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The Gupta Empire (Sanskrit: गु� राजवंश, Gupta Rājavaṃśa) was an Ancient Indian empire which existed approximately from 320 to 550 CE and covered much  . Founded of the Indian Subcontinent by Maharaja Sri-Gupta, the dynasty was  the model of a classical civilization . The peace and prosperity created under leadership of Guptas enabled the pursuit  of scientific and artistic endeavors . This period is called the Golden Age of  India and was marked by extensive achievements in science, technology, engineering, art, dialectic, literature, logic, mathematics, astronomy, religion and philosophy that crystallized the elements of what is generally known as  Hindu culture . Chandragupta I, Samudragupta, and Chandragupta II were the most notable rulers of the  Gupta dynasty. The high points of this cultural creativity are magnificent architectures, sculptures and  paintings . The Gupta period produced scholars such as Kalidasa, Aryabhata, Varahamihira, Vishnu Sharma, Vatsyayana and Prashastapada who made great advancements in  . many academic fields Science and political administration reached new  . heights during the Gupta era Strong trade ties also made the region an important cultural center and set the region up as a
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गु � राजवं श Gupta Rājavaṃśa Gupta Empire
AD 320–AD 600s
Pataliputra Sanskrit Hinduism Buddhism Monarchy Sri-Gupta Chandragupta I Vishnugupta Antiquity AD 320 AD 600s
Capital Language(s) Religion Government Maharajadhiraj - 240s-280s - 319-335 - 540-550 Historical era - Established - Disestablished
History of South Asia History of India Stone Age - Mehrgarh Culture Indus Valley Civilization - Late Harappan Culture Iron Age Vedic Civilization Maha Janapadas Magadha Empire Nanda Empire before 3300 BCE 7000–3300 BCE 3300–1700 BCE 1700–1300 BCE
1200–180 BCE 1500–500 BCE • 700–300 BCE • 684–424 BCE • 424-321 BCE
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who established an empire in the first half of the 7th century. Sri Lanka.wikipedia.Gupta Empire . The empire came to an end with the attack of the Huna from Central Asia. The earliest available Puranas are also thought to have been written around this period. These Guptas were ultimately ousted by the Vardhana king Harsha. Malay Archipelago and  Indochina. Chera Empire Chola Empire Pandyan Empire Maurya Empire Pallava Empire Sunga Empire Kanva Empire Kharavela Empire Kuninda Kingdom Indo-Scythian Kingdom Satavahana Empire Indo-Greek Kingdom • • • • • • • • • • • • 300 BCE–1200 CE 300 BCE–1279 CE 300 BCE–1345 CE 321–184 BCE 250 BCE–800 CE 185-73 BCE 75-26 BCE 209–170 BCE 200s BCE–300s CE 200 BC–400 CE 230 BCE–220 CE 180 BCE–10 CE 1 CE–1279 CE • 21–130s CE • 35–405 CE • 60–240 CE • 230–360 CE • 250–500 CE • 250–600 CE • 280–550 CE • 345–525 CE • 350–1000 CE • 350–1100 CE • 420-624 CE • 475-576 CE • 489–632 CE • 543–753 CE • 590-647 CE • 565-670 CE • 624-1075 CE • 650–1036 CE • 750–1174 CE • 753–982 CE • 800–1327 CE • 850–1334 CE • 942–1244 CE • 973–1189 CE Contents 1 Origin of the Guptas 2 Srigupta and Ghatotkacha 3 Chandra Gupta I 4 Samudragupta 5 Succession of Samudragupta 6 Ramagupta 7 Chandragupta II 7. After the collapse of the Gupta Empire in the 6th century. India was again ruled by numerous regional kingdoms. the free encyclopedia http://en. A minor line of the Gupta clan continued to rule Magadha after the disintegration of the empire.1 Chandra Gupta II's campaigns against Foreign Tribes 8 Kumaragupta I 9 Umpagupta 10 Huna invasions and the end of empire 11 Military organization 12 Gupta administration Middle Kingdoms Indo-Parthian Kingdom Western Satrap Empire Kushan Empire Indo-Sassanid Kingdom Vakataka Empire Kalabhras Kingdom Gupta Empire Kadamba Empire Western Ganga Kingdom Kamarupa Kingdom Vishnukundina Empire Huna Kingdom Rai Kingdom Chalukya Empire Harsha Empire Shahi Kingdom Eastern Chalukya Kingdom Gurjara Pratihara Empire Pala Empire Rashtrakuta Empire Paramara Kingdom Yadava Empire Solanki Kingdom Western Chalukya Empire 2 of 15 Monday 01 January 2007 12:11 AM .org/wiki/Gupta_Empire base that would influence nearby kingdoms and regions in Burma.Wikipedia.
