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# Physics Sheet Solutions 2nd Dispatch

CLASS : XI

Contents
Preface Page No.

## 1. Newton's Laws of Motion

Exercise 001 - 025

2. Friction
Exercise 026 - 043

3. Gravitation
Exercise 044 - 058

## 4. Work, Power & Energy

Exercise 059 - 078

5. Circular Motion
Exercise 079 - 95

6. Centre of Mass
Exercise 96 - 113

## 7. Rigid Body Dynamics

Exercise 114 - 156

## 8. Unit and Dimensions

Exercise 157 - 161
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TOPIC : NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION

EXERCISE-1
PART - I
SECTION (A)
A-1. Gravitational, Electromagnetic, Nuclear.
A-4. Newton's IIIrd Law

A-6. Vertical wall does not exert force on sphere (N' = 0).

A-8.

## action reaction pairs (1) and (2)

(3) and (4)
(5) and (6)
(7) and (8)
SECTION (B)
B-1. N = F + mg [equilibrium]
N = mg + mg
N = 2mg
B-3.

N mg cos = 0
N = mg cos

## RESONANCE SOLN_NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION - 1

B-5.

Due to symmetry normal reactions due to left and right wall are same in magnitude
W N cos 60 N cos 60 = 0 [Equilibrium in vertical direction]
N N
W =0 N=W
2 2
N2
B-7. N1 cos300 = 50 +
2

3 N
N1 2 = 50 ................ (1)
2 2

N2
N1 sin300 =
2

N1 = 2 N2 ..............................(2)
Solving equation (1) & (2)
N1 = 136.57 N
N2 = 96.58 N
SECTION (C)
C-1. Since string 2 is massless net force on it must be zero.
T2 = F = 10 N
T1 + mg = T2 [Equilibrium of block]
T1 + 1 10 = 10
T1 = 0

C-3.

## RESONANCE SOLN_NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION - 2

TC 10 = 0 [Equilibrium of block]
TC = 10 N
TB TC 5 = 0 [Equilibrium of 2]
TB 10 5 = 0
TB = 15 N
TA TB 5 = 0 [Equilibrium of 1]
TA = 20 N

## C-5. For finding distance travelled we need to know

the acceleration and initial velocity of block.
m 2g T = m 2a [Newtons second law for m2]
T m 1g = m 1a [Newtons second law for m1]
m2g m1g = (m2 + m1)a [adding both the equation]
(m2 m1)g
a= m2 m1

63
a= g
63
g 10
a= = m/s2
3 3
1 1 10
s=ut+ at2 =02+ 22
2 2 3
20
S= m
3
T m1g = m, a
g 40
T = m1 g 3 =3 T = 40 N
3
Force exerted by clamp on pulley is 2T
2 40 = 80 N
C-7. VA = VP2 = 10m/s
For pulley P P P1 VP
VP
V1 V2 VB VC
VP = VP2 = Vp2 = 10m/s .
2 2 P2
VB 2
10 = VB = 22 m/s V1 1 2 V2 V A. A
2 C 2m/s = VC
VA VP2
and VP1 VB. B
2
VA 10
0= VA = 10 m/s
2
SECTION (D)

## rate of decreases of length of left string

= rate of increase of length of right string
V1 cos 2
V1 cos 1 = V2 cos 2 V2 = cos 1

## RESONANCE SOLN_NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION - 3

D-3. Since rod is rigid, its length cant increase.
velocity of approach of A and B point of rod is zero.
u sin v cos = 0 v = u tan
at any angle x and y coordinates of center of mass are

X cos ...............(i)
2

Y sin ...............(ii)
2
from (i) and (ii)
2
X2 Y 2
4
equation of circle.

