NASA Daily News Summary For Release: Dec.

13, 1999 Media Advisory m99-256 SUMMARY: ON THE DAY THE SOLAR WIND DISAPPEARED, SCIENTISTS SAMPLE PARTICLES DIRECTLY FROM THE SUN Video File for Dec. 13, 1999 NOTE: ALL TIMES EASTERN ITEM 1 - FUTURE FLIGHT CENTRAL - ARC (replay) ITEM 2 - ON THE DAY THE SOLAR WIND DISAPPEARED, SCIENTISTS SAMPLE PARTICLES DIRECTLY FROM THE SUN- GSFC ITEM 3 - WEST ANTARCTIC ICE STREAMS - GSFC ITEM 4 - CLOUD PATTERNS NEAR CAPE VERDE ISLANDS - GSFC (replay) Live Television Events This Week: December 14, Tuesday 9:00 am - Countdown Status Briefing for the Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission - STS-103 - KSC 1:00 - 3:30 pm - Terra Validation Testing - Vandenberg Air Force Base, CA 4:00 pm - STS-103 Launch Readiness News Conference - KSC December 15, Wednesday 9:00 am - Countdown Status Briefing for the Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission - STS-103 - KSC 10:00 am - STS-103 Hubble Space Telescope Briefing - KSC 4:00 pm - Terra Mission Prelaunch News Conference - Vandenberg Air Force Base, CA December 16, Thursday 11:30 am - Live Commentary and Launch Coverage for Terra Mission -Vandenberg Air Force Base, CA

12:30 pm - Terra Mission Launch Commentary and Coverage Resumes Vandenberg Air Force Base, CA 1:33 pm - Terra Mission Launch - Vandenberg Air Force Base, CA 4:00 pm - Live Commentary and Launch Coverage of the Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission - STS-103 - KSC 9:18 pm - Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission Launch - STS103 -KSC

***************************** ON THE DAY THE SOLAR WIND DISAPPEARED, SCIENTISTS SAMPLE PARTICLES DIRECTLY FROM THE SUN From May 10-12, 1999, the solar wind that blows constantly from the Sun virtually disappeared--the most drastic and longestlasting decrease ever observed. Dropping to a fraction of its normal density and to half its normal speed, the solar wind died down enough to allow physicists to observe particles flowing directly from the Sun's corona to Earth. This severe change in the solar wind also changed the shape of Earth's magnetic field and produced an unusual auroral display at the North Pole. http://www-spof.gsfc.nasa.gov/istp/news/9912 Contact at NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC: Donald Savage (Phone 202/358-1547). Contact at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD: Bill Steigerwald (Phone 301/286-5017). For full text, see: ftp://ftp.hq.nasa.gov/pub/pao/pressrel/1999/99-145.txt

----------------------------If NASA issues any news releases later today, we will email summaries and Internet URLs to this list. Index of 1999 NASA News Releases: http://www.nasa.gov/releases/1999/index.html

***************************** Video File for Dec. 13, 1999 ITEM 1 - FUTURE FLIGHT CENTRAL - ARC (replay) Contact at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA: Michael Mewhinney (Phone 650/604-3937). Contact at NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC: Michael Braukus (Phone 202/358-1979). ITEM 1a - FUTUREFLIGHT CENTRAL - ANIMATION----------------TRT :29 NASA¹s FutureFlight Facility, opening Dec. 13, 1999, is the world¹s first full-scale virtual airport control tower. Located at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, the facility will provide the airline industry with robust test and research capabilities within a safe, real-time, simulated environment. ITEM 1b - FUTUREFLIGHT CENTRAL - ANIMATION----------------TRT 1:38 Simulations from the control tower of NASA¹s new FutureFlight Facility, depicting San Fransisco International airport and its virtual air traffic. ITEM 1c - FUTUREFLIGHT CENTRAL B-ROLL---------------------TRT 2:33 Testing of the systems in the new FutureFlight Central facility, showing both the control tower and the downstairs pseudo-pilot areas. ITEM 1d - AIRPLANE B-ROLL---------------------------------TRT 1:34 Montage of commercial aircraft at various U.S. airports engaging in ground transportation maneuvers as well as footage inside an air traffic control tower.

ITEM 1e - INTERVIEW EXCERPTS------------------------------TRT 1:52 Paul Kutler, Deputy Director, Information Sciences & Technology Directorate, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA. ITEM 1f - INTERVIEW EXCERPTS------------------------------TRT 1:37 Nancy Dorighi, Facility Manager, FutureFlight Central, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA. ITEM 1g - INTERVIEW EXCERPTS-----------------------------TRT 1:24 Jim McClenahen, Air Traffic Control Analyst, FutureFlight Central, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA.