Dasharatha Sharma.Wikipedia. she states that she belonged to the Dharana gotra and as it was not her husband's gotra.Gupta Empire .P. but this injunction was more often disregarded than followed. His argument was based on the Pune and Riddhapura copper plate grants of Prabahvatigupta. also accepted that the Guptas belonged to the Dharana gotra.Deccan Sultanates Vijayanagara Empire Mughal Empire Maratha Empire Durrani Empire Sikh Confederacy Sikh Empire Regional Kingdoms Cochin Kingdom Travancore Kingdom Ahom Kingdom Chitradurga Kingdom Garhwal Kingdom Mysore Kingdom Keladi Kingdom Thondaiman Kingdom Madurai Kingdom Thanjavur Kingdom Marava Kingdom Company rule in India British India Partition of India History of Sri • • • • • 1040–1346 1070–1230 1078–1434 1083–1323 1130–1184 CE CE CE CE CE CE CE CE CE CE CE CE CE CE Origin of the Guptas Main article: Origin of the Gupta dynasty A. which prescribe the name-ending with Gupta for a member of the Vaishya caste. regarded the caste of the Guptas as Vaishya on the basis of the ancient Indian texts on law. the free encyclopedia http://en. the Vakataka regent and the daughter of Chandragupta II. K.org/wiki/Gupta_Empire 13 Legacy of the Gupta Empire 14 Gupta dynasty rulers 15 See also 16 Notes 17 References 18 Further reading 19 External links Hoysala Empire Sena Empire Eastern Ganga Empire Kakatiya Kingdom Kalachuri Empire Islamic Rulers .Delhi Sultanate . A modern historian. He also believed that they were 1206–1707 1206–1526 1490–1596 1336–1646 1526–1803 1674–1818 1747–1823 1733–1805 1799–1849 1100–1800 CE 1102–1949 CE 1102–1949 CE 1228–1826 CE 1300–1779 CE 1358–1803 CE 1399–1947 CE 1499–1763 CE 1650–1948 CE 1559–1736 CE 1572–1918 CE 1600–1750 CE 1757–1858 CE 1858–1947 CE 1947 CE Lanka 543–505 BCE 505–377 BCE 377–1017 CE 200– CE 300–1310 CE 1220–1272 CE 1272–1293 CE Kingdoms of Sri Lanka Kingdom of Tambapanni Kingdom of Upatissa Nuwara Kingdom of Anuradhapura Kingdom of Ruhuna Polonnaruwa Kingdom Kingdom of Dambadeniya Kingdom of Yapahuwa 3 of 15 Monday 01 January 2007 12:11 AM .wikipedia. In these two inscriptions. Jayaswal suggested that the Guptas were Jats.C. it is the gotra of the Guptas. who added that the Jats of the Dharana gotra still exist in the present-day  Another modern Rajasthan historian. Altekar. Raychaudhuri. His view was endorsed by another modern historian.S. H.
Wikipedia. the earlier accepted reading of the Riddhapura copper plate inscription may be incorrect and the correct reading possibly indicates that the family of Prabhavatigupta's mother. the chief consort of  But the basis of Agnimitra this argument. Kushinagar. However. Ashvini Agarwal. who built a temple for Chinese pilgrims near Mi-li-kia-sikia-po-no (Mrigasikhavana) who lost their lives in epic battle. this temple was "about 40 yojanas to the east of Nalanda. following the  course of the Ganga". a historian. During his stay in India up to 411 CE. He started his journey from China in 399 CE and reached India in 405 CE. and Historian D.Gupta Empire . Kingdom of Kurunegala Kingdom of Gampola Kingdom of Raigama Kingdom of Kotte Kingdom of Sitawaka Kingdom of Kandy Portuguese Ceylon Dutch Ceylon British Ceylon 1293–1341 1341–1347 1347–1415 1412–1597 1521–1594 1461–1581 1505–1658 1656–1796 1815–1948 CE CE CE CE CE CE CE CE CE Nation histories Afghanistan • Bangladesh • Bhutan • India Maldives • Nepal • Pakistan Regional histories Assam • Bihar • Balochistan • Bengal Himachal Pradesh • Uttar Pradesh Pakistani Regions • Punjab • NWFP Orissa • Sindh • South India • Tibet Specialised histories Coinage • Dynasties • Economy Indology • Language • Literature • Maritime Military • Science and Technology • Timeline Fa Xian was the first of the Chinese pilgrims who visited India during the reign of Chandra Gupta II. Recently.org/wiki/Gupta_Empire possibly related to Queen Dharini. Fa Xian was pleased with the mildness of administration. recent caste. A number of 4 of 15 Monday 01 January 2007 12:11 AM . on the basis of the matrimonial alliances of the Guptas with the orthodox Brahman dynasties. Pataliputra. the free encyclopedia http://en. The Penal Code was mild and offences were punished by fines only. Kanauj. The Chinese traveler Yijing (see also Xuanzang) provides more knowledge of the Gupta kingdom in Magadha. Srigupta and Ghatotkacha The most likely time for the reign of Sri Gupta is c. Vaishali. Kuberanaga belonged to this Dharana gotra. He came to north India in 672 CE and heard of Maharaja Sri-Gupta. the Gupta Empire was a prosperous period. Regmi. assumed that they belong to the Brahman  .wikipedia. links Imperial Guptas with Abhira Guptas of Nepal. Kashi and Rajgriha and made careful observations about the empire's conditions. R. excavations in Nepal and Deccan has revealed that Gupta suffix was common among Abhira kings. According to Yijing. From his accounts. 240-280 CE. he went on a pilgrimage to Mathura. Kapilavastu.
