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2. TEXTURAL EFFECTS
. Embossing
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Therearea numberof processesthat modifythe textureor the .~ Embossing producesa raisedreliefdesignwhichis permanent on
appearanceof a fabric so as to increaseits appealto the thermoplastic, syntheticfibersbut onlytemporaryon cotton.This
consumer.Some of the commonlyapplied processesare finishingeffectcan also be madepermanentwith the aid of
considered. chemicalsknownas resins,whichhavea bindingactiononfibers.
Calendering A fabric is embossedby passingit betweenheatedengraved
Thisisessentially anironingprocesswhichaddssheento a fabric. rollersthat imprintor embossthe designon the fabricsurface.
After going throughthe preparation,colorationand finishing Plainwovenfabricsmay,afterembossing resemblefabricsuchas
processes, thesurfaceofa fabricisgenerallydistorted,resultingin fP pique,whichis generallymoreexpensive.This processis not
a lossof luster.In orderto compensate for thisand improvethe popularwithwoollenfabrics.
fabric'sluster,it can be calendered.This involvespassingthe Raising
fabricbetweenhollowheatedrollersundergreatpressure,the The processof raisingis alsoknownas 'napping'.It producesa
lusterproducedbeingdirectlyproportional to the amountof heat fuzzyor hairysurfaceon a fabricby abrading(scraping)it and
andpressureapplied.Aftercalendering, thefabrichasa smooth pullingthefiberendstothesurface.Thedegreeof hairinessonthe
andflat surface.Thisprocessis verypopularwithcottonfabric; surfacecan be adjustedaccordingto the techniqueused.The
woollenfabricsarerarelycalendered, exceptfor productssuchas J fabricto be raisedshouldbe madefrom softtwistedyarns;the
sheengabardine. fuzzyandsoftsurfaceof theraisedfabricmakesit warm,owingto
Shreinering theinsulatingaircellsinthenaps.Thegreatertheextentof raising
This is an inexpensive wayof producinga veryhighdegreeof (i.e.,the morenumerousthe air cells),the greaterthe warmth.
lusterin cottonfabrics.Its operatingprincipleis similarto thatof Raisingmay also serve to cover any weavingimperfections,
calendering, exceptthatthe upperheatedrolleris engravedwith althoughtoo muchraisingwill weakenthe finishedfabricand
veryfinelineswhicharesetat a slightangleto thewarpor weftof increaseanytendencyof thefibersto pill.Nappedfabricsshould
I not be confusedwithpileconstructions that havebeenwovenor
thefabric.Aftertheshreinering process,thereflectionof lightfrom
theridgesimpressed onthefabricbytheengraved rollerwillgiveit knitted.Ina pileconstruction,thethicknessrepresentsa truethree-
a lusterthatis similarto thatobtainedthroughmercerization. If the dimensional effect,whichisproducedbyanadditional fabricpile.

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fabric has alreadybeen mercerized,this additionalprocess
produces a lusterwhichsimulates thatofsilk.

