBOEJOHFOFSBMUPVTF&OHMJTITMPQQJMZBOEJMMPHJDBMMZ5IFSFJTGVS
UIFS B XJEFTQSFBE CFMJFG UIBU UIF VTF PG UIF OPOTUBOEBSE WFSOBDVMBS JT B
TFSJPVTPCTUBDMFUPMFBSOJOH BGFXNFNCFSTPGUIFBDBEFNJDQSPGFTTJPOHPJOH
TPGBSBTUPVTFUIFWFSCBMQFSGPSNBODFPGHIFUUPQVQJMTJOUFTUJOHTJUVBUJPOT
BTFWJEFODFPGHFOFUJDJOGFSJPSJUZ#VUJTUIFSFBOZUIJOHXSPOHXJUI""& -FU
VTCSJFGMZSFWJFXUIFFWJEFODF
3BUIFSUIBOTJNQMZBSBOEPNBOEDPSSVQUFEWFSTJPOPG4UBOEBSE&OHMJTI
""&JTKVTUBTSVMFHPWFSOFEBTPUIFSGPSNTPG&OHMJTI CVUUIFSVMFTUIBU
DIBSBDUFSJ[FJUTVTBHFBSF BTNBZCFFYQFDUFE TPNFXIBUEJGGFSFOU8FIBWF
BMSFBEZTFFOUIBU GPSFYBNQMF JUVTFTNVMUJQMFOFHBUJWFTBOEEJTQFOTFTXJUI
UIFUIJSEQFSTPOTJOHVMBSNBSLFST JOWFSCT BOEZFUUIFNFBOJOHPGXIBUJT
CFJOHTBJEJTOFWFSJORVFTUJPO5IFBCTFODFPGBMJOLJOHWFSCCFUXFFOTVC
KFDUBOEQSFEJDBUF BTJOi)FUJSFE wJTOPUBTJHOPGDPSSVQUFETQFFDIPSMB[J
OFTTPOUIFQBSUPG""&TQFBLFSTUIFTBNFHSBNNBUJDBMDPOTUSVDUJPOJT
GPVOEJONBOZPUIFSMBOHVBHFTPGUIFXPSME 3VTTJBOBNPOHUIFN
$BSFMFTTEJDUJPOBOETMVSSJOHPGXPSEFOEJOHTBSFOPU PGDPVSTF MJNJUFE
UPTQFBLFSTPGBOZQBSUJDVMBSEJBMFDUPSMBOHVBHFCVUBSFMBSHFMZBGVODUJPO
PGTQFFDIUFNQPBOETPDJPDVMUVSBMTFUUJOH4JNJMBSMZ UPGBVMUDIJMESFOGPS
280 Chapter 13: Language and Ideology

BOTXFSJOHTVDIRVFTUJPOTBTi8IFSFJTUIFTRVJSSFM wXJUIi*OUIFUSFFwSBUIFS
UIBOUIFGVMMi5IFTRVJSSFMJTJOUIFUSFFwJTOPUIJOHTIPSUPGQFEBOUSZ -BCPW

5IFWPDBCVMBSZPGBIBCJUVBMTQFBLFSPG""&DBOOPUCFFYQFDUFEUP
DPJODJEFXJUIUIBUPGBTQFBLFSPG4UBOEBSE&OHMJTI CVUOPUUPBDLOPXMFEHF
UIFFYQSFTTJWFOFTTUIBUDIBSBDUFSJ[FT"GSJDBO"NFSJDBOWFSCBMQFSGPSNBODFT
JTUPEJTQMBZQSFKVEJDFPSJHOPSBODF
*OBXJEFMZLOPXOBOEGSFRVFOUMZSFQSJOUFEBSUJDMF -BCPW 
DPO
WJODJOHMZJEFOUJGJFEUIFNBJOTPVSDFTPGNJTDPODFQUJPOTDPODFSOJOHUIFOB
UVSFPG""&"GSJDBO"NFSJDBODIJMESFOJOEFFESFTQPOEEFGFOTJWFMZUPB
TUSBOHFXIJUFJOUFSWJFXFS FWFOXIFOIFPSTIFJTGSJFOEMZ
BOEUIFZHJWF
NPOPTZMMBCJDBOTXFSTJGUIFZGJOEUIFTFUUJOHPSFYQFSJFODFVOGBNJMJBSPSJO
UJNJEBUJOH 0ODF UIF TPDJPMJOHVJTUJD GBDUPST PQFSBUJOH JO UIJT JOIFSFOUMZ
BTZNNFUSJDBMTJUVBUJPOIBWFCFFOSFNPWFE UIFTFTBNFDIJMESFOQSPEVDFB
TUFBEZTUSFBNPGTQFFDI FGGFDUJWFMZVTJOHUIFWBSJPVTTUZMJTUJDEFWJDFT""&
IBTUPPGGFS
*OUIFTBNFBSUJDMF -BCPWRVPUFEBOJOUFSWJFXDPOEVDUFEXJUI-BSSZ)
BUUIFUJNFBGJGUFFOZFBSPME"GSJDBO"NFSJDBOZPVUIGSPN)BSMFN'PS
TPNFPOFXIPXBTQVUCBDLGSPNUIFFMFWFOUIHSBEFUPUIFOJOUIBOEXIP
XBTBMTPUISFBUFOFEXJUIEJTDJQMJOBSZBDUJPO -BSSZEJTQMBZFEBSFNBSLBCMF
BCJMJUZUPUIJOLBDVUFMZBOEBSHVFMPHJDBMMZ TFF#PY

*UJTPOFUIJOHUPTBZUIBU""&FOKPZTMJUUMFQSFTUJHFBNPOHUIFHSFBUNB
KPSJUZPG"NFSJDBOTBOEUIBUVOEFSDFSUBJODJSDVNTUBODFTUIPTFXIPVTFJU
BSFBUBEJTBEWBOUBHFDPNQBSFEXJUIUIPTFXIPVTFBEJBMFDUPG&OHMJTIUIBU
JTTPDJBMMZNPSFBDDFQUBCMF*UJTBOPUIFSUIJOH IPXFWFS UPDMBJNUIBU""&
JTBGPSNPGTQFFDIEFGJDJFOUJOTUSVDUVSFBTXFMMBTMFYJDBMMZBOETUZMJTUJDBMMZ
JNQPWFSJTIFE5IBUJTTJNQMZOPUUSVF
/FWFSUIFMFTT UIFTPDJBMBOEFEVDBUJPOBMJNQMJDBUJPOTPGUIFFYJTUFODFBOE
VTFPG""&XJMMCFSFDFJWJOHOBUJPOBMBTXFMMBTMPDBMBUUFOUJPOGPSZFBSTUP
DPNF BOEUIFTFJNQMJDBUJPOTBSFMJLFMZUPHFOFSBUFDPOUSPWFSTJFT0OFDBTFJO
QPJOUXBTUIF0BLMBOE $BMJGPSOJB
4DIPPM#PBSESFTPMVUJPOVOBOJNPVTMZ
QBTTFEPO%FDFNCFS 
5IFiXIFSFBTFTwPGUIFSFTPMVUJPOJODMVEFETUBUFNFOUTUIBUiOVNFSPVT
WBMJEBUFETDIPMBSMZTUVEJFTEFNPOTUSBUFUIBU"GSJDBO"NFSJDBOTUVEFOUTBTB
QBSUPGUIFJSDVMUVSFBOEIJTUPSZ<BT>BO"GSJDBOQFPQMFQPTTFTTBOEVUJMJ[FB
MBOHVBHFEFTDSJCFEJOWBSJPVTTDIPMBSMZBQQSPBDIFTBTA&CPOJDT MJUFSBMMZ
A#MBDLTPVOET
wBOEUIBUiUIFTFTUVEJFTIBWFBMTPEFNPOTUSBUFEUIBU"GSJDBO
-BOHVBHF4ZTUFNTBSFHFOFUJDBMMZCBTFEBOEOPUBEJBMFDUPG&OHMJTIwBOEJU
Language, Race, and Ethnicity 281

B OX 1 3 . 3 A F R I C A N - A M E R I C A N E N G L I S H I N AC T I O N :
A F I F T E E N -Y E A R - O L D S P E A K S

INTERVIEWER: What happens to you after you die? Do you know?


LARRY: Yeah, I know.
I: What?
LARRY: After they put you in the ground, your body turns intoahbones,
an shit.
I: What happens to your spirit?
LARRY: Your spiritsoon as you die, your spirit leaves you.
I: And where does the spirit go?
LARRY: Well, it all depends . . .
I: On what?
LARRY: You know, like some people say if youre good an shit, your spirit
goin theaven . . . n if you bad, your spirit goin to hell. Well, bullshit!
Your spirit goin to hell anyway, good or bad.
I: Why?
LARRY: Why? Ill tell you why. Cause, you see, doesn nobody really know
that its a God, yknow, cause I mean I have seen black gods, pink gods,
white gods, all color gods, and dont nobody know its really a God. An
when they be sayin if you good, you goin theaven, thas bullshit, cause
you aint goin to no heaven, cause it aint no heaven for you to go to.
I: Well, if theres no heaven, how could there be a hell?
LARRY: I meanye-eah. Well, let me tell you, it aint no hell, cause this is
hell right here, yknow!
I: This is hell?
LARRY: Yeah, this is hell right here!
I: . . . But, just say that there is a God, what color is he? White or black?
LARRY: Well, if it is a God . . . I wouldn know what color, I couldn say,
couldn nobody say what color he is or really would be.
I: But now, jus suppose there was a God
LARRY: Unlessn they say . . .
I: No, I was jus sayin jus suppose there is a God, would he be white or
black?
LARRY: . . . Hed be white, man.
I: Why?
LARRY: Why? Ill tell you why. Cause the average whitey out here got every-
thing, you dig? And the nigger aint got shit, yknow? Yunderstan? So
umforin order for that to happen, you know it aint no black God
thats doin that bullshit.
from William Labov, The Logic of Nonstandard English (1970), 1215
282 Chapter 13: Language and Ideology

XBTUIFSFGPSFSFTPMWFE BNPOHPUIFSUIJOHT
UIBUiUIF4VQFSJOUFOEFOUJODPO
KVODUJPOXJUIIFSTUBGGTIBMMJNNFEJBUFMZEFWJTFBOEJNQMFNFOUUIFCFTUQPT
TJCMF BDBEFNJD QSPHSBN GPS JNQBSUJOH JOTUSVDUJPO UP "GSJDBO"NFSJDBO
TUVEFOUTJOUIFJSQSJNBSZMBOHVBHFGPSUIFDPNCJOFEQVSQPTFTPGNBJOUBJO
JOHUIFMFHJUJNBDZBOESJDIOFTTPGTVDIMBOHVBHFXIFUIFSJUJTLOPXOBT
A&CPOJDT<PS>A"GSJDBO-BOHVBHF4ZTUFNTBOEUPGBDJMJUBUFUIFJSBDRVJTJ
UJPOBOENBTUFSZPG&OHMJTIMBOHVBHFTLJMMTw
4PNFPGUIFQISBTJOHPGUIFSFTPMVUJPOXBTGBMTF UIBUMBOHVBHFTZTUFNTBSF
HFOFUJDBMMZCBTFE
BOETPNFDPVMEFBTJMZCFNJTVOEFSTUPPE UIBUUIFTDIPPMT
PGUIF0BLMBOE6OJGJFE4DIPPM%JTUSJDUDPVME<PSTIPVME >JNQMFNFOUBQSP
HSBN PG JOTUSVDUJOH "GSJDBO"NFSJDBO TUVEFOUT JO WBSJPVT TVCKFDUT UIBU
XPVMEVTF&CPOJDTBTUIFMBOHVBHFPGJOTUSVDUJPO
5IFEFBOPGUIF(SBEV
BUF4DIPPMPG"SUTBOE4DJFODFTBU)PXBSE6OJWFSTJUZ IJNTFMGBO"GSJDBO
"NFSJDBO XBTRVPUFEBTTBZJOHUIBUiJUJTDSJNJOBMUPHSBEVBUF"GSJDBO
"NFSJDBOTUVEFOUTXIPDBOOPUTQFBLBOEXSJUFTUBOEBSE&OHMJTIw
1SFTFOUBUJPOPGUIF&CPOJDTDPOUSPWFSTZJTPGOFDFTTJUZHSFBUMZBCCSFWJBUFE
IFSF CVUBUMFBTUUIFGPMMPXJOHQPJOUTXPVMETFFNUPNFSJUFNQIBTJ[JOH 

5IFSFJTOPRVFTUJPOUIBUTPDBMMFE&CPOJDTJTPOFBNPOHNBOZWBSJBUJPOTPG
&OHMJTIBOE NPSFTQFDJGJDBMMZ PG""& 
OPUIFMQJOH"GSJDBO"NFSJDBOTUV
EFOUTUPCFDPNFQSPGJDJFOUJO4UBOEBSE"NFSJDBO&OHMJTIXJMMEPUIFNTP
DJPFDPOPNJDEJTTFSWJDF 
JUNJHIUCFIFMQGVMUPVTF&CPOJDTJOTPNFNBOOFS
XJUITUVEFOUTXIPTQFBLJUJGEPJOHTPXPVMEBJEUIFNJOMFBSOJOH4UBOEBSE
&OHMJTIBOE 
DPNQFUFODFJONPSFUIBOPOFMBOHVBHFPSEJBMFDUJTBOBTTFU

Language and Nationality


*OUIFMBTUEFDBEFTPGUIFUXFOUJFUIDFOUVSZ NBOZTDIPMBSTBSHVFEUIBUiFUI
OJDJUZJTOPUBMXBZTUIFTVSWJWBMPGDVMUVSBMEJWFSTJUZCPSOPGHFPHSBQIJDBM
BOETPDJBMJTPMBUJPO CVUNBZCFUIFPVUDPNFPGJOUFOTJWFJOUFSBDUJPO BDPO
TUFMMBUJPO PG QSBDUJDFT UIBU FWPMWF UP DIBOOFM DPNQMFY TPDJBM SFMBUJPOTw
8PPMBSE
'PMMPXJOHUIJTBQQSPBDI 4VTBO(BM 
TUVEJFEMBO
HVBHFTIJGUJO0CFSXBSU BCJMJOHVBMBSFBJOFBTUFSO"VTUSJB"GUFSZFBST
PG)VOHBSJBO(FSNBOCJMJOHVBMJTN (FSNBOCFHBOSFQMBDJOH)VOHBSJBOJO
FWFSZEBZDPOWFSTBUJPOBTXFMMBTJOMPDBMCVTJOFTT4IFBTLFE

#ZXIBUJOUFSWFOJOHQSPDFTTFTEPFTJOEVTUSJBMJ[BUJPO PSBOZPUIFSTPDJBM
DIBOHF FGGFDUDIBOHFTJOUIFVTFTUPXIJDITQFBLFSTQVUUIFJSMBOHVBHFTJO
Language and Nationality 283

FWFSZEBZJOUFSBDUJPOT )PXEPFTUIFTPDJBMDIBOHFBGGFDUUIFDPNNVOJDBUJWF
FDPOPNZPGUIFHSPVQ )PXEPFTJUDIBOHFUIFFWBMVBUJPOTPGMBOHVBHFTBOE
UIFTPDJBMTUBUVTFTBOENFBOJOHTBTTPDJBUFEXJUIUIFN )PXEPFTJUBGGFDU
UIFDPNNVOJDBUJWFTUSBUFHJFTPGTQFBLFSTTPUIBUJOEJWJEVBMTBSFNPUJWBUFE
UPDIBOHFUIFJSDIPJDFPGMBOHVBHFJOEJGGFSFOUDPOUFYUTPGTPDJBMJOUFSBD
UJPOUPSFBMMPDBUFUIFJSMJOHVJTUJDSFTPVSDFTSBEJDBMMZTPUIBUFWFOUVBMMZUIFZ
BCBOEPOPOFPGUIFJSMBOHVBHFTBMUPHFUIFS

8FNJHIUBTLUIFTFRVFTUJPOTFWFONPSFCSPBEMZ*TTQFBLJOHUIFTBNF
MBOHVBHFTVGGJDJFOUHSPVOETGPSQFPQMFUPFTUBCMJTIBOBUJPO 4IPVMEBMMQFP
QMFJOUIFTBNFOBUJPOTQFBLUIFTBNFMBOHVBHF *GUIFBOTXFSUPCPUIRVFT
UJPOTJTOPBOEQSPCBCMZNPTUQFPQMFJOUIFUXFOUZGJSTUDFOUVSZXPVME
BHSFFXIBUTIPVMECFUIFTUBUVTPGiNJOPSJUZwMBOHVBHFTJONVMUJMJOHVBMTP
DJFUJFT #FDBVTFPGUIFTZNCPMJDWBMVFPGMBOHVBHFFTQFDJBMMZXJUISFHBSET
UPHSPVQTPMJEBSJUZBOEUIFFUIOJDJEFOUJUZPGJUTTQFBLFSTMBOHVBHFDIPJDF
NBJOUFOBODF BOETIJGUBSFTPNFPGUIFNPTUJNQPSUBOUQFSTPOBMBOEQPMJUJ
DBMTPDJBMJTTVFTPGBOZDPNNVOJUZ
*OUIJTTFDUJPOXFXJMMGPDVTPOMBOHVBHFBOEUIFOBUJPOTUBUF8FXJMM
MPPLBUIPXUIFTZNCPMJDWBMVFPGMBOHVBHFTJTVTFECZUIFQFPQMFUPQVSTVF
QPMJUJDBMQPXFSBOEFOET BOEGPTUFSDPOTDJPVTOFTTBNPOHNFNCFSTPGUIF
HSPVQ8FXJMMMPPLBUGPVSDBTFTUVEJFT*OEJB UIF$[FDI3FQVCMJD $BOBEB
BOE4QBJO
*OEJB0DDVQZJOHBOBSFBPOMZPOFUIJSEBTMBSHFBTUIF6OJUFE4UBUFTCVU
XJUIUIFTFDPOEMBSHFTUQPQVMBUJPOJOUIFXPSME PGNPSFUIBOBCJMMJPOQFP
QMF
*OEJBJTPOFPGUIFNPTUNVMUJMJOHVBMDPVOUSJFTJOUIFXPSME8IBU
NBLFT*OEJBPOFPGUIFXPSMETNPTUMJOHVJTUJDBMMZEJWFSTJGJFEOBUJPOTJTUIBU
NPSFUIBOMBOHVBHFTBSFTQPLFOUIFSF (PSEPO
UIFZTQBOBU
MFBTUGPVSMBOHVBHFGBNJMJFT *OEP&VSPQFBO %SBWJEJBO "VTUSPBTJBUJD BOE
5JCFUP#VSNBO
BTXFMMBTTPNFJTPMBUFT5IFSFBSFUXFOUZUXPPGGJDJBM
iTDIFEVMFEwMBOHVBHFTSFDPHOJ[FEJOUIF$POTUJUVUJPO"MUIPVHI&OHMJTIJT
OPUBMFHBMMZTBODUJPOFEMBOHVBHF UIF1SFTJEFOUJBM0SEFSPGTUBUFTUIBU
JUiTIPVMECFUIFQSJODJQBMPGGJDJBMMBOHVBHFBOE)JOEJUIFTVCTJEJBSZ0GGJ
DJBM-BOHVBHFUJMM"GUFS XIFO)JOEJCFDPNFTUIFQSJODJQBMPG
GJDJBM MBOHVBHF PG UIF 6OJPO  &OHMJTI TIPVME DPOUJOVF BT UIF TVCTJEJBSZ
PGGJDJBMMBOHVBHFw
)PXEPFT*OEJB BGFEFSBMSFQVCMJD EFBMBENJOJTUSBUJWFMZXJUITVDIBWBTU
DPMMFDUJPOPGMBOHVBHFT 0OBSFHJPOBMCBTJT FBTUFSO*OEJBJTEPNJOBUFECZ
284 Chapter 13: Language and Ideology

UISFF*OEP&VSPQFBOMBOHVBHFT #FOHBMJ 0SJZB BOE"TTBNFTF


XFTUFSO
*OEJBCZUXP .BSBUIJBOE(VKBSBUJ
OPSUIFSO*OEJBCZGPVS )JOEJBOE
6SEV 1BOKBCJBOE,BTINJSJ
BOETPVUIFSO*OEJBCZGPVSMBOHVBHFTPGUIF
%SBWJEJBOMBOHVBHFGBNJMZ 5FMVHV 5BNJM ,BOOBEB BOE.BMBZBMBN
5IF
QSJODJQBMPGGJDJBMMBOHVBHFJOTJYPGUIFUXFOUZGJWFTUBUFTPGUIFSFQVCMJDBT
XFMMBTPGUIFDPVOUSZBUUIFGFEFSBMMFWFMJT)JOEJ)PXFWFS BTMPOHBTNBOZ
OPO)JOEJTQFBLJOHDJUJ[FOTBSFSFMVDUBOUUPBDDFQU)JOEJ &OHMJTIUIFMBO
HVBHFPGUIPTFXIPHPWFSOFENPTUPG*OEJBBTB#SJUJTIDSPXODPMPOZGPS
OFBSMZBDFOUVSZTFSWFTBTUIFBTTPDJBUFOBUJPOBMMBOHVBHFBOEBTBMJOHVB
GSBODB BDDFQUBCMF JO CPUI UIF )JOEJTQFBLJOH OPSUI BOE UIF %SBWJEJBO
TQFBLJOHTPVUI
*OBDPVOUSZXIFSFNBOZMBOHVBHFTBSFTQPLFOCVUEPOPUBMMFOKPZUIF
TBNFEFHSFFPGQSFTUJHF CJMJOHVBMJTN NVMUJMJOHVBMJTN BOEEJHMPTTJBBSFPG
DPNNPOPDDVSSFODF'PSJOUFSFUIOJDPSBMDPNNVOJDBUJPOPGBOJOGPSNBM
OBUVSF )JOEJPS6SEVJTVTFEUPBWBSZJOHEFHSFFUISPVHIPVUUIFDPVOUSZ
UIFUXPBSFWFSZTJNJMBSJOUIFJSDPMMPRVJBMGPSNT CVU)JOEJJTXSJUUFOJO
UIF%FWBOBHBSJTDSJQU 6SEVJOBNPEJGJFEGPSNPG"SBCJDTDSJQU
'PSSFBTPOT
PGDVMUVSBMQSFTUJHF UIFSFIBTCFFOTPNFSFTJTUBODFUPUIFVTFPG)JOEJBTB
DPOUBDUMBOHVBHFJOUIF%SBWJEJBOTQFBLJOHQBSUPGUIFDPVOUSZBOEJO#FO
HBM'PSGPSNBMBOEXSJUUFODPNNVOJDBUJPO &OHMJTI JUT4PVUI"TJBOWBSJFUZ

JTVTFEUPBHSFBUFYUFOU5IFJNQPSUBODFPG&OHMJTIDBOSFBEJMZCFTFFO*O
 BMUIPVHIOFXTQBQFSTBOEQFSJPEJDBMTJO*OEJBXFSFBWBJMBCMFJOBCPVU
TFWFOUZMBOHVBHFT )JOEJBOE&OHMJTIMBOHVBHFOFXTQBQFSTBOEQFSJPEJ
DBMTBDDPVOUFEGPS SFTQFDUJWFMZ BOEQFSDFOUPGUIFUPUBMQVCMJTIFE BOE
UIPTFJO&OHMJTIIBEUIFIJHIFTUDJSDVMBUJPO8IFO*OEJBCFDBNFJOEFQFOE
FOUJO UIFPGGJDJBMVTFPG&OHMJTIXBTJOUFOEFEUPCFPOMZUFNQPSBSZ
#VUUIFOFFEGPS&OHMJTIDPOUJOVFTBOEJOTPNFSFTQFDUTIBTFWFOJODSFBTFE
'PSFYBNQMF UPUSBOTMBUFUFDIOJDBMBOETDJFOUJGJDXPSLTJOUP)JOEJXPVMECF
BOFBSMZJNQPTTJCMFUBTL5PEBZ NPSFUIBOBIBMGDFOUVSZBGUFS*OEJBHBJOFE
JOEFQFOEFODF LOPXMFEHFPG&OHMJTIJTTUJMMDPOTJEFSFEJOEJTQFOTBCMFGPS
IJHIHPWFSONFOUQPTJUJPOT BOEBMUIPVHIPOMZBWFSZTNBMMQFSDFOUBHFPG
UIFQPQVMBUJPOTQFBLTBOESFBET&OHMJTI *OEJBOTXJUIBLOPXMFEHFPG&OH
MJTIUFOEUPCFUIFDVMUVSBM FDPOPNJD BOEQPMJUJDBMMFBEFST
4VDIBMBSHFMJOHVJTUJDWBSJFUZ JOCPUIMBOHVBHFTBOEEJBMFDUT
BTFYJTUTJO
*OEJBQPTFTBOVNCFSPGRVFTUJPOT"MUIPVHIJUNJHIUCFFYQFDUFEUIBUPOF
PGGJDJBMMBOHVBHFXPVMEUFOEUPQSPNPUFVOJUZJOBNVMUJFUIOJDOBUJPO TVDI
VOJUZXPVMECFBDIJFWFEBUBDPOTJEFSBCMFMPTTPGQSFTUJHFUPPUIFSOBUJWFMBO
Language and Nationality 285

HVBHFTTQPLFOCZNBOZNJMMJPOTPGQFPQMF5IJTJTXIZUIFNPTUXJEFMZVTFE
TFDPOEMBOHVBHFJO*OEJB )JOEJ IBTFODPVOUFSFESFTJTUBODFJONBOZQBSUT
PGUIFDPVOUSZ"OEUIJTJTBMTPXIZBOPOJOEJHFOPVTBOEGPSNFSMZDPMPOJBM
MBOHVBHF &OHMJTI IBTNBJOUBJOFEJUTFMGTVSQSJTJOHMZXFMMBTBOBTTPDJBUFPG
GJDJBMMBOHVBHFTJODF*OEJBTJOEFQFOEFODFBOEXJMMVOEPVCUFEMZDPOUJOVFUP
EPTPJOUIFGVUVSF"TFDPOEMBOHVBHFGPSNBOZ*OEJBOT &OHMJTIEPFTOPU
HJWFBOBEWBOUBHFUPTQFBLFSTPGPOFQBSUJDVMBSOBUJWFMBOHVBHF BTEPFT
)JOEJ"OPUIFSRVFTUJPOIBTUPEPXJUIEFUFSNJOJOHUIFMBOHVBHFTUPCF
UBVHIUBOEVTFEGPSJOTUSVDUJPOJO*OEJBOTDIPPMT8IBUFWFOUVBMMZCFDBNF
LOPXOBTUIFUISFFMBOHVBHFGPSNVMBIBTSFTVMUFEJOTFDPOEBSZTUVEFOUT
CFJOHUBVHIUUIFSFHJPOBMMBOHVBHF )JOEJ BOE&OHMJTI BOEJONBOZJO
TUBODFTUIFJSNPUIFSUPOHVFJTZFUBGPVSUIMBOHVBHFPSMPDBMEJBMFDU

5ISPVHIPVUNVDIPGUIFXPSME EJBMFDUBMEJGGFSFODFTIBWFUFOEFEUPEJ
NJOJTISBQJEMZJOSFDFOUEFDBEFTBTBSFTVMUPGUIFNBTTNFEJB FEVDBUJPO
BOENPCJMJUZ5IJTIBTOPUIBQQFOFEJO*OEJB XIFSFDBTUFEJGGFSFODFTBSF
FGGFDUJWFMZTZNCPMJ[FECZTQFFDIEJGGFSFODFT"TMPOHBTUIFPMEBOEXFMM
FTUBCMJTIFETPDJBMIJFSBSDIZQFSTJTUT MJOHVJTUJDEJGGFSFODFTTFSWFBVTFGVM
GVODUJPOBOEBSFMJLFMZUPCFSFUBJOFE
5IF$[FDI3FQVCMJD5IF#PIFNJBOLJOHEPNPGUIF$[FDIQFPQMFHPFT
CBDLUPUIFFOEPGUIFFMFWFOUIDFOUVSZ CVUUIFGJSTU$[FDITTFUUMFEJOUIF
BSFBBOENBEFJUUIFJSIPNFMBOEOPMBUFSUIBOUIFTJYUIDFOUVSZ5IFEFWFM
PQNFOUPGB$[FDIOBUJPOBMDVMUVSFDBNFUPBUFNQPSBSZ UIPVHIMPOH
IBMU
JO XIFOUIF$[FDITQPTTFTTJOHQPMJUJDBMSJHIUTBOEQPXFSXFSFEFGFBUFE
JOUIFCBUUMFPG#MIPSB 8IJUF.PVOUBJO
5IF#PIFNJBOLJOHEPNMPTUJUT
JOEFQFOEFODF BOEJUTQSPWJODFTXFSFEFDMBSFEUIFIFSFEJUBSZQSPQFSUZPG
UIF)BQTCVSHT5IFBSFBPGUIFGPSNFSLJOHEPNIBEBGBJSMZMBSHFQSPQPS
UJPOPG(FSNBOTQFBLJOHQFPQMF UIFEFTDFOEBOUTPG(FSNBODPMPOJTUTXIP
IBECFFOJOWJUFEEVSJOHUIFUIJSUFFOUIBOEGPVSUFFOUIDFOUVSJFTUPTFUUMFJO
#PIFNJBODJUJFTBOESVSBMBSFBT
%VSJOHUIFGPVSDFOTVTFTDPOEVDUFECFUXFFOBOEJOUIFXFTU
FSOQBSUPGUIFNVMUJMJOHVBM)BQTCVSH"VTUSP)VOHBSJBO&NQJSF UIF"VT
USJBODFOTVTBENJOJTUSBUJPOVTFEUIFDPODFQUPG6NHBOHTTQSBDIF MBOHVBHF
PGVTF
SBUIFSUIBO.VUUFSTQSBDIF NPUIFSUPOHVF
5IF$[FDIT XIPBUUIF
UJNFXFSFTUJMMDJUJ[FOTPGUIFFNQJSF SFTFOUFEUIJTUFSNJOPMPHJDBMQSBDUJDF
CFDBVTFJUVOEFSSFQSFTFOUFEUIFJSOVNCFSTBNPOHUIFFNQJSFTOBUJPOBMJUJFT
ZJFMEJOHBMBSHFSQSPQPSUJPOPGTQFBLFSTPGUIFIJHIFSTUBUVT(FSNBOUIBO
XBTXBSSBOUFE
286 Chapter 13: Language and Ideology

)PXEJEUIJTIBQQFO 'PSFYBNQMF $[FDITXIPXFSFFNQMPZFEJO(FSNBO


TQFBLJOHIPVTFIPMETPSCVTJOFTTFOUFSQSJTFTXFSFMJTUFEBTVTFSTPG(FS
NBOFWFOUIPVHI$[FDIXBTUIFJSNPUIFSUPOHVFBOEUIFMBOHVBHFUIFZ
TQPLFXJUINFNCFSTPGUIFJSPXOGBNJMJFT
6TJOHMBOHVBHFUPFTUBCMJTIFUIOJDJEFOUJUZDPOUJOVFEBMJUUMFPWFSBEFDBEF
MBUFS CVUXJUIBEJGGFSFOUHPBM5IFQFPQMFPGTPNFPGUIFCPSEFSBSFBTPG
$[FDIPTMPWBLJB BOJOEFQFOEFOUDPVOUSZFTUBCMJTIFEJOBUUIFFOEPG
8PSME8BS** CFMPOHFEUPUXPPSFWFOUISFFEJGGFSFOUMBOHVBHFHSPVQT0OF
TVDIBSFBXBTUIBUPG5FTDIFO TZn JO$[FDIBOE$JFT[ZO JO1PMJTI
BMPOH
UIF$[FDIPTMPWBL1PMJTICPSEFS"DDPSEJOHUPUIFGJOBM"VTUSJBODFOTVTPG
 CBTFEPOUIFDPODFQUPGMBOHVBHFPGVTF TQFBLFSTPG1PMJTIBDDPVOUFE
GPSQFSDFOU PG$[FDIGPSQFSDFOU BOEPG(FSNBOGPSQFSDFOU
1FSDFOUBHFTGSPNUIFOFYUDFOTVT JO UIFODPOEVDUFECZ$[FDIPTMPWBL
BVUIPSJUJFT XFSFRVJUFEJGGFSFOU5IF$[FDITQFBLJOHQPQVMBUJPOPGUIFBSFB
XBTOPXHJWFOBTQFSDFOU"QQBSFOUMZ UIF$[FDIBENJOJTUSBUPSTPGUIF
DFOTVTBTTJHOFEFUIOJDJEFOUJUZPOUIFCBTJTPGNPUIFSUPOHVFSBUIFSUIBO
MBOHVBHFPGVTF BOEUIJTUIFZVOEPVCUFEMZEJEUPMFHJUJNJ[FUIFIPMEPGUIF
OFXSFQVCMJDPOBUMFBTUBHPPEQBSUPGBOFUIOJDBMMZNJYFECPSEFSBSFB
$BOBEB"TJO*OEJBBOEUIF6OJUFE4UBUFT UIFSFJTHSFBUMJOHVJTUJDEJ
WFSTJUZ JO $BOBEBTPNF FJHIUZGJWF MBOHVBHFT CFJOH TQPLFO (PSEPO