ITEM 2 - ON THE DAY THE SOLAR WIND DISAPPEARED, SCIENTISTS SAMPLE PARTICLES DIRECTLY FROM THE SUN- GSFC Contact at NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC: Donald Savage (Phone 202/358-1547). Contact at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD: Bill Steigerwald (Phone 301/286-5017). Contact at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD: Wade Sisler (Phone 301/286-6256). From May 10-12, 1999, the solar wind that blows constantly from the Sun virtually disappeared--the most drastic and longest-lasting decrease ever observed. Dropping to a fraction of its normal density and to half its normal speed, the solar wind died down enough to allow physicists to observe particles flowing directly from the Sun's corona to Earth. This severe change in the solar wind also changed the shape of Earth's magnetic field and produced an unusual auroral display at the North Pole. http://www-spof.gsfc.nasa.gov/istp/news/9912 ITEM 2a - THE DAY THE SOLAR WIND DISAPPEARED--------------TRT :45

As the solar wind dissipates on May 11, 1999, the magnetosphere and bow shock around Earth expand to five times their normal size. The aurora, which usually forms ovals around Earth's poles, fills in over the northern polar cap. ITEM 2b - POLAR IONOSPHERIC X-RAY IMAGING EXPERIMENT------TRT :20 (PIXIE) MOVIE Moving X-ray images of the North Pole reveal the "polar rain" of electrons that fell on Earth's atmosphere on May 11, 1999. Credit: NASA/Lockheed Martin ITEM 2c - POLAR IONOSPHERIC X-RAY IMAGING EXPERIMENT------TRT :20 (PIXIE) X-ray images of the North Pole reveal the "polar rain" of electrons that fell on Earth's atmosphere on May 11, 1999. Credit: NASA/Lockheed Martin ITEM 2d - POLAR VISIBLE IMAGING SYSTEM--------------------TRT :10 Ultraviolet and visible light images of the aurora borealis show the unusual occurrence of aurora over the North Pole. Credit: NASA/University of Iowa ITEM 2e - POLAR VISIBLE IMAGING SYSTEM-MOVIE--------------TRT :30 Ultraviolet movie of the aurora borealis from the Polar VIS Camera during a typical auroral event on April 17, 1999. Credit: NASA/University of Iowa ITEM 2f - MODEL OF THE SOLAR WIND AND MAGNETOSPHERE------TRT :36 A computer model driven by science data shows the Earth's bow shock--the leading,

colored edge to the left--stretching out toward the Sun as solar wind density drops. The magnetosphere (gray shading) changes from a windsock shape to a dipole. Credit: University of Maryland ITEM 2g - SOHO'S VIEW OF THE SUN--------------------------TRT :21 Extreme ultraviolet images of the Sun from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) revealed nothing unusual during the interval from May 9-11, 1999. Credit: NASA/ESA ITEM 2h - ISTP CONSTELLATION------------------------------TRT :37 A collaborative effort by four space agencies and more than a dozen countries, the International Solar Terrestrial Physics program studies the Sun-Earth system with many spacecraft. Credit: NASA ITEM 2i - NASA'S WIND SPACECRAFT--------------------------TRT :20 Launched in November 1994 by NASA, Wind spends most of its time sampling the solar wind on the daylight side of Earth. Credit: NASA ITEM 2j - NASA'S POLAR SPACECRAFT-------------------------TRT :20 Launched in February 1996 by NASA, Polar makes daily passes over the Earth's north and south poles in order to study the magnetosphere and the aurora. Credit: NASA

