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Highway Windmill

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering
Sri Ram Engineering College Sri Ram Engineering College
Chennai, India Chennai, India

Department of Electronics and Communication Designing manager
Engineering P.T.Meindo-Elang
SriRam Engineering College
Chennai, India

Abstract-Vehicles moving in a highway suffer a lot to drive The present design of wind mills cannot be implemented
the vehicle during night time due to lighting problem. It is not in our normal surroundings. As it is not much sensitive to all
possible task to lay electric cables underground and provide wind directions by its design it gives a partial efficiency and
lighting throughout the length of the roads. In this paper, the increases cost of design, transportation, installation and
drawback can be overcome by make use of VAWT (Vertical maintenance. To overcome the effects and disadvantages of
Axis Wind Turbine). The VAWT is coupled with disc type the present wind energy system a new hybrid design of wind
alternator is placed on the highway road dividers. As the wind mill must be introduced. This small spark showed the trend
is forced by passing vehicles from both sides, the wind speed of VAWT. This research paper takes into the next era of
on the centre place of highway roads will be more than at the
wind mill technology with an interesting application.
pedestrian walking lane. This wind is forced to the VAWT
from two directions heavily but this VAWT makes use of both
the wind directions and rotates in one direction only. If the
speed of the turbine increases results in increasing the speed of
the alternator and the corresponding increased power is
obtained at the output terminal. This power can be stored in
battery bank which is placed under the windmill and utilized
at night time for lighting purpose on the highway.

Keywords-VAWT (vertical axis wind turbine), alternator,

blade shape, wind mill, speed gears, power, aerodynamics.


As we see in our day to day life technology improves in a

fast manner and without these technologies its impossible for
a man to survive in the world, this is the present position of
people residing in earth. Yes, if we took a survey upon
which everything functions (or) can say as through which the
technology develops? The solution takes us to the root and
says "energy". So it's clear that without energy in this world
nothing is possible.
Once we had a thought of designing the energy
generating machines in a very compact and eco-friendly Fig No-l
manner. The recent inventions like micro computer, 30
devices, sixth sense devices, etc it's very easy for us to II. OBJECTIVES
communicate and to know what's happening in and around
us from any corner of the world. But energy is the basic raw The aim of the paper is to generate power using
material for everything to work. renewable energy resources (i.e.) wind energy in a very
compact and eco-friendly manner. Utilizing the modern

978-1-61284-486-2/111$26.00 2011 IEEE

vertical axis turbine technique and by adjusting the blade b) Wing shape, with one leading edge rounded with the
design of it, to suite itself for an efficient energy generating other edge tapered to a thin line.
system independent of wind directions in and around our c) Both edges tapered to a thin line.
residential area. This paper is framed in a motto to reduce
d) Both edges rounded like the leading edge of a
green house effect.
conventional airplane wing.
The main advantage of using VAWT is that they do not
have to be turned into the wind stream as the wind direction A drawing of tested blade shapes is provided below:
changes. Other advantages are that fabrication and Blade Shapes
maintenance costs are reduced because heavy, high
maintenance items are easily accessible. Also vertical-axis -
design uses a simple low cost tower.


The purpose of design methodology is to increase the -
efficiency of the windmill. The first step in designing a
windmill for a particular application starts with the turbine
blade design. The shape of the blades will positively affect
the overall efficiency of the windmill [4]. Before starting this
process it is necessary to know about the aerodynamic style
of designing the windmill blade in order to get the maximum
efficiency from it and the basic variables which we have to
cI. -
consider while designing [5]. Side Views
The different variables considered are:
1. Wind Speed: Fig No-2

This is very important to the productivity of a windmill.

6. Surface Treatment:
The wind turbine only generates power with the wind. The
wind rotates the axis (horizontal or vertical) and causes the This is done because if an optimum surface treatment can
shaft on the generator to sweep past the magnetic coils be determined, and then the blades would not only be
creating an electric current. protected from the elements but also be more productive.

2. Blade Length: 7. Tip Speed Ratio:

This is important because the length of the blade is The tip speed ratio is very important. The tip speed ratio
directly proportional to the swept area. Larger blades have a is directly proportional to the windmill's productivity. It is
greater swept area and thus catch more wind with each how many times the blades rotate greater than the wind
revolution. Because of this, they may also have more torque. speed.