In contrast to their successor. Samudragupta Main article: Samudragupta Samudragupta. founder of the Mauryan Empire. 280-319 CE.Wikipedia. and ruled for about 45 years. With a dowry of the kingdom of Magadha (capital Pataliputra) and an alliance with the Lichchhavis. He established a realm stretching from the Ganga River (Ganges River) to Prayaga (modern-day Allahabad) by 321 CE.org/wiki/Gupta_Empire modern historians. had a son named Chandra Gupta. successor Ghatotkacha ruled probably from c. Historian Vincent Smith described him as the "Indian  . Parakramanka succeeded his father in 335 CE. He was 5 of 15 Monday 01 January 2007 12:11 AM . He was a firm believer in Hinduism and is known to have worshipped Lord Vishnu. He took the kingdoms of Ahichchhatra and Padmavati early in his reign. the Yaudheyas. Vasubandhu and Asanga. He then attacked the Malwas. 280–319 CE). now in Akbar’s Fort at Allahabad. is an authentic record of his exploits and his sway over most of the continent. Prayaga and Saketa.Jayaswal  His son and think he and his son were possibly feudatories of the Kushans.wikipedia. conquering much of Magadha. which include Rakhaldas Bandyopadhyay and K. beginning of the 5th century the Guptas established and ruled a few small Hindu kingdoms in Magadha and around modern-day Bihar. he had incorporated over twenty kingdoms into his realm and his rule extended from the Himalayas to the river Narmada and from the Brahmaputra to the Yamuna. By his death in 380. The stone replica of the sacriﬁcial horse. (Not to be confused with Chandragupta Maurya (340-293 BCE). the free encyclopedia http://en. the Maduras and the Abhiras. He assumed the imperial title of Maharajadhiraja. Chandra Gupta I Main article: Chandragupta I Ghatotkacha (c. all of which were tribes in the area. till his death in 380 CE.) In a breakthrough deal. The Samudragupta Prashasti inscribed on the Ashokan Pillar. Chandra Gupta set about expanding his power. He was a poet and musician himself. He gave himself the titles King of Kings and World Monarch. a Lichchhavi princess—the main power in Magadha. is in the Lucknow Museum. he and his  At the son Ghatotkacha are referred to in inscriptions as Maharaja. The important scholars present in his court were Harishena. who is mentioned as Maharajadhiraja . the Arjunayanas. then prepared.Gupta Empire .P. He performed Ashwamedha yajna (horse sacriﬁce) to underline Napoleon" the importance of his conquest. Chandra Gupta was married to Kumaradevi. Samudragupta was not only a talented military leader but also a great patron of art and literature. Chandragupta I.
