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Exercises

E2.1 (a) R2, R3, and R4 are in parallel. Furthermore R1 is in series with the

combination of the other resistors. Thus we have:

1

Req = R1 + =3

1 / R2 + 1 / R3 + 1 / R4

combination of R3, and R4. Finally R1 is in parallel with the combination of

the other resistors. Thus we have:

1

Req = =5

1 / R1 + 1 /[R2 + 1 /(1 / R3 + 1 / R4 )]

Finally, the two parallel combinations are in series.

1 1

Req = + = 52.1

1 / R1 + 1 / R2 1 / R3 + 1 / R4

combination of R1 and R2.

1

Req = = 1.5 k

1 / R3 + 1 /(R1 + R2 )

E2.2 (a) First we combine R2, R3, and R4 in parallel. Then R1 is in series with

the parallel combination.

1 20 V 20

Req = = 9.231 i1 = = = 1.04 A

1 / R2 + 1 / R3 + 1 / R4 R1 + Req 10 + 9.231

v eq = Req i1 = 9.600 V i2 = v eq / R2 = 0.480 A i3 = v eq / R3 = 0.320 A

i4 = v eq / R4 = 0.240 A

22

(b) R1 and R2 are in series. Furthermore, R3, and R4 are in series.

Finally, the two series combinations are in parallel.

1

Req 1 = R1 + R2 = 20 Req 2 = R3 + R4 = 20 Req = = 10

1 / Req 1 + 1 / Req 2

v eq = 2 Req = 20 V i1 = v eq / Req 1 = 1 A i2 = v eq / Req 2 = 1 A

with R2. Finally the combination of R2, R3, and R4 is in series with R1.

1 vs

Req 1 = R3 + R4 = 40 Req 2 = = 20 i1 = =1A

1 / Req 1 + 1 / R2 R1 + Req 2

v 2 = i1Req 2 = 20 V i2 = v 2 / R2 = 0.5 A i3 = v 2 / Req 1 = 0.5 A

R1 R2

E2.3 (a) v 1 = v s = 10 V . v 2 = v s = 20 V .

R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 R1 + R2 + R3 + R4

Similarly, we find v 3 = 30 V and v 4 = 60 V .

23

(b) First combine R2 and R3 in parallel: Req = 1 (1 / R2 + 1 R3 ) = 2.917 .

R1

Then we have v 1 = v s = 6.05 V . Similarly, we find

R1 + Req + R4

Req

v2 = vs = 5.88 V and v 4 = 8.07 V .

R1 + Req + R4

R3 15 Req 30

i1 = is = = 1 A and i3 = is = = 2 A.

R3 + Req 15 + 30 R3 + Req 15 + 30

Therefore, to determine i1, first combine R2 and R3 in parallel: Req =

Req 5

1/(1/R2 + 1/R3) = 5 . Then we have i1 = is = = 1A.

R1 + Req 10 + 5

Similarly, i2 = 1 A and i3 = 1 A.

E2.5 Write KVL for the loop consisting of v1, vy , and v2. The result is -v1 - vy +

v2 = 0 from which we obtain vy = v2 - v1. Similarly we obtain vz = v3 - v1.

v1 v3 v1 v2 v v1 v2 v2 v3

E2.6 Node 1: + = ia Node 2: 2 + + =0

R1 R2 R2 R3 R4

v v v2 v3 v1

Node 3: 3 + 3 + + ib = 0

R5 R4 R1

E2.7 Using determinants we can solve for the unknown voltages as follows:

6 0. 2

1 0. 5 3 + 0. 2

v1 = = = 10.32 V

0.7 0.2 0.35 0.04

0 . 2 0. 5

0. 7 6

0. 2 1 0 . 7 + 1. 2

v2 = = = 6.129 V

0.7 0.2 0.35 0.04

0. 2 0. 5

24

E2.8 First write KCL equations at nodes 1 and 2:

v 1 10 v 1 v1 v2

Node 1: + =0 +

2 5 10

v 10 v 2 v 2 v 1

Node 2: 2 + + =0

10 5 10

8v 1 v 2 = 50 and v 1 + 4v 2 = 10

Solving, we find v1 = 6.77 V and v2 = 4.19 V.

v1 v3 v1 v1 v2

Node 1: + =0 +

20 5 10

v v1 v v3

Node 2: 2 + 10 + 2 =0

10 5

v v1 v3 v3 v2

Node 3: 3 + + =0

20 10 5

0.10v 1 + 0.30v 2 0.20v 3 = 10

0.05v 1 0.20v 2 + 0.35v 3 = 0

E2.10 The equation for the supernode enclosing the 15-V source is:

v3 v2 v3 v1 v1 v2

+ = +

R3 R1 R2 R4

This equation can be readily shown to be equivalent to Equation 2.34 in

the book. (Keep in mind that v3 = -15 V.)

25

E2.11 Write KVL from the reference to node 1 then through the 10 V source to

node 2 then back to the reference node:

v 1 + 10 + v 2 = 0

Then write KCL equations. First for a supernode enclosing the 10-V

source we have:

v1 v1 v3 v2 v3

+ + =1

R1 R2 R3

Node 3:

v3 v3 v1 v3 v2

+ + =0

R4 R2 R3

Reference node:

v1 v3

+ =1

R1 R4

An independent set consists of the KVL equation and any two of the KCL

equations.

reference node at the

left-hand end of the

voltage source as shown

at right.

