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Autocratic or authoritarian leadership

 Makes decisions
 Rewards and punishes
 Conceals information
 Imposes rigid work standards

Emotional reactions of employees

 Resentment of him/her and his her methods
 Resistance to orders
 Fear and dependence
 Frustration- due to constant supervision
 Security in knowing that following the autocrat will
gain his/her acceptance

This type of leadership is useful when –

 Employees are new on the job
 In emergencies
 When the group becomes complacent
 When discipline is needed

This leadership is not desirable when-

 Employees are knowledgeable about their jobs and
are experienced.
 When a successful work group has been
 When the job demands team work and co
 When morale needs to be improved and the
attitude towards the management needs to be

Consultative/participative or democratic or
group centered
Emotional reactions of employees –
Feeling of co operation with the boss.
Respect for the boss.
Warm friendly relationships between superiors and
Greater motivation and higher morale.
Better decisions and formulation of plans.

This type of leadership is useful when –

 The company has communicated its goals to its
subordinates and they have accepted it.
 When the company uses rewards and punishments
as a means of motivation and control.
 The leader wants to hear the ideas of others before
making decisions.
 The leader wishes to develop analytical and self
control abilities in the subordinates.
 The workers are reasonably knowledgeable and
 Subordinates desire involvement in matters that
affect them.
 The group has proven a record of co operation and
 Workers are able to work without with little or no
contact with the supervisor.

This leadership is not desirable when-

 Employees lack experience.
 When employees do not wish to work as a team or
are unable to work together.
Free –rein or laisez faire or group centered
 Maximum concern for individuals in the team.
 Open discussions and creativity and respect for
everyone’s views.
 The majority will is operative in the decision making

Emotional reactions of employees –

 Free informal work environment individuals can find
answers to the problems posed by the job.
 Insecurity and frustration because of a lack of
specific decision making authority and
 Lack of cohesive behaviour. Cliques are formed to
the detriment of the group’s goal directed action.

This type of leadership is useful when-

 The company’s goals and the subordinates goals
are compatible.
 The leader desires to delegate decision making
 The leader has a high degree of confidence in the
abilities of his subordinates.
 When the subordinates are well trained and highly
knowledgeable and are willing to assume
responsibility for decision making and self control.
 The subordinate have a high need for

This leadership is not desirable when-

 The work group members do not co operate.
 The group is unwilling or unable to make a decision.
 The group is too large or lacks cohesion.
 It could degenerate into chaos.

Bureaucratic or rules centered leadership

 Reliance on rules.
 Do things in prescribed ways.

Emotional reactions of employees –

 Emotional apathy of the employees.
 Bureaucratic sabotage-a deliberate apathy fused
with resentment so that every act of conforming to
the letter of the rule is accompanies by a conscious
intention to violate it.

This type of leadership is useful when –

 Goals of the company are fixed.
 A task must be achieved in a short time.

This leadership is not desirable when-
 Creativity is needed in the job.
 When the work profile demands flexibility.

Manipulative leadership
 Personal Goals are achieved at any cost through
 Employee’s needs are tools to extract performance.

Emotional reactions of employees –

 Distrust
 Belief that the manager knows their needs.
 This type of leadership is useful when –
 Cooperation and co ordination have to be achieved
ion a short time.
 When there is a lack of motivation.

This leadership is not desirable when-
 A long term working relationship has to be
 The structure of the organization is controlled and
the manipulation is restricted.

Expert leadership
 Group perception and leaders talent r right for the
 Not a transferable skill.

 Emotional reactions of employees –

 Relief and confidence

 Confusion –when the skills r no longer required.

This type of leadership is useful when –

 The gp is convinced that they can reach their goals
by following the leader
 The expertise is needed

Charismatic leaders
Are they born or made?
 vision and articulation
 Personal risk.
 Sensitivity to followers needs.
 Unconventional behaviour.

This type of leadership is useful when –

 The group needs a creative head.
 Creativity is the goal
 To inspire a group.

Emotional reactions of employees –
This type of leadership is useful when –
This leadership is not desirable when-
Consultative or participative or democratic
or group centered leadership

Delegates’ responsibility.
Emphasis on results rather than on action.
Concern for employees.
Encourages co operation.
Defines objectives yet gives freedom for performance.
Takes decisions and accepts full responsibility.