Wikipedia.wikipedia. was a weak ruler. The Harshacharita only mentions that Chandragupta II. His theory is based on a tradition that. who succeeded him. the historicity of Ramagupta is proved by his Durjanpur inscriptions on three Jaina images. married Dhruvadevi and ascended to the throne. But this theory is not supported by any contemporary epigraphic evidence. the Bodhi Tree. in the very city  It does not mention anything about Ramagupta. The Brahmi legends on  these coins are written in the early Gupta style.Gupta Empire . which include the extracts of the Devichandragupta. even the narrative known to the author of the Kavyamimamsa (c.org/wiki/Gupta_Empire considerate of other religions and allowed Sri Lanka's Buddhist king Sirimeghvanna to build a monastery at Bodh Gaya. of the enemy. That monastery was called by  He provided a gold railing around Xuanzang as the Mahabodhi Sangharama. a king named Ramagupta intervened between Samudragupta and Chandragupta II.900). The earliest version of this narrative is found in the Harshacharita of Bana. which include the Garuda. the free encyclopedia http://en.S. a historical drama of Vishakhadatta found in the Natyadarpana of Ramachandra  The version and Gunachandra and also in the Shringaraprakasha of Bhoja I. he agreed to surrender his wife Dhruvadevi or Dhurvasvamini to the Saka Chief (who. destroyed a Saka king. But. of this narrative given by Bana in his Harshacharita differs significantly from all the later versions. where he is mentioned as the Maharajadhiraja. Samudragupta's eldest son Ramagupta. Altekar believes is Rudrasena II). After this he killed his brother Rama Gupta. protested against this dishonour and went to the Saka camp disguised as the queen and assassinated the Saka Chief. who coveted the wife of another. Chandragupta II Main article: Chandragupta II 6 of 15 Monday 01 January 2007 12:11 AM . the narrative of the Devichandragupta is not supported by any contemporary epigraphical evidence. Garudadhvaja. The later versions are found in a number of texts. Ramagupta Main article: Ramagupta Although. disguised as a female. Succession of Samudragupta According to A. After suﬀering a humiliating defeat at the hands of the Sakas. A large number of his copper coins also have been found from the Eran-Vidisha region and classified in five distinct types. lion and border legend types. Rama Gupta’s younger brother Chandra Gupta II. Altekar.
subjugated the Parasikas (Persians).Wikipedia. Some excellent works of Hindu art such as the panels at the Dashavatara Temple in Deogarh serve to illustrate the magnificence of Gupta art. The court of Chandragupta was made even more illustrious by the fact that it was graced by the Navaratna (Nine Jewels). Much of advances was recorded by the Chinese scholar and traveller Faxian (Fa-hien) in his diary and published afterwards. estabilshed a second capital at Ujjain and was the high point of the empire. and crushing the Bengal (Vanga) chiefdoms.org/wiki/Gupta_Empire According to the Gupta records. and for this reason there is also a long history of non-Hindu Gupta period art. Chandra Gupta II also married to a Kadamba princess of Kuntala region and a princess of Naga lineage ( Nāgakulotpannnā). In particular. Vikramaditya (the Sun of Power). the reign is remembered for its very influential style of Hindu art. Thereafter. born of queen Dattadevi. Gupta period Buddhist art was to be influential in most of East and Southeast Asia. Amongst these men was the immortal Kalidasa whose works dwarfed the works of many other literary geniuses. Above all it was the synthesis of elements that gave Gupta art its distinctive flavour. literature. but with his main opponent Rudrasimha III defeated by 395. as his successor. Chandra Gupta II's campaigns against Foreign Tribes 4th century AD Sanskrit poet Kalidasa. the glorious king proceeds across 7 of 15 Monday 01 January 2007 12:11 AM . Gujarat and Saurashtra in a campaign lasting until 409. defeating the Saka Western Kshatrapas of Malwa. both in and outside India. not only in his own age but in the ages to come. the free encyclopedia http://en. Despite the creation of the empire through war. This extended his control from coastto-coast. After finishing his campaign in the East and West India. Emperor Chandra Gupta II expanded his realm westwards. the Guptas were supportive of thriving Buddhist and Jain cultures as well.Samudragupta nominated prince Chandra Gupta II. His son Kumaragupta I was married to Kadamba princess of karnatka region . culture and science. credits Chandragupta Vikramaditya with having conquered about twenty one kingdoms. Vikramaditya (Chandra Gupta II) proceeded northwards.Gupta Empire . His daughter Prabhavatigupta from this Naga queen was  married to Rudrasena II. then the Hunas and the Kambojas tribes located in the west and east Oxus valleys respectively. Kalidasa was particularly known for his fine exploitation of the shringara (erotic) element in his verse. especially during the reign of Chandra Gupta II.wikipedia. a group of nine who excelled in the literary arts. ruled from 380 until 413. During this period. Kuberanaga. the Vakataka ruler of Deccan. Chandra Gupta II. amongst his many sons.
