NASA Daily News Summary For Release: Dec.

9, 1999 Media Advisory m99-254 SUMMARY: CHANDRA PLOUGHS UP A SNAKE IN HYDRA A Video File for Dec. 9, 1999 NOTE: ALL TIMES EASTERN ITEM 1 - HYDRA A GALAXY CLUSTER - CHANDRA X-RAY OBSERVATORY IMAGE ITEM 2 - EL NIÑO'S DRAMATIC IMPACT ON OCEAN BIOLOGY ITEM 3 - INSTRUMENTS SELECTED FOR MISSION TO PROVIDE FIRST STEREO VIEWS OF SOLAR ERUPTIONS - GSFC (replay) ITEM 4 - STS-103 CREW TRAINING - JSC (replay) ITEM 5 - HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SERVICING MISSION 3 - HQ (replay) ITEM 6 - HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SCIENCE MISSION - (replay) ITEM 7 - STS-103 CREW INTERVIEWS - JSC (replay) NOTE: The Video File will run almost 2 hours today. LIVE TELEVISION EVENTS THIS WEEK: Due to the rescheduling of Space Shuttle Misison STS-103, the third Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission, our television schedule is under review. We will post a revised schedule here as soon as it is finalized. The launch has been rescheduled to no earlier than December 16, at 9:18 p.m.

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CHANDRA PLOUGHS UP A SNAKE IN HYDRA A NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory image of the Hydra A galaxy cluster has revealed a possible solution to a Herculean puzzle about the fate of the largest objects in the universe. For years astronomers have been searching unsuccessfully for large quantities of matter they believed must be flowing into the central regions of galaxy clusters. The Chandra image of Hydra A displays for the first time long snake-like strands of 35 million degree gas extending away from the center of the cluster. These structures show that the inflow of cooling gas is deflected by magnetic fields produced by explosions from a central black hole. Contact at Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL: Steve Roy (Phone 205/544-0034). Contact at NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC: Donald Savage (Phone 202/358-1547). Contact at Chandra X-ray Observatory Center, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA: Dr. Wallace Tucker (Phone 617/496-7998). For full text, see: ftp://ftp.hq.nasa.gov/pub/pao/pressrel/1999/99-142.txt

----------------------------If NASA issues any news releases later today, we will email summaries and Internet URLs to this list. Index of 1999 NASA News Releases: http://www.nasa.gov/releases/1999/index.html

***************************** Video File for Dec. 9, 1999 Video File for Dec. 9, 1999

ITEM 1 - HYDRA A GALAXY CLUSTER - CHANDRA X-RAY OBSERVATORY IMAGE Contact at Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL: Steve Roy (Phone 205/544-0034). Contact at NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC: Donald Savage (Phone 202/358-1547). Contact at Chandra X-ray Observatory Center, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA: Dr. Wallace Tucker (Phone 617/496-7998). ITEM 1a - HYDRA A: A CLUSTER OF GALAXIES------------------TRT :15 IN THE CONSTELLATION HYDRA This image shows a radio (green and maroon) overlay of the Chandra X-ray (pink, and blue) image of Hydra A. Large magnetized bubbles of radio-emitting high energy particles expanding from the center of the cluster have pushed through the 40 million degree X-ray emitting gas. As the largest gravitationally bound objects in the universe, galaxy clusters provide crucial clues for understanding the origin and fate of the universe. Hydra A is 840 million light years from Earth. ITEM 1b - X-RAY IMAGE OF HYDRA A GALAXY CLUSTER-----------TRT :15 NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory image of the Hydra A galaxy cluster has revealed a possible solution to a Herculean puzzle about the fate of the largest objects in the universe. For years astronomers have been searching unsuccessfully for large quantities of matter they believed must be flowing into the central regions of galaxy clusters. The Chandra image of Hydra A displays for the first time long snake-like strands of 35 million degree gas extending away from the center of the cluster. These structures show that the inflow of cooling gas is deflected by magnetic fields produced by explosions from a central black hole. As the largest gravitationally bound objects in the universe, galaxy clusters provide crucial clues for understanding the origin and fate of the universe. ITEM 1c - Interview Excerpts------------------------------TRT 1:48

