You are on page 1of 73

... . .

........................................................................................................................................1
.............................................................................................................3
: ...............................................................................................................3
.................................................................................................4
...............................................................................6
() ..................................................................................6
........................................................................6
.........................................................................................7
() .......................................................................................7
..................................................................8
......................................................................8
..............................................................................................................................8
.........................................................................8
.......................................................................................9
...................................................12
...................................................................................................................15
........................................................................15
.....................................................................17
...........................................................................................19
......................................................................................................19
.............................................................................................21
//1 .............................................................................................................................22
//N ............................................................................................................................25
M/M/1//K...........................................................................................................................26
M/G/1 ..............................................................................................................................28
....................................................................................................................30
( ) ...........................................................................................31
( ) ..............................................................32
(M/G/1) ( ) ..............................34
( ) ..................................................................35
M/G/1 ............................................................................39

. .
... . . 2

1. ...............................................39
2.
. ........................................................................................................41
3. () ....43
, ............................44
.....................................................................................................45
() ............................................................45
...................................................................................................................46
............................................................................................................46
.......................................................................................................47
.........................................................................................................................49
....................................................................................................................53
.......................................................................................................56
..................................................................................................................56
. ..................................................................................................................58
. .................................................................................................................59
. ...............................................................................................................61
..........................................................63
............................................................................................65
. ...........................................................................................................................65
. ...............................................................................................67
......................................................................................................................................73

. .
... . . 3

,
, ( )
.

, .

:
:


,
.



.

(.
, , ,
..)


:
.

. 1. .

- ,
- .
,
.
:
a) , .. , -
, ,
.
b) , .. ,
, ,
, .
. .
... . . 4


:
1.
,
(,
).

. , ,
.
2.
. ,
.
,
. :

.
3. ,
.

.
( ..).
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) .


:
1. , .
(, );
2. ,
:
B , (1)
; B (, ); ,
.

. .
... . . 5

,
.
3. , ,
.

X Y

y y < y
1

XM
YM

. 2. .
X (,
); Y ; XM, YM , ,
.
,
.

:

W. W
. 3. .

. .
... . . 6

()
, :
( )
, , .

. 4. .
,
.
n- .

1,
, , (),
:
1. .
, .. .
, ().
1.1. :
FIFO;
LIFO;
RAND;
,
q.
q 0, PS.
i
, ,
,
.
,
: . 5.
.
1.2.

. .
... . . 7

, ()
1.3. (). , ,

. ,
,
.
1.4. , ,
,
().
.
2. .
.
,
, .
,
.

i
b
b 1
w

()
,
,
.
.
() ().

. .
:
. .
, ..
,

. .
... . . 8

0
N
Bj(t) u
j- j 1, N w b
i
j j-

Pj j- i
U(uj)
W(wj)
lj j-
. 6.
j .

, 0. 0
.
0 .

1 2


. 7. .
i
.

0 t1 t2 tk tk+1
T
t

. 8. .

. = const,

. .
... . . 9

( ).

,
.
,
,
1.
1 2
,
, .
.
,
t
. .

. , ,
m ,

P , m

m

e , (2)
m!
.
, .
, ..
, :
Dm E m . (3)

1
, , ..
. 9 21
.

8 9 16 21 24 t,

. .
... . . 10

D 1
. (4)
E
F() ,
:
F P T .

P T 1 F ,

, ,
.

P , m 0 e ,

F 1 e (5)
,
f e (6)
(5) (6) ,
,
.


E 1

:
D 1 2

, ,
, , , .
, , ,
, ,
, ,
.
, .
:
1. n (

. .
... . . 11

)
:
n
0 i
i 1

2. (
P, )
i pi :

1
pi

1-pi

. 9. .
3. 3-

1 12

P 1 P d e d 1 1 e 0.63
0 o

.., , , ..
.
,

.
,
4. ( - )

, .
.

0 t
T-
. 10. .
. , 0.
,
t:
F t 1 e t

. .
... . . 12

, . , ,
, t, , t T ,
T t :
PT t T
F t PT t T .
PT
P T t T , , T

, t :
P T t F t F .

P T , 1 F .

F t F 1 e t 1 e
F t 1 e F t .
1 F 1 1 e
,
.
1:

D 1 2
1. (7)
E 1

, k- ( k - 1
) k- .
k=1
(
) t
k=2 t
k=3
t
k=4
t
. 11. .

k :
k
T i
i 1

.. ,
E 1 , , T kE k .

k-

. .
... . . 13

k
D k Di kD k 2 .
i 1

Dk k 2 1
. (8)
Ek k k

k-

t
k 1

f t e t . (9)

k 1 !

,
.
.

. :

. 12. .
, k
,
k:


k k k
1 2 k

. 13. .
, ,
. .. k
.

k k t
k 1

f t e k t . (10)
k 1 !
k = 1, .

, .

. .
... . . 14

1
P1

2
P2

Pk

k

. 14. .
Pi i- . n-
, . ,
, ,
. ,
:
k
f t Pi i e i t , (11)
i 1

k
P
i 1
i 1 , Pi 0 .