Then write a KCL

equation at node 1.

v 1 v 1 10

+ +1 = 0

R1 R2

10 v 1

Then we have ia = = 1.333 A.

R2

(b) Select the

reference node and

assign node voltages as

shown.

equations at nodes 1

and 2.

26

v 1 25 v 1 v 1 v 2

+ + =0

R2 R4 R3

v 2 25 v 2 v 1 v 2

+ + =0

R1 R3 R5

v v2

and v 2 = 18.97 V. Then we have ib = 1 = -0.259 A.

R3

E2.13 (a) Select the

reference node and

node voltage as

shown. Then write a

KCL equation at node

1, resulting in

v 1 v 1 10

+ 2ix = 0

5 5

10 v 1

Then we have ix = = 0.5 A.

5

(b) Choose the reference node and node voltages shown:

v1 v 1 2i y v2 v 2 2i y

+ +3= 0 + =3

5 2 5 10

27

Finally use i y = v 2 / 5 to substitute and solve. This yields v 2 = 11.54 V and

i y = 2.31 A.

E2.14 Refer to Figure 2.32b in the book. (a) Two mesh currents flow through

R2: i1 flows downward and i4 flows upward. Thus the current flowing in R2

referenced upward is i4 - i1. (b) Similarly, mesh current i1 flows to the

left through R4 and mesh current i2 flows to the right, so the total

current referenced to the right is i2 - i1. (c) Mesh current i3 flows

downward through R8 and mesh current i4 flows upward, so the total

current referenced downward is i3 - i4. (d) Finally, the total current

referenced upward through R8 is i4 - i3.

E2.15 Refer to Figure 2.32b in the book. Following each mesh current we have

R5i2 + R4 (i2 i1 ) + R6 (i2 i3 ) = 0

R7i3 + R6 (i3 i2 ) + R8 (i3 i4 ) = 0

R3i4 + R2 (i4 i1 ) + R8 (i4 i3 ) = 0

i2 = 5 A. The net current flowing downward through the 10- resistance

is i1 i2 = 5 A.

To solve by node voltages, we select the reference node and node voltage

shown. (We do not need to assign a node voltage to the connection

28

between the 7- resistance and the 3- resistance because we can

treat the series combination as a single 10- resistance.)

v1 = 50 V. Thus we again find that the current through the 10-

resistance is i = v 1 / 10 = 5 A.

seen by the voltage source is 10 . Thus the current through the

source and 5- resistance is (100 V)/(10 ) = 10 A. This current splits

equally between the 10- resistance and the series combination of 7

and 3 .

2(i1 i3 ) + 5(i1 i2 ) = 10

5i2 + 5(i2 i1 ) + 10(i2 i3 ) = 0

10i3 + 10(i3 i2 ) + 2(i3 i1 ) = 0

29

Simplifying and solving, we find that i1 = 2.194 A, i2 = 0.839 A, and i3 =

0.581 A. Thus the current in the 2- resistance referenced to the right

is i1 - i3 = 2.194 - 0.581 = 1.613 A.

E2.18 Refer to Figure 2.37 in the book. In terms of the mesh currents the

current directed to the right in the 5-A current source is i1, however by

the definition of the current source, the current is 5 A directed to the

left. Thus we conclude that i1 = -5 A. Then we write a KVL equation

following i2, which results in 10(i2 i1 ) + 5i2 = 100.

E2.19 Refer to Figure 2.38 in the book. First, for the current source, we have

i2 i1 = 1

Then we write a KVL equation going around the perimeter of the entire

circuit:

5i1 + 10i2 + 20 10 = 0

A.

mesh currents flowing

clockwise around the

meshes as shown. Then

for the current source, we

have i2 = -1 A. This is

because we defined the

mesh current i2 as the

current referenced

downward through the current source. However, we know that the

current through this source is 1 A flowing upward. Next we write a

KVL equation around mesh 1: 10i1 10 + 5(i1 i2 ) = 0. Solving we find that

i1 = 1/3 A. Referring to Figure 2.29a in the book we see that the value of

the current ia referenced downward through the 5 resistance is to be

found. In terms of the mesh currents we have ia = i1 i2 = 4 / 3 A .

30

(b) As usual, we select

the mesh currents

flowing clockwise

around the meshes as

shown.

Then we write a KVL

equation for each mesh.

25 + 10(i1 i3 ) + 10(i1 i2 ) = 0

10(i2 i1 ) + 20(i2 i3 ) + 20i2 = 0

10(i3 i1 ) + 5i3 + 20(i3 i2 ) = 0

1.2069 A. Finally, we have ib = i2 - i3 = -0.2586 A.

10 + 5i1 + 5(i1 i2 ) = 0

For the current source:

i2 = 2ix

However, ix and i1 are

the same current, so we

also have i1 = ix.

Simplifying and solving, we find ix = i1 = 0.5 A.

source, we have: i1 = 3 A

Writing KVL around

meshes 2 and 3, we have:

2(i2 i1 ) + 2i y + 5i2 = 0

10(i3 i1 ) + 5i3 2i y = 0

find that i3 = i y = 2.31 A.

31

E2.22 Under open-circuit conditions, 5 A circulates clockwise through the

current source and the 10- resistance. The voltage across the 10-

resistance is 50 V. No current flows through the 40- resistance so the

open circuit voltage is Vt = 50 V.