CVUUIFCJHHFTUJTTVFJTUIFUFOTJPOCFUXFFOUIFUXPPGGJDJBMMBO
HVBHFT 'SFODIBOE&OHMJTI1SPCMFNTPGCJMJOHVBMJTNIBWFBMXBZTCFFOUIF
DFOUSBMJTTVFJOUIFOBUJPOTQPMJUJDTFWFOCFGPSFUIF$POGFEFSBUJPOPG
+BDRVFT$BSUJFSMBOEFEJODVSSFOU2VFCFDJOBOEDMBJNFEUIFUFSSJUPSZ
GPS,JOH'SBODJT* FWFOUVBMMZDBMMJOHJU/FX'SBODF"DFOUVSZBOEBIBMG
MBUFS #SJUJTIFOUSFQSFOFVST JODPSQPSBUFECZSPZBMDIBSUFS TUBSUFEGVSUSBE
JOHJOUIF)VETPO#BZBSFBJOOPSUIFSO$BOBEB"GUFSUIBU BOJNPTJUZCF
UXFFO'SBODFBOE#SJUBJOHSBEVBMMZJODSFBTFE BOEBTBSFTVMUPGUIF4FWFO
:FBST8BS o
UIF#SJUJTIHPWFSONFOUUPPLPWFSMPXFS$BOBEB
BOE/FX'SBODF XIJDIXBTSFOBNFE2VFCFD
5IFEJGGFSFODFTCFUXFFO
UIFTFUXPDPMPOJBMQPQVMBUJPOTXFSFTJHOJGJDBOU'SFODIDPMPOJTUTTQPLF
'SFODI QSBDUJDFE$BUIPMJDJTN BOEGPMMPXFEUIF'SFODIDJWJMDPEF#SJUJTI
DPMPOJTUTTQPLF&OHMJTI QSBDUJDFE1SPUFTUBOUJTN BOEGPMMPXFEUSBEJUJPOBM
&OHMJTIDPNNPOMBX5PBWFSUGVSUIFSMPDBMDPOGMJDU UIF#SJUJTIQBTTFEUIF
2VFCFD"DUPGUIJTHVBSBOUFFEUIFSFTJEFOUTUIFVTFPGUIF'SFODIMBO
HVBHF $BUIPMJDJTN BOE'SFODIDJWJMMBX5IJTQSBDUJDFXBTSFJGJFETFWFSBM
UJNFT BOEJOUIF0GGJDJBM-BOHVBHFT"DUNBEF&OHMJTIBOE'SFODI
Language and Nationality 287

$BOBEBTUXPPGGJDJBMMBOHVBHFT"DDPSEJOHUPHPWFSONFOUGJHVSFT
BCPVUQFSDFOUPG$BOBEJBOTDMBJN&OHMJTIBTUIFJSOBUJWFMBOHVBHF BTEP
BCPVUQFSDFOUGPS'SFODI5IFNBKPSJUZPGUIFTF'SFODITQFBLFSTBCPVU
QFSDFOUMJWFJO2VFCFD.PSFUIBOQFSDFOUPGUIFQPQVMBUJPOJTCJMJO
HVBMJO'SFODIBOE&OHMJTI
*O TQJUF PG UIF VOJRVF DIBSBDUFSJTUJDT BOE CBDLHSPVOE PG UIF PSJHJOBM
#SJUJTIBOE'SFODITFUUMFST "OHMPQIPOF$BOBEJBOTCFHBOUPDPOUSPMNPTU
FMJUFQPTJUJPOTJOCVTJOFTTBOEJOEVTUSZ FWFOJO2VFCFD#ZUIFT NBOZ
'SBODPQIPOFSFTJEFOUTCFHBOUPGFFMUIBUUIF'SFODIMBOHVBHFXBTCFJOH
PWFSXIFMNFECZ&OHMJTI5PNBJOUBJO$BOBEBTQSPGFTTFECJMJOHVBMJTN UIF
GFEFSBMBOEMPDBMHPWFSONFOUTDSFBUFEWBSJPVTEFQBSUNFOUTBOEJOTUJUVUJPOT
UPPWFSTFFUIFVTFPGUIFMBOHVBHFTJOUIFQSPWJODF'PSTPNF$BOBEJBOT POF
PGUIFTFUIF2VFCFD#PBSEPGUIF'SFODI-BOHVBHFIBTTPNFUJNFTCFFO
ESBDPOJBOJOJUTFOGPSDFNFOUPGMBOHVBHFQPMJDJFT'PSFYBNQMF UIF#PBSET
iMBOHVBHFQPMJDFw BTMBCFMFECZTPNFOBUJPOBMJTUOFXTQBQFST
HBWFUJDLFUT
UPTIPQPXOFSTXIPOFHMFDUFEUPQSPWJEFTJHOTJO'SFODI)PXFWFS CZUIF
FOEPGUIFUXFOUJFUIDFOUVSZ TVDIFYUSFNFQPMJDJFTXFSFSFTDJOEFE BOEUIF
MBXTNPEJGJFEUPNBLF'SFODIKVTUNBSLFEMZQSFEPNJOBOUPOFYUFSJPSCVTJ
OFTTTJHOT BTTVHHFTUFECZUIF4VQSFNF$PVSUPG$BOBEB
'PSUIFNPTUQBSU UIFQSPNPUJPOPGQFSTPOBMCJMJOHVBMJTNJO&OHMJTIBOE
'SFODIJTBOJNQPSUBOUPCKFDUJWFPGUIF$BOBEJBOHPWFSONFOU UIPVHIPOF
OPUBMXBZTFBTJMZPCUBJOFEPSDPOTJTUFOUMZTVQQPSUFE
'PSFYBNQMF JO
UIFGFEFSBMHPWFSONFOUBOOPVODFEBUFOZFBSHPBMUPEPVCMFCJMJOHVBMJTN
BNPOH$BOBEJBODPMMFHFHSBEVBUFTGSPNQFSDFOUUPQFSDFOUCZ*O
 UIFGFEFSBMHPWFSONFOUMBVODIFEUIFPGGJDJBMMBOHVBHFTJOFEVDBUJPO
QSPHSBNBOETVQQPSUFE'SFODIMBOHVBHFJNNFSTJPOFEVDBUJPOJONBOZ"O
HMPQIPOFQVCMJDTDIPPMEJTUSJDUT)PXFWFS UIFJOGMVFODFPG&OHMJTITUJMMSF
NBJOTTUSPOH"DDPSEJOHUP.POJDB)FMMFS 
CFDBVTFPGUIFTPDJBMBOE
FDPOPNJDUFOTJPOTCFUXFFO'SBODPQIPOFBOE"OHMPQIPOFTQFBLFSTJO2VF
CFD IPXCJMJOHVBMTQFBLFSTPG'SFODIBOE&OHMJTITFFUIFTFUXPMBOHVBHFTJT
IJHIMZDIBSHFE"OBXBSFOFTTPGUIFTPDJBMWBMVFPGUIFUXPMBOHVBHFTSF
GMFDUTIPXUIFZBSFVTFEJOEBJMZDPOWFSTBUJPOT
5IFTFMBOHVBHFJTTVFTIBWFJNQPSUBOUQPMJUJDBMJNQMJDBUJPOT4PNFCFMJFWF
UIBUUIFPOMZXBZUPQSPUFDUUIF'SFODIMBOHVBHFBOE'SBODPQIPOFSJHIUTJT
GPS2VFCFDUPTQMJUPGGGSPNUIFSFTUPG$BOBEB5IJTIBTCFFOBOJTTVFJOBM
NPTUFWFSZFMFDUJPOTJODFUIFT"MUIPVHIJUJTVOMJLFMZUIBU$BOBEBXJMM
EJWJEF UIFDVMUVSBMBOEMJOHVJTUJDUFOTJPOTSFNBJO
288 Chapter 13: Language and Ideology

4QBJO"MUIPVHIUIFPGGJDJBMMBOHVBHFPG4QBJOJT$BTUJMJBO4QBOJTI TPNF
EP[FOPUIFSMBOHVBHFTBSFTQPLFOJOUIFDPVOUSZ$BUBMBOBOE#BTRVFBSF
UXPPGUIFNPTUJNQPSUBOUNJOPSJUZMBOHVBHFT BOEUIFZBSFTQPLFOCZ
QFSDFOUBOEQFSDFOUPGUIFQPQVMBUJPOSFTQFDUJWFMZ (PSEPOo

#PUIBSFJNQPSUBOUCFDBVTFPGUIFJTTVFTPGOBUJPOBMJTNBOEFUIOJD
QSJEFBTTPDJBUFEXJUIFBDI
&VTLBSB &VTLFSB
PS#BTRVF JTUIFMBOHVBHFPGUIF#BTRVFQFPQMFXIP
JOIBCJUBOUOPSUIFBTU4QBJOBOETPVUIXFTU'SBODF5IFSFBSFBCPVU 
#BTRVFTQFBLFSTJO4QBJOBOETPNF JO'SBODF5IFMBOHVBHFJTBO
JTPMBUF XJUIPOMZEJTQVUFEBGGJMJBUJPOTXJUIPUIFSMBOHVBHFT *UIBTGJWF
NBKPSEJBMFDUT6OEFSUIFMBOHVBHFQPMJDZPGUIF'SBODP3FHJNF o

GSPNVOUJMUIFNJET JUXBTQSPIJCJUFEUPVTFUIF#BTRVF
MBOHVBHFJOQVCMJD"GUFSUIF#BTRVFTSFHBJOFETPNFQPMJUJDBMTPWFSFJHOUZ
UIFZXFSFPODFBHBJOBMMPXFEUPVTFUIFJSMBOHVBHFJOQVCMJD JODMVEJOH
DIVSDITFSWJDFT FEVDBUJPO BOEJOUIFNBTTNFEJB
5IF3PZBM"DBEFNZPG
UIF#BTRVF-BOHVBHFDSFBUFEBTUBOEBSEGPSNPG#BTRVFJODBMMFE
&VTLBSB#BUVBBOEFTUBCMJTIFEBTUBOEBSEPSUIPHSBQIZ"MUIPVHINBOZ
#BTRVFTQFBLFSTXFSFSFMVDUBOUUPBDDFQUTVDITUBOEBSETBUGJSTU &VTLBSB
#BUVBHSBEVBMMZCFDBNFBDDFQUFEBOEJTOPXVTFECZUIF#BTRVFTBUBMMMFW
FMTPGFEVDBUJPO
6OMJLF#BTRVF $BUBMBOJTB3PNBODFMBOHVBHFPGUIF*OEP&VSPQFBOGBN
JMZ BOETIBSFTBOQFSDFOUMFYJDBMTJNJMBSJUZXJUI4QBOJTI*UTIJTUPSZHPFT
CBDLUPUIFUIJSEDFOUVSZ#$& XIFOUIF$BUBMPOJBBSFBXBTSVMFECZ3PNF
#FDBVTFPGDMPTFDPOUBDUXJUI3PNF $BUBMBOEFWFMPQFEGSPNBNPSFNPE
FSOBOENPSFQPQVMBSGPSNPG-BUJOUIBOEJE$BTUJMJBO$VSSFOUMZBCPVU
NJMMJPOQFPQMFJO4QBJOTQFBL$BUBMBOBTUIFJSGJSTUMBOHVBHF*UJTBMTPTQP
LFOJOTNBMMBSFBTJOTPVUIXFTU'SBODF BOE4BSEJOJBJO*UBMZ
3JHIUBGUFS8PSME8BS** UIF'SBODPHPWFSONFOUUPPLTFWFSFSFQSFTTJWF
NFBTVSFTBHBJOTU$BUBMBOMBOHVBHFBOEDVMUVSF QBSUMZCFDBVTFPGUIFSFTJTU
BODFQVUVQCZ$BUBMPOJBEVSJOHUIF4QBOJTI$JWJM8BS#BSDFMPOB JUTDBQJ
UBM XBTUIFOBDFOUFSPGSFWPMVUJPOBSZMFGUJTUBDUJWJUZ.VDIPG$BUBMPOJBT
QSFXBSBVUPOPNZXBTMPTUBOEUIFQVCMJDVTFPGUIF$BUBMBOMBOHVBHF XBT
QSPIJCJUFE%VSJOHUIFMBUUFSEBZTPGUIF'SBODPSFHJNF TPNFGPMLDFMFCSB
UJPOTBOESFMJHJPVTPCTFSWBODFTJO$BUBMBODBNFUPCFUPMFSBUFE#VUCFDBVTF
PGUIFJOTUJUVUJPOBMJ[FEMBOHVBHFEJTDSJNJOBUJPO BOEJUTTJNJMBSJUZUP4QBO
JTI UPEBZUIFSFBSFGFX JGBOZ NPOPMJOHVBM$BUBMBOTQFBLFST
Summary and Conclusions 289

Summary and Conclusions


"MUIPVHI XF PGUFO UIJOL UIBU MBOHVBHF WBSJBUJPO JT MBSHFMZ EVF UP HFP
HSBQIJDBMMZCBTFEEJBMFDUT NVDIPGUIFUJNFUIFEJGGFSFODFTJOMBOHVBHFVTF
XFIFBSBSPVOEVTBSFEVFUPPUIFSSFBTPOT.BOZMBOHVBHFTFYIJCJUEJGGFS
FODFTBDDPSEJOHUPXIFUIFSUIFZBSFTQPLFOCZXPNFOPSNFO*OTPNF
MBOHVBHFT UIFTFEJGGFSFODFTBSFMJNJUFEUPBGFXTPVOETJOPUIFSTUIFZBSF
MFYJDBMBT GPSFYBNQMF JO"NFSJDBO&OHMJTI XIFSFDFSUBJOXPSETBSFIFBSE
QSJNBSJMZGSPNXPNFOSBUIFSUIBONFO BOEWJDFWFSTB(FOEFSJTOPUUIF
POMZTPVSDFPGUIJTLJOEPGWBSJBUJPOTPNFEJGGFSFODFTBSFDPSSFMBUFEXJUI
DMBTTBOEFUIOJDJUZ
'PSFYBNQMF POFEJTUJODUJWFWBSJFUZPG&OHMJTITQPLFOJOUIF6OJUFE4UBUFT
JT"GSJDBO"NFSJDBO7FSOBDVMBS&OHMJTIVTFEQSJNBSJMZCZ"GSJDBO"NFSJ
DBOTJODPODFOUSBUFEVSCBODFOUFST'BSGSPNCFJOHEFGJDJFOUBOEJUTTQFBL
FSTWFSCBMMZEFQSJWFE ""7&IBTJUTPXOTUSVDUVSF SFMBUFEUPCVUEJTUJODU
GSPNPUIFSWBSJFUJFTPG"NFSJDBO&OHMJTI BTXFMMBTBSBOHFPGFYQSFTTJWF
TUZMFT5IFTUJHNBPGUFOBUUBDIFEUPJUJTVOEFTFSWFECFDBVTFJUDPOGVTFTUIF
MPXFSTPDJPFDPOPNJDTUBUVTPGUIFNBOZ"GSJDBO"NFSJDBOTXIPVTFJUXJUI
UIFJSTQFFDIBHPPEFYBNQMFPGJHOPSBODFCSFFEJOHQSFKVEJDF
-BOHVBHFSFGMFDUTQFSTPOBMJEFOUJUZ CVUTPNFUJNFTUIJTDPOGMJDUTXJUITP
DJBMFYQFDUBUJPO'PSFYBNQMF BUBGPSNBMCVTJOFTTNFFUJOH UIFVTFPG""7&
XPVMECFUIPVHIUJOBQQSPQSJBUF-JLFXJTF JGBXPNBOJTVTJOHiNFOTMBO
HVBHFwBNPOHBHSPVQPGGFNBMFTQFBLFST TIFXPVMECFDSPTTJOHBMJOHVJT
UJDBOETPDJBMCPVOEBSZ
-BOHVBHFJTBMTPBOJNQPSUBOUNBSLFSBUBBOPUIFSMFWFM"MUIPVHIOPU
FWFSZMBOHVBHFIBTBDPVOUSZ BOEGFXDPVOUSJFTIBWFPOMZPOFMBOHVBHF GPS
NBOZQFPQMFUIFSFJTBOBMNPTUWJTDFSBMDPOOFDUJPOCFUXFFOBOBUJPOTUBUF
BOETPNFPGUIFMBOHVBHFTVTFEXJUIJOJUCPSEFST4IPVMEPOFMBOHVBHFCF
QSJWJMFHFEPWFSUIFPUIFST BOEJGTP GPSXIBUSFBTPOT 8IBUEPFTUIJTNFBO
GPSUIPTFXIPBSFJUTOBUJWFTQFBLFST BOEGPSUIPTFXIPBSFOPU 5IFTFBSF
CZ OP NFBOT USJWJBM RVFTUJPOT  BT UIF XPSMET NBOZ MBOHVBHF XBST IBWF
EFNPOTUSBUFE"OEBTUIFXPSMECFDPNFTNPSFHMPCBMJ[FEBOEUIFCPSEFST
PGDPVOUSJFTNPSFQPSPVT JTTVFTPGMBOHVBHFBOEOBUJPOBMJUZDBOPOMZCF
DPNFNPSFDPNQMFY
14

Linguistic Anthropology in
a Globalized World

-JOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHZJTHFOFSBMMZUIPVHIUUPCFBGJFMEPGSFTFBSDIVOEFS
TUPPEBOEQSBDUJDFECZPOMZBSFMBUJWFMZGFXTQFDJBMJTUT"MUIPVHIUIFBQQMJ
DBUJPOTPGBOUISPQPMPHZUPDPOUFNQPSBSZQSPCMFNTBSFHFOFSBMMZTFFOBT
DPNJOHGSPNUIFTVCGJFMEPGDVMUVSBMSBUIFSUIBOMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHZ
NBOZQSBDUJDBMVTFTIBWFCFFOGPVOEGPSTPDJBMMZPSJFOUFEMJOHVJTUJDT BOE
MJOHVJTUJDFYQFSUJTFJTCFJOHBQQMJFEXJUIJODSFBTJOHGSFRVFODZUPQSPCMFNT
IBWJOHUIFJSSPPUTJOMBOHVBHFVTF
5IFNPTUDPNNPOMZVTFEBOECFTUEFWFMPQFEGPSNPGBQQMJFEMJOHVJTUJDT
BOEMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHZ
JTMBOHVBHFQMBOOJOH-BOHVBHFQMBOOJOHNBZ
CFDBMMFEGPSXIFOUIFQSFTFODFPGTFWFSBMDPNQFUJOHMBOHVBHFTJOBDPVOUSZ
IBTCFDPNFEJWJTJWFPSXIFOBQBSUJDVMBSMBOHVBHFPSEJBMFDUJTUPCFFMFWBUFE
UPTFSWFBTUIFPGGJDJBMPSOBUJPOBMMBOHVBHFPGBNVMUJMJOHVBMPSNVMUJEJBMFD
UBMTPDJFUZ5IFJOJUJBMTUFQJOMBOHVBHFQMBOOJOHJTUPEFGJOFUIFOBUVSFPGUIF
QSPCMFN-JOHVJTUTPSMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHJTUTBSFCFTURVBMJGJFEUPBTTVNF
UIJTUBTL#FDBVTFUIFSFDPNNFOEBUJPOUIBUBQBSUJDVMBSMBOHVBHFPSEJBMFDU
CFNBEFUIFPGGJDJBMMBOHVBHFPGBTPDJFUZBGGFDUTFWFSZPOFJOUIBUTPDJFUZ
GSPNFMEFSTEPXOUPFMFNFOUBSZTDIPPMQVQJMT TVDIBEWJDFNVTUCFDBSFGVMMZ
DPOTJEFSFE0ODFUIFTPDJFUZTMFBEFSTSFBDIBEFDJTJPO QSPKFDUTUPGBDJMJUBUF
UIFJNQMFNFOUBUJPOPGUIFOFXMBOHVBHFQPMJDZNVTUCFJOJUJBUFEGPSFY
BNQMF QSFQBSBUJPOPGUFYUCPPLT HSBNNBST BOEEJDUJPOBSJFTBOEUIFEFWFM
PQNFOUPGBUFBDIFSUSBJOJOHQSPHSBN
-JOHVJTUJDFYQFSUJTFJTNPTUGSFRVFOUMZBOEFYUFOTJWFMZBQQMJFEJOUIFGJFME
PGFEVDBUJPO GPSFYBNQMF UPFOIBODFMJUFSBDZ
CVUJUBMTPDBOBOEEPFT

291
292 Chapter 14: Linguistic Anthropology in a Globalized World

DPOUSJCVUFUPNPSFFGGFDUJWFDPNNVOJDBUJPOJOUIFGJFMETPGMBX NFEJDJOF
BOECVTJOFTT BOEJUQMBZTBOJNQPSUBOUSPMFJOMBOHVBHFNBJOUFOBODFBOE
MBOHVBHFEJTPSEFST5IJTDIBQUFSJODMVEFTTPNFTQFDJGJDFYBNQMFTPGUIFBQ
QMJDBUJPOPGMJOHVJTUJDTBOEMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHZ

Language Planning
5IFNPTUDPNNPOGPSNPGBQQMJFETPDJPMJOHVJTUJDTJTMBOHVBHFQMBOOJOH
5IFUFSNSFGFSTUPBEFMJCFSBUFBUUFNQU VTVBMMZBUUIFMFWFMPGUIFTUBUF UPBG
GFDUMBOHVBHFVTFUPQSFWFOUPSTPMWFTPNFQSPCMFNPGDPNNVOJDBUJPO5IF
OFFEGPSMBOHVBHFQMBOOJOHBOEUIFGPSNVMBUJPOPGMBOHVBHFQPMJDJFTSBQJEMZ
JODSFBTFEEVSJOHUIFUXFOUJFUIDFOUVSZBOEJTDPOUJOVJOHJOUIFUXFOUZGJSTU
5IFUXPNBJOSFBTPOTBSFUIFEJTMPDBUJPOPGNJMMJPOTPGQFPQMFBTBSFTVMUPG
XBSTBOEQPMJUJDBMQFSTFDVUJPOBOEUIFFNFSHFODFPGNBOZOFXNVMUJFUIOJD
TUBUFTXIFODPMPOJBMFNQJSFTXFSFEJTTPMWFEBGUFS8PSME8BS**
*OBWFSZCSPBETFOTF MBOHVBHFQMBOOJOHFODPNQBTTFTFWFOUIFJOWFOUJPO
PGBSUJGJDJBMJOUFSOBUJPOBMMBOHVBHFTTVDIBT&TQFSBOUPPS*OUFSMJOHVB4VQSB
OBUJPOBMMBOHVBHFTTVDIBTUIFTFBSFFYQFDUFEUPQSPNPUFVOEFSTUBOEJOHBOE
QFBDFGVMDPFYJTUFODFBNPOHQFPQMFPGEJGGFSFOUFUIOJDBOEMJOHVJTUJDCBDL
HSPVOET.PSFOBSSPXMZ MBOHVBHFQMBOOJOHVTVBMMZUBLFTPOFPGUXPGPSNT
0OFGPSNJOWPMWFTBDIBOHFJOUIFTUBUVTPGBMBOHVBHFPSBEJBMFDUJOPUIFS
XPSET BDIBOHFJOMBOHVBHFVTF5IFPUIFSJOWPMWFTDIBOHFTJOUIFTUSVD
UVSFPGBMBOHVBHFDIBOHFTBGGFDUJOHJUTQSPOVODJBUJPO TQFMMJOH HSBNNBS
PSWPDBCVMBSZ'SFRVFOUMZ IPXFWFS UIFUXPGPSNTBSFDPNCJOFE5IFGPM
MPXJOHFYBNQMFTJMMVTUSBUFCPUIGPSNTPGMBOHVBHFQMBOOJOHJOQSBDUJDF
5IFOBUJPOBMJ[BUJPOPG4XBIJMJJO,FOZBJTQSJNBSJMZBOFYBNQMFPGDIBOHF
JOTUBUVT*O UIFGJSTUQSFTJEFOUPGJOEFQFOEFOU,FOZB +PNP,FOZBUUB
EFDJEFEUIBUUIFDPVOUSZTOBUJPOBMBTTFNCMZTIPVMEDPOEVDUJUTCVTJOFTTJO
4XBIJMJ8IFOUIFNFNCFSTTUSPOHMZPCKFDUFE ,FOZBUUBDMPTFEUIFBTTFNCMZ
BOE BOOPVODFE i8IFUIFS TPNF QFPQMF XJMM MJLF NZ EFDJTJPO PS OPU
,J4XBIJMJXJMMCFTQPLFOJOPVS#VOHF <1BSMJBNFOU> CFDBVTFJUJTUIFMBO
HVBHFPGUIFXBOBODIJ <DJUJ[FOT QFPQMF>&OHMJTIJTOPUPVSMBOHVBHFBOEUIF
UJNFXJMMDPNFXIFOXFXJMMEPFWFSZUIJOHJO4XBIJMJ*LOPXNBOZQFPQMF
XJMMCFBOOPZFECVUMFUUIFNw )JOOFCVTDI
4FWFSBMEP[FOMBO
HVBHFTBSFTQPLFOJO,FOZB BUMFBTUFJHIUPGUIFNCZNPSFUIBONJMMJPO
TQFBLFSTFBDI,JLVZV UIFOBUJWFMBOHVBHFPGNPSFUIBONJMMJPOQFPQMF
JTUIFMBOHVBHFNPTUGSFRVFOUMZIFBSE XIFSFBT4XBIJMJJTBOBUJWFMBOHVBHF
Language Planning 293

TQPLFOCZWFSZGFX,FOZBOTBOEUIFSFGPSFJTSFMBUJWFMZOFVUSBM5PIBWFTF
MFDUFE POF PG UIF NBJO MBOHVBHFT PG ,FOZB GPS FYBNQMF  ,JLVZV  -VP
-VIZB PS,BNCB
XPVMEIBWFJODJUFEFUIOJDSJWBMSZ BOEUPIBWFDIPTFO
&OHMJTIXPVMEIBWFHJWFOQSFGFSFODFUPUIFOPO"GSJDBOMBOHVBHFPGUIPTF
XIPSVMFE,FOZBGSPNVOUJM"UQSFTFOU 4XBIJMJBOE&OHMJTICPUI
TFSWFBTPGGJDJBMMBOHVBHFT CVU4XBIJMJJTUIFOBUJPOBMMBOHVBHF5PQSPNPUF
BOEJOTUJUVUJPOBMJ[F4XBIJMJBTUIFOBUJPOBMMBOHVBHFPG,FOZB BWBSJFUZPG
HPWFSONFOUQPMJDJFTXFSFDBMMFEGPSUIFTFSBOHFEGSPNUIFQSFQBSBUJPOPG
JOTUSVDUJPOBMNBUFSJBMTUPNBLJOHTVSFUIBUUIF4XBIJMJVTFEJOPGGJDJBMEFBM
JOHTJTiHPPEw,FOZBO4XBIJMJ5IFHSFBUWBSJFUZPGMBOHVBHFTTQPLFOJO
,FOZB UIFVTFPG4XBIJMJBTBMJOHVBGSBODBBOEBMTPBTBOJNQPSUBOUJOTUSV
NFOUPGUIFDPVOUSZTEFUSJCBMJ[BUJPO BOEUIFQSFTUJHFUIBU&OHMJTITUJMMFO
KPZTBMMJOEJDBUFUIBUMBOHVBHFQMBOOJOHJO,FOZBXJMMOFFEUPDPOUJOVFJOUP
UIFGVUVSF
-BOHVBHFQMBOOJOHPGUIFTFDPOEUZQFIBTCFFOGBJSMZDPNNPO CVUVTV
BMMZOPUXJUIUIFTQFFEBOEUPUIFFYUFOUDBSSJFEPVUJO5VSLFZBGUFSUIBU
DPVOUSZCFDBNFBSFQVCMJDJO8IFOUIF4FMKVL5VSLTCFDBNF*TMBNJ[FE
EVSJOHUIFOJOUIBOEUFOUIDFOUVSJFT UIFZBEPQUFE"SBCJDTDSJQUBOECPS
SPXFENBOZ"SBCJDXPSET FTQFDJBMMZUIPTFIBWJOHUPEPXJUISFMJHJPO MBX
BENJOJTUSBUJPO BOEDPNNFSDF-BUFS XIFO1FSTJB OPX*SBO
CFDBNFBQBSU
PGUIF0UUPNBO 5VSLJTI
&NQJSF UIF5VSLTBMTPBEPQUFE1FSTJBOMPBOXPSET
"SBCJDBOE1FSTJBOJOGMVFODFTBGGFDUFEOPUPOMZUIF5VSLJTIWPDBCVMBSZCVU
QIPOPMPHZBOEHSBNNBSBTXFMM0GUFO UIFO UISFFXPSETBOBUJWF5VSLJTI
XPSEBOEUXPMPBOXPSET POFFBDIGSPN"SBCJDBOE1FSTJBOXFSFBWBJMBCMF
GPSBTJOHMFSFGFSFOU5PNBLFNBUUFSTFWFONPSFDPNQMFY UIFUISFFXPSET
XFSFOPUBMXBZTTVCKFDUUPUIFTBNFHSBNNBUJDBMSVMFT$BTVBMTQPLFO5VSL
JTIBOEUIFMJUFSBSZMBOHVBHF 0UUPNBO5VSLJTI
XFSFJOBEJHMPTTJDSFMB
UJPOTIJQ FBDIXJUIBEJTUJODUSBOHFPGTPDJBMGVODUJPOT0UUPNBO5VSLJTI UIF
IJHIGPSN
XJUIJUTNBOZMPBOXPSET XBTWJSUVBMMZVOJOUFMMJHJCMFUPQFBTBOUT
BOEPSEJOBSZQFPQMF XIPTQPLFUIFMPXGPSN
5PTJNQMJGZBOENPEFSOJ[FXSJUUFO5VSLJTI ,FNBM"UBUSL o

UIFGJSTUQSFTJEFOUPG5VSLFZ BQQPJOUFEBDPNNJTTJPOJOUPSFDPNNFOE
BOFXTZTUFNUPSFQMBDFUIF"SBCJDTDSJQUUIBUIBECFFOVTFEGPSDFOUVSJFT
FWFOUIPVHIJUIBEOFWFSTVJUFEUIFTUSVDUVSFPG5VSLJTI5IFOFXXSJUJOH
TZTUFNUIF-BUJOBMQIBCFUXJUITFWFSBMEJBDSJUJDTXBTSFBEZXJUIJOTJY
XFFLTBOEJUTVTFCFDBNFMBXCFGPSFUIFFOEPGUIFZFBS5IFJOUSPEVDUJPOPG
UIF-BUJOBMQIBCFUXBTMBUFSGPMMPXFECZBSFGPSNEFTJHOFEUPSJE5VSLJTIPG
294 Chapter 14: Linguistic Anthropology in a Globalized World

"SBCJDBOE1FSTJBOMPBOXPSETCZTVCTUJUVUJOH5VSLJTIXPSETUBLFOGSPNUIF
QPQVMBSMBOHVBHFBOEUIFPME5VSLJTIUFYUT PSDPJOJOHOFXPOFTUPBDDPN
QMJTIUIJTEFNBOEJOHUBTL JO"UBUSLGPVOEFEUIF5VSLJTI-JOHVJTUJD
4PDJFUZ5IFDIBOHJOHPGUIFXSJUJOHTZTUFNBOEUIFTJNQMJGJDBUJPOPG5VSL
JTIHSBNNBSBOEMFYJDPOIFMQFEUPNPEFSOJ[FBOE8FTUFSOJ[F5VSLJTITP
DJFUZ CVUUIFTFNFBTVSFTBMTPNBEFNVDIPGDMBTTJDBM5VSLJTIMJUFSBUVSF
VOJOUFMMJHJCMFUPNPEFSO5VSLTJOJUTPSJHJOBMGPSN