Mary Weisskopf, Chandra Project Scientist, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL http://chandra.nasa.gov

ITEM 2 - EL NIÑO'S DRAMATIC IMPACT ON OCEAN BIOLOGY------TRT 14:00 Contact at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD: Cynthia O'Carroll (Phone 301/614-5563). Contact at NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC: David E. Steitz (Phone 202/358-1730). Synopsis: The 1997-98 El Niño/La Niña had an unprecedented roller-coaster effect on the oceanic food chain across a vast swath of the Pacific, plunging chlorophyll levels to the lowest ever recorded in December 1997 and spawning the largest bloom of microscopic algae ever seen in the region the following summer. According to new results published in the December 10 issue of the journal Science, El Niño also dramatically reduced the amount of carbon dioxide normally released into the atmosphere by the equatorial Pacific Ocean. ITEM 2a - AN IMMENSE PACIFIC BLOOM This sequence illustrates the vast size and intensity of the ocean's biological rebound from El Niño. Satellite imagery from NASA's Sea-viewing Wide-Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) instrument showed nearly a complete lack of plankton along the equatorial Pacific during El Niño. The cool waters associated with La Niña brought nutrients from the below the surface and enabled an enormous plankton bloom (shown in green). ITEM 2b - REBOUND FROM EL NIÑO The SeaWiFS data revealed surprisingly low levels of plankton coinciding with El Niño's strongest phase. The cooler waters associated with La Nina brought a huge plankton bloom along the equator (shown in green).

ITEM 2c - EXPLOSION IN THE GALAPAGOS SeaWiFS documented the rapid demise of El Niño in the waters around the Galapagos Islands. The images show an explosion in plankton growth as the warm El Niño waters blamed for choking off essential ocean nutrients are replaced by deep cold upwelled waters. The false color images, which document plankton concentrations from May 9-24 1998, show that life in the region to the west archipelago has returned in remarkable abundance. High concentrations are shown in red. Areas occluded by clouds are shown in white. ITEM 2d - THE CARBON CONNECTION - PHYSICAL PROCESSES By understanding the magnitude of the huge plankton bloom, scientists were able to calculate how changes in biologic activity caused massive changes in carbon dioxide. Scientists determined that El Niño cut the amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere by 700 million metric tons. The deep ocean waters normally release large amounts of carbon dioxide. During El Niño, the carbon dioxide-rich waters were held below the surface. ITEM 2e - THE CARBON CONNECTION - BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES Nutrients in the cooler waters associated with La Niña were brought to the surface and helped fuel a huge plankton bloom. This animation shows how the tiny plants can lock up carbon when they die. ITEM 2f - THE 1997-98 EL NIÑO The 1997-98 El Niño was truly a global event. The sequence shows a superimposition of sea surface temperature anomalies on anomalies of the sea surface elevation. Warmer than normal temperatures are shown in red and cooler than normal temperatures are shown in blue. ITEM 2g - 3-D EL NIÑO

The space-based perspective provided by satellite observations trace the evolution of El Niño (shown in red) from its beginning in early 1997 through its decline in early 1998. The onset of La Niña can be seen as the emergence cooler than normal temperatures (shown in blue) along the equator. ITEM 2h - PHYTOPLANKTON -- UP CLOSE AND PERSONAL Images of phytoplankton and zooplankton. Plankton are lowest rungs in the oceanic food chain. ITEM 2i - BUOY ARRAY Scientists also used data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Tropical Atmosphere Ocean array. ITEM 2j - EYE IN THE SKY - SEAWIFS NASA's Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) gave researchers an unprecedented view into the extreme biological effects of this El Niño/La Niña event. ITEM 2k - HOW SEAWIFS "SEES" PLANKTON The SeaWiFS instrument detects subtle differences in ocean color and is used to determine the concentrations of chlorophyll found in plankton. ITEM 2l - SCIENTISTS B-ROLL Scientists at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center study El Niño and La Niña. ITEM 2m - INTERVIEW EXCERPTS Dr. Gene Feldman, Research Oceanographer, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD.