,

2
k P
k
Pi
D 2 2 i (12)
i 1 i
i 1 i

k
Pi
E (13)
i 1 i
,
k
Pi
2 2
i 1 i
2
1 (14)
k Pi

i 1 i
,
H 1,
s =1,
0 < E 1.
, , k , lim k 0 ,
k

T const.
. .
... . . 15

, t0
, ,
t t0 .
:
1. , ,
();
2. ,
. -
.
:
1. ,
Si Sj
:
2. :
p11 p12 p13 p1 n n
Sk Sl
pij , p
j 1
ij 1.
pn1 p nn . 15. .


r k: Pr(k).


k=0 k=1 k=2

S1 S1 S1
:
,
k Pj1

. Pr1
1. k = 0, 0- Pjr Prr
Sj Sr Sr
j- Pj(0) = 1,
Prn
Pjn
Pi(0) = 0, i j ;
2. k = 1, r-
Sn Sn Sn

. 16. .
j-:
P1 1 P j 1 ,, Pn 1 P jn

. .
... . . 16

3. k = 2, r-
, k = 1 n . ..,
. .. , , ,

:
P1 2 P1 1 P11 P2 1 P21 Pn 1 Pn1

n
Pr 2 P1 1 P1r P2 1 P2 r Pn 1 Pnr P j 1P jr
j 1

k r- :
n
Pr k P j k 1P jr , r 1, n (15)
j 1

. (, )
: S1 ; S2 (
(, )); S3 (
(,
)); S4 (,
).
:
0.3 0.4 0.1 0.2 0.3
0 0.2 0.5 0.3
Pij , , : 1
0 0 0.4 0.6
0 0 0 1
0.4 0.1 0.2

2 0.5 0.6
3 4
:
0.2 0.4
1) k = 0; P1 0 1 ; P2 0 P3 0 P4 0 0 0.3
2) k = 1; P1 1 0.3 ; P2 1 0.4 ; P3 1 0.1 ; . 17. " "
.
P4 1 0.2

3) k = 2; P1 2 P1 1 P11

P2 2 P1 1 P12 P2 1 P22

P3 2 P1 1 P13 P2 1 P23 P3 1 P33

P4 2 P1 1 P14 P2 1 P24 P3 1 P34 P4 1 P44


, ,

. .
... . . 17

Pi(t), i 1, n i- , Pij
i- j- . , ..
, , i- j-
Pij ( t ) Pij t
t: t 0 lim ij
t t 0 t
.
, Pij t ij t .

-
12 1 31
: 23
, S1
2 3
32
t, t t ,
. 18.
: .

1) , t S1 t
. P1 t 1 P12 t P1 t 1 t 12
2) t S3 t
S1. P3 t t 31 .
j- ,
:
P1 t t P1 t 1 t 12 P3 t t 31 .

P1 t t P1 t
12 P1 t P3 t 31
t
lim ,
t 0

dP1 t
12 P1 t 31 P3 t
dt

, 2 3 :

dP2 t (16)
12 P1 t 23 P2 t 32 P3 t
dt
dP3 t
23 P2 t 31 32 P3 t
dt
.

. .
... . . 18

:
1.
.
2. , ,
(.. ).
2.1.
, , ,
.
2.2. ,
/-/,
/+/.

a) ,
b) 1,
, j-
Pj(t) ( ) Pj(k) ( )
{Pj}, , ,
.
.
:
j- t :
lim P j t P j const 2.
t

-
.
:
12 P1 31 P3 0

12 P1 23 P2 32 P3 0 , P j 1 (17)
P P 0
23 2 31 32 3
j

ijPi i j.

1
.. ,
.
2
,
. Pj
(j-) .

. .
... . . 19


,
.

:
Pij, P11
Pj : 1 P31
P12
P1 P1 P11 P3 P31 P32

P2 P1 P21 P3 P32
2 P23 3
P3 P2 P23
P1 P2 P3 1
. 19.

Pj(k),
, k = 45 Pj(k) Pj,
, .


, :
1. . :
, .
2. ( ,
).
3. .
4. Pj.
5. : w , l
, u , n .


, k
. (i) (i+1)
,
i-1 i i+1
(i+1) (i+2)
j-1
:
,

. 20. .

. .
... . . 20

: i Pi i 1Pi 1 .
.
,
0 1 2

.
. 21. .

: S0 ; S1
; S2 ( ) ..
() .
. ,
1 , () .
.

.
.

. .
... . . 21


. .
:


1 (
a
w b
a); u
1
b . 22.
.
( b);
N .
:
t ( );
u b ;
l , P l i ,
i-
n
: A/B/C,
A ,
B ,
C .
C 1, N .
A B :
M ( ) = 1

Ek k- 1
k
D = 0.
, a b const.
G ( ) 0
Hk k- .
, M/G/1 ,
(), . , G/G/N
.

. .
... . . 22

//1

,
, 1.
, .
1. ,
.
2. :
S0 ,
S1 ,
S2 : , ,

Si i : , i-1 .
3. , .
.. , i .

, i .
:

0 1 2 i

. 23. M/M/1.
4. -
,
.

P0 P1 0 P0 P1 P1 P0
P P P 0 P P
P2 P0
2
0 1

1 2

2


Pi 1 Pi Pi 1 0 Pi Pi 1 P i P
i 0

. .. 1 , b .
b
.
T. T .
T b
Tb. T, lim b . ..
T T

. .
... . . 23

,
.
, ,
( ).
,
.
, () : 1 .

:
Pi i P0 , i=1, 2, (18)

P
i 0
i 1.