ITEM 3 - WEST ANTARCTIC ICE STREAMS - GSFC

Contact at NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC: David E. Steitz (Phone 202/358-1730). Contact at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD: Wade Sisler (Phone 301/286-6256). http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/imagewall/antarctica.html Radarsat Maps Slow Motion White Water Rivers Synopsis: Recent observations by a NASA-launched Canadian spacecraft called Radarsat are giving scientists a remarkable view of two fascinating features of Antarctica¹s landscape. Over a 24day period, the satellite captured new images of the frozen continent, providing dramatic new data sets for researchers to consider. NASA's study of Antarctica is part of the Agency's Earth Science Enterprise, a dedicated effort to better understand how natural and human-induced changes affect our Earth's environmental system. ITEM 3a - LOCATING STREAMS ON THE ANTARCTIC CONTINENT----TRT :28 Over a 24-day span, scientists used two images over identical regions of Antarctica in a technique called interferometry. Their comparative analysis of the images helped develop the following ice stream animations on the west side of the continent, showing flow rate and direction to an extent never before possible. ITEM 3b - VECTOR ANALYSIS OF FLOW-------------------------TRT 1:15 In this visualization, longer black lines indicate a faster rate of flow than shorter lines. The fastest ice streams can move 400 to 500 meters a year, a blazing speed compared to tributary speeds of little more than 10 meters a year. Experts say the new information can help describe large scale changes to the Antarctic environment, as well as historical models about geological change. ITEM 3c - FALSE COLOR ILLUSTRATION OF FLOW----------------TRT :49 False color data derived from the Radarsat interferometry helps illustrate the areas of the streams moving at different rates. Reds indicate areas of greatest speed, while greens and blues are

slower. ITEM 3d - SNOWDUNES--------------------------------------TRT :23 Radarsat also enabled researchers to gain a better understanding about a surface feature found only at the bottom of the world. These snow dunes are believed to be highly stable waves of graded ice grains, nearly impossible to see without the aid of satellite remote sensing systems, and larger than the state of California. Stretching for hundreds of kilometers, these dunes rise only 2 to 3 meters but may have a periodicity of more than 2 kilometers. ITEM 3e - HOW THEY WORK: A VIRTUAL MODEL OF ICE STREAMS--TRT :25 (ANIMATION) Experts still aren't positive how ice streams actually work. The current theory says that tributaries of slower ice come together to create larger streams, often at points where elevation and terrain act as a slight funnel. The convergence then literally slides on a lubricated bed of oceanic muck covered by a millimeter thin layer of water, gaining strength as it drives toward the ocean. ITEM 3f - INTERVIEW EXCERPTS------------------------------TRT 1:37 Robert Bindschadler, Glaciologist, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD ITEM 3g - INTERVIEW EXCERPTS------------------------------TRT 1:38 Mark Fahnestock, Glaciologist, University of Maryland, College Park, MD ITEM 3h - CONTINENTAL TOUR--------------------------------TRT 4:03 Antarctica is the coldest, windiest, driest, and on average highest continent on Earth. It¹s huge, too-‹the size of the United States and Mexico combined. While over 97 percent of the continent is ice covered, its surface is remarkably diverse.

Glaciers plow through 15,000 ft. mountain ranges, rising above the land like citadel spires. Fields of crazed ice stretch out as far as the eye can see. Icebergs the size of New England States calve from walls of floating ice that are themselves as big as Texas. By stitching together the RADARSAT data, scientists at Ohio State University¹s Byrd Polar Research Center and animators at NASA¹s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, have designed a virtual tour of the southernmost continent. It begins and ends at McMurdo Station; in between are thousands of miles of mystery and beauty. Courtesy NASA/Byrd Polar Research Center ITEM 3i - FIMBUL ICE SHELF--------------------------------TRT 1:07 Icebergs form when hunks of ice break away from glaciers pushing into the ocean. Ice shelves are the edges of those glaciers, extending out into the ocean faster than icebergs can break off from the edge. The Fimbul Ice Shelf has remained relatively consistent in its appearance for the last 30 years, but researchers are paying close attention to changes. Ice shelves are considered to be particularly sensitive to climatic changes and scientists have detected a marked retreat of several along the Antarctic Peninsula. Note the fascinating formations along the Fimbul, believed to be the product of glacial ice flowing over rocky outcroppings and islands. ITEM 3j - LATE VOSTOK-------------------------------------TRT :30 More than two miles beneath the icy cloak shielding Antarctica from the sky hides a massive fresh water lake. Seen from RADARSAT, the lake appears as a flat plain surrounded by the sandpaper of craggy ice. As the topographical ice sheet flows over the subglacial lake, surface features smooth out. Researchers are considering a drilling mission to the lake for exploration of this remote environment. It remains in liquid state partially due to geothermal heating and partially because of the insulating properties of such a thick ice blanket above. The drilling project faces certain technological challenges. Lake Vostok is also a human foothold on the continent. It was at Vostok Station, located at the southern end of the lake, that Russian scientists recorded the coldest temperatures on Earth.