With the output shorted, the 5 A divides between the two resistances in

parallel. The short-circuit current is the current through the 40-

10

resistance, which is isc = 5 = 1 A. Then the Thvenin resistance is

10 + 40

Rt = v oc / isc = 50 .

E2.23 Choose the reference node at the bottom of the circuit as shown:

Notice that the node voltage is the open-circuit voltage. Then write a

KCL equation:

v oc 20 v oc

+ =2

5 20

Solving we find that voc = 24 V which agrees with the value found in

Example 2.15.

E2.23 To zero the sources, the voltage sources become short circuits and the

current sources become open circuits. The resulting circuits are :

32

1

(a) Rt = 10 + = 14 (b) Rt = 10 + 20 = 30

1 / 5 + 1 / 20

1

(c) Rt = =5

1 1

+

10 6 + 1

(1 / 5 + 1 / 20)

resistance. Thus

1

Rt = = 9.375 .

1 / 15 + 1 / 25

I n = isc = 10 / 15 + 1 = 1.67 A

33

(b) We cannot find the Thvenin resistance by zeroing the sources

because we have a controlled source. Thus we find the open-circuit

voltage and the short-circuit current.

v oc 2v x v oc

=2

+ v oc = 3v x

10 30

Solving we find Vt = v oc = 30 V.

2v x + v x = 0 vx = 0

Therefore isc = 2 A. Then we have Rt = v oc / isc = 15 .

E2.26 First we transform the 2-A source and the 5- resistance into a voltage

source and a series resistance:

34

10 + 10

Then we have i2 = = 1.333 A.

15

From the original circuit, we have i1 = i2 2, from which we find

i1 = 0.667 A.

The other approach is to start from the original circuit and transform

the 10- resistance and the 10-V voltage source into a current source

and parallel resistance:

1

Then we combine the resistances in parallel. Req = = 3.333 .

1 / 5 + 1 / 10

The current flowing upward through this resistance is 1 A. Thus the

voltage across Req referenced positive at the bottom is

3.333 V and i1 = 3.333 / 5 = 0.667 A. Then from the original circuit we

have i2 = 2 + i1 = 1.333 A, as before.

Refer to Figure 2.60c. Using the current division principle, we have

5

i2 = 2 = 0.667 A. (The minus sign is because of the reference

5 + 10

direction of i2.) Finally, by superposition we have iT = i1 + i2 = 0.333 A.

1

Req = 10 + = 13.75

1 / 5 + 1 / 15

35

Thus, i1 = 20 / 13.75 = 1.455 A, and v 1 = 3.75i1 = 5.45 V.

1

Req 2 = 15 + = 18.33

1 / 5 + 1 / 10

Thus, is = 10 / 18.33 = 0.546 A, and v 2 = 3.33is = 1.818 V. Then we have

i2 = ( v 2 ) / 10 = 0.1818 A

iT = i1 + i2 = 1.455 0.1818 = 1.27 A.

as I1. Then, we activate one source at a time and solve for vx.

10 1

vx = I

10 + 20 1 / 30 + 1 /(20 + 10) 1

= 5I 1

36

10

v x = 30 = 5

10 + 20 + 30

1

vx = 3 = 25

1 / 10 + 1 /(20 + 30)

v x = 5I 1 5 + 25

Then substituting I 1 = 0.6v x , we have

v x = 5(0.6v x ) 5 + 25

which yields v x = 5 V. Then, applying Ohm's law and KCL in the original

circuit, we readily find that i y = 0.5 A.

Problems

37

P2.3 (a) Req = 25 (b) Req = 24

1

P2.4* We have 4 + = 8 which yields Rx = 5 .

1 / 20 + 1 / Rx

1

P2.5 We have = 48 which yields Rx = 80 .

1 / 120 + 1 / Rx

R (3R ) 3R

P2.6 We have Req = = . Clearly, for Req to be an integer, R must be

R + 3R 4

an integer multiple of 4.

P2.7 Rab = 6

P2.8 Because the resistances are in parallel, the same voltage v appears across

both of them. The current through R1 is i1 = v/100. The current through

R2 is i2 = 2i1 = 2v/100. Finally we have R2 = v/i2 = v/(2v/100) = 50 .

1 Req

Req = 1 + +1 =2+

1 + 1 Req 1 + Req

Req (1 + Req ) = 2(1 + Req ) + Req

(R )

eq

2

2Req 2 = 0

Req = 2.732

(Req = 0.732 is another root, but is not physically reasonable.)

resistance of 4 . Similarly, the 18- and 9- resistances are in parallel

38

and have an equivalent resistance of 6 . Finally, the two parallel

combinations are in series, and we have

Rab = 4 + 6 = 10

1 1 1000

P2.11 Req = = =

1 1 1 n n

+ + + ...

1000 1000 1000 1000

P2.12*

1202

P2.13 In the lowest power mode, the power is Plowest = = 83.33 W.

R1 + R2

For the highest power mode, the two elements should be in parallel with

an applied voltage of 240 V. The resulting power is

2402 2402

Phighest = + = 1000 + 500 = 1500 W.