(18), :

P0 1 i 1
:


P0 1 i
1

(19)

1 () S 1 i ,
1
, .
1

S P0, : P0 1 , < 1.

(18), :
P0 1

P1 1
(20)

P i 1
i
5. (20), n
M/M/1.

n M i iPi i i 1 1 i i (21)
i 0 i 0 i 0


S 1 i i :
i 0

. .
... . . 24

S 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 2 2 3 3 3 4



2
3 4 2 3 4 3 4
,
,
,
2 3 2 3 4

1 1 1 1
-

1

1 1 2

S1 n, : n . (22)
1

, n l , , l
. :
2
ln . (23)
1 1

l
w , l w w . (24)

.
, :
l l n
uwb (25)

(25) ,
.
, :
1
t
wt 1 e
(26)
:
w

=1
t
. 24. .

.

. .
... . . 25

//N

, ,
, N.
, ,
1 .



N , i , i 1, n .

. 25. M/M/N.
, ,
, N>1 , i,
i i , i N,
:

i, 0 i N,
i
N , i N.


0 1 2
i
N-1 N N+1

2 3 i (i+1) (N-1) N N N

. 26. M/M/N.

N- , .. ,
.
.
- :
P0 P1 0
P P 2 P 0 P1 P0

P2 2 P1
0 1 2

P0 2 P2 3P3 0
P3 3 P2


Pi 1 i Pi i 1Pi 1 0, i 1, N
Pi i Pi 1 , i 1, N

Pi 1 N Pi NPi 1 0, iN
Pi N Pi 1 , iN

. .
... . . 26

i
P0 , i 1, N 1
i!
Pi , (27)

i
P, i N.
N ! N i N 0

P
i 0
i 1

:
1
N 1 i
i
P0 i N
(28)
i 0 i! i N N ! N
, .
, , S2:

1, .. N
N
N N
i N 2

i NN

N 1
S2 1
N !N i N
N! i N N N ! N
N N
N!
i N 1
N

S2 P0, :
1

N 1 i N
P0
(29)
i! N ! 1
i 0
N
, M/M/N , N
, .. i = N.

l i N Pi

i N i P
N 1
P0 2
N 2
P0 3
N 3
P0
N ! N i N
0
i N iN N !N N !N 2 N !N 3
N 2 3 N 1 (30)
P0 2 2 3 3 P0
N !N 1

2
N! N N N
N
, M/M/1 :

w l

M/M/1//K

, ,
,
: A/B/C/Q/K,
Q ,

. .
... . . 27

K .

, . ,
1) K .
2) ( ),
.

, a 1 .

i , k-i . ..
, , ,
(k-i).
:

k i , 0 ik
i
0, ik
i , i 1,2,3,

:
K (K-1) (K-2) (K-i-1) (K-i) 2
0 1 2
i
K-1 K

. 27. M/M/1//K.

k P0 P1 0

k P0 k 1 P1 P2 0
k!
Pi i P0 , 0 i k
k i 1Pi 1 k i Pi Pi 1 0 k i !
0, i k .

2Pk 2 Pk 1 Pk 0

Pk 1 Pk 0
k
P
i 0
i 1 ,

1
k k!
P0 i
i 0 k i !
, ..:

. .
... . . 28

k
n iPi
i 0

l = n - .

M/G/1
M/G/1.
,
. G ,
, ,
- .
(M/M/1, M//1,
M//1) , ,
M/G/1. G
.
:
M/M/1 M/M/N. ,
, M/E3/1 (3 3- ):
.
,
k- 3 3 3
, 3

k ( k = 3). 3 3

:
1 . 28.
b 0.58 M/E3/1.
k
: " , M/M/1 ,
?"
M/G/1.
,
, ,
-.
M/G/1:

. .
... . . 29

b 2
w , (31)
21

,
b(2) 1.


b: b 2 Db E 2 b 2 b 2 b b b 2 b 2 1 b2 .
2

(31), :
b 2 1 b2 b 1 b2 2 b2 1
w (31a)
21 21 2 1
, :
1 b2
n u w b 2 (32)
21
- .
1 b2
, , l n 2
21
: 1, :
2 2
n ; l ,
1 1 1
w

, .. M/M/1.

2
2 > 1

:
1

(G/M/1, G/G/1)
1
.
. 29.

.
.


1
i- x x
i
x i f x dx , f(x)

. , x 1 E x .

i- x x i x x f x dx .
1 i
,

x 2 D x .

. .
... . . 30

, ,
: ,
..
M/G/1 :
a) 1, ..., .
M
i ;
i 1

b) , i- , i-
. bi bi(2)
.
, i- i i bi .
M
, R i <1 (
i 1

).
1 R .
:
li i wi , ni i ui
M
w w wi Pi ,
i 1

i
Pi , i- .

M
1 M 1 M
, w i i
i 1
w
i 1
li . l
i 1
i l

, ,
l
w .

"- ".


.
,
:

. .
... . . 31

w
i 1
i i const , (33)

i i - ,
wi .
, .
:
1) ,
;
2) 1;
3) ,
.

( )


FIFO (First In First Out:
), LIFO (Last In First Out: ), RAND
(Random: ).
, FIFO
. , FIFO
: wFIFO wLIFO wRAND . FIFO.

, i,
bi, bi(2), :
M

b
i 1
i i
2

w , (34)
2 1 R
M
R i 1 (
i 1

).

bi( 2 ) , , bi2 1 i2 , i

.
: ui uj, i j,
ui w bi . .. ui

1
. ..
, .