10 20
D-5. V1 =
2
[constrained relation of P1 ]
V1 = 5 m/s
5 V2
10 =
2
V2 = 25 m/s
VC = V2 = 25 m/s upwards
VP1 = V1 = 5 m/s VP = 5 m/s downward
[because we have assumed upward direction as +ve for V1]

SECTION (E)
E-1. Since point A is massless net force on it must be
zero other wise it will have acceleration.
F1 60 cos 45 = 0
F1 = 30 2 N
F2 60 cos 45 = 0
F2 = 30 2 N
W 60 sin 45 = 0
W = 30 2 N

E-3. F = ma

d2 x d2 y
a = ax i + a y j =
dt 2 i + dt 2 i = (10) i + (18 t) j

at t = 2 sec t = 2 sec

a = 10 i + 36 j

F = 3 (10 i 36 j )
= 30 i 108 j

F =
302 108 2 = 112.08 N

## RESONANCE SOLN_NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION - 4

E-5. R4 mg = ma

R4 1 = 0.1 2

R4 = 1.2 N

R3 mg R4 = ma

R3 1 1.2 = 0.1 2

R3 = 2.4 N

Similarly
R2 = 3.6 N
R1 = 4.8 N
F =6N
Fnet = ma
= 0.1 2
= 0.2 N
E-7. (a) When the block m is pulled 2x towards left
the pully rises vertically up by x amount.
aB = 2aA 2x 2a
F.B.D. of blocks >
B m
>

T
>

T
B 2a
x

## m T T = m2a ............. (1) 2T

>

A 2m a
F.B.D.
2T

A 2m a
FBD of A FBD 2mg 2 T = 2ma
2mg

mg T = ma ................(2)
(1) + (2) mg = 3ma
a = g/3
aB = 2g/3

## RESONANCE SOLN_NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION - 5

(b) = xB + 3xA
aB
d2 x B d2 x A B xB
0= +3

^
2 2 m T
dt dt
0 = aB + 3aA ^ ^
T T
^

## aB = 3aA ........... (1) 2T^

A
3m
aA
For B T = maB ....................... (2)
3mg
For A 3mg 3T = 3maA ............... (3)
mg T = maA
By (1) , (2) & (3)
aB = 3g/4 Ans.

SECTION (F)
F-1. Reading of weighing machine is equal to the normal reaction
Normal reaction is not affected by
velocity of lift, it is only affected by acceleration of lift.
For I, II and III a = 0
N mg = 0 [Equilibrium of man]
N = mg = 600 N
For IV, VI and VII a = +2 m/s2
N mg = ma [Newtons II law]
N = 60 2 + 60 10 = 720 N
For V and VIII a = 2 m/s2
N mg = ma [Newtons II law]
N = 60 (2) + 60 10 = 480 N

## F-3. (a) T AB = 2mg, T BC = mg TAB

For A 2mg + mg = maA aA = 3g TBC
For B T AB mg T BC = maB
2mg mg mg = maB maB = aB = 0 A m B m Cm
T BC mg = mac ac = 0.
TAB mg
mg
(b) T AB = 2mg TAB mg TBC
T AB mg = maB
2mg mg = maB m B m aB
aB = g ()
aA = 0 & aC = g(). mg

SECTION (G)
G-1. If we take both A and B as a system then there is no external force on system.
mAaA + mBaB = 0 [Newtons II law for system ]
60 aA + 75 3 = 0

15
aA = m/s2
4

## RESONANCE SOLN_NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION - 6

G-3. 4F (M + m)g = (M + m)a
4F (M m)g 4F
a = = g
Mm Mm

aA
G-5. tan 45 = a (wedge constrained relation)
B
N sin 45 = ma ...........(i)
For Rod A mg N cos 45 = ma ...........(ii)
g
From equation (1) & (2) a =
2

SECTION (H)
H-1. Pseudo force depends on mass of object and acceleration of observer (frame) which is zero in this
problem.
Pseudo force is zero.

H-3.