Literacy, Writing, and Education


5IFSFJTOPEPVCUUIBUUIFSFBSFTJHOJGJDBOUTPDJBMBOEDVMUVSBMEJGGFSFODFT
CFUXFFOMJUFSBUFBOEOPOMJUFSBUFQFPQMFT)BWJOHBXSJUJOHTZTUFN PGDPVSTF
FYQBOETUIFDPMMFDUJWFBOEIJTUPSJDBMNFNPSZPGUIFHSPVQ*OUIFPSZ JOB
MJUFSBUFDPNNVOJUZBDDVSBUFIJTUPSJDBMSFDPSETDBOCFLFQU TDJFOUJGJDJOGPS
NBUJPOBDDSVFE BOESFMJHJPVTUSBEJUJPOTNBJOUBJOFE*EFBMMZ MJUFSBDZBMMPXT
GPSLOPXMFEHFUPCFEJTTFNJOBUFEUPFWFSZPOF OPUKVTUIFMECZBTFMFDUGFX
#VUUIJOHTBSFOPUTPTJNQMF'PSPOFUIJOH XFNVTUBTL XIPDPOUSPMTUIF
XSJUJOH 8IBUTDSJQUPSTQFMMJOHPSTUZMFJTBDDFQUBCMF *UJTDPNNPOMZTBJE
UIBUUIFQFOJTNJHIUJFSUIBOUIFTXPSE CVUJTXSJUJOHSFBMMZQPXFS
.FNCFSTPGDPNQMFYJOEVTUSJBMTPDJFUJFTPGUFOVOEFSFTUJNBUFUIFJOUFM
MFDUVBMQSPXFTTBOEBFTUIFUJDTFOTJCJMJUJFTPGOPOMJUFSBUFTXIPEPOPUNBLF
VTFPGXSJUUFOMBOHVBHF5IFGJOEJOHTPGBOUISPQPMPHJTUTIBWFEFNPOTUSBUFE
UJNFBOEBHBJOIPXGBMTFTVDIBOBTTVNQUJPOJT'PSFYBNQMF UIFSFJTTUBS
UMJOHJNBHFSZBOEJOUSJDBUFTUSVDUVSFPGJOUFSMPDLJOHSFQFUJUJPOTJO/BWBKP
DIBOUTUIBUJOWJUFDPNQBSJTPOXJUIUIFCFTUJO8FTUFSOQPFUSZ BOENBOZPG
UIFPSJHJONZUITPG/BUJWF"NFSJDBOTQPTTFTTUIFUFSTFOFTTBOEESBNBUJD
RVBMJUZDIBSBDUFSJTUJDPGUIF#PPLPG(FOFTJT+VTUBTPOFFYQFDUTUIFTUZMFPG
SFDPHOJ[FEXSJUFSTJOMJUFSBUFTPDJFUJFTUPSJTFBCPWFUIFMFWFMPGFWFSZEBZ
TQFFDI JUJTDPNNPOUPGJOEUIBUEFNBOEJOHTUBOEBSETHPWFSOUIFQFS
GPSNBODFTPGUSBEJUJPOBMOBSSBUJWFT"OEBSFNJOEFS0SBMGPMLMPSFJTBMTP
BMJWFBOEXFMMJO8FTUFSOTPDJFUJFTTVDIBTUIF6OJUFE4UBUFT XIFSFJUUBLFT
UIFGPSNPGUBMMUBMFT CBMMBET KPLFT DPVOUJOHPVUSIZNFT BOESJEEMFTUP
NFOUJPOPOMZBGFXHFOSFTBOEWBSJFTGSPNSFHJPOUPSFHJPOBDDPSEJOHUP
PDDVQBUJPO FUIOJDCBDLHSPVOE BOEPUIFSDIBSBDUFSJTUJDT
5PEBZ MJUFSBDZJTOPMPOHFSDPOTJEFSFETJNQMZUIFBCJMJUZUPSFBEBOEXSJUF
CVUJTiJODSFBTJOHMZDPODFJWFEBTBQSPDFTTPGJOUFSQSFUBUJPO-JUFSBDZJTQBSU
PGPOFTPSJFOUBUJPOUPBMJWFESFBMJUZNBEFNFBOJOHGVMUISPVHIUIFJOUFSQSF
Literacy, Writing, and Education 295

UBUJPOPGUFYU UIBUJT UPXSJUUFOBOEPSBMEFTDSJQUJPOTBOEFYQMBOBUJPOTPG


FWFOUT UIBU BSF FOEPXFE XJUI TPDJPIJTUPSJBM WBMVFw #BRVFEBOP-QF[

*OUIJTTFOTF MJUFSBDZBMMPXTVTUPSFGPSNVMBUFFYJTUJOHLOPXMFEHF
UPVOEFSTUBOEOFXLOPXMFEHF-JUFSBDZJTMFTTBTFUPGBDRVJSFETLJMMTUIBO
UIFBDRVJTJUJPOPGBOFXXBZPGUIJOLJOHPOFUIBUBMMPXTVTUPOFHPUJBUF
XJUIUIFXPSMEJOOFXXBZT-JUFSBDZJTMFBSOJOHUPCFDPNFDPNQFUFOUJO
POFTDPNNVOJUZ
&WFOUIPVHIUIFUFSNDPNNVOJDBUJPO BMTPJODMVEFTXSJUJOH BDDPVOUTPG
IPXXSJUJOHJTVTFEJOBQBSUJDVMBSTPDJFUZBQQFBSPOMZSBSFMZJOFUIOPHSBQIJD
MJUFSBUVSF5IJTJTCFDBVTFBOUISPQPMPHJTUTUSBEJUJPOBMMZIBWFCFFOJOUFSFTUFE
JOOPOMJUFSBUFTPDJFUJFT UIBUJT TPDJFUJFTXJUIPVUXSJUUFOMBOHVBHF
BOEBMTP
CFDBVTFBOUISPQPMPHJDBMTUVEJFTPGDPNQMFYJOEVTUSJBMTPDJFUJFTJOXIJDI
XSJUJOHJTJNQPSUBOUBOEXJEFMZVTFEUFOEUPDPODFOUSBUFPOGBDFUPGBDFJO
UFSBDUJPOSBUIFSUIBOUIFSFMBUJWFMZSFNPUFDPOUBDUFTUBCMJTIFEBOENBJO
UBJOFECZXSJUJOH"OUISPQPMPHJTUTIBWFBMXBZTSFDPHOJ[FEUIFJOWFOUJPOPG
USVFXSJUJOHBCPVU ZFBSTBHPBTUIFTUBSUJOHQPJOUPGBNBKPSDVMUVSBM
SFWPMVUJPOJOIVNBOIJTUPSZ BOEDPSSFTQPOEJOHMZUIFJSGPDVTIBTCFFOPO
UIFPSJHJOTBOEEJGGVTJPOPGXSJUJOHSBUIFSUIBOPOUIFGVODUJPOTPGXSJUUFO
MBOHVBHFJOQBSUJDVMBSTPDJFUJFT5IJTJTDIBOHJOH IPXFWFS"OE,FJUI#BTTP

SFNJOETVTUIBUiUIFFUIOPHSBQIJDTUVEZPGXSJUJOHTIPVMEOPU
CFDPODFJWFEPGBTBOBVUPOPNPVTFOUFSQSJTFCVUBTPOFFMFNFOUJOB
NPSFFODPNQBTTJOHGJFMEPGJORVJSZXIJDIFNCSBDFTUIFUPUBMJUZPGIVNBO
DPNNVOJDBUJPOTLJMMTw
5IFTBNFVOJUTBOEDPNQPOFOUTUIBUBSFFNQMPZFEJOUIFFUIOPHSBQIZPG
TQFBLJOHNJHIUBMTPBQQMZUPXSJUJOH4FWFSBMSFMBUFEBDUTPGXSJUJOH XSJUJOH
BMFUUFS GPSFYBNQMF
DPNCJOFUPGPSNBXSJUJOHFWFOU BOFYDIBOHFPGMFUUFST
POBQBSUJDVMBSTVCKFDUPSGPSBQBSUJDVMBSQVSQPTF
5IFTFOEFS T
BOEUIFSF
DFJWFS T
PGMFUUFSTBSFQBSUJDJQBOUT BOEUIFDJSDVNTUBODFTVOEFSXIJDIBMFU
UFSJTTFOUPSMFUUFSTBSFFYDIBOHFEQSPWJEFBTFUUJOHGPSBOBDUPGXSJUJOHPS
BXSJUJOHFWFOU GPSFYBNQMF UIFFYDIBOHFPGIPMJEBZHSFFUJOHTBOE/FX
:FBSTXJTIFTJO%FDFNCFS
5IFSFBTPOTGPSXSJUJOHBMFUUFSWBSZHSFBUMZ1FS
TPOBMMFUUFSTSBOHFGSPNCSFBEBOECVUUFSMFUUFST UPUIBOLTPNFPOFGPSIPT
QJUBMJUZ
UPMPWFMFUUFSTUPMFUUFSTPGDPOEPMFODFGPSNBMMFUUFSTGSPNMFUUFSTPG
DPNNFOEBUJPOUPUIPTFUISFBUFOJOHDPVSUBDUJPO5IFDIBOOFMGPSXSJUJOHJT
PQUJDBM CVUUIFDPEFTWBSZ%JGGFSFOUMBOHVBHFTNBLFVTFPGEJGGFSFOUXSJUJOH
TZTUFNT BOEQSFTDIPPMDIJMESFOTPNFUJNFTiXSJUFwUPUIFJSHSBOEQBSFOUTCZ
ESBXJOHQJDUVSFT
296 Chapter 14: Linguistic Anthropology in a Globalized World

5IFQVSQPTFBOENFTTBHFDPOUFOUDPNNPOMZEFUFSNJOFUIFGPSNPGBMFU
UFS'PSFYBNQMF POUIFPOFIBOE BMFUUFSPGBQQMJDBUJPOGPSBQPTJUJPOJT
DPOTJEFSFEBGPSNBMMFUUFSBOEUIFSFGPSFXPVMECFDBSFGVMMZDPNQPTFEBOE
UZQFXSJUUFOPSMBTFSQSJOUFEPOQBQFSPGHPPERVBMJUZ0OUIFPUIFSIBOE B
MFUUFSUPBDMPTFGSJFOEJTVTVBMMZDBTVBMJOTUZMF BOEDBOFWFOCFDBSFMFTTMZ
XSJUUFO XJUIUIFQPTTJCMFJODMVTJPOPGTMBOHPSFWFOBOPCTDFOJUZPSUXP5P
TFOETPNFPOFXIPIBTKVTUFYQFSJFODFEBEFBUIJOUIFGBNJMZBDBSEFY
QSFTTJOHXJTIFTGPSBi.FSSZ$ISJTUNBTBOEB)BQQZ/FX:FBS wPSUPUZQF
BMFUUFSPGDPOEPMFODFSBUIFSUIBOXSJUFJUCZIBOE XPVMECFDPOTJEFSFE
XIPMMZ JOBQQSPQSJBUF 4QPLFO VUUFSBODFT KVEHFE UP CF IVNPSPVT FWFO
UIPVHITPNFXIBUSJTRVDPVMEXFMMCFDPOTJEFSFEJOTVMUJOHXIFODPNNJU
UFEUPXSJUJOH*OTIPSU KVTUBTTQFBLJOHJTHPWFSOFECZSVMFTPGJOUFSBDUJPO
BOEOPSNTPGJOUFSQSFUBUJPO TPJTXSJUJOH
*GXFFYUFOEUIFUFSNXSJUJOH GSPNUSVFXSJUJOHUPBOZWJTVBMDPNNVOJ
DBUJPOBDDPNQMJTIFECZUIFVTFPGFOEVSJOHNBSLTPSTJHOT XFDBOUIFOUBML
BCPVUWBSJPVTHFOSFTSPBETJHOT QJDUPSJBMBEWFSUJTFNFOUT HSBGGJUJPGWBSJPVT
LJOET BOENBOZPUIFSGPSNT*GTUVEJFTJOUIFFUIOPHSBQIZPGXSJUJOHBSFUP
CFDPNQMFUFBOEJOTJHIUGVM UIFZOFFEUPJODMVEFUIFTPDJPDVMUVSBMDPOUFYU
JOXIJDIUIFZPDDVS"HBJO #BTTPQPTFETPNFPGUIFRVFTUJPOTUPCFBO
TXFSFE BNPOHUIFN

)Pw..JTUIFBCJMJUZUPXSJUFEJTUSJCVUFEBNPOHUIFNFNCFSTPGBDPNNV
OJUZ BOEIPXEPFTUIFJODJEFODFPGUIJTBCJMJUZWBSZXJUIGBDUPSTTVDIBTBHF
TFY TPDJPFDPOPNJDDMBTTBOEUIFMJLe?..8IBULJOETPGJOGPSNBUJPOBSF
DPOTJEFSFEBQQSPQSJBUFGPSUSBOTNJTTJPOUISPVHIXSJUUFODIBOnels?..8IP
TFOETXSJUUFONFTTBHFTUPXIPN XIFO BOEGPSXIBUSFBTPOs?... *OTIPSU
XIBUQPTJUJPOEPFTXSJUJOHPDDVQZJOUIFUPUBMDPNNVOJDBUJWFFDPOPNZPG
UIF TPDJFUZ VOEFS TUVEZ BOE XIBU JT UIF SBOHF PG JUT DVMUVSBM NFBOJOHT
#BTTPo

5IFTFRVFTUJPOTIBWFOPUZFUCFFOTFSJPVTMZBEESFTTFEGPSNPSFUIBOB
WFSZGFXPGUIFXPSMETTPDJFUJFT UIPVHIUIFSFIBTCFFOTPNFXPSLJOUIJT
WFJO'PSFYBNQMF /JLP#FTOJFS 
TUVEJFEMJUFSBDZ HFOEFS BOEBVUIPS
JUZJO/VLVMBFMBFBUPMMJO1PMZOFTJB5IF/VLVMBFMBFBSFOPXGVOEBNFOUBM
JTU$ISJTUJBOT4VOEBZTFSNPOTBSFDBSFGVMMZTDSJQUFEBOEDJSDVMBUFE PGUFO
MJLFBTFUPGIBOEPVUTPGMFDUVSFOPUFT JOEJDBUJOHUIFWFSTFTPGUIF#JCMFUPCF
TUVEJFE UIFSFNBSLTUPCFNBEFBCPVUUIFN BOEWBSJPVTJOUSPEVDUJPOTBOE
The Life and Death of Languages 297

DPODMVTJPOT1BSUJDVMBSMJOHVJTUJDGFBUVSFTDIBSBDUFSJ[FUIFTFTFSNPOT JO
DMVEJOHFMBCPSBUFQPFUJDBMUFSBUJPO TQFDJBMQSPOPVOVTF BOEPUIFSLJOETPG
GPSNBMGFBUVSFT8PNFOEPOPUXSJUFTFSNPOT BOEHJWFGFX DMBJNJOHUIFZ
EPOPUIBWFUIFBQUJUVEFGPSUIFN#FTOJFSBSHVFTUIBUUIJTJTBTJUVBUJPOJO
XIJDISFBEJOHBOEXSJUJOHBSFEJSFDUMZJOWPMWFEJOUIFSFQSPEVDUJPOPGJO
FRVBMJUZ BOEDPOUSPMPWFSXPNFOTBDDFTTUPSFBEJOHBOEXSJUJOHDPOUSJCVUFT
UPUIFJSMPXFSTPDJBMQPTJUJPO0OUIFPUIFSIBOE XPNFOBSFBMMPXFENPSF
GSFFEPNPGFNPUJPOBMFYQSFTTJPOJOUIFSFBEJOHBOEFYDIBOHFPGMFUUFST B
QSJNBSZNFBOTCZXIJDIUIF/VLVMBFMBFTUBZJODPOUBDUXJUIPUIFSJTMBOETPS
LJOGPMLXIPIBWFNPWFEBXBZ.FOBSFBMMPXFEUPBQQFBSiGFNJOJOFw JF
TIPXJOHMPWFPSFYQSFTTJOHWVMOFSBCJMJUZ
JOMFUUFSXSJUJOH CVUPOMZXJUIJO
TUSJDUMJNJUT
8IFSFMJUFSBDZDPNFTEJSFDUMZJODPOUBDUXJUIDVMUVSFJTJOFEVDBUJPO#VU
CFJOHiMJUFSBUFwJTTPNFUIJOHOPUBMXBZTFBTJMZEFGJOFE'PSFYBNQMF BNPOH
UIF7BJJO"GSJDB POFDBOCFMJUFSBUFJOUISFFBSFBTJO&OHMJTIGPSTDJFODF
UFDIOPMPHZ BOE8FTUFSOFEVDBUJPOJO"SBCJDGPSSFMJHJPVTTUVEJFTBOEUIF
,PSBOBOEJO7BJGPSMPDBMHPWFSONFOUBOETPDJBMBGGBJST 4DSJCOFSBOE$PMF

/PPOFJTFRVBMMZMJUFSBUFJOBMMUISFF BOEOPUBMMUISFFBSFFRVBMMZ
UBVHIUJOTDIPPM4DIPPMTEPNVDINPSFUIBONBLFUIFJSTUVEFOUTMJUFSBUF
UIPVHIXSJUJOHJTUIFNFEJVNUISPVHIXIJDINPTUPGUIJTFODVMUVSBUJPO
UBLFTQMBDF4DIPPMTJNQBSUWBMVFT BUUJUVEFT BOETUBOEBSET BOEBTPDJBM
BXBSFOFTTPGPOFTQMBDFJOTPDJFUZ4PNFSBEJDBMDSJUJDTBSHVF FH #PVSEJFV
 
UIBUMFBSOJOHPOFTTPDJBMDMBTT BOEIPXUPNBLFBQQSPQSJBUF
DMBTTEJTUJODUJPOT JTJOUSPEVDFE SFJOGPSDFE BOESFJGJFEUISPVHIMBOHVBHF
BOEMJUFSBDZJOUIFDMBTTSPPN*UJTXFMMEPDVNFOUFE GPSJOTUBODF UIBUTPNF
FUIOJDHSPVQTJOUIF6OJUFE4UBUFTEPCFUUFSJOGPSNBMTDIPPMJOHCFDBVTFPG
UIFJSFYQPTVSFBUIPNFUPUIJOHTUIBUXPVMENPTUMJLFMZIFMQUIFNTVDDFFE
JOUIFDMBTTSPPN GPSFYBNQMF NJEEMFDMBTT&VSPQFBO"NFSJDBOWBMVFT BOE
MBOHVBHFBOEMJUFSBDZTLJMMTUIBUBSFDMPTFUPTDIPPMQSBDUJDFT


The Life and Death of Languages


"MPPLBUBTPVSDFCPPLTVDIBT&UIOPMPHVF (PSEPO
TIPXTUIBUUIFSF
JTHSFBUMJOHVJTUJDEJWFSTJUZBMMBSPVOEVT5IFXPSMETCJMMJPOQFPQMFTQFBL
TPNFTJYUIPVTBOEMBOHVBHFT)PXFWFS QFSDFOUPGUIFNBSFTQPLFOCZ
POMZQFSDFOUPGUIFQPQVMBUJPO.PSFUIBOIBMGUIFXPSMETQPQVMBUJPO
TQFBLKVTUUXFOUZMBOHVBHFT#VUMBOHVBHFTBSFEZJOHBUBOBMBSNJOHSBUF
298 Chapter 14: Linguistic Anthropology in a Globalized World

%BWJE$SZTUBM 
DMBJNTUIBUPOBWFSBHFPOFMBOHVBHFEJFTPVUFWFSZ
UXPXFFLT"UUIBUSBUF IBMGUIFXPSMETMBOHVBHFTXJMMCFDPNFFYUJODUXJUIJO
UIJTDFOUVSZ8FBSFXJUOFTTJOHMBOHVBHFEFBUIBUSBUFTVOQSFDFEFOUFEJO
IVNBOIJTUPSZ*OUIJTTFDUJPOXFXJMMMPPLBUXIZTPNBOZMBOHVBHFTBSF
EZJOH BOEXIBUJGBOZUIJOHDBOCFEPOFBCPVUJU
&OEBOHFSFE-BOHVBHFT"DDPSEJOHUPUIF64'JTIBOE8JMEMJGFTFSWJDF
JOBMNPTU TQFDJFTPGQMBOUTBOEBOJNBMTXPSMEXJEFXFSFDPOTJE
FSFEUISFBUFOFEXJUIFYUJODUJPOPSTFSJPVTMZFOEBOHFSFE BOEDJUJ[FOTPGUIF
6OJUFE4UBUFTBOEPUIFSDPVOUSJFTBSFGSFRVFOUMZSFNJOEFEPGUIJTGBDUCZUIF
NFEJB0OUIFPUIFSIBOE WFSZGFXQFPQMFBSFCFJOHNBEFBXBSFUIBUTPNF
PGUIFXPSMETMBOHVBHFTBSFGBDJOHBTJNJMBSUISFBUBUBOFWFSJODSFBTJOHSBUF
"DDPSEJOHUP%BWJE$SZTUBM o
BCPVUMBOHVBHFTIBWFGFXFS
UIBOTQFBLFST BOENPSFUIBO MBOHVBHFTIBWFPOMZ TQFBLFST
BUUIFNPTU0GUIFTJYPSTFWFOUIPVTBOEMBOHVBHFTVTFEJOUIFXPSMEUPEBZ
LFFQJOHJONJOEUIBUCZUIFUJNFZPVBSFSFBEJOHUIJTCPPLUIFOVNCFSXJMM
IBWFCFFOSFEVDFECZBTNBOZBTTFWFSBMEP[FO
POMZBCPVUDBOCFDPO
TJEFSFEiTBGF wNFBOJOHUIBUUIFOVNCFSPGUIFJSTQFBLFSTXJMMIBWFCFDPNF
MBSHFS PSBUMFBTUIBWFSFNBJOFEBUiDSJUJDBMNBTTw *OUIFPSZ WFSZTNBMMTP
DJFUJFTDPVMENBJOUBJOUIFJSMBOHVBHFTJGUIFZXFSFCPUIWJBCMFBOEJTPMBUFE
GSPNMBSHFTPDJFUJFTBSPVOEUIFNCVUTVDIJTPMBUJPOJTMFTTBOEMFTTQPTTJCMF
BOEJGUIFSFTUJMMBSFTVDITPDJFUJFTJO/FX(VJOFBPSOFBSUIF"NB[PO UIFJS
JTPMBUJPOXJMMOPUMBTUNVDIMPOHFS

8IZEPMBOHVBHFTEJF "GBJSMZDPNNPOSFBTPOJOUIFQBTUDPVMECFUIBU
WFSZTNBMMTPDJFUJFTEJEOPUTVSWJWFFQJEFNJDEJTFBTFTBHBJOTUXIJDIUIFZ
IBEOPSFTJTUBODF PSUIFZQFSJTIFEJOXBSGBSFPSJOTVDIOBUVSBMEJTBTUFSTBT
FBSUIRVBLFT GMPPET WPMDBOJDFSVQUJPOT BOEESPVHIU5IFNPTUDPNNPO
SFBTPOEVSJOHUIFUXFOUJFUIDFOUVSZXBTUIFFDPOPNJDBOEDVMUVSBMJOGMV
FODFPGMBSHFOBUJPOTUBUFTUIBUFODPNQBTTTNBMMUSJCBMTPDJFUJFTXJUIJOUIFJS
CPSEFST6OBCMFUPQSPWJEFGPSUIFNTFMWFTCZUIFJSUSBEJUJPOBMNFBOTPGTVC
TJTUFODF UIFZCFDPNFEFQFOEFOUPOUIFEPNJOBOUTPDJFUZBOENVTUMFBSOUP
DPNNVOJDBUFXJUIUIBUMBSHFSTPDJFUZJOJUTPXOMBOHVBHF2VJUFGSFRVFOUMZ
UIFSFJTBQIBTFPGCJMJOHVBMJTNEVSJOHXIJDINFNCFSTPGUIFTNBMMTPDJFUZ
IBWFDPNNBOEPGCPUIMBOHVBHFTCVUUIJTQIBTFVTVBMMZEPFTOPUMBTUMPOH
CFDBVTFUIFOFYUHFOFSBUJPOCFDPNFTNPOPMJOHVBMJOUIFMBOHVBHFPGUIF
MBSHFSTPDJFUZ
5IJTIBTIBQQFOFEXJUINBOZPGUIF/BUJWF"NFSJDBOMBOHVBHFTTQPLFO
JOUIF6OJUFE4UBUFT'PSFYBNQMF UPXBSEUIFFOEPGUIFOJOFUFFOUIDFOUVSZ
The Life and Death of Languages 299

BOEJOUIFFBSMZZFBSTPGUIFUXFOUJFUI BOBHHSFTTJWFFGGPSUXBTNBEFPOUIF
QBSUPGQVCMJDTDIPPMTBOENJTTJPOTDIPPMTPOXFTUFSOSFTFSWBUJPOTUPUFBDI
ZPVOH/BUJWF"NFSJDBOTUVEFOUT&OHMJTI4DIPPMBENJOJTUSBUPSTVTFETVDI
QVOJTINFOUTBTOPUBMMPXJOHQVQJMTJOSFTJEFOUJBMTDIPPMTUPTQFOEXFFLFOET
XJUIUIFJSGBNJMJFTJGUIFZGPSHPUUIFNTFMWFTBOETQPLFUPFBDIPUIFSJOUIFJS
OBUJWFMBOHVBHF-FTTUIBOBIVOESFEZFBSTMBUFS UIFTJUVBUJPOIBTCFFOQSBD
UJDBMMZSFWFSTFE5IF6OJUFE4UBUFTHPWFSONFOUIBTGJOBODFEFGGPSUTUPQSF
TFSWF MBOHVBHFT PO UIF WFSHF PG EJTBQQFBSJOH 6OGPSUVOBUFMZ  GPS NPTU
MBOHVBHFTUIFEFNJTFDBOCFQPTUQPOFEPOMZGPSBHFOFSBUJPO JGUIBUMPOH
-BOHVBHF%FBUIi8IZTIPVMEXFDBSF<JGBMBOHVBHFEJFT> wBTLFE$SZT
UBM)FEFWPUFEBGVMMDIBQUFSPGIJTCPPL o
UPEJTDVTTJOHGJWFSFB
TPOTXIZXFTIPVMEDBSFCFDBVTFXFOFFEEJWFSTJUZJOPSEFSUPQSFTFSWFPVS
USBEJUJPOBMDVMUVSBMXFBMUICFDBVTFBMBOHVBHFDPOTUJUVUFTUIFQSJNBSZTZN
CPMPGFUIOJDJEFOUJUZCFDBVTFMBOHVBHFT XIFUIFSXSJUUFOPSVOXSJUUFO BSF
SFQPTJUPSJFTPGIJTUPSZCFDBVTFMBOHVBHFTDPOUSJCVUFUPUIFTVNPGIVNBO
LOPXMFEHFBOECFDBVTFMBOHVBHFTBSFGBTDJOBUJOHJOUIFNTFMWFT"TPOF
GJFMEXPSLFSPCTFSWFE i5PGJHIUUPQSFTFSWFUIFTNBMMFSDVMUVSFTBOEMBO
HVBHFTNBZUVSOPVUUPCFUIFTUSVHHMFUPQSFTFSWFUIFNPTUQSFDJPVTUIJOHT
UIBUNBLFVTIVNBOCFGPSFXFFOEVQJOUIFMBOEGJMMPGIJTUPSZw DJUFEJO
$SZTUBM
"OEBT,FOOFUI)BMF BMJOHVJTUBU.*5XIPEFWPUFEIJN
TFMGUPQSFTFSWJOHMBOHVBHFTPGTNBMMUSJCBMTPDJFUJFT PODFTBJE i8IFOZPV
MPTFBMBOHVBHF JUTMJLFESPQQJOHBCPNCPOBNVTFVNw
5IJTTJUVBUJPOQPTFTJNQPSUBOURVFTUJPOT4IPVMEBOUISPQPMPHJDBMPSMJO
HVJTUJDGJFMEXPSLFSTNBLFTQFDJBMFGGPSUTUPNBJOUBJOPSSFWJUBMJ[FBOFO
EBOHFSFEMBOHVBHF 4IPVMEUIFZUSZUPQFSTVBEFUIFSFNBJOJOHTQFBLFSTPG
TVDIBOFOEBOHFSFEMBOHVBHFUPNBLFTVSFUIBUUIFZPVOHFTUNFNCFSTMFBSO
JUBTUIFJSNPUIFSUPOHVF BMPOHXJUIUIFMBOHVBHFPGUIFEPNJOBOUTPDJFUZ
BTUIFJSTFDPOEMBOHVBHF
"OETIPVMEMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHJTUTXPOEFS
XIFUIFSUIFZIBWFBNPSBMPCMJHBUJPOUPUSZUPTBWFBMBOHVBHFFWFOJGJUT
TQFBLFSTBSFBNCJWBMFOUBCPVUJUTQSBDUJDBMWBMVFBOEGVUVSFVTFGVMOFTT "O
TXFSTUPTVDIRVFTUJPOTBSFOPUFBTZUPDPNFCZ/PUPOMZIBTWFSZMJUUMFEF
CBUF UBLFO QMBDF PO UIJT TVCKFDU  CVU UIF SFTPVSDFT GPS UIF TUVEZ PG
FOEBOHFSFEMBOHVBHFTBSFTUJMMGBSGSPNBEFRVBUF*OUIFNFBOUJNF MBOHVBHFT
BSFEZJOHPVUBUBGBTUFSQBDFFWFSZZFBS
-BOHVBHF.BJOUFOBODFBOE3FJOGPSDFNFOU4JODFUIFNJET JODSFBT
JOHFGGPSUTCZMJOHVJTUTBOE/BUJWF"NFSJDBOUSJCBMMFBEFSTIBWFCFFOEF
WPUFEUPMBOHVBHFNBJOUFOBODFBOESFJOGPSDFNFOUJODPNNVOJUJFTXIFSF
300 Chapter 14: Linguistic Anthropology in a Globalized World

UIFUSBEJUJPOBMUSBOTNJTTJPOPGPSBMTLJMMTGSPNQBSFOUTUPDIJMESFOJTOP
MPOHFS GVODUJPOJOH FGGFDUJWFMZ "MUIPVHI QFSIBQT BT NBOZ BT  /BUJWF
"NFSJDBOMBOHVBHFTBSFTUJMMTQPLFOBUMFBTUUPTPNFFYUFOUJOUIF6OJUFE
4UBUFTBOE$BOBEB FWFSJODSFBTJOHOVNCFSTPGUIFNBSFJOEBOHFSPGCFJOH
DPNQMFUFMZSFQMBDFECZ&OHMJTI0OMZBSFMBUJWFMZGFX/BUJWF"NFSJDBOMBO
HVBHFT GPSFYBNQMF /BWBKP TPNFPGUIF4JPVBOMBOHVBHFTPGUIFOPSUIFSO
1MBJOT BOE&TLJNP
DPOUJOVFUPQMBZBWJUBMSPMFJO*OEJBODPNNVOJUZMJGF
UIFZBSFUIFMBOHVBHFTTFSWJOHMBSHFSQPQVMBUJPOTJOUIFMFTTEFOTFMZJOIBC
JUFEQBSUTPG/PSUI"NFSJDB-BOHVBHFNBJOUFOBODFBOESFJOGPSDFNFOUUZQ
JDBMMZJODMVEFMJOHVJTUJDBOBMZTJT POBMMMFWFMTQIPOPMPHJDBM NPSQIPMPHJDBM
TZOUBDUJD BOEMFYJDBM
BXSJUJOHTZTUFN VTVBMMZUIF-BUJOBMQIBCFUXJUIB
GFXBEEJUJPOBMTZNCPMTBOEEJBDSJUJDTJGOFDFTTBSZ
BOEUIFQSPEVDUJPOPG
JOTUSVDUJPOBMNBUFSJBMTGPSUIFVTFPG/BUJWF"NFSJDBOQVQJMT
'PSUIF/PSUIFSO"SBQBIPPGUIF8JOE3JWFS3FTFSWBUJPOJO8ZPNJOH
XIPBSFFBHFSUPNBJOUBJO BOEFWFOSFJOGPSDF UIFJSFUIOJDJEFOUJUZBOEDVM
UVSBMIFSJUBHF UIFQSFTFOUTJUVBUJPOJTOPUIJOHTIPSUPGDSJUJDBM4FWFSBMGBDUPST
DPOUSJCVUFUPUIFHMPPNZPVUMPPL

 8JUIGFXFYDFQUJPOT UIFPOMZJOEJWJEVBMTXIPIBWFGVMMDPNNBOEPG
"SBQBIPFWFOJGUIFZOPMPOHFSVTFJUIBCJUVBMMZBOEFWFOJG&OHMJTI
IBTDPNFUPJOGMVFODFJUBSFNFNCFSTPGUIFPMEFTUHFOFSBUJPO
 1BSFOUTOPMPOHFSUFBDI"SBQBIPUPUIFJSDIJMESFOJOUIFIPNF
 5IFOVNCFSTPGBDUJWFTQFBLFSTBOEPGUIPTFXIPIBWFBUMFBTUTPNF
QBTTJWFLOPXMFEHFPG"SBQBIPBSFEFDMJOJOHSBQJEMZ
 5IFCVMLPGUIFQPQVMBUJPOJTGPSBMMQSBDUJDBMQVSQPTFTNPOPMJOHVBM
&OHMJTIJTQSFGFSSFEJOFTTFOUJBMMZBMMTJUVBUJPOT JODMVEJOHFWFOTPNF
USBEJUJPOBMDFSFNPOJBMDPOUFYUT
 "SBQBIPJTMPTJOHJUTDPNNVOJDBUJWFWJBCJMJUZJUTDBQBCJMJUZUPBEBQU
TVDDFTTGVMMZUPOFXTJUVBUJPOT

*UJTTBEUIBUZPVOH"SBQBIPQBSFOUTDBOOPMPOHFSCFFYQFDUFEUPQBTT
BMPOHUPUIFJSDIJMESFOUIFSJDIDVMUVSBMIFSJUBHFPGUIFUSJCF UIF"SBQBIP
MBOHVBHF JO QBSUJDVMBS "T B SFTVMU  UIF UBTL IBT GBMMFO UP UIF SFTFSWBUJPO
TDIPPMT
5IFNPTUTJHOJGJDBOUTUFQUBLFOUPBSSFTUUIFMBOHVBHFEFDBZXBTUPGPS
NBMJ[FUIFUFBDIJOHPGTQPLFO"SBQBIPUPUIFZPVOHFTUQVQJMT5IBOLTUP
UIFGPSFTJHIUBOEFOFSHZPGUIFBENJOJTUSBUPSTPGPOFPGUIFTDIPPMT UXP
The Life and Death of Languages 301