. .
... . . 32

( )


1, 2, 3, . , ,
.. 1 .
.
, ,
(, 4).
(, 1, 2,
3), ,
.
, ,
, , .
, M i, i 1, M
,
bi, bi(2) .
k, k 1, M , :
M

b
i 1
i i
2

w k , (35)
21 R k 1 1 R k

k

R k i 1
i 1
k 1 i- , R0 = 0,
R k 1 i
i 1


1 R k , "" k ,
1 R k 1 , k- , ,
(.. ).

. k 1, M 1 ,


w w k 1 w k C
1

1 1 M

, C i bi2 1 i2
1 R k 1 R k 1 1 R k 1 1 R k 2 i 1

. .
... . . 33

w, .. C ,
:
1 1 1 R k 1 1 R k 1 R k 1 R k 1

1 R k 1 R k 1 1 R k 1 1 R k 1 R k 1 R k 1 1 R k 1 1 R k 1 R k 1 1 R k 1
, ,
w :
R k 1 R k 1 1 2 k 1 k k 1 1 2 k 1 k k 1

k k 1 0 , , wk wk 1 k 1, M 1. ,

k- (k+1)- .
.. .

. k = 1 (35) :
M

b
i 1
i i
2

w1 (35a)
21 1
, (31), (35) (35)
. ,
1 1 1 R 1 R M 1 1 R M k = M
, w1 w wM .
.. wM
wk


FIFO
w
. w1
R

0
. 1 M k
. 30.
.

. .
... . . 34

5
.

wk
k =5 k = 4 k 1,5 .
w k R
:
k =3 .. R, ,
, R1
k = 2
k = 1 w.

1 R
( ).
. 31.
. ,
, .

(M/G/1) ( )


. , ,
, ,
,
.
1
:

.. i


.
. . 32.
.

, i .

.
i, i-
bi bi(2),
,
k 1, M :

. .
... . . 35

b 1
k
2 2
i i i
R k 1 bk
w k i 1 , (36)
1 R k 1 21 R k 1 R k 1
j
R j i j , ..
i 1

.
,
.
(35) (36) ,
k-
M

R k 1 bk i k 1
b i i
2

w k w k w k
1 R k 1 21 R k 1 R k 1
,
:
1 M
w k 0 R k 1 bk 1 R k i bi2
2 i k 1 wk
k = 1, (36) :

1 b12
w
w1 w1 w1 .
21 1
1


k = ,

R M 1 bM i bi2 1 i2
1 Mk
w
i 1 wM wM wM .
1 R M 1 21 R M 1 R M 1
M
. 33.

k-
.
:

( )


, .
,
.
,
, .
.

. .
... . . 36

M .
wk
( FIFO),
1 ( 1, M 1 ) w*


FIFO
(. .).

,
, 1 M1 Mk
. 34.

w*. .

, 1 ,
M 1 1, M .

: 1, M 1 , M2

M 1 1, M 1 M 2 , M3
.
,

wk
,

.
FIFO

.


1 M1 M1+M2 Mk
. 35. .

w
.
wk , k 1, M 1 , .

,
.
: wk wk wk , wk "" ,

.
R M 1 bk M1
, w k , k M 1 1, M , R M 1 i (37)
1 RM 1 i 1

. .
... . . 37

w k
(35):
M

b i
2
j
w
i 1
, k M 1 1, M 1 M 2 , R j i
21 R k 1 1 R k
k
i j

.
.. , M1+M2
M 1 M 2
R M 1 M 2
i 1
i .

M
R i . ,
i 1

M
2
b
i 1
i i
w k w k ,

2 1 R M 1 M 2 1 R
(38)

M/G/1
:
k

R b i bi2
k 1 k i 1
, k 1,M 1
1 R k 1 2 1 R k 1 1 R k
M

R M 1 bk
i 1
i bi2
wk , k M 1 1,M 1 M 2 (39)
1 R M 1
2 1 R k 1 1 R k
M

R
M1 k b i 1
i bi2
1 R 2 1 R , k M 1 M 2 1,M
M 1 M 2 1 R
M1




:
1. "" :
M2 = M3 = 0
M1 = M3 = 0
M1 = M2 = 0
2. :
+ M3 = 0
+ M2 = 0

. .
... . . 38

+ M1 = 0
.
,
,
.
:
Q = [qij]. M. qij i-
j-, : 0 , 1
i- j-, 2 i-
(.. j- ).
, qij = 0, , i j
FIFO. , j
i- , , i
j. , qij 0, ,
, 0. ,
, .. qij = 0.
: 1 0 2 2 2 2 2
2 0 0 2 2 2 2
, 1. , Q 3 0 0 0 1 1 1

4 0 0 0 0 1 1

5 0 0 0 0 0 0
.
6 0 0 0 0 0 0
.
, 4 , .. M = 4. Q 0 0 0 0
2 0 0 0
:
Q
.. 2 2 0 0

( ). k 2 2 2 0

:
bk
iM k 1
i b
iM k 2
i i
2

wk , k M , (40)
1
iM k 1
i
2 1 i 1 i


iM k 3 iM k 4
;
k1 ,

1
, ..

. .
... . . 39

k- ;
k2 , k-
;
k3 ,
k;
k4 , k-
.
k1 k3, k2 k4 .
,
.