R1 R2

Some other modes and resulting powers are:

R1 operated separately from 240 V yielding 1000 W

R2 operated separately from 240 V yielding 500 W

R1 in series with R2 operated from 240 V yielding 333.3 W

R1 operated separately from 120 V yielding 250 W

120 2

P = 300 =

R1 + R2

At the high power setting, we have

120 2 120 2

P = 1200 = +

R1 R2

39

Solving these equations we find R1 = R2 = 24 .

elements from 120 V resulting in a power of 600 W.

v ab = Req = 1 3 + 1 6 + 1 3 = 5 6

P2.16* The 20- and 30- resistances are in parallel and have an equivalent

resistance of Req1 = 12 . Also the 40- and 60- resistances are in

parallel with an equivalent resistance of Req2 = 24 . Next we see that

Req1 and the 4- resistor are in series and have an equivalent resistance

of Req3 = 4 + Req1 = 16 . Finally Req3 and Req2 are in parallel and the overall

equivalent resistance is

1

Rab = = 9.6

1 / Req 1 + 1 / Req 2

P2.17 The 20- and 30- resistances are in parallel and have an equivalent

resistance of Req1 = 12 which in turn is in series with the 8-

resistance resulting in an equivalent resistance of Req2 = Req1 + 8 = 20 .

Next Req2 is in parallel with the 60- resistance resulting in an equivalent

resistance Req3 = 15 which in turn is in series with the 7- resistance

resulting in an overall equivalent resistance of Rab = 22 .

40

1 G1G2

P2.18 (a) For a series combination Geq = =

1 / G1 + 1 / G2 G1 + G2

(b) For a parallel combination of conductances Geq = G1 + G2

P2.19 To supply the loads in such a way that turning one load on or off does not

affect the other loads, we must connect the loads in series with a switch

in parallel with each load:

To turn a load on, we open the corresponding switch, and to turn a load

off, we close the switch.

equations can be solved to find that Ra = 8 , Rb = 12 , and Rc = 6 .

After shorting terminals b and c, the equivalent resistance between

terminal a and the shorted terminals is

1

Req = Ra + = 12

1 / Rb + 1 / Rc

1. Find a series or parallel combination of resistances.

2. Combine them.

3. Repeat until the network is reduced to a single resistance and a

single source (if possible).

The method does not always work because some networks cannot be

reduced sufficiently. Then, another method such as node voltages or

mesh currents must be used.

P2.22* We combine resistances in series and parallel until the circuit becomes an

equivalent resistance across the voltage source. Then, we solve the

simplified circuit and transfer information back along the chain of

equivalents until we have found the desired results.

41

P2.23 Using Ohm's and Kirchhoff's laws, we work from right to left resulting in

1 1

Req = 8 + + = 20 . Then, we have v = 2Req = 40 V,

1 6 + 1 12 1 12 + 1 24

i2 = 0.667 A, and i1 = 1.333 A.

P2.25* Combining resistors in series and parallel, we find that the equivalent

resistance seen by the current source is Req = 17.5 . Thus,

v = 8 17.5 = 140 V. Also, i = 1 A.

42

10 10

P2.26* i1 = = = 1A

Req 10

vx = 4 V

v

i2 = x = 0.5 A

8

1

Req = + 4 = 16

1 / 28 + 1 /(7 + 14)

Then, we have

16 V 21

i1 = = 1 A and i2 = i1 = 0.4286 A.

Req 28 + 21

P2.28 The currents through the 3- resistance and the 4- resistance are

zero because they are series with an open circuit. Similiarly, the 6-

resistance is also in series with the open circuit, and its current is zero.

Thus, we can consider the 10- and the 5- resistances to be in series.

The current circulating clockwise in the left-hand loop is given by

9

i1 = , and we have v 1 = 5i1 = 3 V. The current circulating

10 + 5

counterclockwise in the right hand loop is 1 A. By Ohm's law, we have

v 2 = 2 V. Then, using KVL we have v ab = v 1 v 2 = 1 V.

1

Req = 4 + = 10

1 / 10 + 1 /(5 + 10)

15 10

Then, we have v s = 2Req = 20 V, i2 = 2 = 1.2 A, i1 = 2 = 0. 8 A

10 + 15 10 + 15

and v 1 = 10i1 = 8 V.

P2.30 In a similar fashion to the solution for Problem P2.9, we can write the

following expression for the resistance seen by the 2-V source.

1

Req = 1 +

1 / Req + 1 / 2

The solutions to this equation are Req = 2 and Req = -1 . However, we

reason that the resistance must be positive and discard the negative

43

2V Req i

root. Then, we have i1 = = 1 A, i2 = i1

= 1 = 0.5 A, and

Req 2 + Req 2

i i i i

i3 = 1 = 0.5 A. Similarly, i4 = 3 = 12 = 0.25 A and i18 = 19 = 1.953 mA.

2 2 2 2

20 V

P2.31 i2 = = 4A i1 = i 2 3 = 1 A

5

Pcurrent source = 3 A 20 V = 60 W Pvoltage source = 20i1 = 20 W

Power is delivered by both sources.

P2.32 With the switch open, the current flowing clockwise in the circuit is given

10 10R2

by i = , and we have v 2 = R2i = = 5. Solving we find R2 = 6 .

6 + R2 6 + R2

With the switch closed, R2 and RL are in parallel with an equivalent

1 1

resistance given by Req = = . The current through

1 / R2 + 1 / RL 1 / 6 + 1 / RL

10 10Req

Req is given by i = and we have v 2 = Req i = = 4. Solving, we

6 + Req 6 + Req

1

find Req = 4 . Then, we can write Req = = 4. Solving, we find

1 / 6 + 1 / RL

RL = 12 .