3. Tower Height: A. General Aerodynamics

The height of the tower [affects] the windmill immensely. The forces and the velocities acting in a Darrieus turbine
The higher a windmill is, the more productive it will be due are depicted in the geometric diagram shown in fig-no-3.
to the fact that as the altitude increases so does the winds The resultant velocity vector, W the vectorial sum of the
speed. undistributed upstream air velocity, If and the velocity
4. Tower Design: vector of the advancing blade is (-w x Ii).
Some towers are stronger than others. Towers are W = u + (-w x R) (1)
important in the construction of the windmill because not
only do they have to support the windmill, but they must Thus the oncoming wind velocity varies, the maximum is
also be subject to their own weight and the drag of the wind. found for e = 00 and the minimum is found for,e = 1800
If a weak tower is subject to these elements, then it will where e is the azimuthal or orbital blade position. The angle
surely collapse. Therefore, the towers must be identical so as of attack, a, is the angle between the oncoming air speed, W,
to insure a fair comparison. and the blades chord. The resultant airflow creates a varying,
positive angle of attack to the blade in the upstream zone of
5. Shape of Blade
the machine, switching sign in the downstream zone of the
This is an important consideration because if an optimum machine. From geometrical considerations, the resultant
blade shape is discovered, then the overall productivity of a airspeed flow and the angle of attack are calculated as
windmill can be increased. follows:
The blade shapes were as follows: 2
w = Ul + 2A-cose + A- (2)
a) Flat, unmodified blade surface.

a = tan-
1 (--)
(3) can give the maximum energy transformation from forced
COSB+A wind energy to rotational mechanical energy.
1 wR .
Here A = - IS the IIp
speed rat10.
The resultat aerodynamic force is decomposed either in
lift (L) - drag ( D) components or normal (N) - tangential T)
components. The force acting at y,. chords from the leadmg
edge (by convention), the pitching moment is ?etermined o
resolve the aerodynamic forces. The aeronautIcal terms hft
and drag are, strictly speaking, forces across and along the
approaching net relative airflow respect !vely. The tangenial
force is acting along the blade's velocIty and thus, pullIng
the blade around and the normal forces acting radially and
thus is acting against the bearings. The lift and the drag force
are useful when dealing with global performance, fatigue
loads, etc. it is more convenient to have a normal-tangential Fig-No-4
frame. The lift and the drag coefficients are usually The j-type blade design rules out savonius design in high
normalized by the dynamic pressure of undistributed power energy generation as it has both the c-type design ad
upstream wind velocity. aerodynamic wing design fused together formmg an hybrId
model shape, so that the blade acts on drag and lift theory of
wind turbine. for a normal air pressure the mechanical power
produced will be much higher as compared to the other
design types.

Fig No-3
As per the aerodynamic theory the VA WT is designd
and the exact angle to which each blade must be placed IS
shown in fig no-3 [3]. The above seen variables will
The wind turbine blade design has been decided and now
definitely vary for an efficient windmill designed based on
the blades must be fixed to build the turbine. The general
the surroundings in which it is going to be applied. So for
aerodynamic procedure for blade angle to which it must be
highway application the wind speed will be greater than
fixed is choosed and the turbine is built. The wind turbine
normal wind speed on the road dividers. The task is to
for highway energy production skeletal diagram is shown in
decide a blade shape and material which will support the
productivity of windmill without considering the direction or
speed of the wind with no loss or damage. V. ALTERNATOR DESIGN

IV. EFFICIENT DESIGN OF TURBINE BLADES Alternator is used to convert mechanical rotational
energy to electrical energy by the principle of
The type of blade material used is the most important
electromagnetic induction. The present cylindrical type
consideration while designing the wind turbine. A special
alternator can be coupled to V A WT for energy generation,
grade of aluminium metal which has the light weight and
but it is not easy to maintain and service this type of
rigidity to withstand air pressure is mostly prffered based
alternators. So to bring compactness in the alternator design
on the elesticity of the metal [1]. The next step IS to choose a
disc type alternators are chosen which can make the task of
blade shape.
maintenance and service so easy and cost efficient.
The j-type(Noguchi) and c-type(savonius) blade designs
The disc type alternator can be designed using permanent
will be suitable for highway application of VA WT. As the
magnet as a magnetic field for the alternto. The armature !s
wind speed is higher in this region these two type of blades .
made using the copper wire coils or wmdmgs. The dISC III

