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Load+Characteristics,+load+curve,+load+factor,+max+demand

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1

Load Characteristics

Demand

The demand of an installation or system is the load at the

receiving terminal averaged over a specific interval of time

Load may be given in kilowatts, kilovars, kilovoltamperes,

kiloamperes and amperes

Demand Interval

Period over which the load is averaged

Generators of required capacity will continuously supply

the fixed load

Optimal system operation

2

Load Characteristics

Ideally the load should remain constant throughout the

day/month or year. Does it remain constant?

Practically load varies from time to time

Domestic load varies according to daily activity

Industrial load varies according to work shifts

Load varies due to seasonal changes

3

Effect of variable load

Variable load increases Example: In a coal powered

the complexities of Power generation plant, equipment

generation must be installed to supply

1. Additional equipment is more coal to the boiler to

required to generate generate more steam to

variable power instantly meet the demands of

increased power

4

Effect of variable load

2. Increases the cost of If the load demand

producing electrical reduces to 5 MW, the

energy synchronous generator

A 10 MW synchronous can be controlled to

generator will operate produce 5 MW, however

at maximum efficiency the efficiency will be

when it is producing 10 compromised

MW of electricity Poor efficiency increases

the cost of production

5

Effect of variable load

What could be the possible solution to reduce the cost

of production at variable loads?

Have multiple power generating units

Have power generating units of different capacity

Carry out load shaping

What is load shaping?

Encourage consumers to use loads during off-peak

hours

6

Daily load curve

curves can also be plotted

7

Importance of Daily load curve

Load curve helps in selecting the size and number of

generating units

Load curve helps in preparing the operation schedule of

the station

Load curve provide the following information

1. Variation in Power

Daily load variation curve shows variations of load on the

power station during different times of the day

2. Area under the curve

gives the number of units generated during the day

8

Information obtained from the

Daily demand variation curve

3. Highest point on the curve

indicates the maximum demand on the station during the

day

4. Area under the curve divided by the total number of

hours

gives the average load on the station during the day

5. Ratio of area under the curve to the total area of

rectangles which covers the area

Gives the Load Factor

9

Important terms and factors

Variable load problem has introduced the following terms

and factors in Power Plant engineering

Connected Load

Sum of connected loads of all the consumers

Maximum Demand

Greatest demand of load on Power station during a given

period

Maximum demand is usually less than connected load,

consumers dont switch on their load simultaneously

Station must meet the maximum demand

Determines the installed capacity 10

Average Load

Average load occurring on a power station in a given

period (day, month or year)

Daily Average Load = Units generated in a day/24

Monthly Average Load = Units generated in a month/720

Yearly Average Load = Units generated in a year/8760

11

Load Factor

Load Factor = Average Load/Max. Demand

If plant is operated for T hours then

Load Factor = Average Load x T/Max. Demand x T

Load factor is the ratio of actual energy consumed to the

maximum power recorded for the same period

Load factor is always less than 1

Lower the load factor more expensive will be the per unit

cost

Power companies invoice the industry for the energy

consumed and the power demand

12

Load Factor

Demand charges are intended to recover the cost of

facilities including power plant, transformer and

transmission lines installed to provide customer with

maximum amount of electricity demanded at any time

Power plant operators encourage industrial units to

consume maximum energy by offering lower unit rates

Load factor can be improved by

Increasing energy consumption

Decreasing maximum demand

13

Load Factor Examples

Monthly energy consumption = 36000 kWh

Peak Demand = 100 kW

Billing period days = 30 days

Load Factor = 36000/(100 x 30 x 24) = 0.5 = 50%

What is the Load Factor if Peak Demand is 80 kW?

Load Factor = 36000/(80 x 30 x 24) = 0.625 = 62.5%

14

Load Factor Examples

A generating station has connected load of 43 MW

Maximum Demand is 20 MW

Units generated per annum are 61.5 x 106

Load Factor?

= 61.5 x 106 /(20 x 103 x 24 x 365) = 0.35 = 35%

15

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