XFFLMPOHXPSLTIPQTXFSFPSHBOJ[FEJO.BSDIBOE4FQUFNCFSUPFY
QFSJNFOUXJUIWJEFPUBQJOHMFTTPOTJOTQPLFO"SBQBIPGPSVTFJOSFTFSWBUJPO
DMBTTSPPNT4PNVDIXBTMFBSOFEGSPNUIFXPSLPGUIPTFUXPXFFLTUIBUBU
B+BOVBSZXPSLTIPQUIFGPMMPXJOHZFBSJUXBTQPTTJCMFUPBQQSPBDIUIFUBTL
XJUIBHSFBUFSEFHSFFPGQSPGFTTJPOBMTLJMMBOE BJEFECZUIFBENJOJTUSBUPSTPG
BOPUIFSTDIPPM UPQSPEVDFUIFGJSTUGPSNBMTFUPGMFTTPOTJOTQPLFO"SBQBIP
5IF4QPLFO"SBQBIP$VSSJDVMVN%FWFMPQNFOU1SPKFDUUFBNTFUJUTHPBMGPS
UIFUXPXFFLTSBUIFSBNCJUJPVTMZBUGPSUZMFTTPOT CVUUIFFOUIVTJBTNPGUIF
QBSUJDJQBOUTXBTTVDIUIBUGPSUZUXPXFSFDPNQMFUFEBOEBSFTUJMMJODMBTT
SPPNVTF5PTQBSFZPVOHQVQJMTGSPNIBWJOHUPMFBSOIPXUPXSJUFUXPMBO
HVBHFT "SBQBIPTQFMMJOHIBQQFOTUPCFNVDITJNQMFSUIBO&OHMJTITQFMMJOH
CFDBVTFJUJTQIPOFNJD
"SBQBIPTQFBLJOHDMBTTSPPNBJEFTUFBDIUIFTUV
EFOUTTQPLFO"SBQBIPXJUIUIFIFMQPGUIFWJEFPUBQFT'PSUZPEEMFTTPOT
XJMMOPUSFWFSTFUIFEFDMJOJOHGPSUVOFTPGUIF"SBQBIPMBOHVBHFPOUIFSFTFS
WBUJPO CVUUIFJSDPNQMFUJPOBOEVTFJOUIFMPXFSHSBEFTIBWFUIFHSFBUTZN
CPMJDWBMVFPGBMBTUEJUDITUBOEBOEBIPQFGPSUIJOHTUPDPNF
5IFFOEPGBMTPTBXUIFDPNQMFUJPOPGUIF%JDUJPOBSZPG$POUFNQP
SBSZ"SBQBIP6TBHF NBEFQPTTJCMFCZBHSBOUGSPNUIF/BUJPOBM&OEPXNFOU
GPSUIF)VNBOJUJFT*UXBTBTPVSDFPGHSFBUTBUJTGBDUJPOUPUIF"SBQBIPUIBU
UIFWFSZTBNFHPWFSONFOUUIBUPOMZBGFXHFOFSBUJPOTBHPQSPIJCJUFEUIF
VTFPG/BUJWF"NFSJDBOMBOHVBHFTJOTDIPPMTIBTCFDPNFTFSJPVTMZDPO
DFSOFEXJUIUIFJSQSFTFSWBUJPO
8IJMFUIFXPSLPOUIFEJDUJPOBSZBOEUIFWJEFPUBQFEMFTTPOTXBTUBLJOH
QMBDF POFPGUIFTDIPPMTDPOUJOVFEUPBEEUPUIFHSPXJOHTFSJFTPGCPPLMFUT
EFTJHOFEUPBJEUIFUFBDIJOHPG"SBQBIPMBOHVBHFBOEDVMUVSFJOUIFVQQFS
HSBEFT0WFSBMM UIFCPEZPGJOTUSVDUJPOBMNBUFSJBMTQSPEVDFEVOEFSWBSJPVT
BVTQJDFTGPSVTFXJUI"SBQBIPTUVEFOUTJOUIFSFTFSWBUJPOTDIPPMTJTRVJUF
JNQSFTTJWFNPSFUIBOBIVOESFEJUFNT OPUDPVOUJOHUIFWJEFPUBQFEMFT
TPOT/PUUPCFPVUEPOFCZUIFPUIFSTDIPPMT TUBGGNFNCFSTPGBUIJSETDIPPM
DBNFVQXJUIBOJEFBUPGVSUIFSIFMQSFWJUBMJ[FUIFFGGPSUTNBEFPOCFIBMGPG
"SBQBIPBOBOOVBM"SBQBIPMBOHVBHFCPXMGPSUIFNPTUBDDPNQMJTIFETUV
EFOUTPGUIFSFTFSWBUJPOTDIPPMT XJUIQSJ[FTBOEEJQMPNBTUPCFBXBSEFE
4JODFUIFGJSTUFEJUJPOPGUIJTCPPLDBNFPVUJO GVSUIFSEFWFMPQNFOUT
IBWFPDDVSSFE4UFQIFO(SFZNPSOJOH EJSFDUPSGPSTFWFSBMZFBSTPGUIF"SB
QBIP -BOHVBHF BOE $VMUVSF 1SPKFDU BNPOH UIF /PSUIFSO "SBQBIP PG
8ZPNJOH CFHBOBO"SBQBIPMBOHVBHFJNNFSTJPOQSPKFDUGPSLJOEFSHBSUFO
DIJMESFOBOEUIFOFYQBOEFEJUCZUIFBEEJUJPOPGBQSFTDIPPMQSPHSBN'PS
302 Chapter 14: Linguistic Anthropology in a Globalized World

VTFXJUIUIFDIJMESFO (SFZNPSOJOHBSSBOHFEGPSUIF%JTOFZGJMN#BNCJ UP
CFEVCCFEJO"SBQBIPCZ%JTOFZ4UVEJPT VTJOH(SFZNPSOJOHTUSBOTMBUJPO
BOEXJUI"SBQBIPFMEFSTBOEDIJMESFOGSPNUIFJNNFSTJPOQSPHSBNTQFBL
JOHUIFSPMFT5IFEVCCFEGJMNCFDBNFBWBJMBCMFJOTFWFSBMUIPVTBOEDPQJFT
BOEZPVOHDIJMESFOXFSFTBJEUPXBUDIJUSFQFBUFEMZ MFBSOJOHUIFTQFBLJOH
QBSUTPGUIFJSGBWPSJUFDIBSBDUFST"MUIPVHIUIFTFBOEPUIFSSFWJUBMJ[BUJPOFG
GPSUTBSFOPUMJLFMZUPTBWFUIF"SBQBIPMBOHVBHFJOUIFMPOHUFSN UIFZBSFB
XFMDPNFTUFQGPSXBSEBUBUJNFXIFOTPNBOZMBOHVBHFTBSFCFDPNJOHTF
SJPVTMZFOEBOHFSFEPSFYUJODU
5IJTCSJFGBDDPVOUPGPOFFYBNQMFPGMBOHVBHFNBJOUFOBODFBOESFJO
GPSDFNFOUXPVMEOPUCFDPNQMFUFXJUIPVUFNQIBTJ[JOHUIBUNBOZBEEJUJPOBM
TUFQTNVTUCFUBLFOUPFYQBOEUIFQSPHSBNJOUIFGVUVSF5IFGPMMPXJOHTUFQT
BSFXPSUINFOUJPOJOHIFSF UIFMJTUJTNFBOUUPCFNFSFMZTVHHFTUJWF OPU
DPNQMFUF
XPSLTIPQTEFTJHOFEUPEFWFMPQOFX"SBQBIPDVSSJDVMBSNBUFSJ
BMTBOEJNQSPWFUIFFYJTUJOHPOFTJOTFSWJDFUSBJOJOHPGDVSSFOU"SBQBIP
TUVEJFTUFBDIFSTBOEUFBDIFSBJEFTBOJOUFSOTIJQQSPHSBNGPSGVUVSFUFBDI
FSTPG"SBQBIPTUVEJFTUSJCBMTDIPMBSTIJQTGPS"SBQBIPIJHITDIPPMTUVEFOUT
XIPIBWFTIPXOFYDFQUJPOBMJOUFMMFDUVBMDBQBDJUZBTXFMMBTJOUFSFTUBOETLJMM
JOMFBSOJOH"SBQBIPUPBMMPXUIFNUPTUVEZMJOHVJTUJDTBOEBOUISPQPMPHZBU
UIFDPMMFHFMFWFMBEVMUFEVDBUJPOQSPHSBNTGFBUVSJOHFMEFSTOBSSBUJOH JO"SB
QBIPPS&OHMJTI USBEJUJPOBMUBMFTPSMJGFIJTUPSJFTBOEPUIFSSFNJOJTDFODFT
BOEBO"SBQBIPMBOHVBHFTVNNFSDBNQGPSQSFTDIPPMFSTBOEFMFNFOUBSZ
QVQJMT TUBGGFEJOQBSUCZUIPTF"SBQBIPFMEFST XPNFOBOENFO XIPIBWF
DPNNBOEPGUIFMBOHVBHFBOEBXJMMJOHOFTTUPTIBSFJUXJUIUIFZPVOHNFN
CFSTPGUIFUSJCF
*OUIFJOJUJBMTUBHFTPGBOZMBOHVBHFNBJOUFOBODFQSPHSBNT MJOHVJTUJDBO
UISPQPMPHJTUTQSPWJEFVTFGVMBEWJDFBOEIFMQ CVUJUJTQSFGFSBCMFBOEJNQPS
UBOU UIBU  BT GBS BT QPTTJCMF  TVDI QSPHSBNT BOE BDUJWJUJFT CF GVSUIFS
EFWFMPQFE PSHBOJ[FE BOEBENJOJTUFSFECZNFNCFSTPGUIFTPDJFUJFTDPO
DFSOFE#PYQSPWJEFTBOFYBNQMFPGFMBCPSBUFQMBOTGPSSFWJUBMJ[JOHUIF
UISFBUFOFEMBOHVBHFPGB/FX.FYJDBOQVFCMP

Intercultural Communication and Translation


5PEBZ XIFOTPNBOZQFPQMFGSFRVFOUMZUSBWFMGBSBXBZGSPNIPNFBOEFO
DPVOUFSNFNCFSTPGEJGGFSFOUFUIOJDHSPVQTBOETPDJFUJFT JOUFSFUIOJDBOE
JOUFSDVMUVSBMSFMBUJPOTBSFDPOUJOVBMMZCFJOHQVUUPUIFUFTU8IFUIFSTVDI
Intercultural Communication and Translation 303

B O X 1 4 . 1 P L A N S F O R T H E R E V I TA L I Z AT I O N O F K E R E S ,
THE DIALECT OF RIO GRANDE KERESAN, SPOKEN IN
T H E P U E B LO O F CO C H I T I , N E W M E X I CO

As of this writing, the plans for the fall [2000] include (1) an all-Keres room where
Head Start and preschool children can spend from half an hour to two hours daily,
depending on their parents preferences; (2) Keres language classes for tribal em-
ployees, to be given three times a week; (3) after-school arts and crafts and recre-
ational activities for school-age children; and (4) arts and crafts and Keres classes
for adults in the evenings. In addition, CIEC [Cochiti Indian Education Committee]
and CETF [Cochiti Education Task Force] committee members have committed
themselves to providing mentoring to less fluent speakers and to revitalizing the
practice of visiting each other and maintaining Keres during these visits. Several
community projects such as ditch cleaning, weeding, and painting are planned in
which fluent adults are matched with learning adolescents.
All of these efforts will be undertaken either with volunteers or with tribal
funds. This allows the tribe to maintain control and to remain faithful to its own
values. Moreover, drawing in the different segments of the communityfor ex-
ample, the elders, the tribal council, tribal employees, parents, and children
underscores the fact that the language revitalization project belongs to everyone
and therefore all have a responsibility to its continuation.
Future plans include a language nest, where babies and very young children
can be cared for by fluent Keres-speaking grandmothers; an all-Keres pre-
school program; a healthy after-school recreational program; more community
projects; adolescent-elder pairings; and consistent Keres class offerings after
school and in the evenings for adults. These plans for the future will necessarily
mean that more fluent speakers will be needed to teach and to lead in the var-
ious initiatives that are to come.
The CIEC, the task force, and the leaders of the community understand the
commitment required to make all of this a reality. However, they also under-
stand the power of these initiatives for the language learning of their future lead-
ers. Much of the success that the Pueblo de Cochiti has enjoyed is owed to the
fact that the leaders have moved slowly and planned carefully. Above all, they
have made certain that every step taken has been consonant with Cochiti tradi-
tional culture and values.
from Regis Pecos and Rebecca Blum-Martinez,
The Key to Cultural Survival (2001), 8182
304 Chapter 14: Linguistic Anthropology in a Globalized World

SFMBUJPOTBSFBNJDBCMFPSIPTUJMF TUSBJHIUGPSXBSEPSDPOGVTFE EFQFOETQSJ


NBSJMZPOIPXJOEJWJEVBMTPSHSPVQTXJUIEJGGFSJOHDVMUVSBMCBDLHSPVOETBSF
BCMFUPDPNNVOJDBUFXJUIFBDIPUIFS&WFOJOMBOHVBHFTPSEJBMFDUTUIBUBSF
DMPTFMZTJNJMBSPSDPOTJEFSFEUPCFBMJLF TQFDJGJDXPSETNBZIBWFEJGGFSFOU
TFOTFTPSDBSSZBEJGGFSFOUFNQIBTJTGSPNPOFMBOHVBHFUPUIFPUIFS SFTVMU
JOHJOPDDBTJPOBMNJTVOEFSTUBOEJOHT"HPPEJMMVTUSBUJPOPGBMBDLPGFRVJW
BMFODFCFUXFFO"NFSJDBOBOE#SJUJTI&OHMJTIXBTQSPWJEFECZ.BSHBSFU
.FBEXIFOTIFQPJOUFEPVUUIBU

JO#SJUBJO UIFXPSEiDPNQSPNJTFwJTBHPPEXPSE BOEPOFNBZTQFBLBQ


QSPWJOHMZPGBOZBSSBOHFNFOUXIJDIIBTCFFOBDPNQSPNJTF JODMVEJOH WFSZ
PGUFO POFJOXIJDIUIFPUIFSTJEFIBTHBJOFENPSFUIBOGJGUZQFSDFOUPGUIF
QPJOUTBUJTTVF0OUIFPUIFSIBOE JOUIF6OJUFE4UBUFT UIFNJOPSJUZQPTJ
UJPOJTTUJMMUIFQPTJUJPOGSPNXIJDIFWFSZPOFTQeaks...5IJTJTDPOHSVFOU
XJUIUIF"NFSJDBOEPDUSJOFPGDIFDLTBOECBMBODFT CVUJUEPFTOPUQFSNJU
UIFXPSEiDPNQSPNJTFwUPHBJOUIFTBNFFUIJDBMIBMPXIJDIJUIBTJO#SJUBJO
8IFSF JO#SJUBJO UPDPNQSPNJTFNFBOTUPXPSLPVUBHPPETPMVUJPO JO
"NFSJDBJUVTVBMMZNFBOTUPXPSLPVUBCBEPOF BTPMVUJPOJOXIJDIBMMUIF
QPJOUTPGJNQPSUBODF UPCPUITJEFT
BSFMPTU<.FBERVPUFEJO,MVDLIPIO
>

/PUBMXBZTHJWFOTVGGJDJFOUBUUFOUJPOCVUGSFRVFOUMZPGTPNFDPOTFRVFODF
BSFEJGGFSFODFTJODPNNVOJDBUJWFTUZMFTBNPOHFUIOJDHSPVQTPGBQBSUJDVMBS
TPDJFUZ"OVNCFSPGSFTFBSDIQSPKFDUTIBWFCFFOVOEFSUBLFOUPEFUFSNJOF
UIFFYUFOUPGTVDIEJGGFSFODFTCFUXFFO"OHMP"NFSJDBOTPOUIFPOFTJEFBOE
-BUJOPT "GSJDBO"NFSJDBOT BOENFNCFSTPGPUIFSFUIOJDHSPVQTUIBUNBLF
VQUIFQPQVMBUJPOPGUIF6OJUFE4UBUFTPOUIFPUIFS'PSFYBNQMF BDDPSEJOH
UPPOFTUVEZ UIFUFOUPGJGUFFOZFBSPMESFDFOUMZBSSJWFE-BUJOPQVQJMTPG
TFWFSBMTBNQMFTXFSFGPVOEUPCFNPSFJOUFSQFSTPOBMMZPSJFOUFEBOENPSF
JODMJOFEUPBUUSJCVUFUIFGFFMJOHPGTIBNFUPUIFNTFMWFTPSUPPUIFSTXIFO
DPNQBSFEXJUIUIFJS"OHMP"NFSJDBOQFFST*GUFBDIFSTBSFBXBSFPGEJGGFS
FODFTCFUXFFONFNCFSTPGEJGGFSJOHFUIOJDHSPVQTUIBUGJOEFYQSFTTJPOJO
DPNNVOJDBUJWFCFIBWJPS UIFZDBOCFUUFSVOEFSTUBOEXIZVOEFSDFSUBJODJS
DVNTUBODFTTPNFQVQJMTSFBDUEJGGFSFOUMZGSPNPUIFST "MCFSU

"DDPSEJOHUPBOPUIFSTUVEZ CMBDLBOEXIJUFTUVEFOUTBUBOFBTUFSODPM
MFHFEJGGFSFEJOUIFJSIBOEMJOHPGPSBMEJTBHSFFNFOUT5IF"GSJDBO"NFSJDBO
TUVEFOUTUFOEFEUPBSHVFNPSFQFSTJTUFOUMZXJUIFBDIPUIFSGPSUIFJSQPTJ
Intercultural Communication and Translation 305

UJPOTBOEUPUBLFNPSFDPOUSPMPGUIFJOUFSBDUJPOUIBOEJEXIJUFTUVEFOUT
XIPBQQFBSFEUPQSFGFSDPNQSPNJTFPSTPMVUJPOPSJFOUFETUSBUFHJFTJOSF
TPMWJOHUIFJSDPOGMJDUT'VSUIFSNPSF BMMNBMFTJOUIJTTBNQMF SFHBSEMFTTPG
FUIOJDJUZ XFSFNPSFMJLFMZUPFOHBHFJOJOEJSFDU OPODPOGSPOUBUJPOBMTUSBUF
HJFT GPS FYBNQMF  TJMFODF
 UIBO GFNBMFT  XIP UFOEFE UP VTF NPSF BDUJWF
TUSBUFHJFT 5JOH5PPNFZ

*UJT PGDPVSTF OFDFTTBSZUPLFFQJONJOEUIBUJUXPVMECFJOBQQSPQSJBUF
UPFYUFOEUIFGJOEJOHTQFSUBJOJOHUPBTBNQMFUPBOFOUJSFFUIOJDHSPVQ"OZ
PGBOVNCFSPGDJSDVNTUBODFTNBZJOWBMJEBUFTVDIBOFYUFOTJPOGPSFYBN
QMF TFUUJOH VSCBOBTBHBJOTUSVSBM
UIFMFOHUIPGJOUFSFUIOJDDPOUBDU BGFX
ZFBSTBTPQQPTFEUPEFDBEFTBTPQQPTFEUPHFOFSBUJPOT
BNPVOUPGFEVDB
UJPO HFPHSBQIJDMPDBUJPO TPDJPFDPOPNJDTUBUVT BOETPPO
3POBMEBOE4V[BOOF#,4DPMMPO 
QVCMJTIFEBOJOGPSNBUJWFBD
DPVOUPGUIFOBUVSFPGJOUFSFUIOJDDPNNVOJDBUJPOCFUXFFONFNCFSTPGTPNF
PGUIF"UIBCBTLBOUSJCFTMJWJOHJO"MBTLBBOEOPSUIXFTUFSO$BOBEB BOE
"NFSJDBOTPS$BOBEJBOTIBWJOHSFBTPOUPJOUFSBDUXJUIUIFN.PTUDPN
NVOJDBUJPO UBLFT QMBDF JO &OHMJTI CFDBVTF HPPE TQFBLJOH LOPXMFEHF PG
"UIBCBTLBOMBOHVBHFTBNPOH"NFSJDBOTBOE$BOBEJBOTJTRVJUFSBSF BOE
NBOZ"UIBCBTLBOT FTQFDJBMMZUIFZPVOHFSPOFT
OPXTQFBLPOMZ&OHMJTI
)PXFWFS FWFOUIPTF"UIBCBTLBOTTQFBLJOHPOMZ&OHMJTIIBWFMFBSOFEGSPN
UIFJSGBNJMJFTBOEDPNNVOJUJFTUPVTFUIFDPNNVOJDBUJWFCFIBWJPSDIBSBD
UFSJTUJDPGUIFJSFUIOJDCBDLHSPVOE
5IF4DPMMPOTBOBMZ[FETFWFSBMBTQFDUTPGDPNNVOJDBUJWFCFIBWJPSCF
UXFFO"NFSJDBOT$BOBEJBOTBOE"UIBCBTLBOT*OUIFQSFTFOUBUJPOPGTFMG
UIFDPOUSBTUCFUXFFOUIFUXPHSPVQTUBLFTBEJBNFUSJDBMMZPQQPTJUFGPSN*O
BDPOWFSTBUJPOCFUXFFOTUSBOHFSTDPODFSOJOHCVTJOFTT NFEJDBM MFHBM FEV
DBUJPOBM PSPUIFSNBUUFST UIF"NFSJDBOT$BOBEJBOTUBMLGSFFMZBOEBHSFBU
EFBM  IPQJOH UP MFBSO GSPN UIF FYDIBOHF XIBU JT PO UIF NJOET PG UIF
"UIBCBTLBOTUIFZ POUIFPUIFSIBOE TBZWFSZMJUUMFCFDBVTFUIFZHSFBUMZSF
TQFDUFBDIQFSTPOTJOEJWJEVBMJUZBOESJHIUUPQSJWBDZ BOEUIFZDBSFGVMMZ
HVBSEUIFJSPXOBTXFMM5IF"UIBCBTLBOTHBJOUIFJNQSFTTJPOUIBUUIFJSPQ
QPTJUFTBSFUPPUBMLBUJWF BOEFWFOCPBTUGVM XIFSFBTUIF"NFSJDBOT$BOBEJ
BOT UFOE UP UIJOL PG UIF "UIBCBTLBOT BT VODPNNVOJDBUJWF  VOTVSF PG
UIFNTFMWFT BOEQSPCBCMZJODPNQFUFOU
8IFOUXP"NFSJDBOT$BOBEJBOTUBML UIFZVTVBMMZUBLFUVSOTTQFBLJOH
VOMFTTUIFSFMBUJPOTIJQCFUXFFOUIFNJTTPBTZNNFUSJDBMUIBUPOFPGUIFN
NPOPQPMJ[FTUIFDPOWFSTBUJPO4FWFSBMJODPOHSVJUJFTPDDVSJOUVSOUBLJOH
306 Chapter 14: Linguistic Anthropology in a Globalized World

CFUXFFO"NFSJDBOT$BOBEJBOTBOE"UIBCBTLBOT0OFIBTUPEPXJUIUIF
MFOHUIPGQBVTFTCFUXFFOUVSOT"UIBCBTLBOQBVTFTNBZCFTPNFXIBUMPOHFS
DBVTJOH"NFSJDBOPS$BOBEJBOTQFBLFSTUPGFFMGSFFUPSFTVNFUBMLJOH5IF
SFTVMUJTBDPOWFSTBUJPOUIBUJTBMNPTUBNPOPMPHVF5ZQJDBMMZ BDPOWFSTBUJPO
JTJOJUJBUFECZ"NFSJDBOT$BOBEJBOTBOEJTUFSNJOBUFECZUIFNXJUITPNF
TVDIGPSNVMBBTi*MMTFFZPVMBUFS UPNPSSPX TPPO
w#VUUIF"UIBCBTLBOT
DPOTJEFSJUCBEMVDLUPNBLFQSFEJDUJPOTBCPVUGVUVSFFWFOUTBOEEPOPUSF
DJQSPDBUFXJUIBTJNJMBSQISBTF5IJTMBDLPGDMPTVSFJTJOUFSQSFUFECZUIF
"NFSJDBOT$BOBEJBOTBTBGBJMVSFPGUIFDPNNVOJDBUJWFFWFOU
4UJMMPUIFSTPVSDFTPGNJTVOEFSTUBOEJOHIBWFUPEPXJUIUIFXBZJOGPS
NBUJPOJTDPEFE*G"NFSJDBOT$BOBEJBOTXBOUUPFNQIBTJ[FDFSUBJOBTQFDUT
PGUIFJSVUUFSBODFT UIFZVTVBMMZEPTPCZTVDINFBOTBTTUSFTT TFOUFODFJO
UPOBUJPO BOEUIFMJLF*O"UIBCBTLBOMBOHVBHFTFNQIBTJTJTNBSLFECZTQF
DJBM NPSQIFNFTGPS FYBNQMF  JO $IJQFXZBO UIF NPSQIFNF L}  XIJDI
FYQSFTTFTTVSQSJTF8IFO"UIBCBTLBOTVTF&OHMJTI UIFZEPOPUNBSLFN
QIBTJTCZNFBOTPGQSPTPEJDGFBUVSFT"TBSFTVMU UIFZNBZCFPOMZQBSUMZ
VOEFSTUPPEPS BUXPSTU DPNQMFUFMZNJTVOEFSTUPPE
5IJTBCCSFWJBUFEBDDPVOUPGUIF4DPMMPOTSFTFBSDIEFTDSJCFTUIFDPOGVTJPO
UIBUJTMJLFMZUPPDDVSJOJOUFSFUIOJDDPNNVOJDBUJPOCFUXFFO"UIBCBTLBOT
BOE"NFSJDBOT$BOBEJBOT CVUUIFSFBSFEBUBUPTVHHFTUUIBUBTJNJMBSTJUV
BUJPOFYJTUTXIFOFWFS"NFSJDBOTDPNNVOJDBUFXJUIPUIFS/BUJWF"NFSJ
DBOT5IFEJGGFSFODFTJOJOUFSFUIOJDDPNNVOJDBUJWFCFIBWJPSKVTUEFTDSJCFE
BSFFBTZUPVOEFSTUBOE5IFEBOHFSTUIFTFEJGGFSFODFTMFBEUPJTFUIOJDTUFSFP
UZQJOHUIBUNBZIBWFBTBDPOTFRVFODFMFTTUIBOGSJFOEMZBOEDPPQFSBUJWF
DPFYJTUFODF5IFTPVSDFTPGQSPCMFNTJODPNNVOJDBUJPOCFUXFFO"UIBCBTLBOT
BOE"NFSJDBOT$BOBEJBOTBSFTVNNBSJ[FEJO#PY5IFUBCMFJTDVMUVSF
TQFDJGJD CVUJUBQQMJFTUPBHSFBUFYUFOUUPDPNNVOJDBUJPOCFUXFFO"OHMP
"NFSJDBOTBOE/BUJWF"NFSJDBOTPGPUIFSUSJCFTBTXFMM CVULFFQJONJOE
UIBUUIFUBCMFMJTUTUZQJDBM CFIBWJPST

5SBOTMBUJPOTDBOBMTPCFUSPVCMFTPNF BTBOZPOFXIPIBTFWFSTUVEJFEB
GPSFJHOMBOHVBHFLOPXT5IFTDIPMBSMZMJUFSBUVSFBOEQFSTPOBMBOFDEPUFT
PGGFSIVOESFETPGFYBNQMFTPGNJTUSBOTMBUFEXPSET QISBTFT PSXIPMFQJFDFT
PGEJTDPVSTF)PXFWFS JOPVSFBSMJFSEJTDVTTJPOTPGUIF4BQJS8IPSGIZ
QPUIFTJT XFTBJEUIBUPOFPGJUTSFGVUBUJPOT BUMFBTUPGUIFTUSPOHWFSTJPO

XBTUIBUBOZUIJOHJOFWFSZMBOHVBHFDPVMECFUSBOTMBUFEJOUPBOZPUIFS"M
UIPVHIUIJTJTUSVF TPNFDBWFBUTOFFEUPCFNBEF BTTPNFUJNFTUSBOTMBUJPOT
EPOPUHPTNPPUIMZ0GUFO UIFQSPCMFNJTOPUKVTUEJGGFSFODFTJOHSBNNBSPS
Intercultural Communication and Translation 307

B O X 1 4 . 2 C O M M U N I C AT I O N P R O B L E M S B E T W E E N
E N G L I S H S P E A K E R S A N D AT H A B A S K A N S

Whats Confusing to English Whats Confusing to Athabaskan


Speakers About Athabaskans Speakers About English Speakers
They do not speak. They talk too much.
They keep silent. They always talk first.
They avoid situations of talking. They talk to strangers or people
they dont know.
They only want to talk to close They think they can predict
acquaintances. the future.
They play down their own abilities. They brag about themselves.
They act as if they expect things They dont help people even
to be given to them. when they can.
They deny planning. They always talk about whats
going to happen later.
They avoid direct questions. They ask too many questions.
They never start a conversation. They always interrupt.
They talk off the topic. They only talk about what they are
interested in.
They never say anything about They dont give others a chance
themselves. to talk.
They are slow to take a turn in They are always getting excited
talking. when they talk.
They ask questions in unusual They arent careful when they talk
places. about things or people.
They talk with a flat tone of voice.
They are too indirect, inexplicit.
They dont make sense.
They just leave without saying
anything.
from Ronald Scollon and Suzanne Wong-Scollon,
Athabaskan-English Interethnic Communication (1990), 284

WPDBCVMBSZ FWFOUIPVHIUIFNFBOJOHBOEDPOOPUBUJPOTPGOPQBJSPGXPSET
JOUXPMBOHVBHFTBSFFWFSHPJOHUPCFQSFDJTFMZUIFTBNF*ODMVEFEJOUIF
XIPMFQBDLBHFBSFBMTPNBUUFSTPGDPOUFYU DVMUVSBMFYQFDUBUJPOT TUZMJTUJDGFB
UVSFT BOEQFSTPOBMJOUFSQSFUBUJPO
308 Chapter 14: Linguistic Anthropology in a Globalized World

"TBOFYBNQMF DPOTJEFSBDPMMJTJPOCFUXFFOB64TQZQMBOFBOEB$IJ
OFTFGJHIUFSJOTQSJOHPGUIBUBMNPTUDBVTFEBOJOUFSOBUJPOBMJODJEFOU
5IFDPOUBDUPDDVSSFEOFBSUIFJTMBOEPG)BJOBO BDPOUFTUFEBSFB XIFOUXP
13$KFUTTDSBNCMFEUPNFFUBO"NFSJDBOTVSWFJMMBODFBJSDSBGU5IFMBSHFS
64QMBOFBOETNBMMFS$IJOFTFKFUDPMMJEFE LJMMJOHJUTQJMPU
BOEGPSDJOHUIF
EBNBHFE64QMBOFUPMBOEJO$IJOB XIFSFUIFUXFOUZGPVSQFSTPOGMJHIU
DSFXXBTUBLFOQSJTPOFSBOEIFMEGPSFMFWFOEBZT CFJOHSFMFBTFEBGUFSBGPS
NBMBQPMPHZXBTNBEFCZUIF64"NCBTTBEPSUPUIF$IJOFTF'PSFJHO.JO
JTUFSBUUIF"NFSJDBO&NCBTTZ8IBUUIFBQPMPHZTBJE BOENFBOU BMNPTU
JNNFEJBUFMZDBNFVOEFSTDSVUJOZ
)BOH;IBOH 
DMBJNTUIFSFBSFTJYMFWFMTPGBQPMPHZJO$IJOFTF
SBOHJOHGSPNUFSNTDPOWFZJOHBTJNQMFiTPSSZwUPiGFFMSFHSFUwUPiBENJUPOFT
FSSPSBOEBTLGPSQVOJTINFOUBOEIVNCMZBQPMPHJ[Fw8IFOUIF64MFUUFS
XBTEFMJWFSFE JUXBTiDBSFGVMMZDPOTUSVDUFEJOTVDIBXBZUIBUJUTBJEUIFNPTU
ATJODFSFXPSETQPTTJCMFXJUIPVUBTTVNJOHBOZSFTQPOTJCJMJUZ"UUIFMFYJDBM
MFWFMJUBWPJEFEUIFXPSEBQPMPHJ[Fw ;IBOH