## F.B.D. in frame of lift

It is obevious that block can accelerate only in x direction. ma is Pseudo force.
mg sin + ma sin = max [Newton`s II law for block in x direction]
ax = (g + a) sin

PART - II
SECTION (A)
A-1. Experimental fact.
A-3. Force exerted by string is always along the string and of pull type.
When there is a contact between a point and a surface the normal reaction is perpendicular to the
surface and of push type.
SECTION (B)

B-1.

## F N = 2 ma, [Newton`s II law for block A]

N = ma1 [Newton`s II law for block B]
F
N=
3
N = 2 ma2 [Newtons II law for block A]
F N = m 2a [Newtons II law for block B]
N = 2F/3 so the ratio is 1 : 2

B-3.

## F N = Ma [Newtons law for block of mass M]

N N = ma [Newtons law for block of mass m]
N = Ma [Newtons law for block of mass M]
F
N = M
M m M'
F
N = (m + M) N > N
M m M'

SECTION (C)
C-1. Point A is mass less so net force on it most
be zero otherwise it will have acceleration.
F Tsin = 0
[Equilibrium of A in horizontal direction]
F
T = sin

C-3. 10 T2 = 1 a

T2 + 30 T1 = 3 a

T1 30 = 3a

## [ Newtons II law for C ]

g
a=
7

6g
T2 =
7

C-5. Mg T = Ma
[ Newtons II law for M]
T mg = ma
[ Newtons II law for m]
2 m Mg
T=
mM
If m << M than m + M M
2 m Mg
T=
M
T = 2 mg
Total downward force on pulley is 2T = 4 mg.

## RESONANCE SOLN_NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION - 8

SECTION (D)
D-1. The length of string AB is constant.

## speed A and B along the string are same u sin = V

V
u sin = V u = sin

## Velocity of point A and B along the string is same.

u
V cos = u V = cos

D-5. Let AB = , B = (x , y)

v B = vx i + vy j

v B = 3 i + v y j (i)
2 2 2
x +y =
y
2x vx + 2y vy = 0 3 + v =0
x y
3 + (tan600) vy = 0
vy = 1
Hence from (i)

v B = 3 i j
Hence
vB = 2 m/s
D-7. V = (velcoity of B w.r.t ground)
V4
=2 V = 8 m/s (velcoity of B w.r.t ground)
2
V' = 6 m/s (velcoity of B w.r.t lift )
D-8. u cos 45 = v cos 60

or v = 2u

SECTION (E)

dv
E-1.
F ma a
dt

## RESONANCE SOLN_NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION - 9

E-5. M2 g sin T = M2a [Newtons II law for M2]
T M1g sin = M1a [Newtons II law for M1]
By adding both equations
M2 sin M1 sin
a= M1 M2
g

E-6. Case 1

## T1 mg = ma1 [Newtons II law for m]

2 mg T1 = 2 ma1 [Newtons II law for 2m]
g
a1 =
3
Case 2

## F mg = ma2 [Newtons II law for m]

2 mg mg = ma2 a2 = g a2 > a1

E-7.

## F = m1 4 [Newtons II law for m1]

F = m 26 [Newtons II law for m2]
F = (m1 + m2)a [Newtons II law for (m1 + m2)]
F F 1 1
F = 4 6a 1 = 4 6a a = 2.4 m/s2.

E-10. F 6 i 8 j 10 k

F m a =m1 m = 10
F ma 62 82 102 2 kg.

F
E-11. 2 2 2 as 0 2 12 2 x
m
m
x=
2F 2 2 2 as

2F1 2F1 m
O2 = 32 + x 0 = 9 + m 2 F F1 = 9F
m

E-12.

## Mg sin T = Ma [Newtons II law for block 1]

T = Ma [Newtons II law for block 2]
By dividing both equations
Mg sin
2 T = Mg sin T=
2
SECTION (F)
F-1. T mg = 0 [ Equilibrium of block]
T 10 = 0
T = 10
Reading of spring balance is same as tension in spring balance.

F-2.