ITEM 3k - LARSEN ICE SHELF--------------------------------TRT :30 In 1978, scientists predicted that global warming would lead to a disintegration of Antarctic Peninsula ice shelves. Spaceborne data indicate that this prediction may be coming true. In these before-and-after images, note the dramatic change in the apparent shoreline. Scientists captured the first image in using the ERS-1 satellite in 1992. As seen in the second image, collected by RADARSAT in 1997, huge changes have come to the coastline. In 1995, a 2000 sq. kilometer section of the ice shelf collapsed into thousands of fragments that eventually drifted out to sea. Researchers are still debating why the ice shelf broke up so dramatically, and what significance the break-up has for interpreting local versus global changes to the environment. Theories include a series of warmer than usual summers which may have caused high levels of surface melting, or an overall climate warming trend. ITEM 3l - LAMBERT GLACIER---------------------------------TRT 1:09 Covering more than a million square kilometers, Lambert Glacier is one of the world¹s longest and largest. It is more than 400 kilometers long, emptying a significant portion of East Antarctica into the Amery Ice Shelf. Much like a major river system, Lambert Glacier is fed by a complex series of tributaries. ITEM 3m - EAST ANTARCTIC ICE STREAMS----------------------TRT :42 Prior to the RADARSAT mission, scientists knew little about the East Antarctic Ice Streams draining into the Filchner Ice Shelf. Now for the first time they have been mapped in their entirety. The streams are actually enormous glaciers, stretching like conveyors of cracked ice and snow across vast stretches of the continent. The Recovery Glacier, one of the principal channels comprising the East Antarctic Ice Streams, reaches over 800 kilometers into the continent¹s interior. Several of the tributary glaciers feeding into Recovery and the large Slessor Glacier extend for more than 250 kilometers. ITEM 3n - THE RADARSAT SATELLITE--------------------------TRT :16

NASA launched the Radarsat satellite for the Canadian Space Agency in exchange for certain operational executions. Unlike mapping satellites that rely on reflected sunlight or infrared readings, Radarsat¹s Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is able to penetrate cloud cover or work in the dark of night. Courtesy: Canadian Space Agency/GSFC Studio 13 More About Antarctica and the Radarsat Mapping Mission This project is the collaborative result of many organizations, agencies, corporations, and countless individuals. Below you will find links to many sites established by groups that played a role in making this project a reality. NASA/GSFC http://www.gsfc.nasa.gov CSA http://www.csa.ca Byrd Polar Research Center http://www-bprc.mps.ohio-state.edu The Alaska SAR Facility http://www.asf.alaska.edu The Jet Propulsion Laboratory http://www.jpl.nasa.gov The National Science Foundation http://www.nsf.gov Radarsat International http://www.rsi.ca Vexcel Corporation http://www.vexcel.com Environmental Research Institute of Michigan http://www.erim.org/ National Imagery and Mapping Agency http://maps.usgs.gov

ITEM 4 - CLOUD PATTERNS NEAR CAPE VERDE ISLANDS - GSFC (replay) Contact at NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC: David E. Steitz (Phone 202/358-1730). Contact at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD: Wade Sisler (Phone 301/286-6256). Images taken by NASA's Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) satellite on October 15 and December 7 showing the West African Cape Verde Islands' effect on wind fields. The first image shows the dust blowing from the Sahara Desert on the upper right side moving west but getting trapped by the altitude of the islands. The volcanic islands are high enough to interrupt the wind field as seen by the clear water just south of each of the islands. When wind blows past structures such as these, a vortex is usually created in the wake of the water, as seen in the

rippled ocean currents.

----------------------------Unless otherwise noted, ALL TIMES ARE EASTERN. ANY CHANGES TO THE LINE-UP WILL APPEAR ON THE NASA VIDEO FILE ADVISORY ON THE WEB AT ftp://ftp.hq.nasa.gov/pub/pao/tv-advisory/nasa-tv.txt WE UPDATE THE ADVISORY THROUGHOUT THE DAY. The NASA Video File normally airs at noon, 3 p.m., 6 p.m., 9 p.m. and midnight Eastern Time. NASA Television is available on GE-2, transponder 9C at 85 degrees West longitude, with vertical polarization. Frequency is on 3880.0 megahertz, with audio on 6.8 megahertz. Refer general questions about the video file to NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC: Ray Castillo, 202/358-4555, or Elvia Thompson, 202/358-1696, elvia.thompson@hq.nasa.gov During Space Shuttle missions, the full NASA TV schedule will continue to be posted at: http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/realdata/nasatv/schedule.html For general information about NASA TV see: http://www.nasa.gov/ntv/ ***************************** Contract Awards Contract awards are posted to the NASA Acquisition information Service Web site: http://procurement.nasa.gov/EPS/award.html *****************************

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