which the permanent magnet is placed acts as rotor and is VI. OPERATING MODEL IN HIGHWAY
coupled to the wind turbine shaft. The use of permanent
The V A WT after coupled with the alternator is placed on
magnets reduces the involvement of slip rings and brushes.
the road divider of a highway. As the wind is forced by
Another disc acts as stator in which armature windings are
passing vehicles from both sides the wind speed on the
placed. The disc is arranged in face to face manner with a
highway centre will be more than at the pedestrian walking
minimum air gap, thus acts as an alternator. The disc
lane. The wind is forced to the turbine from two directions
alternator's rotor and stator schematic diagrams are shown in
heavily but this hybrid turbine model makes use of both the
fig-no-6. For designing a high power alternator wound field
wind directions and rotates in one direction only. As the
coils can be replaced in the disc instead of permanent
turbine is modified with four blade structure, it can make
magnet. These field windings can be excited externally as
more contact with the wind flowing thus can perform with a
per the load conditions using a self charging battery backup
boost up in its speed fig-no-5. If the speed of the turbine
through slip rings [6].
increases it directly result in increasing the speed of the
alternator so at the output terminal an increased power is
obtained. The electrical energy produced the windmill can be
stored in battery bank which is placed under the windmill
and the saved power is used at night time for lighting
purpose on the highway. So if a larger power generating
alternator is used the electricity generated can be utilized to
the nearby small villages located in few yards away from the
highway. A graphic picture of this windmill on highway is
painted is fig-no-l.


The small prototype model was done with wind turbine

using air conditioner roller fins. Then for a small miniature
test purpose an empty perfume tin used and cut opened the
sides as one side stick to the top and bottom of the tin and
A. COUPLING OF TURBINE WITH THE ALTERNATOR another peeps out as a window and opened another half of
The V AWT is a direct driving system so it can be the tin in opposite direction. Then drilled out the pumping
directly coupled with the alternator for energy production. system from the tin and inserted two empty ball pen ink
But in the case of high power energy generating machines container; it acts as the central shaft for the wind turbine and
speed of rotor affects the power generated at the output, as gives a support for the blade. Next, couple the toy car motor
speed is directly proportional to the energy generated [7]. As to the main shaft which was used in the turbine. The toy car
the V A WT is capable of producing high rotational energy motor acts as dc motor when dc voltage is supplied to it or it
high power producing alternators can be coupled to it and acts as a dynamo when mechanical energy is supplied to it.
high energy can be obtained from single unit of windmill. To Finally the model was placed before the table fan which acts
couple with the turbine speed gears are used which can a wind source for the prototype and connected the motor
increase the rotational energy from the turbine and give it to terminals to multi-meter to test the voltage when the whole
the alternator fig-no-7. The gear ratio for windmill set up is working. It gave an output voltage of 1 volt to
arrangement is the calculative task needed to design speed 1.2volt.
gear as per the available constant and varying rotor speed
with the required alternator speed [8].
This proposed model of vertical axis wind mill on
highway will be a good source of green power. It motivates
the residing public towards the eco-friendly hybrid windmill
and reduces fear of accidents due to that. By using this
model all the national highways can be lightened without the
use of non-renewable energy sources. When these windmills
are installed in highways, it will increase the economy and
resemble the country participation in environment care.
Finally, conclude that this paper can give electricity without
pollution to many highways and small villages. It can also
provide entrepreneurship and employment for many
educated fellowships. Switch on green power to quit the
green house effect.



A solar panel can be fixed at top of the turbine with

a high power LED-lamp beneath it for lighting
purpose, so that windmill generating power can be
used for nearby houses.
The same setup can be installed on roof tops of
houses or buildings to supply electricity for their
By extending the diameter of rotational axis and
height of the turbine can be coupled with larger
kilowatt generators to produce electricity in offshore
wind farms.


We express our sincere thanks to Dr.V.Thulasi bai Prof

& Dean and Mr.V.Salai selvam Asst.Prof & HOD,
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering,
SriRam Engineering College, Chennai, India.


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