M/G/1
() 1.
, , .
3 :
1. (
, : ,
, , , ..);
2. ;
3. .
,
.
.
,
, ..
. ,
T Pi u i* , Ti i- ,

u i* i- .
,
:

1.

1
, , : ,
, . , .

. .
... . . 40

i i 1, M ;

i
i (i 2 ) .

, , ,
, .
:
M
F i i wi , (41)
i 1

i , i-
. , F.
, .. wi, :
.
,
.
, R < 1. ..
, .
:
M M
R i i bi
i 1 i 1

i
bi : bi , B
B
( ). :
M
B i i . (42)
i 1

.. , ,
.
, .. i.
, , i = = const,
(41) :
M
F i wi L ,
i 1

L ,
.
F .
. .
... . . 41

, , , F
: F F . :
M

b i i
2
M
F i 1

2 1 R
i 1
i i

1 M M i i
F i bi2
2 i 1 i 1 1 R i 1 1 R i

, :
M M
i i
i i 1 R
i 1 i 1 1 Ri 1 1 Ri
:
i i 1 R i
R R i 0 , M 1 0
M

b
i 1 i bi 1 1 Ri bM 1

i i 1
,
bi bi 1
. ..
i i 1
, i 1, M 1 . (43)
bi bi 1
,
.
i = = const, bi < bi+1, ,

.

, .. bi 1 .

,
bi( 2 ) .

2.
.

,
- , . ..
: wi wi* u i u i* , wi* u i*

. .
... . . 42

() .
.

B min
k y , Bmin
B
, . .., Bmin
, ,
. B , .
, , B Bmin .
, (33):
M

w
i 1
i i const , , , Rw

wi wi* :
M

w
i 1
i
*
i Rw

,
M
w w MIN wi* .
i 1

b 1
M
2 2
i i i
i 1
w
21 R

i M
1 M
bi , R i bi i i . , :
B i 1 B i 1

1
M
2 2
i i i M
i 1
MIN w i* . (44)
M

2 B B i i
i 1

i 1
B,
Bmin. B ,
:

w
M

i i w 0 .
i 1

. .
... . . 43

, B = Bmin wB2
wi
,
. ,
wB2
B - Bmin,

. ,
wB1
B1
, B2 < B1
k

. 36.
w i wi* .

, , .
1
, wi wi* 2.

, ,
. , ,
.

3. ()

, ,
, .
M
:


M
F ii P wi wi* , (45)
i 1

i i.
i- ,
.
, P wi wi*
(

P u i u i* ). (

10-5).

1
, , .
2
: " B2?". -,
, . -,
,
, k.
. .
... . . 44

, ..
. , ,
.
.
,
:
t
R
P wi t 1 R e wi
, (46)
wi i- ,
R .
, R, ,
R > 0.6 P(wi t) , c
.
wi*


R
, P wi w 1 P wi w R e
*
i
*
i
wi

, wi , , ,
, , .

, ,
i :
P i i 1 ,

b . b (1): .
B
,
, .. P i l , l :
V
l , V ,
V1
V1 .
:
V
1

V
P i l i 1 l 1
1
(47)
i l 1 B
,
. , V
.

. .
... . . 45

.
.
.

()
: .
. , 0
,
.
:
1. : .
2. : .
3. : .
4. :
- ( );
- ;
, ;
- ,
.
-, ..
, n ,
i ( i 1, n ).
,
:
1) , n
, , ,
,
.
Sj S j m 1 , m 2 ,, m n , i-

j
i- 0,1,2... .
mi

:
. .
... . . 46

2)
, :
n
P (S j ) P (m 1 , m 2 , , m n ) P1 m 1 P2 m 2 Pn m n Pi m i , m i 0, (48)
i 1

, ,
.
, Pi mi M/M/1 M/M/N.

: P(mi ) im1 (1 i ) , i i bi , .
, :
1) ;
2) ;
3)
.

1) n
2) 0
3) Ni
4) bi i- .
5) P = [Pij] , n + 1 0- . Pij
, , i- , j- :
p00 . . . p0 n



n
P Pij pi 0

. . . pin ,

P
j 1
ij 1 , i 1, n

p n 0 . . . pnn

.. .
, ..
R j N j Nj- .

:
1. i- i.

. .
... . . 47

2. i- : i
i .
0
i- 1.
3. i i bi i 1 i i- . , .2

i i 0 bi .
4. li
mi li i .

5. wi i- ui wi bi .

:
n
1. L li .
i 1

n
2. M mi .
i 1

3. , i- i
n
W i wi .
i 1

n
4. U i ui .
i 1

1. i i- .
. ,
i-
. .. i-
. ,
i- (..
n
): i ji .
j 0

j- i- Pji,
n
Pjij. i P ji j .
j 0

, , (n+1)-

. .
... . . 48

:
0 P00 0 P10 1 Pn0 n
P P P
1 01 0 11 1 n1 n
(49)

n P0 n 0 P1n 1 Pnn n

2. , i i 0 .

i, 0 = 11.
0, i.
( )
, :

Nj- ( Nj = 1, 2, )
i 1.
Nj

j bj
j, 1.
Nj

j 0 b j
j j 0 , , 1.
Nj

Nj
, 0 , j 1, n .
jbj
n Nj
, , 0 MIN .
j 1 j bj
3. .
,
4.
.
0 1 P10
1 :

2 P12 0 1 0 0
2 p10 0 p12 p13
Pij ,
0 1 0 0
3 P13 0 1 0 0
3
:
. 37.
.

1
.