and lands into India  . Mlecchas. rose in power to threaten the empire. The empire disintegrated under the attacks of Toramana and his successor Mihirakula. He repulsed a Huna attack c. known in India as the Huna. Kumaragupta  I assumed the title. Brahmi legend: Parama-bhagavata rajadhiraja Sri Kumaragupta Mahendraditya. etc. 455. Huna invasions and the end of empire Skandagupta was followed by weak rulers Purugupta (467-473). Kambojas. Hunas. The Hunas conquered several 8 of 15 Monday 01 January 2007 12:11 AM . Umpagupta Main article: Skandagupta Skandagupta. Vainyagupta and Bhanugupta.Gupta Empire . the free encyclopedia http://en.org/wiki/Gupta_Empire the Himalaya and reduced the Kinnaras. He defeated the Pushyamitra threat. son and successor of Kumaragupta I is generally considered to be the last of the great rulers. king Vikramaditya (Chandra Gupta II) had "unburdened the sacred earth of the Barbarians like the Sakas. Mahendraditya. design derived from the Western Satraps). born of Mahadevi Dhruvasvamini. Budhagupta (476-495?). Tusharas. Yavanas.wikipedia. He ruled until 455. the Pushyamitras.Wikipedia. Vishnugupta. He assumed the titles of Vikramaditya and Kramaditya.  Rev: Garuda standing facing with spread wings. In the 480's the Hephthalite King Oprah broke through the Gupta defenses in the northwest. Kumaragupta II (473-476). Obv: Bust of king with crescents. proper The Brihatkathamanjari of the Kashmiri writer Kshmendra states. Kumaragupta I Main article: Kumaragupta I Chandragupta II was succeeded by his second son Kumaragupta I. Skandagupta died  in 467 and was succeeded by his agnate brother Purugupta. from the northwest. Silver coin of the Gupta King Kumara Gupta I AD (414-455) (Coin of his Western territories. but then was faced with invading Hephthalites or "White Huns". Kiratas etc. Towards the end of his reign a tribe in the Narmada valley. But the expense of the wars drained the empire's resources and contributed to its decline. Kumaragupta III. Narasimhagupta. and much of the empire was overrun by the Huna by 500. Parasikas. by annihilating these sinful Mlecchas completely" .
the steel bow was capable of long range and penetration of exceptionally thick armor. The succession of the sixthcentury Guptas is not entirely clear. The Guptas seem to have relied heavily on infantry archers. bows of this design would be less prone to warping in the damp and moist conditions often prevalent to the region. and fire arrows were also part of the bowmen's arsenal. Historically. the best accounts of this comes not from the Hindus themselves but from Chinese and Western observers.org/wiki/Gupta_Empire provinces of the empire. and longswords. Able commanders like Samudragupta and Chandragupta II would have likely understood the need for combined armed tactics and proper logistical organization. It appears from inscriptions that the Guptas. and Hepthalite ( Huna) enemies. despite the fact these warriors were a main component in the ranks of their Scythian.Gupta Empire . Due to its high tensility. the Siva-Dhanur-veda. including Malwa. Archers were frequently protected by infantry equipped with shields. a contemporary Indian document. One of these was the steel bow. Gupta military success likely stemmed from the concerted use of elephants. the free encyclopedia http://en. the Gupta armies were probably better disciplined. armored cavalry. regarded as a military classic of the time. continued to resist the Hunas. and other sophisticated war machines. The Hindu version of the longbow was composed of metal. The Guptas also maintained a navy. Gujarat and Thanesar and broke away under the rule of local dynasties.Wikipedia. and fired a long bamboo cane arrow with a metal head. The Guptas apparently showed little predilection for using horse archers. and foot archers in tandem against both Hindu kingdoms and foreign armies invading from the Northwest. but the tail end recognized ruler of the dynasty's main line was king Vishnugupta. catapults. javelins. although their power was much diminished. Unlike the composite bows of Western and Central Asian foes. reigning from 540 to 550. and the bow was one of the dominant weapons of their army. Iron shafts were used against armored elephants and hippos. or more typically bamboo. allowing them to control regional waters. 9 of 15 Monday 01 January 2007 12:11 AM . offers some insight into the military system of the Guptas.wikipedia. These were less common weapons than the bamboo design and found in the hands of noblemen rather than in the ranks. Narasimhagupta formed an alliance with the independent kingdoms to drive the Huna from most of northern India by the 530's. Parthian. India historically has had a prominent reputation for its steel weapons. However. The Guptas also had knowledge of siegecraft. The Indian longbow was reputedly a powerful weapon capable of great range and penetration and provided an effective counter to invading horse archers. Military organization The Imperial Guptas could have achieved their successes through force of arms with an efficient martial system. However.