ITEM 3 - INSTRUMENTS SELECTED FOR MISSION TO PROVIDE------TRT :58 FIRST STEREO VIEWS OF SOLAR ERUPTIONS - GSFC Contact at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD: Wade Sisler (Phone 301/286-6256). Contact at NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC: Donald Savage (Phone 202/358-1547). The Solar Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) mission, designed to study the origin, evolution and interplanetary consequences of coronal mass ejection (CME), will fly in 2004. Selection of the instruments to be flown on the mission was announced today. STEREO will study CMEs, some of the most massive disturbances in our solar system, by using two identical spacecraft in orbit with the Earth -- one well ahead and one behind the Earth's path. This, along with Earth-based observations, will provide a unique 3-dimensional view of these phenomena. The STEREO mission will consist of an international collaboration involving participants from France, Germany, the United States, and the United Kingdom. It is the third mission selected for NASA's Solar-Terrestrial Probe (STP) Program, under the Agency's Sun-Earth Connections Theme.

ITEM 4 - STS-103 CREW TRAINING - JSC (replay)------------TRT 12:30 Contact at NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX: Kyle Herring (Phone 281/483-5111). The STS-103 crew trains for the next shuttle mission, scheduled for departure from Kennedy Space Center on Dec. 11, 1999. Mission objectives include repair of the Hubble Space Telescope.

ITEM 5 - HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SERVICING MISSION 3 - HQ (replay) ITEM 5a - STS-61 AND STS-82 FOOTAGE-----------------------TRT 8:48 Description - Mission highlights from STS-61 and STS-82 Hubble Space Telescope repair missions.

Item 5b - STS-103 ANIMATION-------------------------------TRT 1:33 Description - Computer animation highlighting STS-103 rendezvous, docking, EVA, and deploy activities.

ITEM 6 - HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SCIENCE MISSION - (replay) Contact at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD: Wade Sisler (Phone 301/286-6256). Contact at NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC: Donald Savage (Phone 202/358-1547). Synopsis: NASA officials decided to move up part of the servicing mission that had been scheduled for June 2000 after three of the telescope's six gyroscopes failed. Having fewer than three working gyroscopes would preclude science observations, although the telescope would remain safely in orbit until a servicing crew arrived. In addition to replacing all six gyroscopes on the STS103 flight, the crew will replace a guidance sensor and the spacecraft's computer. The new computer will reduce the burden of flight software maintenance and significantly lower costs. A voltage/temperature kit will be installed to protect spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the spacecraft goes into safe mode. A new transmitter will replace a failed spare currently aboard the spacecraft, and spare insulation will replace telescope insulation that has degraded. The insulation is necessary to control the internal temperature on the telescope. ITEM 6a - GYROSCOPE ANIMATION-----------------------------TRT 1:01 Astronauts will replace all six of the Telescope's gyroscopes during STS-103. Currently three of Hubble's six gyros are not working, leaving only the minimum number needed to continue its mission. The gyroscopes are needed for pointing the telescope. The pointing system is comprised of reaction wheels that actually move the telescope, gyros that report its position, star trackers that provide reference points, and the onboard computer that controls the pointing process. Based on nearly one and a half years of intensive chemical, mechanical and electrical investigations, the HST team believes that the thin wires are being corroded by the fluid in which they are immersed and