. .
... . . 49

1 1
1 0 ,1
0 1 p10 p 10 p10


1 p p12
. , 2 12 0 , 2
0 21 3

2 1 p12 p10 p10
p p p13
3 1 13
3 13 0 , 3
p10 p10


.

(, , .).
bi .
.

.
,
.


, ,
P12 . ,
2
0 1 , ,
1
P13
3
M .

. 38. . ,
1)
.
2) .
, ,
. , ..
, .
j- Sj = (m1, m2, , mn)
m i 0 ,M , mi:
n

m
i 1
i M . (50)

.. , A(M,n)

. .
... . . 50

(50), ,
M n :

AM , n C MM n1
M n 1 !
M ! n 1 !
, ,
.
, ..
.
n

P m i i
P( S j ) i 1
, (51)
G
n
G P m .
A( M ,n ) i 1
i i


,
.
, , ,
n
.. P0,,0 1 i , P 0, ,0 0 .
i 1

i- Pi m i X i m i imi P0 i ,

1, N i 1 .. M/M/ 1

1 ,
m i N i
X i m i m i ! (52)
N i 1 .. M/M/N
1
, m i N i
m N
N i !N i i i

Poi , i- :
1 i , Ni 1
1

P0 i N i 1 im i iN i (53)
,N i 1
m 0 m !
N i ! 1

N i
i i i

i i- , ibi. i = i0, , i = 0ibi.


n n
, 0 , MAX i 1
i . ,
i 0
mi
0 M0 .

P0i A(M,n)
:
. .
... . . 51

n n
M0 Po1 P0 n X i ( m i ) i bi X m b
mi mi
i i i i
i 1 i 1
P (S j ) n
n
(54)
X ( m i ) i bi X m b
mi mi
Po1 P0 n
M
0 i i i i i
A M , n i 1 A M , n i 1

i, 0.
, , ,
.
.
=3, P12 2
2
1) A(M , n) C 3
C 10
3 0 1
331 5 1 b2
P13 3
2) 1 0 1 1 b1 3
M b3
2 P121 P12 0 2 P12
. 39. .
2 P13 0 3 P13
3) ,
(.. M/M/1)

j 1 2 3 P * S j PS j P * S j G

1 0 0 3 3 b3 3 P(1)

2 0 1 2 2 b2 3 b3 2 P(2)

3 0 2 1 2 b2 2 3 b3 P(3)

4 0 3 0 2 b2 3 P(4)

5 1 1 1 1 b1 2 b2 3 b3 P(5)

6 1 2 0 1 b1 2 b2 2 P(6)

7 1 0 2 1 b1 3 b3 2 P(7)

8 2 0 1 1 b1 2 3 b3 P(8)

9 2 1 0 1 b1 2 2 b2 P(9)

10 3 0 0 1 b1 3 P(10)
10 4
, 1 P ( i ) 1 P ( i ) ( 1- ).
i 5 i 1

2, 3.

. .
... . . 52

1
1 = 1b1, 1 0 . 2 3.
b1
:
4- 0, ;
5-, 6- 7- ,
, .. 0;
7
0 P ( i ) ;
i 1

9
, 1 P ( i ) ;
i 8

, 2 P 10 .
7 9
, l1 0 P ( i ) 1 P ( i ) 2 P 10 .
i 1 i 8

, ,
:
1. 1 ,
: i 1 P m i 0 . ,

A(M,n) mi = 0: i 1 P S .
A M , n
j

m i 0

( ),
Ni- (M/M/N):
N i 1 M
i kP m i k N i
k 1
P m
k N i
i k ,

k i- ,
P m i k , i- k , P S ,
A M , n
j

m i k

k < Ni, k Ni.


M
2. (. ) li k N Pm
k N i 1
i i k

M
3. i- m i kP m i k
k 1

li
4. i- wi
i ,

. .
... . . 53

mi
ui .
i
:
n n

i li M
i 1 i 1

.
U, ..
i- :
n n
i mi 1 n
M
U i ui m (55)
0 i 0
i
i 1 i 1 i 1 0
.
, , -,
, -, n > 3 1.
,
. .

: Ni = 1, :
1) Xi(mi) = 1;
2) ibi = di.
:
n G M n

dimi ,
d i
mi

P(S j ) P(m1, ,mn ) i 1


i 1
(56)
n
GM
d
A M,n i 1
i
mi

G(1), , G(M)
g(r,j) 2. , gM , n G M .
j
, gr, j d i
mi
, r 0, M , j 1, n . :

A r , j i 1

1
, , ,
1 , 4 / 16
. .. n = 21, /, , 16 (). ,

AM,n C 16
16
21 1 C 36 7 10 . , , = 10 ,
16 9 5

20 .
2
, r j .