## F k x = m1 a1 [Newtons II law for M1]

kx = m2a2 [Newtons II law for M2]
By adding both equations.
F m1 a1
F = m1a1 + m2a2 a2 = m2

## F-4. Weight of man in stationary lift is mg.

mg n = ma [Newtons II law for man]
N =m (g a)
Weight of man in moving lift is equal to N.
mg 3 g

m (g a) 2 a=
3

SECTION (G)

G-2.

## F = m1a1 [Newtons II law for m1]

180 = 20 a1
a1 = 9 m/s2
Net force on m2 is 0 therefore acceleration of m2 is 0.

G-3.

## 30 T2 = 3 a [Newtons II law for 3 kg block]

T2 T1 = 6 a [Newtons II law for 6 kg block]
T1 10 = 1 a [Newtons II law for 1 kg block]
By adding three equations
30 10 = 10 a a = 2 m/s2.
SECTION (H)
H-1.

FBD of block is shown w.r.t. wedge and FBD of wedge is shown w.r.t. ground. FP is pseudo force.
mg sin 37 ma cos 37 = mab
3 4
ab = g sin 37 a cos 37 = 10 5 = 2 m.s2 w.r.t. wedge
5 5
block is not stationary w.r.t. wedge
N ma sin 37 mg cos 37 = 0 [Newtons II law for block]
4 3
N = 1 10 +15
5 5
N = 11 N.
Net force acting on block w.r.t. ground.
F= (mg sin 37 )2 (mg cos 37 N)2

2 2
3 4
= 10 10 11
5 5

= 62 32
F = 3 5 N.

H-3.

## F.B.D. of wedge is w.r.t. ground and

F.B.D. of block is w.r.t. wedge.
Let a is the acceleration of wedge due to force F.
FP is pseudo force on block
mg sin 30 ma cos 30 = 0 [Equilibrium of block in x direction w.r.t. wedge]
a = g tan 30
F = ( M + m)a [Newtons II law for the system of block and wedge in horizontal direction]
F = (M + m) g tan 30.

H-4.

acceleration of point A and B must be some along the line to the surface
a sin = g cos
a = g cot

H-5.

## F.B.D. of block is w.r.t. wedge and

F.B.D. of wedge is w.r.t ground.
FP is pseudo force on block .
mg sin ma cos = 0 [ Equilibrium of block w.r.t. wedge along x direction ]
a = g tan

EXERCISE-2
PART - I

1.

## mg NAB = maA [Newtons II law for block A in vertical direction]

mg sin + NAB sin = maB [Newtons II law for block B in x direction]
aA = aB sin [Constrained relation for contact surface between block A and B]
Solving above three equations we get
mg cos2
NAB =
1 sin2
mg cos + NAB cos nBC = 0 [Equilibrium of block B in y direction]
mg cos2 cos 2 mg cos
NBC = mg cos + NBC =
2
1 sin 1 sin2
NBC sin NWC = 0 [Equilibrium of block in horizontal direction]
2 mg sin cos
NWC =
1 sin2
NBC cos + mg NFC = 0 [Equilibrium of block C in vertical direction ]
2
2 mg cos
NFC = mg
1 sin2

mg (2 cos2 )
NFC =
1 sin2

3. mg Ncos 37 = maB
[Newtons II law for block B in vertical direction]
N sin 37 = maA
[Newtons II law for block A in horizontal direction]
aB cos 37 = aA sin 37
[constrained relation for contact surface
between block A and B]
By solving above three equations we get
12 g 9g
aA = aB =
25 25
4mg
N=
5
NBW = N sin 37
[Equilibrium of block B in horizontal direction]
12 mg
NBC =
25

6.