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Garment Washing
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Shearing
Fabricsthathavebeennappedusuallyundergoshearingto give >- In additionto finishingprocesseson textiles,specialeffectscan
alsobe imparteddirectlyto the garmentsaftermanufacture. The
themanattractive,smoothandlevelsurface.Thisprocessisvery
popularwithwoollenmaterials aswellascertaincottonfabrics.The garmentswould undergowashingprocessesthat give them
fabricgoesthroughtheshearingdeviceandall fiberslongerthan differenthandleor specialcoloreffects.The washingtechnique
thesettingarecut off,leavingan attractivesurfaceresembling a hasdevelopedandexpandedconsiderably to becomea finishing
processof itsown.
pileeffect.
Emerizing The mostcommonequipmentis the rotarydrumtype garment
washer.In HongKong,the mostpopularitemby far in garment
This process,also called 'sueding',sands off uneven and
washingis indigodenimjeansbutthereis an increasing trendfor
protruding fiberson fabricsto producea soft,chamois-like nap -
theemerizedfabricis sometimes knownas imitationsuede.The othercasualwearitemsto be finishedusingthis process.There
area numberof differentwashingtechniques commonlyusedand
processinvolvesthesandingoffabricsbypassingthemthrougha
thebasicprocedures wherethegarmentsarewashedarebelow:
seriesof emery-covered rollers.It is mostpopularwithhigh-grade
worstedandsomewoollenfabrics,andisalsousedonfelthats. i)Traditional garment wash
Pressing Thiselevatedtemperature to yielda soft hand.In caseof jeans
madefromindigoor sulphurslasher-dyed denims,it is necessary
Pressinggenerallyaccomplishes the same result for worsted
fabricsascalendering doesforcottonfabrics,Le.,it addssheento to removethesizes(e.g.,starch)byanenzyme(amylase) desizing
treatment.Colorfadingwillbeoccurredandthedegreewilldepend
thefabric.Theprocessmaybe carriedoutbyeitherflat or rotary
on thetreatmentconditions,suchas time,temperature andliquor
pressing.
ratioofwashingbath.
Stiffening
ii)Stone wash
The applicationofsomestarGhduringironiGgmakes\hetask
Toaccelerate thewashingeffect,pumiceorvolcanicstonescanbe
easierandproducesa Smooth fiGish.This capbed$scribe:dasa.
stiffeningprocess.Apartfromstarch,oth~rsub$tances SClchas addedforabrasionpurposes. Thereareavailabletodayman-made
flour,dextrin,gluearid gu[l1canbe!useda$'lVellalth9~g.h their stonesof varioussizesand shapes.Whencomparedwith the
traditionalgarmentwash,colorfadingis morepronounced butless
effe.cts(l1igptonly
be.ter;Tjporary.
Tf:leactid.nof
tnestiffe:n'il'\gagel'\t uniform.In additionto the treatmentconditionsas describedfor
giVesthecottdnstiffnes$,Srrtoothm~s$,Weighta.ndstrength.
traditionalgarmentwash,thedegreeof colorfadingandchangeof
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garmenthandfeeldependsverymuchonthestoneratioto fabric
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moreleveltreatmentespeciallywhemno stonesareaddedduring
weightwhichcanvaryfrom0.5to3:1. .t- treatmentandthegeneralappearance andhandfeelaresuperior
iii)'White' wash to thoseoftheothermethods.
Thiscategoryof washingtechniqueis a variationof basicstone
washprocedure andis normallyappliedto indigo-dyed
jeansbut 3. FUNCTIONAL EFFECTS
can also be appliedto other vat-, sulphur-or reactive-dyed
garments. Itcanfurtherbedividedintotwomajorgroupsaccording Specifictypes of garmentsshouldhave specificperformance
toitsapplication
methods. .
characteristics,
e.g., rainwearshouldbe water-repellent.
Various
The first involvesthe use of strongoxidisingagentssuch as processesarethusneededto givesuchrequiredcharacteristics
as
sodiumhypochlorite or potassium permanganate for bleachingthe arenotnaturallycontainedinthefiberorfabric.
garments.The use of theseagentsis to obtaina muchlighter
shadethanthe previoustwo methods.Excessoxidisingagents Resin Finishes (for cotton)
mustberemoved afterwashingto preventyellowingandtendering i)Wrinkle-resistant finish: thisprocessisbasedonresinor
of thewashedjeans.Inthesecondgroupof methods,thepumice reactantsthat combinechemicallywiththe cottonfiberthrougha
stonesarefirst pre-soaked in a solutionof strongoxidisingagent cross-linking process.Thecross-linking joinsthemolecularchains
(eithersodiumhypochlorite or potassiumpermanganate) andare of cotton togetherto providegreaterrigidityand to- prevent
appliedto the garmentsby dry-tumbling. This will resultin a molecularslippage,therebyproducinga fibercapableofTeturning
localizedwashingeffectwithclearblue/white contrast.Thisis also to itsoriginalpositionafterbending.
termedas'acidwash','snowwash'or'icewash'. ii) Wash-and-wear finish: this is similarto the wrinkle-
iv)Enzyme wash resistantfinishbut it usuallyhashigherresincontent.Garments
Cellulaseenzymesare commonlyusedin this washingmethod. made of fabrics that have undergonethis finish may be
Theseenzymesdifferfromthatof amylase,usedfor removalof commercially laundered.Ifthegarmentsarewashedat home,they
starches,inthattheyareonlyselectiveto cottonof othercellulosic .{ will dry smoothlyand requireonlyverylittleironing.Thisfinishis
materials.Hydrolysisof thecellulosecausesthefiberto become very popular with lightweightcotton shirting materialsand
weakeranddependingonthedegreeof treatment,somesurface yardgoods forhomesewing.
fiberswillbe removedwhensubjectedto fabric-to-fabric or fabric- iii) Permanent press finish: this finishis alsocommonly
to-stoneabrasiveaction.Thiswashingmethodtendsto producea knownasthe'PP'or 'durablepress'finish..Itsresincontentis one
<..- of the highestresin finishes.This processis useful in the
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manufacture
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ofgarments
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suchastrousersandpleatedskirts,since
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Flame-retardant Finish
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it enablespermanent pleatsto beincorporated intoa garmentafter A flame-retardant finish has in the past been classifiedas a
it hasbeenmadeup. flameprooffinish,which may misleadpeopleinto thinkingthat
Water-repellent Finish fabricsfinishedin thiswaywill be non-flammable. Thefabricsstill
A water-repellent fabricis one that will resistand repelwater remain flammablebut show considerableresistanceto the
absorption.Howeverwatercanstillpenetratesuchfabricsif they propagationof flame (catching alight), after flaming (the
areexposedtowaterfora sufficientperiodof time,or subjectedto continuation of flame),andafterglowing(theresidualglowof the
highwaterpressure. Thesefabricsare in factnotwaterproof,but fabricafter the sourceof fire has beenremoved).The rate of
areactuallyporousto air;thisenablesthebodyto breathe,making burningin suchfabricsshouldalsobe reduced.Flame-retardant
the fabrics comfortableto wear. Becauseof th.e differing finishesare generallyspecificto each fiber, since each has
effectivenessof variousfinishes,thefollowingdifferingdegreesof differentflammability properties.
waterrepellence canbefound: . Mothproof Finish
1.Shower-resistant garments whichwillprotectthewearer Woollenfabricsare sometimesmothproofed to makethemless
fromlightrain susceptibleto attacksby moths.This processis of particular
2.Rain-resistant garmentswhichwill provideprotectionfor a importance in warmandhumidclimatesbecauseof thegrowthof
fewhoursinmoderate rain mothsunder these conditions.Mothproofingcan be achieved
3.Storm-resistant garments whichwillresistwaterpenetration througha numberof organicsubstances capableof makinga fiber
formanyhoursinheavyrain poisonousto moths.Those woollenproductswhich are not
Thereare two typesof water-repellent finish:non-durableand mothprooffinish~a: .mustbe.carefUllytreatedto preventmoth
durable.The non-durable finishis usuallybasedon paraffinwax damage,Sucbtreatmentipeludes brusbingclothingafterwearing
and,althoughit givesverygoodratingsof waterrepellency, it can ahdexposure tosuhljghl, Clnddry.cleaningit beforestorage.
onlywithstandvery lightlaundering.The durablefinish,on the NaphthafenemClyalsobeused during storag~for additional
otherhand,canendurebothrepeatedwashinganddry-cleaning. prQ~ecHqn,
Durablefinishesare moreexpensiveto produceandare usually ..MJI.4fewptqqf F.Jbci~h.
basedon siliconeproducts,which,sincetheyare alsousedas MiIQ~Wi$aifM'pgUs :thatgrgws ra,pidlyQnderl,\,tarm
aqd hUmid
fabricsofteners
canfurtherimprovethefabrichandle., COhdi~i(>nS!.(jellurQsi9fibersgreveJ&
susceptiE>:leto
mildew.attack,
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mildewattackarevariouscoloredstainsappearingon the fabric,