. .
... . . 54


j j j 1 j
g r,j d i
mi
d i
mi
d imi d j d i
mi
,
A r,j i 1 A r,j i 1
A r , j 1 i 1
A r 1, j i 1
m j 0 m j 0


d
A r,j i 1
i
mi
A, mj = 0,
m j 0


d
A r,j i 1
i
mi
A, mj > 0.
m j 0

, ,
gr, j gr, j 1 d j gr 1, j . (57)


.
: r = 0 g 0 , j 1 ; j = 0

g r ,0 0 ; j = 1 gr,1 d 1r .
(57) :

(j)
(r)
1 j n
0 1 1 1
g1, n
g(1,1) = d1 g1, j g1, j 1 d j
g1, n 1 d n
1

gr, j g r , n
gr,1 d 1r
gr, j 1 d j gr 1, j g r , n 1 d n g r 1, n
r

....

gM , j g M , n
gM ,1 d 1M
gM , j 1 d j gM 1, j gM , n 1 d n gM 1, n
M

:
1. 1.
2. gr,1 d 1r .
3. , g(r,j-1),
, g(r-1,j), ,
dj. g(M,n),
. .
... . . 55

G(M).
. Pi m i k , i- k
.

n

dj k
mj n
d i d mj j
AmM,kn j 1
i A M k , n j 1 G M k
Pi (m i k ) d ik . (58)
G M G M G M
, i- k ,
:


d ik G M k d ik 1 G M k 1
Pi (mi k) Pi (mi k) Pi (mi k 1 ) .
G M
G M k d i G M k 1
, Pi m i k d ik . (59)
G M
G M 1
, k 1 i- i d i
G M
G M 1
i i .
G M
, , ,
, . ..

, 0,
.
.
:
()

[/ ] [ ]

[/ ] 1 [ ]

[ /] []
,
,

1
, .

. .
... . . 56

. , ,

.

, ,

2 ( ).
1
1
1
/ (,
a N ..)
M b

. 40.
.
;
a ;
b ;
M ;
N .
, M = N. ,
,
P(m1,m2) A(M,2), m1 + m2 = M,
M ! m1
P m 1 , m 2 P 0 , M , (60)
M m 1 !
1
M M ! m1
a , P 0 , M
m1 0 M m 1 !
b

, ,
: 1 1 P 0 , M . m1
M
1 P 0 , M
: m P m
m 1 0
1 1 , m2 M

. ,

1 P(0, M )
"" , , m2 .

,

. .
... . . 57

m 2 1 P 0 , M
: 2 .
M M
U1
,
, :
b Ma a
i . : U 1 .
b U 1 1 P 0 , M
1
, 1

( ,
, ): N
a

. 41.
.
.

.


.
, 1 1 1

( ).
. 42. " ".

, N- .
.

,
( - -
1 2
), ,
1 2
. ,
.
: -
N

N
. 43.
.

. .
... . . 58

P1
2.1
b1
1
a PN
2.N
bN

. 44. .
a ;
bi .
,
.
, .

.

.
(, host- ). ,
() (
) :
P1
3.1
c11
P1
2.1
PN
b1 3.N
c1N
1

P1
a K.1
PN cK1
2.N
bN PN
K.N
cKN

. 45. .
.
.
,
.

. .
... . . 59

P 1-P
:
1

S
, ..
S,
N
. 46.
. S .
, ,
, . S
, , .
..
, ,
,
.
.
,
.
() .
.
, .. .
,
,
.

.
,
, , ,
.
1. ,
j.

. .
... . . 60

1
b1 2
2 1
1 1 3

d1 N d3
N 0 d2
b2
3
b3
. 47. .
, j- bj,
j,
0, dj = jbj.
,
.
, dj
.
n
j- , d j MIN d i
i 1

dj n
di
( MIN Nj- ). ,
Nj i 1 Ni

, , ,
.
.
2. - "" . , .
, .
.. , ,
. " " ,
, .
M, , j 1 ( Nj),
Nj
, , bj
.

, ,

. .
... . . 61

.
:
n

MAX j
j 1
1 1, i 1, N , i j . (61)
jj

, >20 "": '>>'


'>'.

3-
(),
.
.
. Q ,
.
, :
i
,
i- i, , bi
0.
:
1. Q.
2. .
3. (t),

t 1, M .
4. Q ,
(t).
.
( ) ,
.

1
'>>' (" ") " , ".

. .
... . . 62

Q P1
. 2.1
b1

1
.
a PN
2.N
bN
. M
:
A C MM n 1 C MM 1 M 1
1 2

= 1/a (i)
M/M/1//K, M

(i) = ((1), , (M))
P i 1 P i ,
. 48.
.
.
(M) (M-1) (M-i+1) (M-i) (1)
1 2
i
M

. 49. .

. (i) i . ,

:
P1 M P0
P1 M P0
P2 M 1 P1

Pi 1 M M i P0
Pi 1 M i Pi

PM M 1P0
PM 1 PM 1

P 1 P0:
i 0
i

1
M M
P0 1 M M M 1 M 1 P0 1 j
1
(62)
i 1 j i
: 1 1 P0 .
, , Q.

. .
... . . 63

N-
1
, b, M N

N b , , ,
,
. 50.

i MIN N , i , i 1, M . ..
. b

i = 1, 1 1 ; i = 2, 1 2 ..
b b
Q, P1
2.1
, : b1

, .. i const, ,
PN
, Pibi . 2.N
bN
, (i)
.
. 51. "" .
A(i,N) A1 ,
j 1 . ,
A1 Ai , N Ai , N 1 C ii N 1 C ii N 2 C iiN1 2 .

j j , j ,
:
A`1, j Cii1N 2 i
j (63)
A i, N Ci N 1 i N 1
i

, ,
N
j N j .
j 1

, , :
N
Ni
j j b j . b
j 1
j j
i N 1
.

