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A solution in chemistry is a homogenous mixture of two or more substances.

The substance which is dissolved is called a solute.
The substance in which the solute is dissolved is called asolvent.

Main characteristics of a solution
Solution is homogenous
That the solution is a homogenous mixture means that it forms a single phase. You cannot
differentiate one substance from another within the solution. Characteristics of a solution are
identically distributed through it. For an easy example, if you dissolve sugar in water but some
of the sugar is still visibly laying on the bottom of the container (or even floating moved by
movement of water) then this not part of a solution - only the dissolved "invisible" sugar is.

You cannot see a solute inside a solvent, nor can you mechanically take one out of another
(eg. taking dissolved sugar from water is impossible with a sifter or another mechanical
method).
Solution is stable
A solution is stable in given conditions. Eg. in a particular temperature and pressure it does
not require stirring or other methods to remain homogenous.
Solution is in one phase
That the whole solution is on one phase means that the wole of it is either gasous, liqiud or
solid.

Which is the solute and which is the solvent?
Usually it is easy do determine which substance is a solute and which is a solvent.
The solute when dissolved takes on the charachteristics of the of the solvent. A solution is
composed in majority of a solvent (there is more of it then the solute). A sugar dissolved in
water seems to take on it's characteristics and there is more water than sugar in the solution.

True or False. A mixture in which the particles of one substance are evenly mixed
with the partices of another substance is a -solution-.
True
True or False. Club soda is a solution of -hydrogen- disolved in water.
False; carbon dioxide
True or False. Sand -dissolves- in water.
False; does not dissolve

When a substance goes into solution. it -dissolves-. Substance? State of substance mixed. False. True True or False. particles of sugar are evenly mixed with -molecules. In a sugar-water solution. . liquid in a gas The ______________ in a saltwater solution is salt. yes. Substance? State of substance mixed.with water. False. True True or False. unevenly True or False. A solution of alcohol dissolved in water is an example of a liquid dissolved in a -solid-. Substance? State of substance mixed. Sand mixes -evenly. False. no Ink on paper Substance? State of substance mixed. gas in a gas Balloon filled with hydrogen. solute A substance is said to be __________________ if it is able to dissolve. no Soda water. yes.of water. True Salt water. A solution of water droplets in air is an example of a liquid dissolved in a -gas-. soluble In a solution of salt and water.liquid Air. yes. Substance? State of substance mixed. _______________ is the solvent. True True or False. yes. Substance? State of substance mixed. liquid True or False. liquid True or False. A solution can be formed when a gas dissolves in a -gas-. A saltwater solution is formed when a solid dissolves in a -gas-.True or False. gas in a liquid Water droplets in air. solid in a .

sugar Sand is ______________ in water.water Identify the solute and solvent. it is said to be _______________________ . _________________ is the solute. Sugar Water Solute.water Identify the solute and solvent. insoluble Sugar is __________________ in oil.Water The hydrogen end of a water molecule has a ___________________ charge. Water droplets in air Solute.Coffee beans Solvent. Coffee Solute. positive . solvent When a substance does not dissolve in another substance.water Granite is ________________ in water. Club Soda Solute. insoluble In a sugar-water solution. Salt water Solute. solute The part of a solution in which a solute dissolves is called the _________________ .Water Solvent. insoluble The part of a solution that dissolves is called the _____________________________________________ .sugar Solvent.salt Solvent.water Identify the solute and solvent.air Identify the solute and solvent.Carbon dioxide Solvent. insoluble Identify the solute and solvent.

polar molecule When a sugar cube is placed in a glass of water. water A sugar crystal gets its ______________ from the force of attraction between the particles in the crystal. water Define dissolve go into solution Define solution a mixture of two or more substances What are mixtures composed of? Solutes and solvents Solutions can be _____________ separated physically Define solute a substance that can be dissolved in a solvent. negative Many kinds of substances dissolve in ____________________ . to form a solution Define solvent . the charged_______________ of a water molecule help spread a solute throughout the water. universal solvent When a solution forms. electrical charges Water is sometimes called the _______________________ . shape An example of a polar molecule is ____________________. each sugar ______________ is attracted to a water molecule. molecule The oxygen end of a water molecule has a ___________________ charge. ends A molecule in which one end has a positive charge and the other end has a negative charge is called a ___________________ .The ____________________ of polar water molecules help dissolve different kinds of substances.

a substance into which a substance dissolves to form a solution Describe dilute a solution that contains a small mass of solute for a certain quantity of solvent Describe saturated a solution in which no more of a solute will dissolve at a particular temperature Describe Supersaturated if it contains more dissolved solute than normally possible Solubility- the mass of a certain solute that can dissolve in a certain volume or mass of a solvent. different from the particles of other pure substances Homogeneous mixtures appear as one substance and light will pass through unaffected. Heterogeneous mixtures may appear as more than one substance and light will scatter as it passes through. and each pure substance has its own kind of particle. Concentrated a solution that has a large mass of dissolved solute for a certain quantity of solvent Concentration the quantity of solute that is dissolved in a certain quantity of solvent Dependent variable The variable that you observe to see if it has been affected by the changes to the independent variable Controlled variables All the factors in an experiment that are kept the same . at a certain temperature. Examples of homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures Orange juice Milk Soft drink Dissolving is the mixing of a solute completely with a solvent to form a solution. According to the Particle Theory of Matter all matter is made up of extremely tiny particles.

Temperature and pressure Different methods can be used to separate the components of a variety of mixtures. magnetism) filtration evaporation distillation paper chromatography Common separation techniques used to separate the components of a variety of mixtures include: straining spaghetti in a colander skimming fat off soup drying clothes (separating water from fabric) window screens allowing air in while keeping insects out making coffee using ground coffee beans Distillation Process which includes evaporation and condensation Simple distillation a type of separation technique used to recover a single solute and a single solvent from a solution.Hypothesis A statement about an experiment which includes the independent and dependent variables Interpolation A line on a graph that connects measured points to give a pattern Extrapolation A line on a graph that is extended from the measured points and just follows the pattern without evidence _________________ and ________________ are two factors that affect the solubility of various solutions. the solution is heated Fractional distillation - a process that uses the boiling points of substances to separate a complex mixture into its parts Examples of mixtures and solutions . Examples: mechanical sorting (flotation.

What determines whether or not materials dissolve? attraction Forming a solution by mixing two or more materials is called dissolving strong solution concentrated solution temperature at which a liquid changes to a solid freezing point raising the boiling point of a liquid solvent by adding solute boiling point elevation able to dissolve soluble molecule in which one end has a positive charge and the other end has a negative charge polar molecule solution containing all the solute it can hold at a given temperature saturated solution change of a liquid to a gas at the surface of the liquid evaporation go into solution dissolve substance that is dissolved solute temperature at which a liquid changes to a gas boiling point the amount of a substance that will dissolve in 100 grams of a solvent at a given temperature solubility . All the manufactured items that we use are mixtures and solutions. The electronic gadgets that we use are mixtures and solutions. The clothes we wear are mixtures and solutions. The air that surrounds us is composed of mixtures and solutions.The foods we eat and drink are mixtures and solutions.

process of heating a liquid until it evaporates and then cooling the gas until it condenses back into a liquid distillation not able to dissolve insoluble weak solution dilute solution solution containing less solute than it can hold at a given temperature unsaturated solution lowering the freezing point of a liquid solvent by adding solute freezing point depression mixture in which one substance is evenly mixed with another substance solution substance in which a solute dissolves solvent solution containing more solute than it can normally hold at that temperature supersaturated change of a gas to a liquid condensation .