## aB + a = 2aA [constrained relation for pulley 1]

O + a = 2aB [contrained relation for pulley 2]
From above two equations
3aB = 2aA
3
aA = a ..........I
2 B
F 2T = 2maA [Netwon's II law for block A] ..........II
3T = 4 m aB [Netwon's II law for block B] ...........III
From equation I, II and III
3F
aB = .
17m

## 8. mAg 2T = mAaA [Newton's II law for block A]

T mBg = mBaB [Newton's II law for block B]
aB + O = 2aA [constrained relation for pulley P1]
mA = 4mB [Given in question]
From above four equations
g
aA = = 2.5 m/s2
4
g
aB = = 5 m/s2
2
1 2
h= a t [Equation of motion for block A]
2 A
2
t= sec.
5
H is the distance travelled by block
2
B in vertical direction till second
5
1
H= a t2 [Equation of motion for block B]
2 B
2
1 2
5
2 5
H = 0.4 m
H is the distance travelled by block B due to gained velocity.
v 1 = a Bt
= 5 0.4
v1 = 2 m/s
v22 = v12 + 2a H
02 = 22 + 2 (10) H
2
H = = 0.2 m
10
Total distance = H + H
= 0.6 m = 60 cm

## RESONANCE SOLN_NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION - 15

9. 4F1 F2 = ma [Newtons II law for block]

4F1 F2
a=
m
For t = 0 to 2 sec.
F1 = 30N
F2 = 10N
4 30 10
a= = 2.75 m/s2
40
For t = 2 to 4 sec
F1 = 30N
4 30 20
F2 = 20N a= = 2.5 m/s2
40
For t = 4 to 6 sec.
F1 = 10N
4 10 40
F2 = 40N a= = 0 m/s2
40
For t = 6 to 12 sec
F1 = 0 , F2 = 0 a = 0 m/s2
V12 V0 = a02(2 0) + a24(4 2) + a46(6 4) + a612(126)
V12 1.5 = 2.75 2 + 2.5 2 + 0 2 + 0 6
V12 = 12 m/s

11.

All the forces shown are in ground frame. aw is the acceleration of wedge w.r.t ground and a is the accelera-
tion of blocks w.r.t wedge.
mAg sin45 T = mA (a aw cos 45) [Newton's II law for block A along the wedge in ground frame]
mAgcos N = mA awsin45 [Newton's Ii law for block A in direction to the wedge in ground
frame.]
T mBg sin 45 = mB (a awcos 45) [Newton's II law for block B along the wedge in ground frame.]
NB mBg cos 45 = mB (awsin45) [Newton's II law for block B in direction to the wedge in ground frame]
NAsin45 + T cos 45 NB sin 45 T cos45 = mwaw
[Newton's II law for wedge in horizontal direction in ground frame].
After solving above five equations we will get
2
aw = m/s2
5
2
acceleration of B w.r.t ground in 13 m/s2.
5

13. 2aA = a + aB
2aA = 3 + aB
2T 100 = 10aA
50 T = 5aB
aB + aA = 0
2aA 3 + aA = 0
aA = 1m/s2
aB = 1m/s2 .

## 16. Fnet = mg 2F cos

2k L2 x 2 L x
anet = g
m L2 x 2

17. =
2
Fs = K
2mg
<
2
Fs < mg

T + Fs = mg
K
T = mg
2
If it is So
Fs > mg

i.e. < string unstretched & T = 0.
2

19. N sin = mb
N sin = m(a cos b)
2mg N cos = ma sin
4g sin
a=
1 sin2

1 h(1 sin 2 )
h = a sin t2 t= .
2 2g sin 2
20. acceleration of bead along rod is
ma cos
= a cos
m
1
a cos t2 =
2

2
t=
a cos

## RESONANCE SOLN_NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION - 17

22. By newtons law on system of (A, B, C) along the string.
(a) (M + m M) g = (2M + m) a
mg
a=
2M m
(b) free body diagram C block FBD

mg N = ma
gm
N=m g
2M m

2M
N= gm
2M m
mg
(c) T Mg = M for A block
2M m
Mmg
T = Mg +
2M m
for pulley
P = 2T + Mg
2Mmg 6M 3m 2m
= 2Mg + + Mg = 2M m Mg
2M m