ultimately this corrosion causes them to break. ITEM 6b - THERMAL BLANKET LAYER ANIMATION------------------TRT :33 During the mission astronauts will cover Hubble's electronic bay doors with seven permanent coated-stainless steel foil sheets called the New Outer Blanket Layer (NOBL). The crew will also carry seven rolls of special fabric, called the Shell/Shield Replacement Fabric (SSRF) which will be installed on Hubble's forward shell and light shield if time is available. The NOBL covers and SSRF pieces are designed to protect Hubble's external blankets and prevent its insulation from further degradation. Animation shows how these "thermal blankets" are replaced. Blankets are attached with "bottle-stopper" fasteners and then are unrolled like "wallpaper". This multi-layer insulation protects the Telescope from the severe and rapid temperature changes as it moves through its 90-minute orbit from very hot sun to very cold night. ITEM 6c - TECHNICIANS "QUILT" SSRF B-ROLL------------------TRT :56 B-roll of technicians at the Goddard Space Flight Center "quilting" the Shell/Shield Replacement Fabric (SSRF). The fabric pieces are stored in rolls for their trip to orbit. The fabric is composed of flexible, aluminized Teflon with rip-stop material bonded to the back side. Seven pieces up to 22 feet (7 meters) long will cover 80 percent of the sun-side light shield and forward shell. This special fabric was designed and tested to ensure that it can withstand exposure to charged particles, Xrays, ultraviolet radiation, and thermal cycling for at least ten years. ITEM 6d - STS-103 CLEANROOM B-ROLL------------------------TRT 2:12 Astronauts training for the Hubble Space Telescope Third Servicing Mission in the cleanroom at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Footage includes astronauts working with gyroscopes and applying thermal blankets to a full-sized mock-up of the Hubble Space Telescope. The seven-member crew will rendezvous with the Telescope, capture it with the Space Shuttle Discovery's robotic arm and dock it in the Shuttle bay. Working in teams of two, four

astronauts will outfit the Hubble with new equipment, including six gyroscopes, a Fine Guidance Sensor, Solid State Recorder, new Main Computer, New Outer Blanket Layers (NOBL), and a transmitter. The astronauts will take more than 150 crew aids and tools on this service call. ITEM 6e - ACTIVITY IN STOCC---------------------------------TRT:26 Activity in Space Telescope Operations Control Center (STOCC) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, during the mission. Working 24 hours a day, ground controllers command and control the Hubble Space Telescope. Commands are sent to the Telescope to direct the observation of astronomical targets all across the sky. Hubble operators monitor the Telescope's health and safety while they control flight operations and science activities. ITEM 6f - HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ANIMATION------------------TRT:22 (5 glamour shot sequences) ITEM 6g - THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM (animation)----------TRT:15 Animations of the electromagnetic spectrum, the communication path, and the Hubble Telescope. ITEM 6h - HUBBLE TRACKING/SATELLITE RELAY ANIMATIONS Cut 1: Animation of HST Communication--------------------TRT :17 Communications through the Tracking & Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), White Sands, NM, and DOMSAT, to the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Cut 2: TDRSS Animation------------------------------------TRT :22 Animation of the Tracking & Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Communications Satellite depicting the data flow from TDRSS to Earth, equivalent to a set of encyclopedias every second. ITEM 6i - INTERVIEW EXCERPTS------------------------------TRT 2:02

Dr. David Leckrone, Sr. Project Scientist Hubble Space Telescope ITEM 6j - INTERVIEW EXCERPTS------------------------------TRT 3:38 Dr. John Campbell, Associate Director, Hubble Space Telescope

ITEM 7 - STS-103 CREW INTERVIEWS-------------------------TRT 49:40 Contact at NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX: Kyle Herring (Phone 281/483-5111). ITEM 7a - COMMANDER CURTIS L. BROWN--------------------TRT 6:30 Curt Brown was born in Elizabethtown, NC. He received a B.S. degree in electrical engineering from the U.S. Air Force Academy and became a pilot. He has logged over 6,000 hours in flight time in jet aircraft. On this mission, Brown will become the fifth man to fly in space six times. Brown will be the prime crew member for the rendezvous and retrieval of the Hubble Space Telescope, and is responsible for vehicle operation following the Telescope¹s release again into orbit. Brown served as pilot for STS-47, STS66, and STS-77, and as commander for spce shuttle flights STS-85 and STS-95, the flight that carried Astronaut John Glenn back into space. ITEM 7b - PILOT SCOTT J. KELLY----------------------------TRT 6:10 Scott Kelly, one of twin astronauts, was born in Orange, NJ. He received a B.S. degree in electrical engineering from the State University of New York Maritime College, received his commission, and became a naval aviator. Following deployments to the North Atlantic, Persian Gulf, and Mediterranean Sea, Kelly later graduated from U.S. Naval Test Pilot School. Kelly has logged over 2,000 flight hours in more than 30 aircraft. During this mission, he will be responsible for many orbiter systems during launch and landing and will backup Curt Brown during the rendezvous. This is his first shuttle mission.