%FBS.S.JOJTUFS
0OCFIBMGPGUIF6OJUFE4UBUFT(PWFSONFOU *OPXPVUMJOFTUFQTUPSF
TPMWFUIJTJTTVF
#PUI1SFTJEFOU#VTIBOE4FDSFUBSZPG4UBUF1PXFMMIBWFFYQSFTTFEUIFJS
TJODFSFSFHSFUPWFSZPVSNJTTJOHQJMPUBOEBJSDSBGU1MFBTFDPOWFZUPUIF
$IJOFTFQFPQMFBOEUPUIFGBNJMZPGUIFQJMPU8BOH8FJUIBUXFBSFWFSZ
TPSSZGPSUIFJSMPTT
"MUIPVHIUIFGVMMQJDUVSFPGXIBUUSBOTQJSFEJTTUJMMVODMFBS BDDPSEJOH
UPPVSJOGPSNBUJPO PVSTFWFSFMZDSJQQMFEBJSDSBGUNBEFBOFNFSHFODZ
MBOEJOHBGUFSGPMMPXJOHJOUFSOBUJPOBMFNFSHFODZQSPDFEVSFT8FBSFWFSZ
TPSSZUIFFOUFSJOHPG$IJOBTBJSTQBDFBOEUIFMBOEJOHEJEOPUIBWFWFS
CBMDMFBSBODF CVUWFSZQMFBTFEUIFDSFXMBOEFETBGFMZ
8FBQQSFDJBUF$IJOBTFGGPSUTUPTFFUPUIFXFMMCFJOHPGPVSDSFX
*OWJFXPGUIFUSBHJDJODJEFOUBOECBTFEPONZEJTDVTTJPOTXJUIZPVS
SFQSFTFOUBUJWF XFIBWFBHSFFEUPUIFGPMMPXJOHBDUJPOT
#PUITJEFTBHSFFUPIPMEBNFFUJOHUPEJTDVTTUIFJODJEFOU.ZHPWFSO
NFOUVOEFSTUBOETBOEFYQFDUTUIBUPVSBJSDSFXXJMMCFQFSNJUUFEUPEF
QBSU$IJOBBTTPPOBTQPTTJCMF
5IFNFFUJOHXPVMETUBSU"QSJM 
Language and the Law 309

5IFNFFUJOHBHFOEBXPVMEJODMVEFEJTDVTTJPOPGUIFDBVTFPGUIFJODJ
EFOU QPTTJCMFSFDPNNFOEBUJPOTXIFSFCZTVDIDPMMJTJPOTDPVMECFBWPJEFE
JOUIFGVUVSF EFWFMPQNFOUPGBQMBOGPSQSPNQUSFUVSOPGUIF&1BJS
DSBGU BOEPUIFSSFMBUFEJTTVFT8FBDLOPXMFEHFZPVSHPWFSONFOUTJOUFO
UJPOUPSBJTF64SFDPOOBJTTBODFNJTTJPOTOFBS$IJOBJOUIFNFFUJOH
4JODFSFMZ
+PTFQI81SVFIFS<64"NCBTTBEPS>

5IFNFEJBPOCPUITJEFTPGUIF1BDJGJDCFHBOJOUFSQSFUJOHUIFMFUUFS
JNNFEJBUFMZUIF$IJOFTFMJUFSBMMZBOEUIF"NFSJDBOTGJHVSBUJWFMZ5IFUXP
JOTUBODFTPGiTPSSZwJOUIF&OHMJTIUFYUXFSFNVDIEJTDVTTFEBOEBOBMZ[FE
BTXFMMBTUIFWBSJPVTCBDLUSBOTMBUJPOT5IFUSBOTMBUJPOGSPN&OHMJTIUP$IJ
OFTFPGGFSFEBUSBOTMBUPSBDIPJDFPGBUMFBTUTJYBMUFSOBUJWFT*OJUTPXO$IJ
OFTFWFSTJPO IPXFWFS UIF64DIPTFUIFXPSEXBOYJ ;IBOH
B
XPSEOPUOPSNBMMZVTFEJO$IJOFTFXIFOJOWPMWJOHEFBUI BOEOPUPOFPG
UIFUZQJDBMTJYUFSNT

;IBOHBSHVFTUIBUUIJTBQPMPHZTIPVMECFWJFXFEOPUPOMZBTBTJNQMF
TQFFDIBDUCVUBMTPBTBEJTDPVSTFFWFOU FYUFOEJOHCFZPOEJOEJWJEVBMCF
IBWJPSUPOBUJPOBMCFIBWJPSPOFIJHIMZJEFPMPHJDBMMZJOWFTUFEGPSCPUITJEFT
-BOHVBHFCFDBNFBGJFMEPGDPNCBUPGDPNQFUJOHJEFPMPHJFT*UXBTOPUPOMZ
BOPVUDPNFPGTVDIOFHPUJBUJPOTCVUBMTPUIFNFBOTUPUIFN

Language and the Law


"DDPSEJOHUP'SBLF i5IF:BLBOMFHBMTZTUFNJTNBOJGFTUBMNPTUFYDMVTJWFMZ
UISPVHIPOFLJOEPGCFIBWJPSUBML$POTFRVFOUMZUIFFUIOPHSBQIFSTSFDPSE
PGPCTFSWBUJPOTPGMJUJHBUJPOJTMBSHFMZBMJOHVJTUJDSFDPSE BOEUIFMFHBMTZTUFN
JTBDPEFGPSUBMLJOH BMJOHVJTUJDDPEFw 'SBLFUIF:BLBOBSF1IJMJQ
QJOF.VTMJNTJOIBCJUJOHUIFJTMBOEPG#BTJMBOTPVUIXFTUPG.JOEBOBP
#Z
DPOUSBTU UIFMBXTPGUIF6OJUFE4UBUFTBSFXSJUUFOEPXO BOEMFHBMJOUFSQSF
UBUJPOTBOEEFDJTJPOTIBWFCFFOSFDPSEFEJOTDPSFTPGWPMVNFT#VUUIFMBO
HVBHFPGUIFMBXJTKVTUBTNVDITQPLFOBTJUJTSFBE BOEJUTOBUVSFNBZCFB
TPVSDFPGQSPCMFNTGPSJOEJWJEVBMTFOHBHFEJOMJUJHBUJPO0OFTVDIQSPCMFN
DPODFSOTUIFVOEFSTUBOEJOHPGMFHBMUFSNTPOUIFQBSUPGUIPTF"NFSJDBO
DJUJ[FOTXIPTFOBUJWFMBOHVBHFJTOPU&OHMJTIBOPUIFSIBTUPEPXJUIDPN
QSFIFOEJOHUIFTQFDJBMJ[FEMBOHVBHFPGUIFMFHBMQSPGFTTJPO EJGGJDVMUFWFO
310 Chapter 14: Linguistic Anthropology in a Globalized World

GPSOBUJWF&OHMJTITQFBLFST/PUBGFXDPNNPOMZVTFEMFHBMUFSNTBSFGPS
FJHO PWFSMZGPSNBM KBSHPOJTUJD PSBCTFOUGSPNDPNNPOTQFFDIUPTVDIBO
FYUFOUUIBUMJUJHBOUTGSFRVFOUMZGJOEJUEJGGJDVMUUPGPMMPXDPVSUQSPDFFEJOHT
'PSFYBNQMF IPXNBOZDPMMFHFFEVDBUFEQFPQMFLOPXUIFNFBOJOHTPGTVDI
MFHBMUFSNTBOEFYQSFTTJPOTBTWFOJSF UPSU FNJOFOUEPNBJO QVSTVBOUUP LOPX
BMMNFOCZUIFTFQSFTFOUT BOE JO
GMBHSBOUFEFMJDUP "MUIPVHINPTUDJUJ[FOT
NBZOFWFSCFDPNFMJUJHBOUT UIFZEPFODPVOUFSMFHBMMBOHVBHFJOJOTVSBODF
QPMJDJFTBOEPUIFSDPOUSBDUVBMEPDVNFOUT"IVNPSPVTRVPUBUJPOGSPN5IF
5VMTB5SJCVOF 0DUPCFS  JMMVTUSBUFTKVTUIPXXPSEZ QPNQPVT BOE
SFQFUJUJPVTMFHBMMBOHVBHFDBOBQQFBSUPMBZQFPQMF5IFTJNQMFPGGFSFY
QSFTTFECZUIFTFOUFODFi)BWFBOPSBOHFwNJHIUSFBEJOMFHBMFTFBTi*IFSFCZ
HJWFBOEDPOWFZUPZPV BMMBOETJOHVMBS NZFTUBUFBOEJOUFSFTU SJHIU UJUMF
DMBJNBOEBEWBOUBHFTPGBOEJOTBJEPSBOHF UPHFUIFSXJUIJUTSJOE TLJO KVJDF
QVMQ BOEQJQTBOEBMMSJHIUTBOEBEWBOUBHFTUIFSFJOBOEGVMMQPXFSUPCJUF
TVDL PSPUIFSXJTFFBUUIFTBNFPSHJWFUIFTBNFBXBZXJUIPSXJUIPVUUIF
SJOE TLJO KVJDF QVMQBOEQJQTw RVPUFEJO)BHFSo

5IFTQFDJGJDQISBTJOHPGRVFTUJPOTDBOJOGMVFODFUIFBOTXFSTPGXJUOFTTFT
"OFYQFSJNFOUSFWFBMFEUIBUUIFVTFPGUIFXPSETNBTIFE JOBOJORVJSZDPO
DFSOJOHUIFDPMMJTJPOPGUXPDBSTUFOEFEUPFMJDJUFTUJNBUFTPGIJHIFSTQFFE
UIBOUIFVTFPGTVDIXPSETBTDPMMJEFE CVNQFE IJU PSDPOUBDUFE JOEFTDFOE
JOHPSEFS
'VSUIFS TVCKFDUTTIPXOBGJMNPGUXPDBSTDPMMJEJOHSFTQPOEFEUP
UIFRVFTUJPOi%JEZPVTFFBOZCSPLFOHMBTT wNPSFPGUFOXJUIBZFTJGUIF
RVFTUJPOFSVTFEUIFXPSE TNBTIFE SBUIFSUIBOUIFNJMEFSXPSEIJU FWFO
UIPVHIUIFGJMNIBETIPXOOPCSPLFOHMBTTBUBMM -PGUVTBOE1BMNFS

*OHFOFSBM IPX UIJOHTBSFTBJEJOBDPVSUSPPNUIFTQFFDICFIBWJPSPG
UIFQSPTFDVUJOHBUUPSOFZ UIFMFHBMDPVOTFMGPSUIFEFGFOEBOU UIFEFGFOEBOU
BOEXJUOFTTFTNBZDBSSZNPSFXFJHIUUIBOXIBUJTBDUVBMMZCFJOHTBJE'PS
FYBNQMF XIBUIBTCFFODIBSBDUFSJ[FEBTBiQPXFSMFTTwBOEUIFSFGPSFVO
DPOWJODJOHNPEFPGTQFFDIJODMVEFTUIFVTFPGIFEHFT i1FSIBps.. wi1PT
TJCMZ wPSi*G*NOPUNJTUBLen..w
POUIFQBSUPGUIFEFGFOEBOUPSB
XJUOFTT "OE XIFO MBXZFST USZ UP NBOJQVMBUF BOE DPOUSPM XJUOFTTFT UPP
UJHIUMZ CZJOUFSSVQUJOHUIFN OPUMFUUJOHUIFNUFTUJGZBTGVMMZBTUIFZXPVME
MJLFUP
UIFJNQSFTTJPONBZCFDSFBUFEUIBUUIFMBXZFSTIBWFMJUUMFDPOGJEFODF
JOUIFUFTUJNPOZCFJOHHJWFO"KVSPSTOFHBUJWFJNQSFTTJPOPGBMBXZFSBTB
SFTVMUPGIJTPSIFSTQFFDICFIBWJPSXJUIXJUOFTTFTNBZXFMMCFUSBOTGFSSFEUP
UIFQFSTPOUIFMBXZFSJTSFQSFTFOUJOH XJUIQPTTJCMFDPOTFRVFODFTGPSUIF
DBTF 0#BSSBOE$POMFZ

Language and the Law 311

*GBRVFTUJPOFSTVTFPGQBSUJDVMBSXPSETPSDPOTUSVDUJPOTDBOJOGMVFODF
UIFBOTXFSTXJUIPVUUIFSFTQPOEFOUPSKVSPSTCFJOHBXBSFPGJU PSJGUIF
IJHIMZTQFDJBMJ[FEMBOHVBHFVTFEJTOPUGVMMZJOUFMMJHJCMFUPUIFQFSTPODPO
DFSOFE TPNFSFNFEZJTJOEJDBUFE*OSFDFOUZFBSTNBOZJOTVSBODFQPMJDJFT
IBWF JOGBDU CFFOXSJUUFOJONPSFVOEFSTUBOEBCMFMBOHVBHFPSJODMVEFEEFG
JOJUJPOTPGUIFMFHBMUFSNTVTFE4UZMJTUJDDIBOHFTNBEFUPFMJNJOBUF PSBU
MFBTUBMMFWJBUF JODPNQSFIFOTJCMFMFHBMGPSNVMBUJPOTBSFFYBNQMFTPGBQQMJFE
MJOHVJTUJDT
"DPODSFUFFYBNQMFPGUIFBQQMJDBUJPOPGMJOHVJTUJDGJOEJOHTUPTPDJBMJTTVFT
JTUIFDBTFPGUIFi#MBDL&OHMJTIUSJBMwJO"OO"SCPS TPSFGFSSFEUPBOEEF
TDSJCFECZ8JMMJBN-BCPW 
POFPGUIFNPTUEJTUJOHVJTIFETPDJPMJO
HVJTUTJOUIF6OJUFE4UBUFT*OUIFT UIFDJUZPG"OO"SCPS .JDIJHBO
EFDJEFEUPEJTUSJCVUFMPXJODPNFIPVTJOHJOWBSJPVTOFJHICPSIPPETSBUIFS
UIBODPODFOUSBUFJUJOUIFEPXOUPXOBSFB0OFPGUIFSFTVMUTPGTDBUUFSFE
TJUFIPVTJOHXBTUIBU"GSJDBO"NFSJDBODIJMESFOGSPNUIFQSPKFDUCVJMUPO
(SFFO3PBECFHBOBUUFOEJOHUIF.BSUJO-VUIFS,JOH&MFNFOUBSZ4DIPPM
XIJDIUIFODBNFUPTFSWFQFSDFOUXIJUF QFSDFOU"GSJDBO"NFSJDBO
BOEQFSDFOU"TJBOBOE-BUJOPQVQJMT
4FWFSBMZFBSTMBUFS UIFNPUIFSTPGUIF"GSJDBO"NFSJDBOQVQJMTGSPNUIF
QSPKFDUCFDBNFVQTFUUIBUUIFJSDIJMESFOXFSFEPJOHRVJUFQPPSMZJOTDIPPM
"DDPSEJOHUPUIFTDIPPMTUBGG UIFTUVEFOUTXFSFFJUIFSFNPUJPOBMMZEJT
UVSCFEPSIBEMFBSOJOHEJTBCJMJUJFT BOEJOHFOFSBMFYIJCJUFECFIBWJPSQSPC
MFNT#FMJFWJOHUIFJSDIJMESFOUPCFOPSNBM GPVSPGUIFNPUIFSTTPVHIUPVU
MFHBMBTTJTUBODF BOEPO+VMZ  POCFIBMGPGGJGUFFO"GSJDBO"NFSJDBO
QVQJMT DIBSHFEUIF,JOHTDIPPMXJUIGBJMVSFUPUBLFJOUPDPOTJEFSBUJPOUIF
DVMUVSBMBOETPDJPFDPOPNJDGBDUPSTUIBUIBEBGGFDUFEUIFTFQVQJMTQSPHSFTT
5IFQMBJOUJGGTBSHVFEUIBUUIFGBJMVSFPGUIFTDIPPMUPUBLFBQQSPQSJBUFBDUJPO
UP PWFSDPNFUIFMJOHVJTUJDCBSSJFSFODPVOUFSFECZUIF(SFFO3PBEDIJMESFO
OBNFMZ UIBUUIFZTQPLFBWFSOBDVMBSUIFOSFGFSSFEUPBT#MBDL&OHMJTIUIBU
XBTRVJUFEJGGFSFOUGSPNUIFMBOHVBHFTQPLFOCZUIFNBKPSJUZPGUIFQVQJMT
JNQFEFEUIFJSDIJMESFOTFRVBMQBSUJDJQBUJPOJOUIFTDIPPMTJOTUSVDUJPOBM
QSPHSBN8JUOFTTFTBUUIFUSJBMJODMVEFEMJOHVJTUTLOPXOGPSUIFJSXPSLJO
TPDJPMJOHVJTUJDT -BCPWBNPOHUIFN5IFKVEHFSVMFEJOGBWPSPGUIFQMBJO
UJGGTPO+VMZ  BOEJODPSQPSBUFEJOUPIJTEFDJTJPOBTUBUFNFOUUIBU
TVNNBSJ[FEUIFSFTVMUTPGTPNFUXFOUZZFBSTPGMJOHVJTUJDSFTFBSDIDPO
DFSOJOHUIFOBUVSFPG"GSJDBO"NFSJDBO&OHMJTI5IFSFMFWBOUQBTTBHFSFBET
BTGPMMPXT
312 Chapter 14: Linguistic Anthropology in a Globalized World

"MMPGUIFEJTUJOHVJTIFESFTFBSDIFSTBOEQSPGFTTJPOBMTUFTUJGJFEBTUPUIFFY
JTUFODFPGBMBOHVBHFTZTUFN XIJDIJTBQBSUPGUIF&OHMJTIMBOHVBHFCVUEJG
GFSFOUJOTJHOJGJDBOUSFTQFDUTGSPNUIFTUBOEBSE&OHMJTIVTFEJOUIFTDIPPM
TFUUJOH UIFDPNNFSDJBMXPSME UIFXPSMEPGUIFBSUTBOETDJFODF BNPOHUIF
QSPGFTTJPOT BOEJOHPWFSONFOU*UJTBOEIBTCFFOVTFEBUTPNFUJNFCZ
QFSDFOUPGUIFCMBDLQFPQMFPGUIJTDPVOUSZBOEIBTBTJUTHFOFTJTUIFUSBOT
BDUJPOBMPSQJEHJOMBOHVBHFPGUIFTMBWFT XIJDIBGUFSBHFOFSBUJPOPSUXP
CFDBNFB$SFPMFMBOHVBHF4JODFUIFOJUIBTDPOTUBOUMZCFFOSFGJOFEBOE
CSPVHIUDMPTFSUPUIFNBJOTUSFBNPGTPDJFUZ*UTUJMMGMPVSJTIFTJOBSFBTXIFSF
UIFSFBSFDPODFOUSBUJPOTPGCMBDLQFPQMF*UDPOUBJOTBTQFDUTPG4PVUIFSOEJ
BMFDUBOEJTVTFEMBSHFMZCZCMBDLQFPQMFJOUIFJSDBTVBMDPOWFSTBUJPOBOEJO
GPSNBMUBML<2VPUFEJO-BCPW>

*OUIFDPODMVTJPOPGIJTBSUJDMF -BCPWTUSFTTFEUIFOFFEGPSCPUITDJFO
UJGJDPCKFDUJWJUZBOEDPNNJUNFOUUPTPDJBMBDUJPO)FGVSUIFSQPJOUFEPVU
UIBUUIFUSJBMOPUPOMZUPPLQMBDFPOUIFJOJUJBUJWFPG"GSJDBO"NFSJDBOQFP
QMFCVUXBTJOTUSVNFOUBMJOCSJOHJOH"GSJDBO"NFSJDBOMJOHVJTUTJOUPUIF
GJFMEPGSFTFBSDIDPODFSOJOH"GSJDBO"NFSJDBO&OHMJTI #FDBVTF"GSJDBO
"NFSJDBO&OHMJTIJTEJTDVTTFEJOTPNFEFUBJMJO$IBQUFS -BCPWTBDDPVOU
PGUIFUSJBMJO"OO"SCPSJTHSFBUMZBCCSFWJBUFEIFSF

5PNFOUJPOBOBQQMJDBUJPOPGBEJGGFSFOUUZQF (VNQFS[
*O B
64/BWZEPDUPSPG'JMJQJOPPSJHJOBUUFOEFEBOFNFSHFODZSPPNDBTF"
TJYUFFONPOUIPMEHJSMXBTCSPVHIUUPUIFIPTQJUBMXJUICVSOTUIBUIFSNPUIFS
BOETUFQGBUIFSDMBJNFEIBECFFODBVTFECZPWFSFYQPTVSFUPUIFTVO5IF
DIJMEXBTUSFBUFEBOESFMFBTFEJOUIFQBSFOUTDBSF4JYIPVSTMBUFS UIFDIJME
XBTCSPVHIUCBDLUPUIFFNFSHFODZSPPNBOEFYBNJOFECZBOPUIFSQIZTJ
DJBOUIFOPOEVUZ CVUTIFEJFEMBUFSUIBUEBZ*UXBTGPVOEUIBUUIFCVSOTIBE
CFFOJOUFOUJPOBMMZJOGMJDUFECZIFSTUFQGBUIFS XIPXBTDPOWJDUFEPGTFDPOE
EFHSFFNBOTMBVHIUFSBOETFOUFODFEUPBQSJTPOUFSN
4PNFUJNFMBUFS UIFGJSTUFYBNJOJOHEPDUPSXBTBDDVTFEPGQFSKVSZGPS
TUBUFNFOUTNBEFXIFOIFUFTUJGJFEGPSUIFQSPTFDVUJPOBUUIFTUFQGBUIFSTUSJBM
BMUIPVHIIJTUFTUJNPOZIBECFFOTVQQPSUFECZUIFIPTQJUBMQFSTPOOFMXIP
IBEBTTJTUFEIJNJOUIFFNFSHFODZSPPN"DDPSEJOHUPBSFQPSUCZUIF'#*
BHFOUDIBSHFEXJUIJOWFTUJHBUJOHUIFDBTF UIFEPDUPSTIPVMEIBWFTVTQFDUFE
DIJMEBCVTFBOELFQUUIFDIJMEJOUIFIPTQJUBMJOTUFBEPGSFMFBTJOHIFSUPUIF
QBSFOUT%VSJOHUIFDPVSUQSPDFFEJOHT POFPGUIFEFGFOTFBUUPSOFZTQPJOUFE
PVUUIBUPOTFWFSBMPDDBTJPOTUIFEPDUPSIBEVTFEQSPOPVOTJOBiGVOOZwXBZ
Language and the Law 313

FWFOUIPVHIIJT&OHMJTIXBTHPPE5IFEPDUPSTOBUJWFMBOHVBHFXBT"L
MBOPO CVUIFXBTGMVFOUJO5BHBMPHBOE&OHMJTI UIFUXPPGGJDJBMMBOHVBHFTPG
UIF1IJMJQQJOFT"MJOHVJTUXBTCSPVHIUJOBTBOFYQFSUUPEFUFSNJOFXIFUIFS
BDSPTTDVMUVSBMNJTVOEFSTUBOEJOHDPVMEIBWFPDDVSSFE5IFMJOHVJTUXBT
BCMFUPFTUBCMJTIUIBUTFWFSBMQBTTBHFTJOUIFEPDUPSTUFTUJNPOZXFSFBN
CJHVPVTCFDBVTFIFIBEDBSSJFEPWFSJOUP&OHMJTIUIFTZOUBYPGIJTOBUJWF
MBOHVBHF TZOUBYUIBUJO"LMBOPOPS5BHBMPHXPVMEOPUIBWFCFFOBNCJHV
PVT5PRVPUFGSPN(VNQFS[TDPODMVTJPO

8FIBWFEFNPOTUSBUFEUIBUNBOZBTQFDUTPG<UIFEPDUPST>CFIBWJPSDBOCF
FYQMBJOFECZIJTMJOHVJTUJDBOEDVMUVSBMCBDLHSPVOE5IFGFBUVSFTJORVFTUJPO
BSFBVUPNBUJDBOEOPUSFBEJMZTVCKFDUUPDPOTDJPVTDPOUSPM5IFZEPOPUBG
GFDUIJTXSJUUFOQFSGPSNBODF ZFUUIFZBSFMJLFMZUPSFDVSXIFOFWFSIFJTGBDFE
XJUIDPNQMFYPSBMDPNNVOJDBUJWFUBTLT TPUIBU JOTQJUFPGUIFGBDUUIBUIF
TQFBLT&OHMJTIXFMM IFJTNPSFMJLFMZUIBOOBUJWFTQFBLFSTPG&OHMJTIUPCF
NJTVOEFSTUPPEJOTVDITJUVBUJPOT (VNQFS[

5IFNJTDPNNVOJDBUJPOBSHVNFOUXBTBDDFQUFECZNPTUPGUIFKVSPST BOE
UIFQFSKVSZDIBSHFTBHBJOTUUIFEPDUPSXFSFEJTNJTTFE
0UIFSTXIPIBWFTUVEJFEIPXUIFVTFPGMBOHVBHFDBOBGGFDUMFHBMQSP
DFFEJOHTIBWFQPJOUFEPVUTFWFSBMJOTUBODFTJOXIJDIUIFTFSWJDFTPGTPNF
POFXJUIMJOHVJTUJDFYQFSUJTFXPVMECFIFMQGVM4VDIBTJUVBUJPODPVMEPDDVS
XIFOMFHBMKBSHPODPNCJOFEXJUIDFSUBJOGFBUVSFTPGHSBNNBS GPSFYBNQMF
QBTTJWFDPOTUSVDUJPOTPSUIFFYDFTTJWFVTFPGOPVOTXIFSFWFSCTXPVMECF
DMFBSFSPSNPSFEJSFDU
LFFQTKVSPSTGSPNVOEFSTUBOEJOHUIFJOTUSVDUJPOTUIF
KVEHFHJWFTUPUIFN-JOHVJTUJDFYQFSUJTFNBZBMTPCFOFFEFEUPDPVOUFSQPT
TJCMFMJTUFOFSiDPOUBNJOBUJPO wBEBOHFSXIFOKVSPSTBSFMFGUUPUIFJSPXOSF
TPVSDFT UP JOUFSQSFU SFDPSEFE DPOWFSTBUJPOT CFUXFFO UIF EFGFOEBOU BOE
PUIFST5IFMJOHVJTUNBZCFBCMF GPSFYBNQMF UPJOEJDBUFUIBUUIFEFGFOEBOUT
TJMFODFDPVMEIBWFCFFOEVFUPCPSFEPN QPMJUFOFTT PSTPNFPUIFSGBDUPS
SBUIFSUIBOUPUBDJUBHSFFNFOUXJUIXIBUPUIFSTQFBLFSTNBZIBWFCFFOTBZ
JOH PSUPJEFOUJGZ CZUIFJSEJBMFDUBMPSJEJPMFDUBMDIBSBDUFSJTUJDT UIFEFGFO
EBOUT VUUFSBODFT BNPOH B DPOGVTJOH WBSJFUZ PG WPJDFT "OPUIFS UZQF PG
TJUVBUJPODPVMEPDDVSJGTUBUFNFOUTPSRVFTUJPOTDPOUBJOJOHBQSFTVQQPTJUJPO
DSFBUFUIFBTTVNQUJPOPGUSVUIXIFOTVDIBOBTTVNQUJPOJTOPUXBSSBOUFE
4VDINJTMFBEJOHVTFPGMBOHVBHFJTSFMBUFEUPUIFXFMMLOPXORVFTUJPOi)BWF
ZPVTUPQQFECFBUJOHZPVSXJGF wUPXIJDIUIFQFSTPORVFTUJPOFEJTFYQFDUFE
314 Chapter 14: Linguistic Anthropology in a Globalized World

UPBOTXFSZFTPSOP3FHBSEMFTTPGUIFDIPJDFPGBOTXFS UIFDMFBSJNQMJDBUJPO
JTUIBUTVDIBNJTEFFEEJEJOGBDUUBLFQMBDF0OBCSPBEFSTDBMF UIFMJOHVJTU
NBZCFPGBTTJTUBODFUPUIFDPVSUCZBOBMZ[JOHSFDPSEJOHTGPSDMVFTSFMBUJOHUP
UIFJOUFOUJPOTBOEUIFDPOWFSTBUJPOBMTUSBUFHJFTPGTQFBLFST
5IFNBOZBTQFDUTUPDPNNVOJDBUJWFCFIBWJPSJODPVSUEFTFSWFBUUFOUJPOJG
BMMSFMFWBOUJOGPSNBUJPOJTUPCFBWBJMBCMFUPUIFKVEHFBOEUIFKVSPST"NPOH
UIFGBDUPSTUPCFDPOTJEFSFEBSFUIFDVMUVSBMCBDLHSPVOEBOEDPNNVOJDBUJWF
DPNQFUFODFPGUIFEFGFOEBOU UIFQMBJOUJGG BOEUIFXJUOFTTFTUIFUZQFTPG
RVFTUJPOTBTLFEEVSJOHBUSJBM GPSFYBNQMF UIFVTFPGMFBEJOHRVFTUJPOT
BOE
UIFDPOUFYUJOXIJDIUIFZBSFBTLFEUIFSFMBUJWFWBMVFPGOBSSBUJWFUFTUJNPOZ
BTBHBJOTUUFTUJNPOZMJNJUFEUPTQFDJGJDCSJFGBOTXFSTUIFVTFPGJOUFSSVQUJPOT
UIFSFMBUJPOCFUXFFOCPEZNPWFNFOUTBOEUIFVUUFSBODFTPGMJUJHBOUTBOEXJU
OFTTFTUIFOBUVSFPGUIFJOTUSVDUJPOTHJWFOCZUIFKVEHFUPUIFKVSPSTBOEPUI
FST*UJTDMFBSUIBUMJOHVJTUJDFYQFSUJTFJODPVSUQSPDFFEJOHTDBOCFPGWBMVF

English as an International Language


1FPQMFXIPTFNPUIFSUPOHVFJT&OHMJTIIBWFBHSFBUBEWBOUBHFPWFSTQFBL
FSTPGPUIFSMBOHVBHFT/PUPOMZJT&OHMJTIUIFPGGJDJBMPSVOPGGJDJBMMBOHVBHF
JOTPNFFJHIUZDPVOUSJFT CVUJUJTBMTPGBWPSFEBTUIFMBOHVBHFPGJOUFSOB
UJPOBMDPOHSFTTFT DPNNFSDJBMOFHPUJBUJPOT TDJFODFKPVSOBMT QPQVMBSNVTJD
TQPSUT DJWJMBWJBUJPO EJQMPNBDZ UFDIOPMPHZBOEJOEVTUSZ BOEPUIFSVOEFS
UBLJOHTPSBDUJWJUJFTJOWPMWJOHXPSMEXJEFQBSUJDJQBUJPO"NFSJDBOTUSBWFMJOH
BCSPBEIBWFCFDPNFTPBDDVTUPNFEUPIBWJOHGPSFJHOFSTDPNNVOJDBUFXJUI
UIFNJO&OHMJTIUIBUUIFZBSFTVSQSJTFEBOEFWFOBOOPZFE VOKVTUJGJBCMZ

XIFO UIFTF FYQFDUBUJPOT BSF OPU NFU *O TIPSU  &OHMJTI IBT CFDPNF UIF
XPSMETOVNCFSPOFTFDPOEMBOHVBHF FWFOUIPVHISFTJTUBODFUPJUJTHSPX
JOHJOTPNFQBSUTPGUIF5IJSE8PSME
5IFQSJNBDZPG&OHMJTIJTPGSFMBUJWFMZSFDFOUEBUF EFSJWJOHGSPNUIFQP
MJUJDBM FDPOPNJD TDJFOUJGJD BOEUFDIOPMPHJDBMSPMFUIF6OJUFE4UBUFTIBT
DPNFUPQMBZJOUIFEFDBEFTGPMMPXJOH8PSME8BS**%VSJOHUIF.JEEMF
"HFT -BUJOTFSWFEBTUIFMBOHVBHFPGJOUFMMFDUVBMEJTDPVSTFJONPTUDPVO
USJFTPG&VSPQFFWFOUIPVHIJUXBTOPMPOHFSUIFGJSTUMBOHVBHFPGBOZTQFFDI
DPNNVOJUZ'SFODIGVODUJPOFEBTUIFiVOJWFSTBMwMBOHVBHFGSPNUIFTFWFO
UFFOUIUISPVHIUIFOJOFUFFOUIDFOUVSJFTCZWJSUVFPG'SFODIQPMJUJDBMBOEJO
UFMMFDUVBMJOGMVFODF BOEJUSFNBJOFEUIFQSFGFSSFEMBOHVBHFPGEJQMPNBDZ
VOUJM8PSME8BS**
Always On: New Literacies and Language in an Online Global World 315

"NFSJDBOTGJOEJUCPUIGMBUUFSJOHBOEDPOWFOJFOUUIBUTPNBOZQFPQMFUIF
XPSMEPWFSIBWFBUMFBTUBXPSLJOHLOPXMFEHFPG&OHMJTI CVUHJWFUIFNBU
UFSMJUUMFGVSUIFSUIPVHIUBGUFSBMM UIFZBSFVTFEUPUSBWFMJOHGPSUIPVTBOET
PGNJMFTJOUIFJSPXODPVOUSZBOEUISPVHIPVUNVDIPG$BOBEBXJUIPVUB
DIBOHFJOMBOHVBHF#VUJO&VSPQF UIFTJUVBUJPOJTTUSJLJOHMZEJGGFSFOUUIFSF
USBWFMJOHBNFSFNJMFTNBZJOWPMWFDSPTTJOHUXPPSFWFOUISFFMBOHVBHF
CPVOEBSJFT*UJTUIFSFGPSFOPUTVSQSJTJOHUIBUNBOZZPVOH&VSPQFBOTCFHJO
TFSJPVTTUVEZPGGPSFJHOMBOHVBHFT JODMVEJOH&OHMJTI JOQSJNBSZPSTFDPOE
BSZTDIPPMT *UTIPVMECFOPUFEUIBU(FSNBOJTSFHBJOJOHTPNFPGUIFQSFT
UJHFJUMPTUBGUFS8PSME8BS**