6M 5m
P = 2 M m Mg

23.

a
mg T = ma 2T 1.8 mg = 1.8 m
2
2g
0.2 mg = 2.9 ma a=
29
a 3a 6g 1
arel = a + = = S= a t2
2 2 58 2 rel

1 6g 2 58
1= t t= 3g
t = 1.4 sec.
2 58

## RESONANCE SOLN_NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION - 18

PART - II
1. Slope of vrel t curve is Constant.
arel = Const. = a1 a2 0
Inference that at least one reference frame is accelerating both cant be non - accelerating simultaneously.

3. T1cos45 = T2cos45 T1 = T2
(T1 + T2) sin45 = mg
2 T1 = mg
mg T1
T1 = . T sin = mg +
2 2

mg
T sin = mg + .........(i)
2
T1 mg
T cos = = .........(ii)
2 2
dividing (i) and (ii)
M m/2 2M
tan = =1+ Ans.
m/2 m
6. w f = ma w ma = g
m m a
w 1 w a = f w 1 mg a = f w 1 g = f

8.

2mg mg 2m m g
a1 = a2 = a3 = 0
m 2m m
g
a1 = g a2 = So, a1 > a2 > a3
3

L = 31 + 22
3v0 = 2vA
3
vA = v
2 0
vAB = vA vB

v0
= towards right.
2

T 2m 2m 3
12. = g
2 m 2 m3

m1g 2m 2m 3
= g
2 m 2 m3

4m 2m 3
m1 =
m 2 m3

1 1 4
+ =
m2 m3 m1

## 13. T sin = m (g sin + a0)

T cos = mg cos
g sin a 0
tan = g cos

g sin a 0
= tan1 g cos

16. T1 + T2 = mg
If upper spring is cut

mg T2 = m 6 .....(i)

## If lower spring is cut :

mg T1 = ma ......(ii)

## adding (i) and (ii)

2mg {T1 + T2} = m (a + 6)
2mg mg = m (a + 6)
mg = m (a + 6)
g=a+6 a = 4m/s2.
18. A+B+C+D+E = 300 i ..........(1)
B + C + D + E = 100 i ........... (2)
A + C + D + E = 2400 j ........... (3)
equation (1) - equation (3) give
B = 300 i 2400 j .............(4)
equation (1) - equation (2) give
A = 400 i ............. (5)
Adding equation (4) and (5)
A + B = 700 i 2400 j
A B
a(A + B) =
100
= 7 i 24 j = 25 m/s2

## RESONANCE SOLN_NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION - 20

20. For first case tension in spring will be
Ts = 2mg just after 'A' is released.
2mg mg = ma a = g
In second case Ts = mg
2mg mg = 2mb
b = g/2
a/b = 2

## 22. (Force diagram in the frame of the car)

Applying Newtons law perpendicular to string
mg sin = ma cos
a
tan =
g
Applying Newtons law along string

T m g2 a 2 = ma T = m g 2 a 2 + ma Ans.

## 24. F.B.D. of mass m is w.r.t. trolley

T sin ( ) + mg sin FP = 0
[Equilibrium of mass in x direction w.r.t. trolley]
T sin ( ) + mg sin mg sin = 0
T sin ( ) = 0
since T cant be zero , sin ( ) must be zero
=

## 25. Maximum acceleration of block is 10 m/s2 .

1 2
S= at
2
1
= 10 0.22 = 0.2 m = 20 cm.
2

26.* T = m 1g
when thred is burnt, tension in spring remains same = m1g.
(m1 m2 )
m 1g m 2g = m 2a m2 g= a = upwards

for m1 a=o

## 30.* By string constraint

aA = 2aB ................................(1)
equation for block A.
1
10 10 T = 10 aA ......(2)
2
equation for block B.
400
2T = 40 aB .........................(3)
2
Solving equation (1) , (2) & (3) we get
5 5 150
aA = m/s2 aB = m/s2 T = N
2 2 2 2