1

P2.33* Req = = 3.75 v x = 2 A Req = 7.5 V

1 5 + 1 15

i1 = v x 5 = 1.5 A i2 = v x 15 = 0.5 A

44

P 27 W 1

P2.34 i = = = 3A Req = R + = 1.5R

v 9V 1 R +1 R

9 9

i =3= = R =2

Req 1.5R

P2.35*

1 20 V

Req = =4 i1 = = 2. 5 A

1 6 + 1 12 2Req

v 1 = v 2 = Req i1 = 10 V i3 = 10 6 = 1.667 A

i4 = 10 12 = 0.8333 A i2 = i3 i4 = 0.8333 A

R1 R2

P2.36* v1 = vs = 5 V v2 = vs = 7 V

R1 + R2 + R3 R1 + R2 + R3

R3

v3 = v s = 13 V

R1 + R2 + R3

R2 R1

P2.37* i1 = is = 1 A i2 = is = 2 A

R1 + R2 R1 + R2

5

P2.38 We have 120 = 20, which yields Rx = 15 .

10 + 5 + Rx

equivalent resistance of 10 , which is in parallel with Rx. Then, applying

the current division principle, we have

10

4 =1

10 + Rx

which yields Rx = 30 .

45

12 V R2

P2.40 (a) R1 + R2 = = 120 12 = 5

0. 1 A R1 + R2

Solving, we find R2 = 50 and R1 = 70 .

(b)

The equivalent resistance for the parallel combination of R2 and the load

is

1

Req = = 40

1 50 + 1 200

Then using the voltage division principle, we have

Req

vo = 12 V = 4.364 V

R1 + Req

P2.41* v = 0.1 mA Rw = 50 mV

50 mV

Rg = = 25 m

2 A 0.1 mA

R2

With iL = 0 and v L = 5 V , we must have 9 = 5 V . Rearranging,

R1 + R2

this gives

R1

= 0. 8 (1)

R2

With iL = 25 mA and v L = 4.5 V , we have 9 R1 (4.5 R2 + 25 mA) = 4.5 .

46

Rearranging, this gives

R1

4.5 + R1 0.025 = 4.5 . (2)

R2

Using Equation (1) to substitute into Equation (2) and solving, we obtain

R1 = 36 and R2 = 45 .

4.52

across R1 is 4.5 V. Thus, Pmax R 1 == 562.5 mW . Thus, R1 must be

36

rated for at least 562.5 mW of power dissipation.

52

across R2 is 5 V. Thus, Pmax R 2 = = 555.5 mW . (Standard resistors are

45

available in 1-W ratings and would be suitable for this circuit.)

1

Req = = 10 . Then, using the voltage-division principle, we

1 R2 + 1 R3

Req 10

have v = v s = 10 = 3.333 V .

R1 + Req 20 + 10

R2 15

P2.44 i3 = is = 8 = 6A

R2 + R3 15 + 5

P2.45 We need to place a resistor in series with the load and the voltage source

as shown

30

Applying the voltage-division principle, we have 12 = 4. Solving, we

30 + R

find R = 60 .

47

P2.46 We have P = 32 = I L2RL = I L2 8. Solving, we find that the current through

the load is I L = 2 A. Thus, we must place a resistor in parallel with the

current source and the load.

have R = 8 .

v1 v1 v2

P2.47* At node 1 we have: + =1

20 10

v v v1

At node 2 we have: 2 + 2 =2

5 10

In standard form, the equations become

0.15v 1 0.1v 2 = 1

0.1v 1 + 0.3v 2 = 2

Solving, we find v 1 = 14.29 V and v 2 = 11.43 V .

v v2

Then we have i1 = 1 = 0.2857 A.

10

v1 v2

At the reference node, we write a KCL equation: + =1.

5 10

Solving, we find v 1 = 6.667 and v 2 = 3.333 .

v2 v1 v1

Then, writing KCL at node 1, we have is = = 3.333 A .

5 5

v1 v1 v 2 v1 v 3

+ + =0

5 15 15

v2 v1 v 2 v3

+ =4

15 15

v3 v3 v2 v3 v1

+ + =0

25 15 15

In standard form, we have:

48

0.3333v 1 0.06667v 2 0.06667v 3 = 0

0.06667v 1 + 0.1333v 2 0.06667v 3 = 4

0.06667v 1 0.06667v 2 + 0.1733v 3 = 0

Solving, we find

v1 = 15.0 v2 = 50.0 v3 = 25.0

v1 v1 v 2

+ +2 = 0

10 20

v2 v1 v 2 v3 v2

+ + =0

20 4 5

v3 v3 v2

+ =2

5 4

In standard form, we have:

0.15v 1 0.05v 2 = 2

0.05v 1 + 0.5v 2 0.25v 3 = 0

0.25v 2 + 0.45v 3 = 2

Solving, we find

v1 = 12.9 V v2 = 1.29 V v3 = 5.16 V

v1 v1 v1 v 2

+ + =3

21 28 9

v2 v1 v 2

+ = 3

9 6

In standard form, we have:

0.1944v 1 0.1111v 2 = 3

0.1111v1 + 0.2778v2 = 3

Solving, we findv1 = 12.0 V and v2 = 6.00 V .