"DDPSEJOHUPBXFMMLOPXO$[FDIQSPWFSC UIFOVNCFSPGMBOHVBHFTB
QFSTPOLOPXT UIBUNBOZUJNFTJTIFPSTIFBIVNBOCFJOH4JHOJGJDBOUCFO
FGJUJOEFFEBDDSVFTUPUIPTFXIPMFBSOUPTQFBLNPSFUIBOKVTUUIFJSNPUIFS
UPOHVF5IFZOPUPOMZBSFNBEFNPSFBXBSFPGUIFXPSLJOHTPGUIFJSPXO
MBOHVBHFCVUBMTPBSFGBSCFUUFSBCMFUPBQQSFDJBUFBOEVOEFSTUBOEPUIFSDVM
UVSFT5IFMBDLPGTLJMMTJOPUIFSMBOHVBHFTPOUIFQBSUPGZPVOH&OHMJTI
TQFBLJOH "NFSJDBOT XBT SFDPHOJ[FE CZ UIF 1SFTJEFOUT $PNNJTTJPO PO
'PSFJHO-BOHVBHFBOE*OUFSOBUJPOBM4UVEJFT XIJDIJOJUTGJOBMSFQPSUTUBUFE
UIBUi"NFSJDBOTTDBOEBMPVTJODPNQFUFODFJOGPSFJHOMBOHVBHFTBMTPFYQMBJOT
PVSEBOHFSPVTMZJOBEFRVBUFVOEFSTUBOEJOHPGXPSMEBGGBJSTw 

"TGPSDVMUVSBMBOEMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHJTUT BOZBUUFNQUPOUIFJSQBSUUP
DPOEVDUTFSJPVTGJFMEXPSLJOBGPSFJHOTFUUJOHXPVMECFJODPODFJWBCMFXJUI
PVUBUMFBTUTPNFLOPXMFEHFPGUIFMBOHVBHFPGUIPTFXIPNUIFZTUVEZ

Always On: New Literacies and Language


in an Online Global World
*UJTMJLFMZUIBUJGZPVBSFBUZQJDBMTUVEFOUSFBEJOHUIJTCPPL ZPVXJMMQSPC
BCMZIBWFTPNFPUIFSUBTLHPJOHPOBUUIFNPNFOU.BZCFZPVBSFXBUDI
JOHUFMFWJTJPOPSDIFDLJOHZPVS'BDFCPPLQBHF.BZCFZPVBSFBMTPJOTUBOU
NFTTBHJOH.BZCFZPVBSFDIFDLJOHTPNFGBDUZPVIBWFKVTUSFBEPOZPVS
J1BE1FSIBQTZPVBSFMJTUFOJOHUPNVTJD6OEPVCUFEMZZPVSTNBSUQIPOFJT
DIBSHFE TJUUJOHPOZPVSEFTL"OEXIFOZPVVTFUIBUDFMMQIPOFJUJTKVTU
BTMJLFMZUIBUZPVXJMMTFOEBUFYUNFTTBHFBTQSFTTUIFEJBMCVUUPO"OPC
WJPVTRVFTUJPOJT i8IBUBSFXF BTTQFBLFSTBOEXSJUFST EPJOHUPPVSMBO
HVBHFCZWJSUVFPGPVSOFXDPNNVOJDBUJPOUFDIOPMPHJFT BOEIPX JOUVSO
EPPVSMJOHVJTUJDQSBDUJDFTJNQBDUUIFXBZXFUIJOLBOEUIFXBZXFSFMBUF
316 Chapter 14: Linguistic Anthropology in a Globalized World

UPPUIFSQFPQMF w #BSPOY
*OPUIFSXPSET XIBUJTPVSMJOHVJTUJDMJGF
MJLFOPXUIBUXFBSFiBMXBZTPO w5IFSFBSFNBOZXBZTUPFYBNJOFMBO
HVBHFBOEEJHJUBMDPNNVOJDBUJPO CVUXFXJMMBEESFTTUIFGPVSNPTUJN
QPSUBOUJOUIJTTFDUJPO8FXJMMMPPLBUTPDJPMJOHVJTUJDDIBOHFT GPSNBM
TZOUBDUJDBMBOEHSBNNBUJDBMDIBOHFT DIBOHFTJOPSUIPHSBQIZ BOEQPTTJ
CMFDPHOJUJWFJNQBDUTPGUIFTFOFXMJUFSBDJFT$POOFDUJOHXJUIPVSEJTDVT
TJPOTPG&OHMJTIJOUIFMBTUTFDUJPO XFXJMMBMTPBEESFTTUIFMBOHVBHFPGUIF
JOUFSOBUJPOBM*OUFSOFU
4PDJPMJOHVJTUJDDIBOHFT"TXFIBWFBMSFBEZTBJE UIFVTFPGMBOHVBHFJTQFS
IBQTUIFNPTUJNQPSUBOUSFGMFDUJPOPGPOFTQFSTPOBMBOETPDJBMJEFOUJUZ4JN
QMZ QVU  MBOHVBHF JT XIP ZPV BSF 4PNF GJGUZ ZFBST BHP  UIF XFMMLOPXO
TPDJPMPHJTU&SWJOH(PGGNBO 
JOUSPEVDFEUIFUIFPSFUJDBMDPOTUSVDUPG
UIFiQSFTFOUBUJPOPGTFMGJOFWFSZEBZMJGFw5IPVHIBOUJDJQBUFECZ4IBLFTQFBSF
GPVSDFOUVSJFTFBSMJFSBMMUIFXPSMEJTBTUBHF(PGGNBOBSHVFEUIBUNVDI
PGTPDJBMMJGFPVSGBDFUJNFJTTQFOUNBOBHJOHIPXXFXBOUPUIFSTUPTFF
VT"OECFDBVTFXFBSFJONBOZXBZTXIBUXFQSFUFOEUPCF BT,VSU7PO
OFHVUTBJE UIJTIBTJNQPSUBOUQTZDIPMPHJDBMJNQMJDBUJPOTBTXFMM
*OOPOEJHJUBMFOWJSPONFOUT PVSTQFFDIBOEESFTTBSFUIFNPTUDPOTQJD
VPVTQSFTFOUBUJPOTPGPVSTFMWFT)PXFWFS JOEBZUPEBZ GBDFUPGBDFSFBMMJGF
XFBSFDPOTUSBJOFEJONBOZXBZT/PNBUUFSIPXDPPMIFUBMLTBOEIPX
CBHHZIJTQBOUTBSF BGJGUZZFBSPMENBMFDPMMFHFQSPGFTTPSTUJMMSFNBJOTUIBU
FWFOJGIJTCBMMDBQJTPOCBDLXBSET#VUPOUIF*OUFSOFUUIFTFSFTUSJDUJPOT
BSFEJMVUFEPSOPOFYJTUFOU0OUIF8FC OPUPOMZDBOXFCFBOPOZNPVT XF
DBOCFBOZCPEZ"MMCFUTBSFPGG8IFSFQSFWJPVTMZUIFJNQMJDJUSVMFTPGTPDJBM
QPMJUFOFTTNBZIBWFLFQUNZMBOHVBHFKVEJDJPVT JOBDPNNFOUUPBCMPHPS
BOPOMJOFOFXTTUPSZ *MJUFSBMMZDBOTBZXIBUFWFS*QMFBTFXJUIPVUGFBSPGTP
DJBMDPOTFRVFODFT
-JLFXJTF JOGBDFUPGBDFDPNNVOJDBUJPO *BNDPNQFMMFEUPJOUFSBDUXJUI
QFPQMFBOEDPOWFSTBUJPOTBTUIFZDPNFVQ:PVIBWFUPEFBMXJUINFFUJOH
UIBUPMECPZGSJFOEPOUIFRVBE*IBWFUPEFBMXJUIUIBUQSPCMFNTUVEFOU
XIPDPNFTUPUIFPGGJDFGPSIBOEIPMEJOHFWFSZEBZ8FDBOOPUBWPJEUIFTF
FODPVOUFST#VUJOUIFXPSMEPGEJHJUBMDPNNVOJDBUJPOT XFBSFBMMiMBO
HVBHF$[BST wBT/BPNJ#BSPOBSHVFT 
5IBUJT XFDPOUSPMXIPNXF
XBOUUPUBMLUPBOEXIFO BOEPOXIBUUFSNT5IPVHIJOUIFQBTU MFUUFST
BOEUFMFQIPOFTBMMPXFETPNFEFHSFFPGNBOBHFNFOUPGXIPNXFXPVME
DPNNVOJDBUFXJUI UIJTDPNQMFUFDPOUSPMPGBDDFTTJCJMJUZXFOPXIBWFJOUIF
UXFOUZGJSTUDFOUVSZJTVOQSFDFEFOUFE
Always On: New Literacies and Language in an Online Global World 317

5IFUZQFTPGDPNNVOJDBUJPOTIBWFBMTPSBEJDBMMZDIBOHFE5PUBLFKVTU
POFFYBNQMF UIFBOUISPQPMPHJTU#SPOJTMBX.BMJOPXTLJ 
QSPQPTFEUIBU
TPNFTQFFDIJTQIBUJDDPNNVOJDBUJPO TNBMMUBMLGPSJUTPXOTBLFSBUIFS
UIBOGPSDPOWFZJOHJOGPSNBUJPO"MMQFPQMFEPJU FWFSZXIFSF CFDBVTFJUJT
CPUIBCPOEJOHSJUVBMBOEBXBZPGSFHVMBUJOHEJTDPVSTF'PSJOTUBODF UXP
OFHPUJBUPSTNBZiHFUEPXOUPCVTJOFTTwBGUFSUIFZFYDIBOHFQMFBTBOUSJFTGPS
BXIJMF FWFOUIPVHIFBDINBZDBSFMJUUMFBCPVUUIFPUIFSTGBNJMZPSMBTU
OJHIUTCBMMHBNF#VUIPXUIFTFQMFBTBOUSJFTBSFFYDIBOHFENBZTFUUIFTUBHF
GPSIPXUIFSFTUPGUIFNFFUJOHXJMMHP%JHJUBMDPNNVOJDBUJPOPGGFSTCPUI
GBTUFSBOENPSFEJTUBOUQIBUJDDPNNVOJDBUJPO"TBOZQSPGFTTPSDBOUFMMZPV
UIFNPNFOUDMBTTFOET PVUDPNFUIFDFMMQIPOFT*OWBSJBCMZ UIFDPOWFSTB
UJPOJTCSJFGBOEWFSZQIBUJDi*UTNF)PXZPVEPJOH *NGJOF+VTUHPUPVU
PGDMBTT:FBI$BUDIZPVMBUFS#ZFw#VUUIFSFJTBMTPBOBMUFSOBUJWF5XJUUFS
BOEUFYUJOHPGGFSBOPUIFSXBZPGTFOEJOHQIBUJDTJHOBMT CVUUIFTFBSFiBXBZ
NFTTBHFTw #BSPO
XBJUJOHUPCFSFBEBUUIFSFDFJWFSTDPOWFOJFODF
5IFDIBSBDUFSMJNJUNBLFT5XJUUFSBMNPTUJOUFOUJPOBMMZEFTJHOFEGPS
QIBUJDDPNNVOJDBUJPO$PNCJOFEXJUITPDJBMOFUXPSLTJUFT XFBSFOFWFSBU
B MPTT UP LOPX XIBU PVS GSJFOET IBE GPS MVODI PS UIF MBUFTU DVUF UIJOH
(SBOENBTDBUEJE
"SF *OTUBOU .FTTBHFT 4QFFDI  'PSNBM -JOHVJTUJD $IBOHFT 8F NVTU SF
NFNCFSUIBUOPNBUUFSIPXTVQFSGJDJBMMZJUNBZBQQFBSUPCFUIFTBNFBT
GBDFUPGBDFJOUFSBDUJPOT EJHJUBMDPNNVOJDBUJPOJTOPU TQFFDI%BWJE$SZT
UBM 
TVHHFTUTUIBUUIFSFBSFBUMFBTUUISFFNBKPSEJGGFSFODFT'JSTU GPS
UIFNPTUQBSU UIFSFJTUIFMBDLPGTJNVMUBOFPVTGFFECBDLGPVOEJOBOBDUVBM
DPOWFSTBUJPO"MMUIFQSPYFNJDBOEQBSBMJOHVJTUJDGFBUVSFTBSFNJTTJOH5IF
GFFMJOHUIBUUIFPUIFSQFSTPOJTOPUiHFUUJOHwXIBUXFBSFTBZJOHXPVMEBMMPX
VTUPBMUFSPVSDPOWFSTBUJPOBMTUSBUFHZJOBGBDFUPGBDFFODPVOUFS4FDPOE
VOMJLF TBZ BUBQBSUZXIFSFXFPVSTFMWFTIBWFUPEFDJEFXIJDIPGUIFNBOZ
TVCDPOWFSTBUJPOTUPBUUFOEUP
JOBDIBUSPPNPS'BDFCPPLFODPVOUFS BMM
NFTTBHFTBSFDSFBUFEFRVBM5IJTJTCPUIBQMVTBOEBNJOVTi*UIBTOFWFS
CFFOQPTTJCMFCFGPSFJOUIFIJTUPSZPGIVNBODPNNVOJDBUJPO UPQBSUJDJQBUF
TJNVMUBOFPVTMZJONVMUJQMFDPOWFSTBUJPOTw"DUVBMMZ ZPVDBOOPXiDPOUSJCVUF
UP BT NBOZ BT ZPVS NFOUBM QPXFST BOE UZQJOH TQFFE QFSNJUw $SZTUBM

5IJSE UIFSIZUINPGDPNNVOJDBUJPOJTEJGGFSFOU5IFMBHCFUXFFO
TFOEJOHBNFTTBHFBOEHFUUJOHBSFTQPOTFJOEJHJUBMDPNNVOJDBUJPOJTWFSZ
EJGGFSFOUJOUFMFQIPOFPSGBDFUPGBDFFODPVOUFST5IJTDBODBVTFBGBJSEF
HSFFPGBNCJHVJUZ%JE+BOFSFBENZUXFFUZFU %JE1SPGFTTPS4NJUIHFUNZ
318 Chapter 14: Linguistic Anthropology in a Globalized World

FNBJM PSJTIFKVTUOPUHPJOHUPHJWFNFBOFYUFOTJPO %JE*HFUCBDLUP+PF


XIFOIFGSJFOEFENF PSEJE*GPSHFU
$IBOHFTJO0SUIPHSBQIZ$POWFSUJOHTQPLFOMBOHVBHFJOUPXSJUJOHIBT
OFWFSCFFOFBTZ FWFOUIPVHIUIFTDIPPMTZTUFNUSJFTUPHJWFVTQSFTDSJQUJWF
SVMFTBOEUFBDIUIBUUIFZBSFBCTPMVUFBOEVOBMUFSBCMF#VUFWFOUPEBZUIFSF
JTOPUDPNQMFUFBHSFFNFOUBCPVUiDPSSFDUwTQFMMJOHBOEQVODUVBUJPO8SJUJOH
DIBOHFTPWFSUJNFBTGBTIJPOTBOEPQJOJPOTDIBOHF'PSFYBNQMF XIBUEP
ZPV DBMM UIBU TNBMM QFSNFBCMF DPOUBJOFS UIBU IPMET UFB MFBWFT #BSPO

5IF0YGPSE&OHMJTI%JDUJPOBSZ DJUFTUFBCBH JO UFBCBH JO
 BOEUFBCBH JO"OE4IBLFTQFBSF UIFJDPOPGBMM&OHMJTIDPVSTFT
TQFMMFEIJTOBNFBIBMGEP[FOEJGGFSFOUXBZT5IBUPSUIPHSBQIJDDPOWFOUJPOT
BSFGMFYJCMFJTQBSUJDVMBSMZUSVFSFHBSEJOHEJHJUBMDPNNVOJDBUJPO*TJUPOMJOF
PSPOMJOF PS FNBJMPS FNBJM *TUIFJOUFSOFU TVQQPTFEUPCFDBQJUBMJ[FE 8IBU
EPXFEPBCPVUBMMUIPTFTTUIBUBSFOPX[T BTJO%BXH[ QJSBUFETPGUXBSF[
BOETIBSFEGJMF[ *TJU0, PSPLBZ *TJUBDDFQUBCMFUPVTFCUX GPSiCZUIFXBZw
JOBOFNBJMNFTTBHFUPBOZPOF FWFOBQSPGFTTPS
%PFTMPM NFBOiMBVHI
PVUMPVEwPSiMPUTPGMVDLw
"OPUIFSRVFTUJPOJT TIPVMEXFFODPVSBHFPSTUJGMFDSFBUJWJUZJOEJHJUBM
DPNNVOJDBUJPOPSUIPHSBQIZBOETUZMF $POTUBODF)BMFBOE+FTTF4DBOMPOJO
8JSFE4UZMF 
BSHVFUIBUiOPPOFSFBETFNBJMXJUISFEQFOJOIBOEwTP
XFTIPVMEiDFMFCSBUFTVCKFDUJWJUZwBOEiXSJUFUIFXBZQFPQMFUBMLw #BSPO

0UIFSTGFFMUIBUBMMPXJOHTVDIEJHJUBMBOBSDIZJTBSFDJQFGPSTPDJBM
BOEMJOHVJTUJDEJTBTUFS"T#BSPO 
TBZT i.PEFSOMJOHVJTUJDUIFPSZ
FTDIFXTQBTTJOHKVEHNFOUPOBOZMJOHVJTUJDWBSJBOU BOE*BNOPUBCPVUUPEP
TPOPX3BUIFS *NTVHHFTUJOHUIBUTIPVMEMJOHVJTUJDFOUSPQZTOPXCBMM XF
NBZEJTDPWFSUIBUQFSTPOBMMZFYQSFTTJWF DVMUVSBMMZBDDPNNPEBUJOH BOE
DMPDLESJWFOMBOHVBHFVTFSTXJMMGJOEJUJODSFBTJOHMZEJGGJDVMUUPVOEFSTUBOE
POFBOPUIFSTOVBODFTw 0OFTVDIFYBNQMFDBOCFTFFOJO#PYCFMPX

$SZTUBMBSHVFTUIBUTPGBS BUMFBTU UIFQFEBHPHJDBMBOEiNPSBMQBOJDwTVS
SPVOEJOHFNBJMBOEUFYUJOHJTPWFSCMPXO5IFCFMJFGUIBUUIFiIJHIMZEF
WJBOUDIBSBDUFSwPGEJHJUBMDPNNVOJDBUJPOJTGPTUFSJOHQPPSMJUFSBDZSFTVMUT
IBTCFFOTIPXOCZQTZDIPMPHJTUTBOEFEVDBUPSTUPCFMBSHFMZBOiVSCBONZUIw


%JHJUBM$PNNVOJDBUJPO -JUFSBDZ BOE$PHOJUJPO0OFPUIFSBSFBXIFSFJU
IBTCFFOTVHHFTUFEUIBUEJHJUBMDPNNVOJDBUJPOMJUFSBDZJTDIBOHJOHNPEFSO
MJGFJTJOFEVDBUJPOBOEDPHOJUJPO%POBME-FVBOEPUIFST -FVFUBM 

BSHVFUIBUUIFSFBSFGPVSEFGJOJOHDIBSBDUFSJTUJDTPGUIFTFOFXMJUFSBDJFT'JSTU
Always On: New Literacies and Language in an Online Global World 319

B OX 1 4 . 3 I337 5P34K: 4N 31337 I3350N F0R 4N O1D F4RT

In a class on Japanese linguistics I was teaching, I was describing some of


the new orthographic games Japanese teenage girls play on their cell
phones when they text-message using symbols, emoticons, and scripts
from various foreign languages. Oh, thats just like leet! said a student.
Seeing the puzzled look on my face, he went to the board and wrote
31337 sp34k, as if this explained everything. It didnt. After a pregnant
pause, with me unsuccessfully finding a way to appear both knowledge-
able and cool, he said, You really are a newba newbiearent you?
while writing n00b in big letters. It dawned on me that this was some kind
of code. 0 replaced the letter o, 7 replaced t, 1 replaced l, 4 replaced A,
5 replaced S, and so on. So, 31337 was supposed to be elitespelled
eleet, and shortened to leet, in this strange argot. But this was not what
cryptologists call a transposition cipher, where numbers simply encoded
letters. Instead, what was going on was a kind orthographic running joke.
For example, ph was often used for any f-sounds, and words could be
transcribed in several ways: fear might be rendered ph34r, ph33r, or
phear. Phonetic and orthographic puns saturate leet-speek, and some-
times the uninitiated might miss the joke. I never would have guessed
that b7 is banned, and the logic, such as it is, is something like this:
The ampersand (&) is pronounced and, and the number 7 and the
character & share the same key on the keyboard. Thus, b and 7 (i.e.,
and) make banned. Surely, even you . . . you who are . . . he wrote
4n o1d F4rt on the board, as the class broke out into gigglescan see
this, right? But of course, I lied, trying to keep my composure. Later
on, after class, I figured it out. I could console myself, however, that at
least I was not an ber g33k like my student.
Jim Stanlaw

OFXJOGPSNBUJPOBOEDPNNVOJDBUJPOUFDIOPMPHJFTJOWPMWJOHOPWFMMJUFSBDZ
UBTLTSFRVJSFOFXTLJMMTBOETUSBUFHJFTJGUIFZBSFUPCFVTFEFGGFDUJWFMZ4FD
POEUIPVHIUIJTJTPGUFOSFTJTUFEiPWFSUMZ CZEFMJCFSBUFFEVDBUJPOBMQPMJ
cies..PSDPWFSUMZ CZFEVDBUPSTXIPTPNFUJNFTBSFOPUOFBSMZBTMJUFSBUF
XJUIUIF*OUFSOFUBTUIFTUVEFOUTUIFZUFBDI Q
wOFXMJUFSBDJFTBSFOPX
320 Chapter 14: Linguistic Anthropology in a Globalized World

BDSJUJDBMDPNQPOFOUGPSGVMMQBSUJDJQBUJPOJODJWJD FDPOPNJD BOETPDJBMMJGF


JO B HMPCBM XPSME 5IJSE  UIFTF OFX MJUFSBDJFT BSF EFJDUJDUIBU JT  UIFZ
DIBOHFBTOFXUFDIOPMPHJFTFNFSHF0GDPVSTF MJUFSBDZIBTBMXBZTDIBOHFE
XJUI UFDIOPMPHZ FH  DPOTJEFS UIF JOUFMMFDUVBM BOE TPDJBM SFWPMVUJPOT
CSPVHIUBCPVUXJUIUIFBEWFOUPGNPWFBCMFUZQFBOEUIFQSJOUJOHQSFTT

8IBUJTEJGGFSFOUBCPVUEJHJUBMDPNNVOJDBUJPOJTJUTJNNFEJBDZ*UUPPLDFO
UVSJFTGPSUIFGVMMJNQBDUPGUIF(VUFOCFSHQSFTTUPCFGFMU CVUUIF*OUFSOFU
BMMPXTGPSUIFJNNFEJBUFBOEVOJWFSTBMFYDIBOHFPGOFXJEFBTBOEUFDI
OPMPHJFT'PVSUI OFXMJUFSBDJFTBSFiNVMUJQMF NVMUJNPEBM BOENVMUJGBD
FUFE wUIVTNBLJOHUIFNNPSFDPNQMFYUPBQQSFIFOEBOEVOEFSTUBOE)PX
UIJTXJMMCFJOUFHSBUFEJOUPUIFUXFOUZGJSTUDFOUVSZFEVDBUJPOBMTZTUFNSF
NBJOTUPCFTFFO
4PNFBMTPXPOEFSIPXOFXEJHJUBMDPNNVOJDBUJPOMJUFSBDZJTDIBOHJOH
IVNBODPHOJUJPOBOEQBUUFSOTPGUIPVHIUBOEOPUKVTUJOXBZTPGMFBSO
JOHPSIPXQFPQMFTPDJBMMZSFMBUFUPPOFBOPUIFS5IFSJTFPGCPPLDVMUVSF
PGDPVSTF JOFYPSBCMZBMUFSFEUIFXBZQFPQMFDPODFJWFEPGUIFXPSMEBOE
UIFJSQMBDFJOJU5IFDPMMFDUJWFQPPMPGIVNBOLOPXMFEHFFYQPOFOUJBMMZ
NVMUJQMJFE BOEQFPQMFDPVMEUSBWFMWJDBSJPVTMZUPUIFGBSFOETPGUIFFBSUI
BOEUJNFJOUSBWFMPHVFTPSIJTUPSZCPPLT)PXFWFS BTXJUIBOZUIJOH UIFSF
XFSFDPTUT4DIPMBSTBUUIFTUBSUPGUIF3FOBJTTBODFMBNFOUFE GPSFYBNQMF
UIFEFDMJOFPGUIFQPXFSPGIVNBONFNPSZ BOEUIFSFMVDUBODFPGZPVOHFS
QFPQMFUPFOHBHFJOEBVOUJOHUBTLTPGNFNPSJ[BUJPO5IFZXFSFQSPCBCMZ
SJHIU KVTUBTUIFTQSFBEPGUIFIBOEDBMDVMBUPSIBTJNQBDUFEPVSBCJMJUZUP
EPFWFOTJNQMFBSJUINFUJDJOPVSIFBET"MSFBEZ GPSFYBNQMF XFTFFVOJ
WFSTJUZMJCSBSJFTCFDPNJOHQMBDFTUPOFUXPSL PSDFOUFSTGPSDPMMBCPSBUJWF
MFBSOJOH'FXHPUIFSFUPDPOTVMUBKPVSOBMBSUJDMFCFDBVTFPGUFOUIFTFBSF
BWBJMBCMFJOTUVEFOUTEPSNSPPNTPODPNQVUFST8IBULJOEPGXPSMEXJMM
JUCFJOUIF WFSZOFBS
GVUVSFXIFOBMMUIFXPSMETLOPXMFEHF NVTJD BOE
BSUBSFJOTUBOUMZBDDFTTJCMFUPFWFSZPOF 8JUISFNBSLBCMFJNQSPWFNFOUT
JO8FCUSBOTMBUJPOTUBLJOHQMBDFEBJMZ FWFOQSPCMFNTJODSPTTDVMUVSBM
DPNNVOJDBUJPOEVFUPQFPQMFTQFBLJOHEJGGFSFOUMBOHVBHFTNJHIUHSBEV
BMMZCFDPNFMFTTJNQPSUBOU
5IF -BOHVBHFPGUIF*OUFSOFU*GZPVBTLNPTUQFPQMFXIBUUIFMBOHVBHFPG
UIF*OUFSOFUJT UIFZXPVMEQSPCBCMZTBZJUJT&OHMJTI&WFOJOQMBDFTXIFSF
&OHMJTIJTOPUOBUJWFMZTQPLFO UXFFUTBOEUXJUUFSTPGUFOBSFTFOUPVUJO&OH
MJTI&OHMJTIBQQFBSTUPCFUIFEFGBVMUMBOHVBHFPGBMNPTUBOZTJUFZPVIJU
&WFOUIPVHIPQFSBUJOHTZTUFNTOPXDPNFJOEJGGFSFOUMBOHVBHFJOUFSGBDFT
Always On: New Literacies and Language in an Online Global World 321

NBOZQFPQMFTUJMMVTFBO&OHMJTIWFSTJPOPG8JOEPXTPSB.BDPQFSBUJOHTZT
UFNUPNPSFFBTJMZJOUFSBDUXJUIUIF&OHMJTIVTJOHDPNQVUFSTJUFT
*OIJTCPPL-BOHVBHFBOEUIF*OUFSOFU 
UIFOPUFEMJOHVJTU%BWJE
$SZTUBM XPOEFSFE XIFUIFS UIF &OHMJTIEPNJOBUFE *OUFSOFU XPVME DPO
USJCVUFUPUIFEFNJTFPGPUIFSMBOHVBHFT BUMFBTUPOUIF8FC1FSIBQTIF
XBTCFJOHQFTTJNJTUJD*UBQQFBSTUIBUUIFVTFPG&OHMJTIIBTHPOFEPXOTJH
OJGJDBOUMZ GSPNQFSDFOUJOUPMFTTUIBOQFSDFOUJO 4UBOMBX

(FSNBO 'SFODI BOE+BQBOFTFFBDIOPXNBLFVQCFUXFFOBOE
QFSDFOUPGBMM8FCQBHFT*GXFMPPLBU1%' QPSUBCMFEPDVNFOUGPSNBU

QBHFT UIFTFEJGGFSFODFTBSFFWFONPSFQSPOPVODFE$IJOFTF ,PSFBO 3VTT


JBO BOE%VUDIBMMXFOUGSPNBMNPTUOPUIJOHJOUPBOPUJDFBCMFQSFT
FODFUFOZFBSTMBUFS"TJNJMBSUSFOEBQQFBSTJGXFMPPLBUUIFMBOHVBHFTVTFE
UPBDDFTTUIF(PPHMFTFBSDIFOHJOF&OHMJTIXFOUEPXOQFSDFOUGSPN
+VOFUP.BZ
)PXFWFS XFTIPVMEOPUQSFEJDUUIFXBOJOHPG&OHMJTIBTUIFEPNJOBOU
MBOHVBHFPOUIF8FCZFUCFDBVTFTUBUJTUJDBMEBUBTVHHFTUUIBUUIFESPQPG
&OHMJTIJTMFWFMJOHPGG'PSFYBNQMF MBOHVBHFBDDFTTPO(PPHMFGSPN4FQ
UFNCFSUPOPXSFNBJOFEFTTFOUJBMMZUIFTBNFGPSBMMMBOHVBHFT"MTP
JGXFMPPLBUUIFiQFOFUSBUJPOwMFWFMTUIFQFSDFOUBHFPGUIFTQFBLFSTPGB
HJWFOMBOHVBHFUIBUIBWFBDDFTTUPUIF8FCXFTFFUIBUBHSFBUNBKPSJUZPG
TQFBLFST PG NBOZ &VSPQFBO MBOHVBHFT TVDI BT (FSNBO  'SFODI  BOE
%VUDI
BMSFBEZVTFUIF*OUFSOFU TPUIFOVNCFSPGUIFTFTQFBLFSTHPJOHPO
MJOFNJHIUOPUCFFYQFDUFEUPHSPXWFSZNVDI*ODPOUSBTU POMZQFS
DFOUPG&OHMJTITQFBLFSTVTFUIF8FC TPUIFTFOVNCFSTDPVMEJODSFBTF
4UBOMBX

#VUUIFSFJTBOPUIFS QFSIBQTNPSFTJHOJGJDBOU SFBTPOXIZ&OHMJTIXJMM
TUJMMCFBEPNJOBOUQSFTFODFJOUIFEJHJUBMXPSMEGPSTPNFUJNFUPDPNF1P
MJUJDBMVOSFTU BOEJOUFSOBUJPOBMBOEFDPOPNJDBGGBJSTXJMMMJLFMZDPOUJOVFUP
CFIJHIMZDPOUFOUJPVTJOUIFOFBSGVUVSF BOEEJHJUBMDPNNVOJDBUJPOTXJMM
OPEPVCUQMBZBOJNQPSUBOUSPMF'PSFYBNQMF GFXDPVMEGPSHFUUIFWJWJEQJD
UVSFTBOENFTTBHFTCFJOHTFOUPVUPG*SBOEVSJOHUIFi(SFFO3FWPMVUJPOw
FMFDUJPOQSPUFTUTJOUIFTVNNFSPG#FDBVTFUIF*SBOJBOHPWFSONFOU
TUSJDUMZNPOJUPSTBOEDFOTPSTTVDIDPOWFOUJPOBMNFEJBBTSBEJP UFMFWJTJPO
BOEOFXTQBQFST JUXBTTPDJBMOFUXPSLJOHTJUFT CMPHT 5XJUUFS BOE:PV5VCF
UIBUCFDBNFUIFQSJNBSZTPVSDFPGJOGPSNBUJPOGPSUIFPVUTJEFXPSME XIJDI
FWFOOFXTPSHBOJ[BUJPOTTVDIBT$// ##$ BOEUIFNBKPSQSJOUOFXTBHFO
DJFTVTFEXIFOUIFJSQFSTPOOFMPOUIFHSPVOEXFSFRVBSBOUJOFE
/PUPOMZ
322 Chapter 14: Linguistic Anthropology in a Globalized World

XFSF8FTUFSOHPWFSONFOUTHFUUJOHXPSEPGVOSFTUUBLJOHQMBDFUIBUUIFZ
XFSFOPUHFUUJOHCZUIFVTVBMEJQMPNBUJDNFBOT UIFXIPMFXPSMETBUUFOUJPO
XBTESBXOUPUIFTFESBNBUJDFWFOUT3FVUFSTSFQPSUFEUIBUUIFTFDIBOOFMT
XFSFTPJNQPSUBOUUIBUUIF0CBNBBENJOJTUSBUJPOBTLFE5XJUUFSUPQPTU
QPOFBTDIFEVMFEOFUXPSLVQHSBEFCFDBVTFJUXPVMEIBWFUBLFOUIFNUFN
QPSBSJMZPGGMJOF"DDPSEJOHUP5XJUUFSTPXOCMPH UIFZBHSFFEUPUIF4UBUF
%FQBSUNFOUTSFRVFTUiCFDBVTFFWFOUTJO*SBOXFSFUJFEEJSFDUMZUPUIFHSPX
JOHTJHOJGJDBODFPG5XJUUFSBTBOJNQPSUBOUDPNNVOJDBUJPOBOEJOGPSNB
UJPOOFUXPSLw