ITEM 7c - MISSION SPECIALIST 1 STEVE SMITH----------------TRT 6:00 Steve Smith was born in Phoenix, AZ, and raised in San Jose, CA. He received a B.S. , M.S., and M.B.A. in electrical engineering from Standford University. He joined NASA in 1989 in the Payload Operations Branch, with duties including payload integration. He was selected as an astronaut in 1992. As a crew member and payload commander, he will have primary responsibility for the servicing and operation of the Hubble Space Telescope. He will be the lead space walker in the mission, using his experience from the Hubble servicing mission in 1997. ITEM 7d - MISSION SPECIALIST 2 JEAN-FRANCOIS CLERVOY----TRT 7:07 EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY Clervoy was born in Longeville-les Metz, France. He graduated from Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, and furthered his education to become a flight test engineer. He was selected as a French astronaut in 1985 and reported to NASA for training in 1992. He is the prime crew memeber for the operation of Discovery¹s robot arm and will assist other crew members with navigation tools for the grapple of Hubble. As flight engineer, he will monitor key Shuttle systems on the flight deck during launch and landing. Clervoy flew with NASA on STS-66 and STS-84. ITEM 7e - MISSION SPECIALIST 3 JOHN M. GRUNSFELD, PH.D.---TRT 6:18 John Grunsfeld was born in Chicago, IL. He received a B.S. degree in physics from M.I.T. and an M.S. and Ph.D. in physics from the University of Chicago. Among numerous awards, Dr. Grunsfeld has received the W.D. Grainger Postdoctoral Fellowship in Experimental Physics, as well as a NASA graduate student research fellowship. Dr. Grunsfeld will be examining the science of the mission. He will be teamed with Steve Smith on the third spacewalk and will open the doors of Discovery¹s cargo bay in preparation for the Telescope. He has also flown aboard STS-67 and STS-81. ITEM 7f - MISSION SPECIALIST 4 C. MICHAEL FOALE, PH.D.----TRT 6:18 Michael Foale was born in Louth and raised in Cambridge, England. He attended the University of Cambridge, Queens College, and earned a B.A. degree in physics, National Sciences Tropos, and

then earned a Ph.D. at Queens in laboratory astrophysics. A veteran of four space flights, including a 4-1/2 month experience aboard the Russian space station MIR, on this mission Foale will serve as a science expert, walking on the second and fourth EVAs and conducting intravehicular operations during the first and third walks. Now on his sixth mission, Foale has logged over 173 days in space. ITEM 7g - MISSION SPECIALIST 5 CLAUDE NICOLLIER-----------TRT 7:04 EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY Claude Nicollier was born in Vevey, Switzerland. He received a B.S. in physics from the University of Lausanne and an M.S. degree in astrophysics from the University of Geneva. He has conducted research in the field of stellar photometry and was selected as an astronaut by ESA in 1978. Nicollier will be teamed with Mike Foale for the second and fourth spacewalks. He previously visited Hubble for its first servicing in 1993 as the robot arm operator and will be manning the arm during the first and third spacewalks.

----------------------------Unless otherwise noted, ALL TIMES ARE EASTERN. ANY CHANGES TO THE LINE-UP WILL APPEAR ON THE NASA VIDEO FILE ADVISORY ON THE WEB AT ftp://ftp.hq.nasa.gov/pub/pao/tv-advisory/nasa-tv.txt WE UPDATE THE ADVISORY THROUGHOUT THE DAY. The NASA Video File normally airs at noon, 3 p.m., 6 p.m., 9 p.m. and midnight Eastern Time. NASA Television is available on GE-2, transponder 9C at 85 degrees West longitude, with vertical polarization. Frequency is on 3880.0 megahertz, with audio on 6.8 megahertz. Refer general questions about the video file to NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC: Ray Castillo, 202/358-4555, or Elvia Thompson, 202/358-1696, elvia.thompson@hq.nasa.gov

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