If the source is reversed, the algebraic signs of the node voltages are

reversed.

one end of the voltage source. Then, we define the node voltages and

write a KCL equation at each node.

49

v 1 20 v1 v2 v2 v1 v 2 20

+ =2 + = 3

5 2 2 10

20 v 2

Then, we have i1 = = 0.647 A .

10

P2.53 We must not use all of the nodes (including those that are inside

supernodes) in writing KCL equations. Otherwise, dependent equations

result.

v1 v2 v1 v3

+ =1

10 20

v2 v2 v1 v2 v3

+ + =0

10 10 10

50

v3 v3 v1 v3 v2

+ + =0

20 20 10

v1 v2

P2.55* First, we can write: ix = .

5

Then, writing KCL equations at nodes 1 and 2, we have:

v1 v2

+ ix = 1 and + 0.5ix ix = 0

10 20

Substituting for ix and simplifying, we have

0.3v 1 0.2v 2 = 1

0.1v 1 + 0.15v 2 = 0

Solving, we have v 1 = 6 and v 2 = 4 .

v v2

Then, we have ix = 1 = 0. 4 A .

5

v1

P2.56 First, we can write ix = . Then writing KVL, we have v 1 5ix v 2 = 0 .

10

v2

Writing KCL at the reference node, we have ix + = 8 . Using the first

20

equation to substitute for ix and simplifying, we have

0.5v 1 v 2 = 0

2v 1 + v 2 = 160

v1

Solving, we find v 1 = 64 , v 2 = 32 , and ix =

= 6.4 A . Finally, the power

10

(v v 2 ) 2

delivered to the 16- resistance is P = 1 = 64 W.

16

P2.57* v x = v2 v1

Writing KCL at nodes 1 and 2:

v1 v 1 2v x v1 v2

+ + =1

5 15 10

v2 v 2 2v x v2 v1

+ + =2

5 10 10

51

Substituting and simplifying, we have

15v 1 7v 2 = 30 and v 1 + 2v 2 = 20 .

v x = v1 v2

v1 v1 v2

+ =1

20 10

v2 v1 v2 v x

+ + =0

10 5 5

Using the first equation to substitute for vx and simplifying, we have

0 . 15 v 1 0 . 1v 2 = 1

0.1v 1 + 0.1v 2 = 0

Solving we find v 1 = 4 . However, the equivalent resistance is equal in

value to v1 so we have Req = 4 .

ix = v 1 v 2

v1 v1 v2

+ =1

5 1

v2 v1 v2

+ 2ix = 0

1 2

Using the first equation to substitute for ix and simplifying, we have

52

1.2v 1 v 2 = 1

3v 1 + 3.5v 2 = 0

Solving we find v 1 = 2.917 V. However, the equivalent resistance is equal

in value to v1 so we have Req = 2.917 .

5i v 2

ix = x

10

Simplifying, we find i x = 0.2v 2 .

Then write KCL at nodes 1 and 2:

v 1 5i x v2

= 3 ix = 1

5 20

Substituting for ix and simplifying, we have

v 1 v 2 = 15 and 0.25v 2 = 1

which yield v 1 = 11 V and v 2 = 4 V .

5i1 + 15(i1 i2 ) = 20 and 15(i2 i1 ) + 10i2 = 10

Putting the equations into standard from we have

20i1 15i2 = 20 and 15i1 + 25i2 = 10

Solving we obtain i1 = 2.364 A and i2 = 1.818 A.

Then, the power delivered to the 15- resistor is P = (i1 i2 ) 2 15 = 4.471

W.

5i1 + 7(i1 i3 ) + 100 = 0

11(i2 i3 ) + 13i2 100 = 0

9i3 + 11(i3 i2 ) + 7(i3 i1 ) = 0

Putting the equations into standard from, we have

12i1 7i3 = 100

24i2 11i3 = 100

7i1 11i2 + 27i3 = 0

Solving, we obtain i1 = 8.741 A, i2 = 3.846 A, and i3 = 0.6993 . Then,

the power delivered by the source is P = 100(i1 i2 ) = 1259 W.

53

P2.63*

28i1 10i2 = 12

10i1 + 40i2 30i3 = 0

30i2 + 60i3 = 0

Solving, we obtain

i1 = 0.500 i2 = 0.200 i3 = 0.100

Thus, v 2 = 5i3 = 0.500 V and the power delivered by the source is

P = 12i1 = 6 W.

P2.64 First, we select the mesh currents and then write three equations.

Mesh 2: 12i2 + 6(i2 i3 ) = 0

However by inspection, we have i3 = 2 . Solving, we obtain

i1 = 1.333 A and i2 = 0.6667 A.

mesh equations yields:

14i1 8i2 = 10

8i1 + 16i2 = 0

Solving, we

find i1 = 1.000 and i2 = 0.500 .

54

Finally, the power delivered by the source is P = 10i1 = 10 W.

P2.66

4iA + 28(iA iB ) = 16

28(iB iA ) + 7iB + 14iB = 0

Solving we find iA = 1 A and iB = 0.5714 A. Then we have i1 = iA = 1 A and

i2 = iA iB = 0.4286 A.

By inspection: iB = 2

i2 = iB iA = 1.2 A.