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Soil repellent Finish


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blackbeingthe mostcommon.Eventuallythe productsmaybe A soilrepellentfinish,sometimes knownasa 'stainrepellentfinish',
degradedif left in unfavorable conditionsfor a longtime.Mildew is effectiveagainstbothwaterandoil stains.Themaindifference
canbeprevented bytreatingfabricswithnon-toxic germicidessuch betweenthisfinishandthesoilreleasefinishisthatthesoilrelease
asmetallicsalts.Organicmercurycompounds mayalsobeusedto finishhelpsto removestainsaftera fabrichasbeensoiled,while
preventsurfacemildewgrowthoncellulosic fibers. thesoilrepellentfinishactuallyrepelsor resiststhestainingof the
Antistatic Finish fabric.
Staticelectricityis mostcommonlyfound in syntheticfibers - Softening Finish
naturalfibers do not normallyaccumulatestatic charges.An All naturalfiberspossessessomeoily,fattyor waxysubstancein
exceptionto this rule is resinfinishednaturalfibers;henceit is
the rawstate.Thefibersnormallybecomeharsherwhenthisfatty
quitecommonto applyan antistaticfinishto wash-and-wear and matteris removed,suchas afterthe preparationand coloration
permanentpresscottonfabrics,to improvetheir serviceability. processes.The softeningprocessrestoresthe fabrics'original
Severalmethodscanbe usedto producesucha finish,the most
handle.Syntheticfibersmayalsobesoften-ed, in orderto improve
popularonebeingto applya finishingageotto thefabricto makeit theirnaturallyinferiorhandleproperties.
morewaterabsorbent. Thisproducesa conductive surface,which
carriesawaythestaticcharge.
Soil Release Finish
Withthe increasinguseof syntheticfibersand permanent Press
finishes,soiling(the attractionof dirt particlesto afabric)l;tas
becomea seriousproblem;AsoilZreleasefinishassiststhe removal
of dirtandstainsfromfabrics.Thisis partictJlarlyimportant in the
case of permanentpress cotton fabrics, w\1ic\1bave been
weakened, byth,~r~$infilJ)sh"Sl.1ci}
tMtsl;!\lerewashir!gtr~atm~nts
mighteasilydamagethero.A soil,rel~a$efifl.ishiOOteases the
moistureabsorption of fiberand,fapric;Thisjrnproved 'Wetability'
helpstheremovalof.mostOila!1dwaterbasedstair;\s.

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