which translates as "four divisions [of the military]" – infantry. elephants. The flow of invasions from the Huns from central Asia aided in accelerating the demise of the glorious Gupta dynasty rule in India. who wrote plays such as Shakuntala. Prithvi and Avani. which comprised four representatives: Nagarasreshesthi. Legacy of the Gupta Empire Scholars of this period include Aryabhata. cavalry. A part of  the Vishaya was called Vithi. and studied solar and lunar eclipses. Doctors also invented several medical instruments. who was a great playwright. More likely. “ The Gupta Empire is considered by many scholars to be the "classical age" of Hindu and Buddhist art and literature. bishop. Prathamakulika and Prathama Kayastha. and supported the Universities of Nalanda and Vikramasila.Gupta Empire . and literature. although the effects of its fall was far less devastating than that of the Han or Roman at the same time. According to historian's work. and rook. who is believed to be the first to come up with the concept of zero.wikipedia. Kalidasa. called dinars. science. which after all had initially defeated these people under Skandagupta. Gupta administration A study of the epigraphical records of the Gupta empire shows that there was a hierarchy of administrative divisions from top to bottom. which were styled as Bhukti. internal dissolution sapped the ability of the Guptas to resist foreign invasion. and even performed 10 of 15 Monday 01 January 2007 12:11 AM . It was divided in to 26 provinces. respectively. Desha.represented by the pieces that would evolve into the modern pawn. A Vishayapati administered the Vishaya with the help of the Adhikarana (council of representatives).org/wiki/Gupta_Empire The collapse of the Gupta Empire in the face of the Huna onslaught was due not directly to the inherent defects of the Gupta army. Rashtra. as was simultaneously occurring in Western Europe and China. where its early form in the 6th century was known as caturaṅga. architecture. The Rulers of the Gupta Empire were strong supporters of developments in the arts. Mandala. postulated the theory that the Earth moves round the Sun. which is said to have inspired Goethe. knight.Wikipedia. Pradesha and Bhoga. Sarthavaha. Provinces were also divided into Vishayas and put under the control of the Vishayapatis. The Gupta Empire circulated a large number of gold coins. and marked the highest point of Sanskrit literature is also said to have belonged to this period. ” Chess is said to have originated in this period. and chariotry . the free encyclopedia http://en. The empire was called by various names such as Rajya.
The Indian numerals which were the ﬁrst positional base 10 numeral systems in the world originated from Gupta India.Gupta Empire . he explained eclipses in terms of shadows cast by and falling on Earth. Gupta dynasty rulers The main branch of the Gupta dynasty ruled the Gupta Empire in India. These and the other scientiﬁc discoveries made by Indians during this period about gravity and the planets of the solar system spread throughout the world through trade. The rulers are: Srigupta Ghatotkacha Chandragupta I Samudragupta Ramagupta Chandragupta II Kumaragupta I Skandagupta Purugupta Kumaragupta II Budhagupta Narasimhagupta Baladitya Kumaragupta III Vishnugupta Vainyagupta Bhanugupta Preceded by Kanva dynasty Magadha dynasties AD 240-550 Succeeded by possibly Pala dynasty See also Indian numerals Chess 11 of 15 Monday 01 January 2007 12:11 AM . a noted mathematician-astronomer of the Gupta period proposed that the earth is not ﬂat. Aryabhata. This dynasty was founded by Srigupta. Instead of the prevailing cosmogony in which eclipses were caused by pseudo-planetary nodes Rahu and Ketu. but is instead round and rotates about its own axis.org/wiki/Gupta_Empire operations. from around 320 to 550. The ancient Gupta text Kama Sutra is widely considered to be the standard work on human sexual behavior in Sanskrit literature written by the Indian scholar Vatsyayana.wikipedia. He also discovered that the Moon and planets shine by reﬂected sunlight.Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia http://en.