55

(Rw + Rn + R1 )i1 Rn i2 R1i3 = 120

Rn i1 + (Rw + Rn + R2 )i2 R2i3 = 120

R1i1 R2i2 + (R1 + R2 + R3 )i3 = 0

Substituting values for the resistances and solving we find

i1 = i2 = 40.58 A and i3 = 28.99 A. Then, the voltages across R1 and R2 are

both 10(i1 i3 ) = 115.9 V and the voltage across R3 is 8i3 =231.9 V. The

current through the neutral wire is i1 i2 = 0.

P2.69

40i1 20i2 = 10 20i1 + 40i2 = 0

Solving, we find i1 = 0.3333 and i2 = 0.1667 .

Thus, v = 20(i1 i2 ) = 3.333 V .

i1 = 8 A 15(i2 i1 ) + 5i2 = 0

Solving, we find i2 = 6 A .

However, i3 shown in Figure P2.44 is the same as i2, so the answer is i3 = 6

A.

P2.71* Because of the current sources, two of the mesh currents are known.

56

Writing a KVL equation around the middle loop we have

20(i1 1) + 10i1 + 5(i1 + 2) = 0

Solving, we find i1 = 0.2857 A.

P2.72

KVL for mesh 3: 15i1 15i2 + 45i3 = 0

KVL around outside of network: 5i1 + 25i2 + 15i3 = 0

Solving, we find

i1 = 3.000 , i2 = 1.000 and i3 = 0.6667

Then, we have

v 3 = 25i2 = 25V

10i1 + 40i2 10i3 = 0

10i1 10i2 + 40i3 = 0

Solving, we find

i1 = 0.075

Finally, we have

1V

Req = = 13.33

i1

57

P2.74

Mesh 2: 3i2 + 12(i2 i3 ) + 4i2 + 30(i2 i1 ) = 0

Mesh 3: 24i3 + 12(i3 i2 ) = 0

Solving we find i1 = 0.05 A. Then Req = 1 / i1 = 20 .

equation to solve for the open-

circuit voltage:

v oc 10 v oc

+ =1

10 5

Solving, we find v oc = 6.667 V .

sources, we have this

circuit:

1

Thus, Rt = = 3.333 . The Thvenin and Norton equivalents are:

1 10 + 1 5

58

P2.76 First, we solve the network with a short circuit:

1

Req = 10 + = 14

1 20 + 1 5

i10 = 24 Req = 1.714 A

20

i5 = i10 = 1.371

20 + 5

isc = i5 = 1.371

Zeroing the source, we have:

Then the Thvenin voltage is vt = isc Rt = 9.00 V .

P2.77* The equivalent circuit of the battery with the resistance connected is

96

i = 6 100 = 0.06 A Rt = = 50

0.06

59

P2.78 With open-circuit conditions:

Solving, we find v ab = 5 V .

With the source zeroed:

1

Rt = = 3.75

1 5 + 1 (5 + 10 )

The equivalent circuits are:

P2.79 The 10- resistor has no effect on the equivalent circuits because the

voltage across the 12-V source is independent of the resistor value.

P2.80 The Thvenin voltage is equal to the open-circuit voltage which is 12.6 V.

The equivalent circuit with the 0.1- load connected is:

60

We have 12.6 /(Rt + 0.1) = 100 from which we find Rt = 0.026 . The

Thvenin and Norton equivalent circuits are:

under open-circuit conditions, the Thvenin equivalent seems more

realistic from an energy conversion standpoint.

The circuit with the load attached is:

5

We have iL = = 5 mA and v x = Vt 5 = 15 V. Thus, the Thvenin

1000

15 V

resistance is Rt = = 3 k.

5 mA

attached is:

i L = 7 / 7 = 1 A , and we can write

v L = Vt Rt iL . Substituting values this becomes

7 =Vt Rt (1)

Similarly, for the 10- load we obtain

8 = Vt 0.8Rt (2)

Solving Equations (1) and (2), we find Vt = 12 V and Rt = 5 .

61

P2.83 Open-circuit conditions:

20 v oc

ix =

5

v oc

ix + 0.5ix = 0 Solving,

10

we find v oc = 10 V .

Short-circuit conditions:

ix = 20 5 = 4 A

isc = ix 0.5ix = 2 A

Then, we have

Rt = v oc isc = 5 . Thus

the equivalents are:

Thvenin resistance.

Pmax =

(

vt 2)2

= 3.333 W

Rt

62

Then, maximum power is obtained for a load resistance equal to the

Thvenin resistance.

Pmax =

(vt 2)2 = 1.667 W

Rt

P2.86* To maximize the power to RL , we must maximize the voltage across it.

Thus we need to have Rt = 0 . The maximum power is

202

Pmax = = 80 W

5

Rt

iL = I n

RL + Rt

The power delivered to the load is

(Rt )2 RL

PL = (iL )2 RL = (I n )2

(RL + Rt )2

Taking the derivative and setting it equal to zero, we have

= 0 = (I n )2 t

dRL (Rt + RL )4

which yields RL = Rt .

The maximum power is PL max = (I n )2 Rt 4 .