Ethical Questions and Standards of Conduct


*OUIFJOUSPEVDUPSZDIBQUFSXFQPJOUFEPVUUIBUiOBUJWFwDPOTVMUBOUTNBLFBO
FTTFOUJBMDPOUSJCVUJPOUPTUVEJFTJOMJOHVJTUJDT DVMUVSBMBOUISPQPMPHZ BOE
MJOHVJTUJD BOUISPQPMPHZ  BOE UIBU FWFSZ FGGPSU TIPVME CF NBEF UP FOBCMF
QSPNJTJOHNFNCFSTPGTNBMMFUIOJDHSPVQTUPSFDFJWFUSBJOJOHJOUIFTFGJFMET
5IFJOTJHIUJOUPUIFJSDVMUVSFTTVDIJOEJWJEVBMTQPTTFTTXPVMECFJOWBMVBCMF
0OFNVTUSFBMJ[F IPXFWFS UIBUJUXJMMUBLFTPNFZFBSTCFGPSFNFNCFSTPG
TNBMMTPDJFUJFTBSFSFBTPOBCMZXFMMSFQSFTFOUFEJOUIFGJFMETPGMJOHVJTUJDTBOE
BOUISPQPMPHZ CPUIPGXIJDIBSFEPNJOBUFEBUQSFTFOUCZXIJUFNBMFT
%PJOHGJFMEXPSLJOBGPSFJHODVMUVSFBMNPTUJOWBSJBCMZHJWFTSJTFUPBO
BTZNNFUSJDBMSFMBUJPOTIJQ0OUIFPOFIBOEUIFSFJTUIFSFTFBSDIFS UIF
XPSEJTVTFEIFSFUPNFBOBOZPOFXIPJTBOBUUFOUJWFBOETZTUFNBUJDPC
TFSWFSBOENBLFTBTUVEZPGTPNFUIJOH
BOEPOUIFPUIFSIBOEUIFTVC
KFDUT UIBU JT  UIPTF XIP BSF CFJOH TUVEJFE
 PS OBUJWFT UIPTF XIP BSF
DPOOFDUFEUPBQBSUJDVMBSDPNNVOJUZPSSFHJPOCZCJSUI
5IFSFTFBSDIFS
UZQJDBMMZBDVMUVSBMBOEMJOHVJTUJDPVUTJEFS MJWFTGPSBOVNCFSPGNPOUIT
XJUIUIPTFXIPBSFCFJOHTUVEJFE PCTFSWFTUIFNBOEBTLTOVNFSPVTRVFT
UJPOT BOEOPXBOEUIFOBDDPNQBOJFTUIFNXIFOUIFZEPUIFJSDIPSFT PS
FWFOIFMQTXJUIUIFJSEBJMZUBTLT#FDBVTFNVDIPGUIFOBUJWFDPOTVMUBOUT
UJNFJTUBLFOVQCZUIFSFTFBSDIFSTRVFTUJPOTBOESFRVFTUTGPSEBUBDPO
DFSOJOHMBOHVBHFBOEDVMUVSF JUJTDVTUPNBSZUPPGGFSUIFNNPEFTUCVUGBJS
DPNQFOTBUJPO DPOTVMUBOUGFFTVTVBMMZDPNFPVUPGUIFHSBOUUIFSFTFBSDIFS
IBTSFDFJWFEGPSGJFMEXPSL

%PJOHGJFMEXPSLJOBOPUIFSDPVOUSZPSJOBGPSFJHODVMUVSFVOEFSQIZTJ
DBMDPOEJUJPOTUIBUBSFVTVBMMZMFTTDPNGPSUBCMFUIBOUIPTFBUIPNF MJWJOH
BNPOHBOEEFQFOEJOHPOQFPQMFXIPBUMFBTUJOJUJBMMZBSFDPNQMFUFTUSBOHFST
Ethical Questions and Standards of Conduct 323

IBWJOHUPFBUVOGBNJMJBSGPPET BOEUSZJOHUPDPNNVOJDBUFXJUIPUIFSTXIP
TQFBLBEJGGFSFOUMBOHVBHFSFRVJSFCPUIUIFXJMMBOEUIFBCJMJUZUPNBLFQSP
GPVOEBEBQUBUJPOT'PSUIFTFSFBTPOT BGFXBOUISPQPMPHJTUTGJOEGJFMEXPSL
UPPUBYJOH BOEBGUFSUIFJSJOJUJBMFYQFSJFODFFOHBHFJOJUPOMZPDDBTJPOBMMZ
PSOPUBUBMM#VUNPTUBOUISPQPMPHJTUT MJOHVJTUJDBOEDVMUVSBMBMJLF FOKPZ
CFJOHJOUIFGJFMEBOESFUVSOUPGJFMEXPSLBHBJOBOEBHBJO
"OEXIBUBCPVUUIFQFPQMFXIPBSFTUVEJFE "OFYUFOEFEWJTJUCZBOBO
UISPQPMPHJTUJTCPVOEUPIBWFTPNFFGGFDUPOUIFN BTFWFSZSFTFBSDIFSOFFET
UPCFBXBSF"DDPSEJOHUPUIFDPEFPGQSPGFTTJPOBMFUIJDTBEPQUFECZUIF
"NFSJDBO"OUISPQPMPHJDBM"TTPDJBUJPO UIFSFTQPOTJCJMJUZPGBOUISPQPMPHJTUT
UPUIPTFUIFZTUVEZJTQBSBNPVOU5IFBJNTPGUIFBOUISPQPMPHJTUTBDUJWJUJFT
TIPVMECFDPNNVOJDBUFEBTDMFBSMZBTQPTTJCMFUPUIPTFBNPOHXIPNUIFZ
XPSLDPOTVMUBOUT JOGPSNBOUT
IBWFUIFSJHIUUPSFNBJOBOPOZNPVTJGUIFZ
DIPPTFUP BOEUIFJSSJHIUT JOUFSFTUT TBGFUZ BOETFOTJUJWJUJFTNVTUCFTBGF
HVBSEFEDPOTVMUBOUTBSFOPUUPCFFYQMPJUFECVUTIPVMESFDFJWFBGBJSSFUVSO
GPSUIFJSTFSWJDFTUIFSFTVMUTPGSFTFBSDITIPVMECFNBEFBWBJMBCMFUPUIFHFO
FSBMQVCMJDDMBOEFTUJOFSFTFBSDIDBOQPUFOUJBMMZCFVTFECZPUIFSTBHBJOTU
UIFQPQVMBUJPOVOEFSTUVEZ*OTIPSU QSJPSUPDPNNFODJOHSFTFBSDIUIFBO
UISPQPMPHJTUTIPVMEHJWFTFSJPVTUIPVHIUUPUIFQPTTJCJMJUZUIBUUIFTUVEZPG
BHSPVQPSDPNNVOJUZDPVMEBUTPNFGVUVSFUJNFOFHBUJWFMZBGGFDUUIFQFP
QMFTUVEJFE*GTVDIBOPVUDPNFTFFNTQPTTJCMF UIFOUIFSFTFBSDIQSPKFDU
TIPVMECFTVCTUBOUJWFMZSFEFTJHOFE PSBCBOEPOFE
"DPNNFOUTIPVMEBMTPCFNBEFDPODFSOJOHUIFDPNQPSUNFOUPGSF
TFBSDIFSTJOUIFGJFME5IFJSFYQFSUJTF FEVDBUJPOBMCBDLHSPVOE BOENBUF
SJBMBEWBOUBHFTJOOPXBZFOUJUMFUIFNUPBOZGFFMJOHTPGTVQFSJPSJUZUP
UIPTFUIFZTUVEZ XIPNBZMJWFJODPOEJUJPOTVOBGGFDUFECZNPEFSOUFDI
OPMPHZBOENBZCFOPOMJUFSBUF"THVFTUTJOBGPSFJHOTPDJFUZ DPNNVOJUZ
PSIPNF GJFMEXPSLFSTTIPVMEFYFSDJTFFWFONPSFTFOTJUJWJUZUIBOUIFZ
XPVMECFFYQFDUFEUPVTFJOUIFJSIPNFFOWJSPONFOU"TLJOHGPSBEWJDF
EPFTOPUOFDFTTBSJMZNFBOBDDFQUJOHJU CVUUIFSFBSFNBOZJOTUBODFTXIFO
BEWJDFDBOCFPGHSFBUWBMVFBOENBZFWFOIFMQEFUFSNJOFXIFUIFSBQSPK
FDUTVDDFFETPSGBJMT-FUVTDPOTJEFS GPSFYBNQMF BHSPVQTOFFEGPSFEV
DBUJPOBMNBUFSJBMTEFTJHOFEUPIFMQQVQJMTMFBSOUIFJSPXOMBOHVBHFBOE
TPNFUIJOHBCPVUUIFJSDVMUVSFJO8FTUFSOTUZMFTDIPPMT TVDIBTJUVBUJPO
DBOCFFODPVOUFSFEJOTDIPPMTJOUIF6OJUFE4UBUFTTFSWJOHQSJNBSJMZ/B
UJWF"NFSJDBOTUVEFOUT
*GUIFSFBSFTFWFSBMBEFRVBUFXBZTPGXSJUJOHEPXO
BMBOHVBHFUIBUIBTQSFWJPVTMZPOMZCFFOTQPLFO XIJDINFUIPEXPVMECF
324 Chapter 14: Linguistic Anthropology in a Globalized World

QSFGFSBCMFUPUIFQPUFOUJBMVTFST "OEJGBOBOUIPMPHZPGUSBEJUJPOBMOBSSB
UJWFTJTUPCFDPNQJMFEGPSUIFVTFPGTUVEFOUT XIJDIPGUIFNBOZTUPSJFT
TIPVMECFTFMFDUFE
*UPDDBTJPOBMMZIBQQFOT PGDPVSTF UIBUNFNCFSTPGBUSJCF BOPNBEJD
HSPVQ PSBQFBTBOUWJMMBHFEPOPUXBOUUIFJSEBJMZMJWFT SFMJHJPVTCFMJFGT BOE
USBEJUJPOBMDVTUPNTTDSVUJOJ[FECZTPNFPOFUIFZEPOPULOPX XIPDPNFT
GSPNBOPUIFSDPVOUSZ BOEXIPTFJOUFOUJPOTUIFZDBOOPUGVMMZDPNQSFIFOE
3FWFSTFUIFTJUVBUJPO5IJOLPGXIBUUIFBUUJUVEFTPGNFNCFSTPGBTNBMM
DPNNVOJUZTPNFXIFSFJOUIF6OJUFE4UBUFTNJHIUCFUPXBSEBGPSFJHOFSPG
BEJGGFSFOUTLJODPMPS XIPIBTEJGGFSFOUSFMJHJPVTCFMJFGTBOETQFBLTBGPSFJHO
MBOHVBHF BOOPVODJOHUIBUIFPSTIFXJMMMJWFJOUIFDPNNVOJUZGPSIBMGB
ZFBSPSTPUPTUVEZUIFIBCJUTPGUIFiOBUJWFTw
*OBXPSMEJOXIJDIIVNBODPNNVOJUJFTBOEOBUJPOTIBWFCFDPNFJO
UFSEFQFOEFOUBOEJOXIJDISFTQFDUGPSDVMUVSBMEJWFSTJUZJTFTTFOUJBM VOEFS
TUBOEJOHPUIFSDVMUVSFTJTFWFSNPSFJNQPSUBOU5IJTVOEFSTUBOEJOHJTXIBU
BOUISPQPMPHJTUTBSFDPNNJUUFEUPQSPNPUF BOEUIFJSCFIBWJPSJOTPDJFUJFT
PUIFSUIBOUIFJSPXONVTUTFUBOFYBNQMF

Summary and Conclusions


5IFSFBSFNBOZEJGGFSFOUXBZTPGBQQMZJOHFYQFSUJTFJOTPDJBMMZPSJFOUFEMJO
HVJTUJDTUPUIFQSPCMFNTPGUIFDPOUFNQPSBSZXPSME,OPXMFEHFHBJOFEGSPN
TUVEZJOHUIFFUIOPHSBQIZPGDPNNVOJDBUJPODBOCFRVJUFVTFGVMXIFOJOEJ
WJEVBMTPSHSPVQTPGEJGGFSJOHDVMUVSBMBOEMJOHVJTUJDCBDLHSPVOETBSFBU
UFNQUJOH UP DPNNVOJDBUF 5IF JOGPSNBMJUZ PG "NFSJDBOT UIF FBTF XJUI
XIJDIUIFZNPWFUPBGJSTUOBNFCBTJT GPSFYBNQMF
NBZCFSFHBSEFECZ
PUIFSTPDJFUJFTBTJMMNBOOFSFEPSFWFOQSFTVNQUVPVT"NFSJDBOT GPSUIFJS
QBSU BSFMJLFMZUPDPOTJEFSUIFGPSNBMCFIBWJPSDIBSBDUFSJTUJDPGTPNFPUIFS
TPDJFUJFTBTTUVGGZBOEJOGMFYJCMF*GJOEJWJEVBMTPSHSPVQTJOWPMWFEJOJOUFS
DVMUVSBMDPOUBDULOPXIPXUPJOUFSQSFUFBDIPUIFSTCFIBWJPS DPNNVOJDB
UJPOXJMMQSPDFFENPSFTNPPUIMZ
"OPUIFSBSFBXIFSFMJOHVJTUJDBQQMJDBUJPOTIBWFCFFOGPVOEVTFGVMJTJO
MFHBMQSPDFFEJOHT)FSFUIFDPOUSJCVUJPOTPGBQQMJFEMJOHVJTUJDTSBOHFGSPN
NBLJOHUIFUFDIOJDBMMBOHVBHFPGMFHBMEPDVNFOUTJOUFMMJHJCMFUPUIFMBZQFS
TPOUPIFMQJOHUIFKVEHF KVSZ XJUOFTTFT PSMJUJHBOUTSFTPMWFQSPCMFNTSF
TVMUJOHGSPNNJTVOEFSTUBOEJOHTDBVTFECZEJGGFSJOHDVMUVSBMBOEMJOHVJTUJD
CBDLHSPVOET5IFSFDFOUQPMJDZBEPQUFECZUIF6OJUFE4UBUFTJO TFF
Summary and Conclusions 325

#PYCFMPX
FODPVSBHFTBOUISPQPMPHJTUTUPDPOUJOVFXIBUUIFZIBWFCFFO
EPJOHGPSTPNFUJNFOPX OBNFMZ IFMQJOHUPQSFTFSWFUIFMBOHVBHFTBOE
PUIFSDVMUVSBMUSBEJUJPOTPG/BUJWF"NFSJDBOT
-BOHVBHFQSPCMFNTJOBQMVSBMJTUJDTPDJFUZBSFDPNNPOMZEVFUPUIFVO
FWFOTUBUVTPGDPNQFUJOHMBOHVBHFTPSEJBMFDUT5IFRVFTUJPOUPCFBOTXFSFE
JTOPUPOMZXIJDIMBOHVBHF PSMBOHVBHFT
JTUPCFDPNFUIFOBUJPOBMPSPGGJ
DJBMMBOHVBHFCVUXIBUUIFDPOTFRVFODFTPGBQBSUJDVMBSDIPJDFBSFMJLFMZUP
CFGPSUIFFOUJSFTPDJFUZ"OEJGBOVOXSJUUFOMBOHVBHFTQPLFOCZBTNBMM
QPQVMBUJPOJOBQMVSBMJTUJDTPDJFUZJTUPCFNBJOUBJOFECZJOUSPEVDJOHJUJOUP
UIFTDIPPMTBTBTFDPOEMBOHVBHF UIFMJOHVJTUNBZCFDBMMFEVQPOUPEFWJTF
BXSJUJOHTZTUFNBOEUIFOUPIFMQJOEFWFMPQJOHUFBDIJOHNBUFSJBMT
8JUIDVMUVSBMEJGGFSFODFTBSPVOEUIFXPSMECFDPNJOHMFTTEJTUJODUBTBSF
TVMUPGDPNNVOJDBUJPOTNFEJB NPEFSOJ[BUJPO BOEUIFWPMVNFPGJOUFSOB
UJPOBM USBWFM  UIF MBOHVBHF PG B NJOPSJUZ QPQVMBUJPO NBZ CF UIF POMZ
QSPNJOFOUCBEHFPGJUTFUIOJDJEFOUJUZBOEQSJEF*UHPFTXJUIPVUTBZJOHUIBU
UIFMBOHVBHFDPODFSOTPGTVDIBHSPVQOFFEUPCFIBOEMFEOPUPOMZXJUIFY
QFSULOPXMFEHFCVUBMTPXJUIVOEFSTUBOEJOHBOEUBDU
*OUIJTDIBQUFSXFIBWFMPPLFEBUUISFFNBKPSUSFOETJOXIBU%BWJE$SZT
UBMDBMMTUIFXPSMETMJOHVJTUJDFDPMPHZ'JSTU TJNQMZQVU NPTUPGUIFXPSMET
MBOHVBHFTBSFEZJOHPVURVJDLMZBOEPVSMJOHVJTUJDEJWFSTJUZ GPSCFUUFS
PSXPSTF JTSBQJEMZEJTBQQFBSJOH"TBDPOTFRVFODF NPSFBOENPSFQFPQMF
BSFTQFBLJOHGFXFSBOEGFXFSMBOHVBHFT4FDPOE POFMBOHVBHF&OHMJTI
BQQFBST UP IBWF CFDPNF UIF EF GBDUP JOUFSOBUJPOBM MJOHVB GSBODBUIF
XPSMETGJSTUHMPCBMMBOHVBHF5IJSE UIFSFWPMVUJPOJOEJHJUBMUFDIOPMPHZIBT
CFFOJOFTDBQBCMF BOEMBOHVBHFIBTCFFOUSFNFOEPVTMZBGGFDUFE#VUFWFO
UIFOBNFPGUIJTOFXLJOEPGDPNNVOJDBUJPOJTVODFSUBJOi8IBUEPXFDBMM
UIFMBOHVBHFXIJDISFTVMUTXIFOQFPQMFDPNNVOJDBUFVTJOHDPNQVUFST
NPCJMFQIPOFT #MBDL#FSSJFT QFSTPOBMEJHJUBMBTTJTUBOUT BOTXFSQIPOFT TBU
OBWT BOEBMMUIFPUIFSEFWJDFTXIJDIIBWFCFDPNFBSPVUJOFQBSUPGPVS
MJWFT 7BSJPVTUFDIOJDBMBOEQPQVMBSTVHHFTUJPOTIBWFCFFONBEF TVDIBT
DZCFSTQFBL FMFDUSPOJDEJTDPVSTF /FUMJTI 8FCMJTI BOE/FUTQFBL/POFPG
UIFTFJTTBUJTGBDUPSZw $SZTUBM
#VUOPNBUUFSXIBUJUTOBNF XJMM
UIJTOFXNFUIPEPGiUBMLJOHwCSFBLEPXOCBSSJFSTUPDPNNVOJDBUJPO BT
NBOZIPQF PSXJMMJUFSFDUOFXVOGPSFTFFOHBUFTUIBUPCTUSVDUJOUFSOBUJPOBM
UPMFSBODFBOEDPPQFSBUJPOFWFONPSF 3FHBSEMFTT UIFUPPMTPGMJOHVJTUJDBO
UISPQPMPHZXJMMIFMQVTBOBMZ[FBOEVOEFSTUBOEUIFMBOHVBHFQSPCMFNTJO
WPMWFE XIBUFWFSUIFPVUDPNF
326 Chapter 14: Linguistic Anthropology in a Globalized World

B O X 1 4 . 4 . W H AT L I N G U I S T I C A N T H R O P O L O G I S T S
HELPED ACCOMPLISH

It is the policy of the United States to


1) preserve, protect, and promote the rights and freedom of Native Amer-
icans to use, practice, and develop Native American languages; . . .
(3) encourage and support the use of Native American languages as a
medium of instruction in order to encourage and support
(A) Native American language survival,
(B) educational opportunity,
(C) increased student success and performance,
(D) increased student awareness and knowledge of their culture
and history, and
(E) increased student and community pride;
(4) encourage State and local education programs to work with Native
American parents, educators, Indian tribes, and other Native Ameri-
can governing bodies in the implementation of programs to put this
policy into effect;
(5) recognize the right of Indian tribes and other Native American gov-
erning bodies to use the Native American languages as a medium of
instruction in all schools funded by the Secretary of the Interior; . . .
(7) support the granting of comparable proficiency achieved through
course work in a Native American language the same academic
credit as comparable proficiency achieved through course work in a
foreign language . . .
Public Law 101-477 Title INative American Languages Act [1990]
RESOURCE MANUAL AND
S T U DY G U I D E

#FMPXBSFTPNFLFZUFSNTBOERVFTUJPOTSFMBUFEUPFBDIDIBQUFS'PSUIFUSVFGBMTFRVFT
UJPOT DJSDMF5PS' BTBQQMJDBCMF UPUIFMFGUPGFBDITUBUFNFOU'PSFBDINVMUJQMFDIPJDF
RVFTUJPOTFMFDUUIFNPTUFBTJMZEFGFOTJCMFDPNQMFNFOUPSDIPJDFBOEJOEJDBUFZPVSBOTXFS
CZFOUFSJOHUIFBQQSPQSJBUFDBQJUBMMFUUFSJOUIFTQBDFUPUIFMFGUPGUIFRVFTUJPOOVNCFS
'PSUIFDPNQMFUJPOT DPNQMFUFFBDITUBUFNFOUVTJOHUIFNPTUTVJUBCMFXPSE T
5IFOVN
CFSPGXPSETJTHJWFOQBSFOUIFUJDBMMZ'PSDFSUBJODIBQUFSTUIFSFBSFQSPCMFNTBTLJOHUIF
TUVEFOUUPBQQMZUIFNFUIPETPGBOBMZTJTKVTUQSFTFOUFEUPBDUVBMMJOHVJTUJDEBUB4PMVUJPOT
UPUIFQSPCMFNTBOEBOTXFSTUPBMMPCKFDUJWFRVFTUJPOTBSFHJWFOJOUIFBOTXFSTFDUJPO'PS
FBDIDIBQUFSUIFSFBSFRVFTUJPOTGPSEJTDVTTJPOBOETPNFUJNFTBMTPTPNFQSPKFDUT#FDBVTF
UIFTFBSFPQFOFOEFERVFTUJPOT XFIBWFOPUQSPWJEFEBOTXFST

Chapter 1
Key Terms
BOUISPQPMPHZ
BSDIBFPMPHZ
CJPMPHJDBMBOUISPQPMPHZ
DVMUVSBMBOUISPQPMPHZ
IPMJTUJD
MJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHZ
MBOHVBHFNZUIT

Questions for Discussion


 *GZPVWFTFFO5IF%BZUIF&BSUI4UPPE4UJMM *OEFQFOEFODF%BZ .BST"UUBDLT PSPUIFS
TVDITDJFODFGJDUJPOGJMNT IPXXBTDPNNVOJDBUJPOXJUIBMJFOTEFQJDUFE )PXBCPVU
JOUIFWBSJPVT4UBS5SFL TIPXTBOENPWJFT %PUIFZTFFNSFBMJTUJDUPZPV *GBOBMJFO
TIJQEJEMBOEPOUIF6OJWFSTJUZ2VBE IPXXPVMEXFUBMLXJUIJUTDSFX
 *NBHJOFQFPQMFHSPXJOHVQXJUIPVUMBOHVBHF $BOUIFZTUJMMiUIJOLwUIFTBNFBT
TPNFPOFXJUI MBOHVBHF 5IBUJT DBOXFUIJOLXJUIPVUMBOHVBHF 8IBUBCPVUWJTVBM
BSUJTUTPSNVTJDJBOT %PUIFZUIJOLJOMBOHVBHF 8IBUQFSTPOBMFYQFSJFODFTNJHIU
ZPVIBWFIBEZPVSTFMGUPVTFBTFWJEFODFGPSZPVSDMBJNT
 :PVWFTFFOJUNBOZUJNFT:PVBSFXBUDIJOHBNPWJFBCPVU8PSME8BS**BOEUIF
TDFOFUBLFTZPVCFIJOEUIF(FSNBOMJOFTUPUIFIFBERVBSUFSTCVOLFSUXP(FSNBO

327
328 R E S O U R C E M A N U A L A N D S T U DY G U I D E

HFOFSBMTBSFEJTDVTTJOHQMBOTGPSCBUUMF8IBULJOEPGTQFFDIBSFUIFZVTJOH JGJUJT
OPUPOFPGUIPTFiBVUIFOUJDwGJMNTUIBUVTFTVCUJUMFT
8IZEPZPVTVQQPTFUIFEJSFD
UPSIBTUIFBDUPSTTQFBL&OHMJTICVUXJUITVQQPTFEMZ(FSNBOBDDFOUT 8IBUJGUIFZ
TQPLFiOPSNBMw&OHMJTIUPFBDIPUIFSBOEZPVXFSFUPME PSTVQQPTFEUPBTTVNF UIBU
UIFZXFSFTQFBLJOHJO(FSNBO 8PVMEJUCFBNPSF PSMFTT FGGFDUJWFDJOFNBUJDUFDI
OJRVF 8IBUJGZPVXFSFUPMEUIBUUIJTJTKVTUB)PMMZXPPEDPOWFOUJPO UIBUJT JO(FS
NBOXBSNPWJFTUIFBDUPSTEPOPUQPSUSBZ"NFSJDBOTCZVTJOHGBLF&OHMJTIBDDFOUT

 "QSPGFTTPSDPMMFBHVFPGPVSTXIPTFGJSTUMBOHVBHFJTOPU&OHMJTITPNFUJNFTVTFT
TFOUFODFTMJLFi0I ZPVWFMPTUZPVSXFJHIU5IBUFYFSDJTFQSPHSBNNVTUCFXPSL
JOHXFMMwPSi5IFWFUTBZT*IBWFUPQVUNZEPHPOBEJFU.BYOFFETUPMPTFIJT
XFJHIUBTIFJTKVTUUPPGBUw1SPCBCMZZPVDPVMEVOEFSTUBOEUIFTFTFOUFODFT BOE
UIPVHIZPVNBZOPUIBWFQISBTFEUIFNJOFYBDUMZUIBUXBZ ZPVNJHIUOPUUIJOLPG
UIFNBTUFDIOJDBMMZiJODPSSFDUw)PXFWFS BDDPSEJOHUPBCPPLPO&OHMJTIHSBNNBS
GPSOPOOBUJWFTQFBLFST TVDITFOUFODFTBSFXSPOH8IBUSFBTPOTEPZPVUIJOLUIF
CPPLNJHIUIBWFHJWFOGPSUIFTFTFOUFODFTCFJOHXSPOH )PXXPVMEZPVDIBOHF
UIFN BOE JGTP
XIZ
 0OFPGUIFBVUIPSTPGUIJTCPPLIBTKVTUCFFONBEF,JOHPG"NFSJDB BOEUIFGJSTUEF
DSFFJTUIBUFWFSZPOFNVTUTUVEZBGPSFJHOMBOHVBHFJOTDIPPMGPSBUMFBTUTJYZFBST
TUBSUJOHJOUIFGJSTUHSBEF8JMMUIJTBDUTUBSUBSFWPMVUJPO 8PVMEZPVCFPOFPGUIF
SFCFMT *TUIJTVO"NFSJDBO 8IBUEPZPVUIJOLUIF,JOHIBTJONJOEXJUIUIJTEF
DSFF BOEEPFTJUNBLFBOZTFOTF 8IBUJGXFUPMEZPVUIBUUIJTBDUVBMMZIBQQFOTJOOV
NFSPVTDPVOUSJFTJOUIFXPSME
 &OSPMMNFOUTOBUJPOXJEFGPS"SBCJDMBOHVBHFDMBTTFTJOJOTUJUVUJPOTPGIJHIFSFEVDBUJPO
SPTFXFMMPWFSQFSDFOUJOSFDFOUZFBST BOEUIFOVNCFSPGDPMMFHFTPGGFSJOH"SB
CJDJOTUSVDUJPOOFBSMZEPVCMFE8IZEPZPVUIJOLUIBUJT
 "UUIFUJNFPGUIF*SBOIPTUBHFDSJTJTJO *MMJOPJTTFOBUPS1BVM4JNPOTBJEUIFSF
XFSFPOMZBGFXTQFBLFSTPG'BSTJ PS1FSTJBO UIFNBKPSJUZMBOHVBHFPG*SBO
PO
TUBGGBUUIFFNCBTTZJO5FIFSBO8IBUEPFTUIJTTBZBCPVUUIFDPOEVDUPG"NFSJDBO
EJQMPNBDZ 8IBUEPFTUIJTTBZBCPVU"NFSJDBOTBUUJUVEFTUPXBSEGPSFJHOMBO
HVBHFTBOEGPSFJHOMBOHVBHFMFBSOJOH 4PNFIBWFTBJEUIBUCFDBVTFPGPVSMJO
HVJTUJDQPWFSUZJO*SBO XFLOFXPOMZUIF4IBITiQBSUZMJOFwBOEIBEOPJEFBPG
IPX UIF BWFSBHF *SBOJBO GFMU BCPVU UIF HPWFSONFOU  UIF OFX MFBEFS "ZBUPMMBI
,IPNFJOJ PSUIF6OJUFE4UBUFT8IBUFGGFDU JGBOZ
EPZPVUIJOLUIJTMJOHVJTUJD
TJUVBUJPOIBEPOUIFIPTUBHFDSJTJTBOESFWPMVUJPOJO*SBO

Objective Study Questions


5SVF'BMTF5FTU
5 '  'PSUIFNPTUQBSU UIFUFSNTiMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHZwBOEiBOUISPQPMPHJDBMMJO
HVJTUJDTwNFBOFYBDUMZUIFTBNFUIJOH BOEOFJUIFSJTUPCFQSFGFSSFEPWFSUIF
PUIFS
5 '  /BUVSBMMBOHVBHFJUTFMGJTOPUBNCJHVPVTJUJTQFPQMFXIPNJTJOUFSQSFUUIJOHTUIBU
DBVTFQSPCMFNT
5 '  "DDPSEJOHUP#PBT UIFSFJTOPJOUSJOTJDDPOOFDUJPOCFUXFFOSBDF MBOHVBHF BOE
DVMUVSF
5 '  "MNPTUFWFSZXIFSFJOUIFXPSMEFWFSZPOFJTNPOPMJOHVBMPSNPOPEJBMFDUBM KVTU
BTJO"NFSJDB
R E S O U R C E M A N U A L A N D S T U DY G U I D E 329

5 '  /PMBOHVBHFJTSFBMMZNPSFDPNQMFYPSTJNQMFSPSFBTJFSUIBOBOZPUIFSOPMBO
HVBHFJTIBSEFSPSFBTJFSUPMFBSOUIBOBOZPUIFS
5 '  8IJMF MJOHVJTUT BSFQSJNBSJMZJOUFSFTUFEJOUIFTUSVDUVSFPGMBOHVBHFT MJOHVJTUJD
BOUISPQPMPHJTUTTUVEZUIFSFMBUJPOTIJQCFUXFFOMBOHVBHFPOUIFPOFIBOEBOEDVM
UVSFBOETPDJFUZPOUIFPUIFS

.VMUJQMF$IPJDF2VFTUJPOT
____  5IFQFSTPOXIPJTTBJEUPCFUIFiGPVOEJOHGBUIFSwPG"NFSJDBOBOUISPQPMPHZJT
"
&EXBSE4BQJS #
%FMM)ZNFT $
'SBO[#PBT %
,BSM75FFUFS
____  "OUISPQPMPHZBTBSFDPHOJ[FETDJFODFCFHBOJOXIJDIDFOUVSZ "
TFWFOUFFOUI
#
FJHIUFFOUIDFOUVSZ $
OJOFUFFOUIDFOUVSZ %
UXFOUJFUI DFOUVSZ &
UXFOUZ
GJSTUDFOUVSZ
____  "DDPSEJOHUP&EXBSE4BQJSJUJTUIF "
TZOUBY  #
WPDBCVMBSZ  $
HSBNNBSUIBU
NPSFPSMFTTGBJUIGVMMZSFGMFDUTUIFDVMUVSFXIPTFQVSQPTFTJUTFSWFT
____  %VSJOHUIFMBTUTFWFOUZZFBST UIFQFSDFOUBHFPGNPOPMJOHVBMBOECJMJOHVBM.FYJ
DBO*OEJBOTIBTCFFOTUFBEJMZEFDMJOJOHJOGBWPSPG4QBOJTICZBCPVUXIBUQFSDFOU
"
'SPNQFSDFOUJOUPBCPVUQFSDFOUJO #
'SPNQFSDFOUJO
UPQFSDFOUJO $
5IFSFBDUVBMMZIBTCFFOOPUNVDIDIBOHF %
4QBO
JTIIBTGPSUIFNPTUQBSUSFQMBDFEBMNPTUBMMJOEJHFOPVTMBOHVBHFT
____  -FYJDBMTQFDJBMJ[BUJPO UIBUJT BMBSHFJOWFOUPSZPGXPSETQFSUBJOJOHUPBQBSUJDVMBS
EPNBJO JTGPVOEJOXIJDIPGUIFGPMMPXJOHJOTUBODFT  "
5IF"HUBPGUIF1IJMJQ
QJOFTIBWFPWFSUIJSUZEJGGFSFOUWFSCTSFGFSSJOHUPUZQFTPGGJTIJOH #
5IFOBUJWFT
PGUIF(FSNBODJUZPG.VOJDIBSFTBJEUPIBWFPWFSTFWFOUZUFSNTSFGFSSJOHUPUIF
MPDBMWBSJFUJFTPGCFFS $
"NFSJDBOTIBWFBIVOESFEPSTPEJGGFSFOUOBNFTGPS
NBLFTBOEUZQFTPGBVUPNPCJMFT %
0OMZUXPPGUIFQSFDFEJOHUISFFDIPJDFTBSF
USVF &
"MMUISFFDIPJDFT "o$ BSFUSVF