N
Ni
j P j i . , ((i) ): i P j b j .
j 1 i N 1
N
Ni 1
: i , b P j b j ( ).
i N 1 b j 1


1.
.

. .
... . . 64

2. . ,
(FIFO).
3. ()
.
,
.
.
.
, G/G/1 :
2 b2 2 2 b2 2
w a , (64)
2 1 2 1
a b
.
, - -
, 4%.
,
,
, ,
.
, ,
, ,
.
"" .

. .
... . . 65

,
.

.

, .
CPM PERT
- .
, .
, , ,
. 1972 .

,
.
,
, .
, ,
, , .
, .

.

.
.
. . 52.
f aij , aij A :
.

1, TT Txi tij
f aij (65)
0, TT Txi tij ,

T , , T0 = 0 (
); Txi xi - ; t ij d ij t , dij

, t (, ..).
A aij 2 : , xi- ,

. .
... . . 66

n n
mi , , mi . m
i 1

i mi A , n .
i 1

, ,
, . F(xj)
, :
n
F x j F j f aij (66)
i 1
F(xj)
dxj xj:
F x j F F x j , d xj (67)


(dxj = 0).

F x j F x j F x j

, ,
.

, , .

(, , - ..), .
,

F x f aij ,
n
(68)
i 1

F x f aij ,
n
(69)
i 1

n , xj.
, ,
.

, -,
, ,
-, , .
,
, .
. .
... . . 67

, F(xj)
f aij , . ,

dij,
aij tij.
f aij :

0 , Tx 0 TT Txi

f aij TT Txi tij , Txi TT Txi tij (70)

1 , Txi tij TT TM
Tx0 (
); T ; Txi
aij; t ij d ij t dij aij t;

T ( ).
,
() ( ),
TT Txi tij TT Txi dij t aij,

.
.
,
(65):
f(aij) 0 1 T T T xi t ij ;

T = Txj.
T = Txj , xj
. ,
. , aij f aij

T 0 T T T xj .

.
,
F(x0) 1.
, m0 (

m j ),

. .
... . . 68

. ,
, .
, :
n
T Ti (71)
i 1

Ti , i- .
, .

(70):
f aij TT Txi dij t

, 0 1,
" " " ".
TK ,

f aij T0 TT TM ]0;1[:


TK aij 0 f aij 1 , F xi 1 T TK ,

T .
aij: t ij d ij t .

aij TK ,

- 1.
(
-)
(
):
1) 0 ( "");
2) 1 ("" );
3) "" ,
.

f aij . , ,

,
f(aij) TT Txi t ij 1,

TK .

. .
... . . 69

.
TT T0


m0 , T0 m0 , q
q

, T0 m p .

p 1

, , TT T0 t ij

T1 T0 a0 j . ,

d0j a0j ,
M n
T0 : d oj MIN d0 i ,
i 1
a
i 1
0i T0 .

,
, a0 j T0 ,

T1 , , :


f TK a0 i TT T0 t0 j d0TiK t (72)

d0TiK d0 i d0 j , ,

T1 0. T0 t 0 j

f a0 j .


, T1 , a0j ,

d 0T1j MIN d 0Ti1 , .


a0 j TK

, ,
F x j 1 . , :

1) , TK 1 ,

, 1, 'TK :

n n
'TK TK 1 aij , aij TK 1 f(aij) = 1, TT Txi t ij
i 1 j 1
2) xj, F(xj) 1:

X TK X X TK x j F x j 1, T TK

. .
... . . 70

3) TK , "" :

n
TK 'TK m j ,
j 1
m j , xj, F(xj) = 1 T = T.

(3) m j

, .

(72),
:
1) aij, TK ,

d min
TK
MIN d ij .
aijTK

2) dij aij TK

d ijTK :


DTK d ijTK aij TK

d ij d min, ij TK 1
TK 1 TK

d TK

d ij , , ij TK 1 ij TK
ij

TK , 1,

, 0. ,

d ijTK DTK aij,

TK . DTK

:
1) (), .. t = t,
aij TK ;

2) (1), ,
t t k M , kM ;

3) d min
TK
DTK ,

, T d min
TK
t ;

4) (3), T.

. .
... . . 71


r
TM d min
TK
t (73)
k 0

r .
r LG t ,

LG G.

TM LG t k M .


r
TM TTK TDTK ,
k 0

TTK TDTK , TK DTK

, .
r 1
, LG d min
TK
. ,
k 0

TM t LG .


LG TM t

:
LG TM t k 2 ,

LG TM t .

""
( ),
.. .
, (2) (4) -
, .., (1) (3)
.

:
, ;
""

F x 1 ,
q

j
j 1

F(xj) j- q . ,
. .
... . . 72

. ,
.
,
, ..
F x j 1 , xj .


:
(68),
, ;
(69),
, .

, ""
- ().
(
) ,
:
- () , ,
(), (), :
();
aij TK ,

"" (), , .
,
, . ,

.

. .
... . . 73

1. ./ . ...- .: , 1978.
2. . . - .: , 1990.
3. . . .3. .: , 1973.
4. . . - .: , 1979.
5. . . - .: , 1979.
6. .. GPSS. - .: , 1980.
7. . . - .: , 1981.
8. .., .. . - .: ,
1988.

. .