63

P2.88 For maximum power conditions, we have RL = Rt . The power taken from

the voltage source is

(Vt )2 (Vt )2

Ps = =

Rt + RL 2Rt

Then half of Vt appears across the load and the power delivered to the

load is

(0.5Vt )2

PL =

Rt

Thus the percentage of the power taken from the source that is

delivered to the load is

PL

100% = 50%

=

Ps

On the other hand, for RL = 9Rt , we have

(Vt )2 (Vt )2

Ps = =

Rt + RL 10Rt

(0.9Vt )2

PL =

9Rt

PL

= 100% = 90%

Ps

Thus, design for maximum power transfer is relatively inefficient. Thus,

systems in which power efficiency is important are almost never designed

for maximum power transfer.

P2.89* First, we zero the current source and find the current due to the voltage

source.

iv = 30 15 = 2 A

Then, we zero the voltage source and use the current-division principle to

find the current due to the current source.

64

10

ic = 3 = 2A

5 + 10

Finally, the total current is the sum of the contributions from each

source.

i = iv + ic = 4 A

20

i1,1A = 1 = 0.5714 A

15 + 20

5

i1,2A = 2 = 0.2857 A

5 + 30

Finally,

i1 = i1,1A + i1,2A = 0.2857 A

P2.91 The circuits with only one source active at a time are:

65

15 15

i1.4A = 4 i1,2A = 2

15 + 5 15 + 5

= 3A = 1.5

Finally, we add the components to find the current with both sources

active.

i1 = i1, 4A + i1,2A = 1.5 A

P2.92* The circuits with only one source active at a time are:

1 10

Req = = 3.75 is ,c = 1 = 0.667 A

1 5 + 1 15 10 + 5

10 V

is ,v = = 2.667 A

Req

Then the total current due to both sources is is = is ,v + is ,c = 3.333 A .

66

i2 = (v 2 5) = 0.2 A

v1 = 30i2 = 6 V

i10 = v 1 10 = 0.6 A

i30 = v 1 30 = 0.2 A

is = i2 + i10 + i30 = 1 A

v s = 12is + v 1 + 6is = 24 V

v s = 12 V , we have:

12

v2 = 1 = 0. 5 V

24

determine the value of vs. This results in:

70

(1 A) = 0.5 A.

140

work back through the circuit to

determine the value of vs. The

results are shown on the circuit

diagram.

vs = 10 V, so the actual value ofi2 is

10

(1 A) = 0.5 A.

20

67

P2.96 (a) With only the 2-A source activated, we have

i2 = 2 and v 2 = 2(i2 )3 = 16 V

i1 = 1 A and v 1 = 2(i1 )3 = 2 V

i = 3 A and v = 2(i )3 = 54 V

Superposition does not apply because device A has a nonlinear

relationship between v and i.

P2.97 1. Replace the controlled source with an independent source of unknown

value.

current or voltage in terms of the unknown source value and other circuit

parameters.

3. Subsititute the expression for the value of contolled source for the

unknown dependent source and solve for the controlling current or

voltage. Then, compute the value for unknown independent source.

interest.

source and turning on one source at a time, we have

10

i xa = 1 = 0.2857 v 1a = 25i xa = 7.143

10 + 25

68

20

i xb = I = 0.5714I v 1b = 10I = 5.714I

20 + 15

Adding the results from the two analyses, we have

ix = ixa + ixb = 0.2857 + 0.5714I

Now, we substitute I = 0.5i x which yields

i x = 0.2857 + 0.5714(0.5ix )

Solving, we find i x = 0.4000 A. Then, we have I = 0.5i x = 0.2 and

v 1 = v 1a + v 1b = 7.143 5.714I = 6.000 V.

ix = 1.333 + 0.6667I

Then, substituting I = 0.5i x and solving, we find i x = 2 A and I = 1 A.

Also, we have

10 1

v ab = 20 I = 10 V

10 + 5 1 / 5 + 1 / 10

source of unknown value V. Then, we use superposition to find

expressions for the controlling current:

6 4

vx = 4 +V = 1.333 + 0.2222V

6 + 12 18

Then, we substitute V = 2v x and solve, resulting in v x = 2.400 V and

V = 4.800 V. Finally, we use superpositon to solve for the current of

interest:

12 V

i1 = = 0.4 A

18 18

R2 1 k

(a) Rx = R3 = 3419 = 341.9

R1 10 k

69

R2 100 k

(b) Rx = R3 = 3419 = 34.19 k

R1 10 k

R1 10 4

R3 = Rx = 4 5932 = 5932

R2 10

1 1

Rt = + = 7447

1 R3 + 1 R1 1 R2 + 1 Rx

The Thvenin voltage is

R3 Rx

vt = v s vs

R1 + R3 Rx + R2

= 0.3939 mV

Thus, the equivalent circuit is:

Vt

idetector = = 31.65 10 9 A

Rt + Rdetector

Thus, the detector must be sensitive to very small currents if the bridge

is to be accurately balanced.

70

P2.103 If R1 and R3 are too small, large currents are drawn from the source. If

the source were a battery, it would need to be replaced frequently.

Large power dissipation could occur, leading to heating of the components

and inaccuracy due to changes in resistance values with temperature.

If R1 and R3 are too large, we would have very small detector current

when the bridge is not balanced, and it would be difficult to balance the

bridge accurately.

P2.104 With the source replaced by a short circuit and the detector removed,

the Wheatstone bridge circuit becomes

The Thvenin resistance seen looking back into the detector terminals is

1 1

Rt = +

1 R3 + 1 R1 1 R2 + 1 Rx

71

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