^ "Gupta Dynasty . the free encyclopedia http://en. 12 of 15 Monday 01 January 2007 12:11 AM .org/wiki/Gupta_Empire Middle kingdoms of India Timeline: 6th century BCE 5th century BCE 4th century BCE 3rd century BCE 2nd century BCE 1st century BCE 1st century CE 2nd century 3rd century 4th century 5th century 6th century 7th century 8th century 9th century 10th century 11th century Northern Empires Magadha Shishunaga dynasty Nanda empire Kalinga Maurya Empire Sunga Empire Southern Dynasties Northwestern Kingdoms Gandhara (Persian rule) (Greek conquests) Satavahana empire Pandyan Cholas Chera Indo-Greeks Kuninda Kingdom Kalabhras Kadamba Dynasty Pallava Chalukya Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthians Kushan Empire Western Satraps Indo-Sassanids Kidarite Kingdom Indo-Hephthalites (Islamic conquests) Shahi Gupta Empire Rashtrakuta Harsha Gurjara Pratihara Western Chalukyas Hoysala Empire (Islamic Empire) Pala Empire Solanki Sena dynasty Notes 1.Gupta Empire .MSN Encarta" (http://www.webcitation.org/5kwqOxl5F) .wikipedia.Wikipedia.
Vincent A. pp.co. 289.google.britannica.co. New Delhi: S.82-4 ^ Raychaudhuri.com/gupta_empire.84-7 ^ Smith.C. ^ http://www. V.D.com/library/text/bltxtindia7.HTM ^ http://www. Rise and Fall of the Imperial Guptas . Archived from the original (http://encarta. http://books.Gupta Empire . 20. ISBN 81-219-0887-6. pp. 12.74 (http://books. Political History of Ancient India. p. the free encyclopedia http://en.org/wiki/Gupta_Empire 2.in/books?id=hRjC5IaJ2zcC& pg=PA153&lpg=PA153&dq=Rise+and+Fall+of+the+Imperial+Guptas+Ramagupta& 13 of 15 Monday 01 January 2007 12:11 AM . 13. New Delhi: S. (1960) Ancient India. R. H. Rise and Fall of the Imperial Guptas (http://books. Volume 1 By D. Delhi:Motilal Banarsidass. Atlantic.491 ^ Agarwal. ISBN 81-7156-618-9.in/books?id=8XXGhAL1WKcC& pg=PA289&dq=Indian+Napoleon+Vincent+Smith&ei=QXrBS8_eMqeCkAS86ui0CQ& cd=2#v=onepage&q&f=false) .488ff ^ Agarwal. Chand. Delhi:Motilal Banarsidass. 3. 11. 9. Political History of Ancient India.indianchild. p. Rise and Fall of the Imperial Guptas . 15. Ashvini (1989). New Delhi: S.com/encyclopedia_761571624 /gupta_dynasty.pbs. (1960) Ancient India.htm ^ http://historymedren. (1999). p. (1960) Ancient India. to the Muhammadan Conquest (http://books.about. p. Page no.html ^ http://www. pp.org/5kwqOxl5F . V. 4.467ff ^ a b Mahajan. ISBN 81-219-0887-6. p. ^ Mahajan.nupam. ISBN 81-208-0592-5. V. 21.D.com/EBchecked/topic/249590/Gupta-dynasty ^ Mahajan.google.google. Chand.org/thestoryofindia/gallery/photos/8.com/h1/ch28gup.edu:8001/~dee/ANCINDIA/GUPTA. ISBN 81-219-0887-6.webcitation.google. Calcutta: University of Calcutta. Chand.html) on 2009-10-31. 153–9.wikipedia.google. pp. ISBN 81-219-0887-6. http://www.C. 7. pp.wsu. ISBN 81-208-0592-5.Wikipedia. 14. (1972).474 ^ Inscriptions of ancient Nepal.487 ^ Mahajan.in/books?id=hRjC5IaJ2zcC&pg=PA153&lpg=PA153& dq=Rise+and+Fall+of+the+Imperial+Guptas+Ramagupta&source=bl& ots=nauVEtfyt9&sig=0WVouDJzLUzgzCDI5UolbkgUVHc&hl=en& ei=jZRaS5HQNYrm7APHrpQC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1& ved=0CAkQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=&f=false) . 19.britannica.htm ^ http://www. 17. Calcutta: University of Calcutta. Ashvini (1989).in/books?id=8XXGhAL1WKcC&pg=PA289& dq=Indian+Napoleon+Vincent+Smith&ei=QXrBS8_eMqeCkAS86ui0CQ& cd=2#v=onepage&q&f=false . H.D.htm ^ http://www.com/books?id=OPEcHLvf33YC&pg=PA75&lpg=PA75& dq=d+r+regmi+gupta&source=bl&ots=gNNHJ6BmYA& sig=K0bA6Pr0Z9ycEMIrstp_uffVgcw&hl=en&ei=8LFxS-2aDY-TkAXfouX7CQ& sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CAkQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q=d%20r%20regmi%20gupta&f=false) ^ a b Raychaudhuri.html ^ a b Agarwal.htm ^ http://www. Regmi. 16.D. http://books. 6.historybits. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. 18.540 ^ http://www. Ashvini (1989). The Early History of India: From 600 B. (1960) Ancient India.488.fsmitha. Chand. New Delhi: S.C. V. 5. (1972).msn.com/gupta. 8. 10.com/Sgupta1. ISBN 81-208-0592-5.com/EBchecked/topic-art/285248/1960/The-Gupta-empireat-the-end-of-the-4th-century ^ http://www.co.co.