$PNQMFUJPOT
 *OUIFOJOFUFFOUIDFOUVSZ POFPGUIFNBJOJOUFMMFDUVBMBOETDJFOUJGJDUBTLTXBT UP
USZUPFYQMBJOUIFHSFBUEJWFSTJUZPG@@@@@@@@@@ @@@@@@@@@@ BOE@@@@@@@@@@ QBTU
BOEQSFTFOU UISFFXPSET

 4BQJSTEFTDSJQUJPOPGUIFNPSQIPMPHZPGUIF@@@@@@@@@@MBOHVBHFEFNPOTUSBUFEUIBU
OPO8FTUFSOMBOHVBHFTDBOCFBTDPNQMFYBTBOZGPVOEJO&VSPQF
 "WFSZCSJFGBOETJNQMFEFGJOJUJPOPGBOUISPQPMPHZNJHIUCFiUIF@@@@@@@@@@TUVEZ
PGIVNBOLJOE POFXPSE
w

Notes and Suggestions for Further Reading


5IFSFBSFBOVNCFSPGCPPLTPOMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHZGPSCFHJOOJOHTUVEFOUT JODMVEJOH
0UUFOIFJNFSBOE#POWJMMBJO%VSBOUJBOE)BOLTBSFNPSFBEWBODFE
%VSBOUJJTBDPOWFOJFOUFODZDMPQFEJDEJDUJPOBSZPGLFZUFSNTGPSTUVEZJOHMBOHVBHF
BOEDVMUVSFBOE%VSBOUJJTBOFEJUFEPWFSWJFXPGBSUJDMFTPOUPQJDTDPWFSJOHUIFXIPMF
GJFMEPGMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHZ&EXBSE4BQJST-BOHVBHF IBTCFFOJOQSJOUJOWBSJPVTFEJ
UJPOTTJODFJUGJSTUBQQFBSFEJOGPSHPPESFBTPO5IFHSFBUFTUFYQFSUJO/BUJWF"NFSJ
DBOMBOHVBHFTCFGPSF8PSME8BS** 4BQJSDPVMEBMTPXSJUFJOBOFOUFSUBJOJOHNBOOFS5IF
NPTUBDDFTTJCMFPG'SBO[#PBTTMJOHVJTUJDXPSLJTIJTi*OUSPEVDUJPOwUPUIF )BOECPPLPG
"NFSJDBO*OEJBO-BOHVBHFT 

330 R E S O U R C E M A N U A L A N D S T U DY G U I D E

Chapter 2

Key Terms
DPOTVMUBOU
DPSQVT
FMJDJUBUJPO
GJFMEXPSL
JOGPSNBOU
MJOHVJTUJDT
QBSUJDJQBOUPCTFSWBUJPO

Questions for Discussion


 1FPQMFXIPBSFOPUXFMMJOGPSNFETPNFUJNFTIBWFTUSBOHFJEFBTBCPVUUIFMBOHVBHFT
TQPLFOCZNFNCFSTPGTNBMMUSJCBMTPDJFUJFT"OBMZ[FUIFGPMMPXJOHTUBUFNFOUDSJUJ
DBMMZQPJOUCZQPJOU6OXSJUUFOMBOHVBHFT TVDIBTUIPTFTQPLFOCZ"NFSJDBO*OEJ
BOT MBDLXFMMEFGJOFETPVOET PSEFSMZHSBNNBST BOEFYUFOTJWFWPDBCVMBSJFT/PU
IBWJOHCFFOTVCKFDUFEUPUIFVOSFMFOUJOHEFNBOETPGDPNQMFYJOEVTUSJBMDJWJMJ[BUJPOT
UIFTFMBOHVBHFTBSFJOIFSFOUMZJODBQBCMFPGBTTVNJOHUIFGVODUJPOTPGXFMMFTUBCMJTIFE
MBOHVBHFT
 4VQQPTFZPVXFSFUPFOHBHFJOZPVSGJSTUGJFMEXPSLFYQFSJFODFJOMJOHVJTUJDBOUISP
QPMPHZ)PXXPVMEZPVTFMFDUZPVSJOGPSNBOU T
BOEXIZXPVMEZPVDIPPTFDFSUBJO
UZQFTPGJOEJWJEVBMTPWFSPUIFST
 4VQQPTFBGJFMEXPSLFSEJTDPWFSFEBOEUIFOXBTNBLJOHBTUVEZPGBMBOHVBHFTQPLFO
CZUIFNFNCFSTPGBWJMMBHFTPDJFUZJOUIFKVOHMFPGUIF"NB[POCBTJO8IBUXPVME
CFUIFCFOFGJUTPGIBWJOHTUVEJFEDVMUVSBMBOUISPQPMPHZ

Objective Study Questions


5SVF'BMTF5FTU
5 '  5IFSFBTPOBMMBOUISPQPMPHJTUTFOKPZGJFMEXPSLJTUIBUMJWJOHJOUIFGJFMEQMBDFTOP
EFNBOETPOUIFNUIBUUIFZNVTUBEKVTUUP
5 '  5IFOBUJWFTQFBLFSGSPNXIPNUIFSFTFBSDIFSDPMMFDUTMJOHVJTUJD PSDVMUVSBM
EBUB
JTSFGFSSFEUPBTBOJOGPSNFS
5 '  0OFDIBSBDUFSJTUJDUIBUTFUTBOUISPQPMPHZBQBSUGSPNPUIFSTPDJBMTDJFODFTJTB
TUSPOHGJFMEXPSLDPNQPOFOU
5 '  *OUIFJOJUJBMQIBTFTPGGJFMEXPSL UIFBOUISPQPMPHJTUQSFGFSTUPVTFQFPQMFXIP
IBWFIBEFYUFOEFEFYQFSJFODFJOUIFBOUISPQPMPHJTUTPXOTPDJFUZ
5 '  *OUIFJOJUJBMQIBTFTPGMJOHVJTUJDGJFMEXPSL BOUISPQPMPHJTUTFOEFBWPSUPVTFJO
GPSNBOUTXIPTQFBLEJGGFSFOUEJBMFDUTPGUIFMBOHVBHFTUVEJFE
5 '  6OXSJUUFOMBOHVBHFTPGTNBMMUSJCBMTPDJFUJFTBSFQSJNJUJWFCFDBVTFUIFTFMBO
HVBHFTIBWFMJUUMFPSOPHSBNNBS
5 '  7PDBCVMBSJFTPGUIFMBOHVBHFTPGTPNFTNBMMUSJCBMTPDJFUJFTNBZOPUCFBTFYUFO
TJWFBTUIFWPDBCVMBSZPG TBZ &OHMJTI CVUBSFTVGGJDJFOUUPTFSWFUIFOFFETPGUIF
HSPVQTVTJOHUIFN
R E S O U R C E M A N U A L A N D S T U DY G U I D E 331

.VMUJQMF$IPJDF2VFTUJPOT
@@@@  5IFSFBSFTUJMMIVOESFETPGMBOHVBHFTBCPVUXIJDIMJOHVJTUTBOEBOUISPQPMPHJTUT
LOPXSFMBUJWFMZMJUUMFPSOPUIJOHBUBMM'PSUIFNPTUQBSUTVDIMBOHVBHFTBSFGPVOE
JO "
*SJBO+BZB #
1BQVB/FX(VJOFB $
UIF"NB[POCBTJOJO4PVUI"NFSJDB
%
POMZUXPPGUIFBSFBTNFOUJPOFE &
BMMUISFFPGUIFBSFBTNFOUJPOFE
@@@@  'PSJOJUJBMGJFMEXPSLJOMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHZDPODFSOJOH GPSFYBNQMF /BUJWF
"NFSJDBOMBOHVBHFT FYQFSJFODFEBOUISPQPMPHJTUTUFOEUPDIPPTFBOBUJWFJOGPSN
BOU DPOTVMUBOU
XIP "
JTPGUIFPQQPTJUFTFY #
IBTIBEHPPEFYQPTVSFUPUIF
MBSHFSTPDJFUZTVSSPVOEJOHUIFUSJCBMTPDJFUZCFJOHTUVEJFE $
JTZPVOHBOEFBTJMZ
BQQSPBDIBCMF %
/POFPGUIFQSFDFEJOHUISFFDIPJDFTJTGVMMZTBUJTGBDUPSZ
@@@@  5IFJNNFSTJPOPGBOUISPQPMPHJDBMGJFMEXPSLFSTGPSBOFYUFOEFEQFSJPEPGUJNFJO
UIFEBZUPEBZMJGFPGUIFQFPQMFXIPNUIFZTUVEZJTSFGFSSFEUPBT "
HPJOHOBUJWF
#
QBSUJDJQBOUPCTFSWBUJPO $
HJWJOHVQPOFTFUIOJDJEFOUJUZ
@@@@  8IJDIPGUIFGPMMPXJOHTUBUFNFOUTIBWJOHUPEPXJUIPCUBJOJOHEBUBGPSBMJUUMF
LOPXOMBOHVBHFJTMFBTU BDDFQUBCMF  "
5IFJOGPSNBOUTIPVMECFBOPMEFSQFSTPO
XIPJTBOBDUJWFQBSUJDJQBOUJOIJTPSIFSDVMUVSF #
3FDPSEJOHBTQPOUBOFPVTDPO
WFSTBUJPOCFUXFFOUXPOBUJWFTQFBLFSTZJFMETHPPENBUFSJBMEVSJOHUIFJOJUJBMTUBHFT
PGGJFMEXPSL $
5BQFSFDPSEJOHTPGMJOHVJTUJDEBUB XJUIUIFQFSNJTTJPOPGUIFJO
GPSNBOU
BSFFYUSFNFMZIFMQGVM %
*OUIFBEWBODFETUBHFTPGGJFMEXPSL VTJOHJO
GPSNBOUTPGTFWFSBMBHFHSPVQTBOECPUIHFOEFSTJTIJHIMZBEWJTBCMF

$PNQMFUJPOT
 "DPMMFDUJPOPGMBOHVBHFEBUBVTFEBTBCBTJTGPSBOBOBMZTJTPSEFTDSJQUJPOJTSFGFSSFE
UPBTB@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ POFXPSE

 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ POFXPSE
JTUIFESBXJOHPVUPGJOGPSNBUJPOPSSFTQPOTF
GSPNJOGPSNBOUT
 5PFNQIBTJ[FUIFJOUFSDPOOFDUJPOCFUXFFODVMUVSFBOETPDJFUZ BOUISPQPMPHJTUTVTF
UIFDPNQPVOEBEKFDUJWF@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ POFXPSE


Notes and Suggestions for Further Reading


'PSBCPPLTJ[FEHVJEFUPMJOHVJTUJDGJFMEXPSL TFF4BNBSJO2VJUFQPTTJCMZUIFFBSMJ
FTUBSUJDMFEJTDVTTJOHUIFUSBJOJOHPGMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHJTUTJT7PFHFMJOBOE)BSSJT
6TFGVMBMUIPVHITPNFXIBUEBUFEDPNNFOUTPOPCUBJOJOHBMJOHVJTUJDTBNQMFBOEBHVJEFGPS
USBOTDSJCJOHVOXSJUUFOMBOHVBHFTNBZCFGPVOEJO7PFHFMJOBOE7PFHFMJOBOE
&MJDJUJOHBOESFDPSEJOHUFDIOJRVFTBSFEJTDVTTFEJO)BZFTBOE:FHFSMFIOFS'PS
BQSBDUJDBMHVJEFUPIPXUPMFBSOBGJFMEMBOHVBHF DPOTVMU#VSMJOH
'PSDPOUSJCVUJPOTUPUIFIJTUPSZPGMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHZ TFF)ZNFT TPNFXIBUSF
WJTFEJO)ZNFT)BMMPXFMMBOE%BSOFMM3FBEFSTPOMBOHVBHFJODVMUVSFBOE
TPDJFUZBOEPOMBOHVBHFJOUIFTPDJBMDPOUFYUBSF)ZNFTBOE(JHMJPMJ'PSBEF
UBJMFEBDDPVOUPG1VFSUP3JDBOFYQFSJFODFTXJUIMBOHVBHF SBDF BOEDMBTTJOUIF6OJUFE4UBUFT
TFF6SDJVPMJ%VSBOUJ MBSHFMZCBTFEPO7PMVNFPGUIF+PVSOBMPG-JOHVJTUJD"O
UISPQPMPHZ
DPOUBJOTTFWFOUZGJWFFTTBZTPGUXPUPGPVSQBHFTCZTQFDJBMJTUTPOiMBOHVBHFNBU
UFSTJOBOUISPQPMPHZw5IFUPQJDTSBOHFGSPNBDRVJTJUJPOPGMBOHVBHFUPXSJUJOH"OZSFBEFS
XJMMGJOETPNFUIJOHPGJOUFSFTUBTXFMMBTTIPSUCJCMJPHSBQIJFTPGUIFNPTUTBMJFOUXPSLTPO
FBDIUPQJD'PSBSFBEFSJOMJOHVJTUJDBOUISPQPMPHZ TFF%VSBOUJUIFUXFOUZPOFDPOUSJ
CVUJPOTUPUIJTXPSLJODMVEFBSUJDMFTPOTQFFDIDPNNVOJUZBOEDPNNVOJDBUJWFDPNQFUFODF
VUUFSBODFTBTBDUT MBOHVBHFTPDJBMJ[BUJPOBOEMJUFSBDZQSBDUJDFT BOEUIFQPXFSPGMBOHVBHF
332 R E S O U R C E M A N U A L A N D S T U DY G U I D E

Chapter 3

Key Terms
BDDFOU
BMMPNPUJG
BMMPQIPOF
DPOTPOBOU
FNJD T

FUJD T

NPUJG
NPUJGFNF
QIPOF
QIPOFNF
QIPOFNJD USBOTDSJQUJPO

QIPOFUJD USBOTDSJQUJPO

QIPOPMPHZ
QSPTPEJDGFBUVSFT
TQFFDIBQQBSBUVT
TZMMBCMF
WPJDFETPVOE
WPJDFMFTTTPVOE
WPXFM

Questions for Discussion


 &NJD BOEFUJD BQQSPBDIFTIBWFUIFJSPSJHJOJOMJOHVJTUJDTCVUFWFOUVBMMZIBWFCFFOBQ
QMJFEJOTFWFSBMCSBODIFTPGBOUISPQPMPHZ JODMVEJOHPSBMGPMLMPSF*ODVMUVSBM TPDJBM

BOUISPQPMPHZUIFWBMVFPGUIFTFUXPBQQSPBDIFTIBTOPXCFFOHFOFSBMMZSFDPHOJ[FE
%JTDVTTGJSTUUIFEJGGFSFODFCFUXFFOUIFUXPBQQSPBDIFT QIPOFUJDWFSTVTQIPOFNJD

JOMJOHVJTUJDBOBMZTJTBOEEFTDSJQUJPO BOEUIFOIPXUIFZDPNQMFNFOUFBDIPUIFSJO
FUIOPHSBQIZ EFTDSJQUJPOPGBDVMUVSF

 5IF&OHMJTIXPSETCZ IJHI UIJHI XIZ SZF BOEMJF BOEPOFDPVMEMJTUPUIFSTUIBU
SIZNF
CFMPOHUPUIFTBNFNJOJNBMTFU&YQMBJOXIBUJTNFBOUCZUIJTTUBUFNFOUBOE
DPNNFOU PO UIF SFMBUJPO CFUXFFO UIF QSPOVODJBUJPO PG &OHMJTI XPSET BOE UIFJS
TQFMMJOH
 .PSSJT)BMMFXSPUFUIBUiUIFTPundsXFFNJUXIFOTQFBLJOHBSFQSPEVDFECZDPN
QMFYHZNOBTUJDTw$POTJEFSJOHUIBUQFPQMFTQFBLFGGPSUMFTTMZBOETPNFUJNFTUPPGBTU
XIZEJE)BMMFNBLFUIBUTUBUFNFOU
 $POTJEFSUFOPSTPTPVOETPG&OHMJTIBOEBUUFNQUUPEFTDSJCF BUMFBTUSPVHIMZ
XIFSF
JOUIFWPDBMUSBDU UIBUJT CFUXFFOUIFMJQTBOEUIFMBSZOY NBSLFEJOUIFOFDLCZUIF
TPDBMMFE"EBNTBQQMF
FBDITPVOEJTQSPEVDFEBOECZXIBUNFBOT

Objective Study Questions


5SVF'BMTF5FTU
5 '  "NFSJDBO&OHMJTIIBTNPSFWPXFMQIPOFNFTUIBODPOTPOBOUQIPOFNFT
R E S O U R C E M A N U A L A N D S T U DY G U I D E 333

5 '  &OHMJTITQFMMJOHBOETQPLFO&OHMJTIBSFXFMMDPSSFMBUFEUIFXSJUJOHTZTUFNPG
&OHMJTIJTUIFSFGPSFQBSUJDVMBSMZTVJUBCMFGPSDBSFGVMMJOHVJTUJDXPSLXJUIVOXSJU
UFOMBOHVBHFT
5 '  *OUIFQSPEVDUJPOPGWPXFMT UIFBJSUIBUFTDBQFTUISPVHIUIFNPVUI BOEUIFOPTF
JOUIFDBTFPGOBTBMJ[FEWPXFMT
JTSFMBUJWFMZVOJNQFEFE
5 '  1JUDIJOBWBSJFUZPGJOUPOBUJPOBMQBUUFSOTJTVTFEJO&OHMJTIGPSFYBNQMF JO
RVFTUJPOT
5 '  5IFTZMMBCMFXSJUUFOBTNB IBTGPVSEJGGFSFOUNFBOJOHTJO.BOEBSJO$IJOFTFEF
QFOEJOHPOUIFUZQFPGQJUDIDPOUPVSUIFTQFBLFSFNQMPZT
5 '  5IF&OHMJTIXPSETHVZ BOEUIJHI SFQSFTFOUBNJOJNBMQBJS UIBUJT UIFZWBSZGSPN
FBDIPUIFSJOPOFTPVOEPOMZ
5 '  5IFUFSNFNJD SFGFSTUPBOBOBMZUJDBMBQQSPBDICBTFEPOEBUBSFDFJWFEGSPNOB
UJWFJOGPSNBOUT UIBUJT JUJTBDVMUVSFTQFDJGJD MBOHVBHFTQFDJGJD
BQQSPBDI
5 '  &OHMJTIBTTQPLFOJO(SFBU#SJUBJO UIF6OJUFE4UBUFT BOE$BOBEBEJGGFSTTPNF
XIBUGSPNPOFEJBMFDUUPUIFOFYUXJUISFHBSEUPWPXFMQSPOVODJBUJPO
5 '  "SUJDVMBUJPOPGBMMUIFTPVOETJOUIFMBOHVBHFTPGUIFXPSMEUBLFTQMBDFCFUXFFO
UIFHMPUUJT UIFFMPOHBUFETQBDFCFUXFFOUIFWPDBMDPSET
BOEUIFMJQT
5 '  *OBOBOBMZTJTPGBOVOXSJUUFOMBOHVBHF QIPOFNJDUSBOTDSJQUJPOQSFDFEFTQIP
OFUJDUSBOTDSJQUJPO

.VMUJQMF$IPJDF2VFTUJPOT
@@@@ 8IFOUIFWPDBMDPSETBSFESBXOUPHFUIFSBOENBEFUPWJCSBUF UIFZQSPEVDF "

WPJDFETPVOET #
WPJDFMFTTTPVOET $
UIFHMPUUBMTUPQ<>
@@@@ 5IFQTPVOETJOUIF&OHMJTIXPSETQFBL BOETQFBL BSF "
UXPBMMPQIPOFTPGPOF
QIPOFNF #
UXPEJGGFSFOUQIPOFNFT $
JODPNQMFNFOUBSZEJTUSJCVUJPO %
0G
UIFUISFFDIPJDFTBCPWFPOMZUXPBSFBDDFQUBCMF &
0GUIFUISFFDIPJDFTBCPWF
POMZPOFJTBDDFQUBCMF
@@@@ 5IFDPOUSBTUCFUXFFOUIFFNJDBOEFUJDQFSTQFDUJWFTJOMJOHVJTUJDTBOEMJOHVJTUJD
BOUISPQPMPHZIBTCFFOFYUFOEFEBMTPUP "
GPMLMPSF #
BSDIBFPMPHZ $
DVMUVSBM
BOUISPQPMPHZ %
5IJTBQQSPBDIIBTCFFOFYUFOEFEUPBMMUISFFTVCGJFMETMJTUFE
IFSF
@@@@ 5IFTPVOEXSJUUFOBT<C>JT "
VWVMBS #
EFOUBM $
CJMBCJBM %
/POFPGUIFTF
UISFFDIPJDFTBQQMJFT
@@@@ 8IJDIBNPOHUIFGPMMPXJOHTUBUFNFOUTJT JOEFGFOTJCMF  "
&BDIMBOHVBHFIBTB
DIBSBDUFSJTUJDQIPOFNJDTZTUFN #
5IFHSBNNBSTPGVOXSJUUFOMBOHVBHFTPGTNBMM
USJCBMTPDJFUJFTBSFJOWBSJBCMZTJNQMFSUIBOHSBNNBSTPGMBOHVBHFTPGMBSHFFTUBC
MJTIFETPDJFUJFT $
5IFQSPEVDUJPOPGTQFFDITPVOETJTBOFYDFFEJOHMZDPNQMFY
QSPDFTTJOWPMWJOHTPNFPOFIVOESFENVTDMFTBTXFMMBTPUIFSUJTTVFT %
/BUJWF
TQFBLFSTPGBMBOHVBHFVTFJUFGGJDJFOUMZFWFOUIPVHIUIFZNBZLOPXOPUIJOHBCPVU
JUTTUSVDUVSF

$PNQMFUJPOT
 -BOHVBHFTUIBUNBLFVTFPGEJTUJODUJWFQJUDIMFWFMT .BOEBSJO$IJOFTF GPSFYBNQMF

BSFSFGFSSFEUPBT@@@@@@@@@@@@@@MBOHVBHFT POFXPSE

 5IFTNBMMFTUQFSDFQUJCMFEJTDSFUFTFHNFOUPGTQFFDIJTB@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ POFXPSE

UIFDPOUSBTUJWFTPVOEVOJUTPGBMBOHVBHFBSF@@@@@@@@@@@@@ QMVSBMPGPOFXPSE

BOEUIFWBSJFUJFTPGBDPOUSBTUJWFTPVOEBSFJUT@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ QMVSBMPGPOFXPSE

334 R E S O U R C E M A N U A L A N D S T U DY G U I D E

Problems
1SPCMFN
#BTFEPO8POEFSMZBBOEC UIJTQSPCMFNJTUBLFOGSPN;PRVF BMBOHVBHFTQPLFO
JOTPVUIFSO.FYJDPUIBUCFMPOHTUPUIF.JYF;PRVFHSPVQPGMBOHVBHFT"NPOHUIFTPVOET
PG;PRVFBSF<D> BWPJDFMFTTBMWFPMBSBGGSJDBUF TJNJMBSUPUIFDPOTPOBOUTJOUIFXPSEUTFUTF
<GMZ>
BOE<> BWPJDFEBMWFPMBSBGGSJDBUF'SPNUIFEBUBHJWFOIFSFUPCFUBLFOBTSFQSF
TFOUBUJWFPGUIFMBOHVBHFBSF<D>BOE<>BMMPQIPOFTPGPOFQIPOFNF UIBUJT BSFUIFZJO
DPNQMFNFOUBSZEJTUSJCVUJPO
PSBSFUIFZBTTJHOBCMFUPUXPEJGGFSFOUQIPOFNFT UIBUJT EP
UIFZDPOUSBTU
4VQQPSUZPVSDPODMVTJPO
1. akahk- to be round 7. nhku I did it
2. aou he answered 8. nima my calabash
3. camamnayu he chatted 9. nin my pine
4. cap sky 10. pac skunk
5. ca stone 11. puci trash
6. cima calabash 12. wanyu he quit singing

1SPCMFN
$[FDIJTB8FTU4MBWJDMBOHVBHFPGUIF*OEP&VSPQFBOMBOHVBHFGBNJMZ TQPLFOJOUIF$[FDI
3FQVCMJD*O$[FDI BNPOHUIFWBSJPVTTUPQT QMPTJWFT
BSFUXPBMWFPEFOUBMTUPQT <U>BOE
<E> BSUJDVMBUFECZUIFUPOHVFUJQBHBJOTUUIFCPVOEBSZCFUXFFOUIFVQQFSJODJTPSTBOEUIF
BMWFPMBSSJEHFCFIJOEUIFN BOEUXPQBMBUBMTUPQT <UZ>BOE<EZ>5PIPXNBOZQIPOFNFTBSF
UIFTFGPVSTPVOETBTTJHOBCMF $POTJEFSUIFGPMMPXJOHEBUBBOETVQQPSUZPVSDPODMVTJPO
1. dej give! 9. tyelo body
2. dyedyit to inherit 10. teta aunt
3. dyej action 11. tikat to be on a rst-name basis
4. dyelo cannon 12. titul title
5. kotel kettle 13. tyikat to tick (clock)
6. kotye kitten 14. vada aw
7. tedi hence 15. vana bathtub
8. tele calf (animal) 16. vata absorbent cotton

1SPCMFN
#BTFEPO&DIFWFSSBBOE$POUSFSBT UIJTQSPCMFNJTUBLFOGSPN"SBVDBOJBO BMBO
HVBHFTQPLFOCZ/BUJWF"NFSJDBOTPG"SHFOUJOBBOE$IJMF*TUIFNBJOTUSFTT NBSLFECZ
<}> EJTUJODUJWF PSJTJUQSFEJDUBCMFCZSVMF 4VQQPSUZPVSDPODMVTJPO
1. elmuyu give us! 4. nawl tiger
2. kimfaluwulay he pretended not 5. putn to drink
to know 6. ulan I do not speak
3. kurm egg 7. wuy yesterday

1SPCMFN
#BTFEPO1PTUBM UIJTQSPCMFNJTGSPN.PIBXL UIF*SPRVPJBOMBOHVBHFPGB/BUJWF
"NFSJDBOQFPQMFXIPMJWFNBJOMZJOTPVUIFSO0OUBSJPBOEFYUSFNFOPSUIFSO/FX:PSL0O
UIFCBTJTPGUIFGPMMPXJOHEBUB XIBUJTUIFTUBUVTPGWPXFMMFOHUIJTJUQSFEJDUBCMFPSJTJU
EJTUJODUJWF -FOHUIJTJOEJDBUFECZEPVCMJOHBTZNCPMUIBUJT  JTBMPOHF<>JTUIFHMPU
R E S O U R C E M A N U A L A N D S T U DY G U I D E 335

UBMTUPQ<}>NBSLTTUSFTT<>JTBOVOSPVOEFECBDLMPXFSNJEWPXFM BTJOUIF&OHMJTIXPSE
CVEBOE<>JTBSPVOEFECBDLMPXFSNJEWPXFM
1. ranahzs he trusts her 7. wahrehyrane he remembered
2. ragdas he scrapes 8. wadunizashege it will be ripening
3. ray}thos he plants repeatedly
4. wahgede he scraped 9. ykreks I push it
5. wsk ve 10. royde he works
6. rehyras he remembers

1SPCMFN
#BTFEPO'SPNLJOBOE3PENBO UIJTQSPCMFNJTGSPN,PSFBO BMBOHVBHFXIPTFBG
GJMJBUJPOJTEJTQVUFE5IFTPVOET<M>BOE<S>BSFJODPNQMFNFOUBSZEJTUSJCVUJPO0OUIFCBTJT
PGUIFGPMMPXJOHEBUB XIBUJTUIFGPSNPGUIFTVGGJYNFBOJOHAPG UIF
 8IBUDIBOHFEP
OPVOTUFNTVOEFSHPXIFOUIFTVGGJYJTBUUBDIFE BOEVOEFSXIBUDJSDVNTUBODFTEPFTUIF
DIBOHFPDDVS 8IBUBSFUIFUXPNVUVBMMZFYDMVTJWFFOWJSPONFOUT DPNQMFNFOUBSZEJTUSJ
CVUJPO
JOXIJDIUIFTPVOET<M>BOE<S>PDDVS
1. pal foot 5. rupi ruby 9. saram person
2. paruy of the foot 6. ratio radio 10. saramuy of the person
3. kul oyster 7. mul water 11. multok water jug
4. il day 8. muruy of the water 12. ipalsa barber

1SPCMFN
#BTFEPO'SPNLJOBOE3PENBO UIJTQSPCMFNJTUBLFOGSPNB#BOUVMBOHVBHFTQP
LFOJO"OHPMB "GSJDB5IJTMBOHVBHFJTBNFNCFSPGUIF/JHFS$POHPMBOHVBHFGBNJMZ
5IFBMWFPMBSTFHNFOUT<U T [>JODPNQMFNFOUBSZEJTUSJCVUJPOXJUIUIFJSQBMBUBMDPVOUFS
QBSUT<O  >BSFBTTJHOBCMFUPUISFFQIPOFNFT8IBUJTUIFEJTUSJCVUJPOPGFBDIPGUIFDPS
SFTQPOEJOHQBJSTPGBMMPQIPOFT UIBUJT <U>BOE<O> <T>BOE<> BOE<[>BOE<> 8IJDIPG
UIF QIPOFUJD TZNCPMT GSPN UIF GJSTU QBJS  <U  O>  XPVME ZPV DIPPTF UP SFQSFTFOU UIF
QIPOFNF BOEXIZ
1. tobola to bore a hole 8. nselele termite
2. tanu ve 9. Oina to cut
3. kesoka to be cut 10. Oiba banana
4. kasu emaciation 11. nkoi lion
5. kunezulu heaven 12. aimola alms
6. zevo then 13. loloni to wash the house
7. zenga to cut 14. ima to stretch

1SPCMFN
%FTQFSBOUPJTTQPLFOJOBOBTZFUVOFYQMPSFEUSPQJDBMGPSFTU"NPOHUIF%FTQFSBOUPXPSET
BSFUIFGPMMPXJOHOPVOTBOEOPVOQISBTFT MPOHWPXFMTBSFSFQSFTFOUFECZEPVCMFMFUUFST
TIPSUWPXFMTCZTJOHMFMFUUFST

1. muumu home fried potatoes 4. kakaa used bicycle
2. kaka scrambled eggs 5. mumu garlic ice cream
3. wowo bikini swimsuit 6. woowoo banana split
Is vowel length phonemic? yes no.
336 R E S O U R C E M A N U A L A N D S T U DY G U I D E

In your answer (one sentence should sufce), justify your choice:


___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

1SPCMFN
"NPOHUIFTPVOETPG$[FDIBSF<L>BOE<Y> <Y>JTUIFTPVOEXSJUUFODI JOUIFOBNFPGUIF
DPNQPTFS+4#BDI
0OUIFCBTJTPGUIF$[FDIXPSETMJTUFECFMPX BSFUIFTFUXPTPVOETUXP
TFQBSBUFQIPOFNFTPSUXPBMMPQIPOFTPGPOFQIPOFNF
1. [prak] slingshot 5. [prax] dust
2. [puk] puck 6. [xroust] June bug
3. [xrxel] spittle 7. [kras] limestone region with caverns
4. [krkoun] cheapskate 8. [pux] stench
2 separate phonemes 2 allophones of one phoneme. Justify your decision:
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

Notes and Suggestions for Further Reading


5FYUCPPLTPGMJOHVJTUJDTBSFOVNFSPVT BOENPTUDBSSZTPNFFYQMBOBUJPOTPGQIPOPMPHZ
BOEQIPOFNJDT PGUFOBMPOHXJUIFYFSDJTFT5IFUXPDMBTTJDTBSF4BQJSBOE#MPPN
GJFME5XPFYDFMMFOUQPTUXBSCVUQSF$IPNTLZBOJOUSPEVDUJPOTUPMJOHVJTUJDTBSF
)PDLFUUBOE(MFBTPO4PNFSFQSFTFOUBUJWFDPOUFNQPSBSZTUBOEBSEUFYUTBSF
"LNBKJBO %FNFST 'BSNFS BOE)BSOJTI BOE0(SBEZ "SDIJCBME "SPOPGG BOE
3FFT.JMMFS"OFDMFDUJDTFUPGQSPCMFNTDBOCFGPVOEJO#FSHNBOO )BMM BOE3PTT
'PSHFOFSBMSFGFSFODF POFNBZXJTIUPDPOTVMU$SZTUBMBOEFTQFDJBMMZUIFFY
DFMMFOU$SZTUBM'PSNPSFTQFDJBMJ[FEUPQJDT TFF-BEFGPHFEBOE+PIOTPOPOQIP
OFUJDT )