.C.C." in Rapson "A catalogue of Indian coins in the British Museum. Delhi:Motilal Banarsidass.J. pp.Wikipedia. V. 23. while on the reverse. source=bl&ots=nauVEtfyt9&sig=0WVouDJzLUzgzCDI5UolbkgUVHc&hl=en& ei=jZRaS5HQNYrm7APHrpQC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1& ved=0CAkQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=&f=false .1. ^ Bajpai. Rise and Fall of the Imperial Guptas . 1948. 26. H.D. the free encyclopedia http://en.Sanskrit language. ISBN 0-936317-01-9.". ISBN 8170170354..org/oclc/13472872) . H. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications.Gupta Empire .in /books?id=chGrJUMarHoC&pg=PA120&lpg=PA120& dq=Bajpai+Gupta+coins+from+excavations&source=bl&ots=XI2ehseBfr& sig=BSvk92SDuSGywyMPTL3DQ9EnXD0&hl=en&ei=Mp5aS965CZPi7AO4tZjMCg& sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CAkQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q=Bajpai%20Gupta%20coins%20from%20excavations&f=false) . 30. 14 of 15 Monday 01 January 2007 12:11 AM . (1913). Calcutta: University of Calcutta. K. (1972).. they retain some traces of the old inscriptions in Greek characters. (1972). Cf also: Vikrama Volume.191-200 ^ Raychaudhuri. C. ISBN 81-208-0592-5. p. A History of Chess . 29. Ashvini (1989). K. Political History of Ancient India. Louis Renou. H. A.76-78 ^ Cf: "In the story contained in Kathasarit-sagara. ISBN 81-219-0887-6. 1992. V. Calcutta: University of Calcutta. http://books. 120–1. Sri Ram. Parsikaanshcha tayakatacharan vishrankhalan hatya bhrubhangamatreyanah bhuvo bharamavarayate (Brahata Katha.510 ^ Raychaudhuri. Tokharas and the Persians "(See: Ref: Reappraising the Gupta History. Political History of Ancient India.R.wikipedia. B. B.google. 1946. 24. p 264..530-1 ^ Murray. 28. New Delhi: S.co. they substitute the Gupta type (a peacock) for the chaitya wit crescent and star. 10/1/285-86. p. Yavanan neechan Hunan Sabarbran Tushara. Chhabra.cli ^ Agarwal.org/wiki/Gupta_Empire 22. Chand. Arthur John Arberry. ^ "Evidence of the smexy conquest of Saurastra during the reign of Chandragupta II is to be see n in his rare silver coins which are more directly imitated from those of the Western Satraps.google. p 169. p. ^ Raychaudhuri.C. king Vikarmaditya is said to have destroyed all the barbarous tribes such as the Kambojas. pp. Indian Numismatic Studies (http://books.489 ^ Raghu Vamsa v 4. Leontovich. 31. pp.worldcat. Calcutta: University of Calcutta. National Council of Teachers of English Committee on Recreational Reading . The Andhras etc. (1972). p. (2004). H. 27. OCLC 13472872 (http://www. Hunas. ^ Kathasritsagara 18. Political History of Ancient India.D. 25.in /books?id=chGrJUMarHoC&pg=PA120&lpg=PA120& dq=Bajpai+Gupta+coins+from+excavations&source=bl&ots=XI2ehseBfr& sig=BSvk92SDuSGywyMPTL3DQ9EnXD0&hl=en&ei=Mp5aS965CZPi7AO4tZjMCg& sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CAkQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q=Bajpai%20Gupta%20coins%20from%20excavations&f=false .co. Vikramāditya Śakāri. Hindse. 32. p xxv. 33. (1960) Ancient India. cf: Anatomii͡a i ﬁziologii͡a selʹskokhozi͡a ĭstvennykh zhivotnykh.60-75 ^ ata shrivikramadityo helya nirjitakhilah Mlechchana Kamboja. Kshmendra). Yavanas. Benjamin Press (originally published by Oxford University Press).516 ^ Mahajan.
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