## RESONANCE SOLN_NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION - 21

31.* Apply NLM on the system
200 = 20 a + 12 10
80
=a = 4 m/s2
20
spring Force = 10 12 = 120 N
32.* There is no horizontal force on block A, therefore it does not move in x-directing, whereas there is net
downward force (mg N) is acting on it, making its acceleration along negative y-direction.
Block B moves downward as well as in negative x-direction. Downward acceleration of A and B will be equal
due to constrain, thus w.r.t. B, A moves in positive x-direction.

## Due to the component of normal exerted by C on B, it moves in negative x-direction.

EXERCISE-3
1. (A) Let the horizontal component of velocity be ux. Then between the two instants (time interval T) the
projectile is at same height, the net displacement (uxT) is horizontal
uxT
average velocity = = ux (A) p, r
T
(B) Let i and j be unit vectors in direction of east and north respectively..

V DC 20 j , V BC 20 i and V BA 20 j

V AD VDC V CB VBA = 20 j 20 i 20 j = 20 i

## VAD 20 i Hence V AD VBC (B) p, r

(C) Net force exerted by earth on block of mass 8 kg is shown in FBD and normal reaction exerted by 8 kg
block on earth is 120 N downwards.

Hence both forces in the statement are different in magnitude and opposite in direction. (C) q, s
(D) For magnitude of displacement to be less than distance, the particle should turn back. Since the magni-
tude of final velocity (v) is less than magnitude of initial velocity (u), the nature of motion is as shown.

uv
Average velocity is in direction of initial velocity and magnitude of average velocity = is
2
less than u because v < u. (C) q, r
2. Let a be acceleration of two block system towards right
F2 F1
a = m m
1 2
The F.B.D. of m2 is
F2 T = m 2 a
m1 m2 F2 F
Solving T = m m 1
1 2 m 2 m1
(B) Replace F1 by F1 is result of A
m1 m 2 F2 F
T = m m 1
1 2 m 2 m1

## RESONANCE SOLN_NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION - 22

(C) Let a be acceleration of two block system towards left
F2 F1
a = m m
1 2
The FBD of m2 is
F 2 N2 = m 2 a
m1 m2 F1 F2
Solving N = m m
1 2 m1 m 2
(D) Replace F1 by F1 in result of C
m1 m 2 F2 F
N = m m 1
1 2 m
2 m1

## 3. FBD of Block in ground frame : 150 N

applying N.L. 150 + 450 10 M = 5M
450 N
600
15 M = 600 M = 5 m/s2
15
M = 40 Kg Ans.
Normal on block is the reading of weighing machine i.e. 150 N.
Mg = 10 M
4. If lift is stopped & equilibrium is reached then
T = 450 N
450 + N = 400
N

Mg = 400 M

T N = 50
So block will lose the contact with weighing machine thus reading of
weighing machine will be zero.
T = 40 g So reading of spring balance will be 40 Kg.
40 g

T = 450 N
N = 400 N
a 950 400
5. 40 Kg a=
40

Mg = 400 N

450 45
a= = m/s 2 Ans.
40 4
10 t
6. ap = =t
10
v t
dv t2
=t dv t dt
v=
dt 0 0 2
Putting v = 2 we have t = 2 sec.
2
dx t 2 t3 4
Now xp = 6 =
dt 2 0 3
xB = 2 2 = 4 m
4 8
Hence relative displacement = 4 = m
3 3

## RESONANCE SOLN_NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION - 23

7. From above
t3
2t = t2 = 12 t = 2 3 sec.
6
8. a=t=4 after 4 seconds VB =2 m/s
42
Vp = = 8 m/s Vrel = 8 2 = 6 m/s.
2
9. Inertia is the propety to resist change in state of motion or rest.
10. The FBD of block A is
The force exerted by B on A is N (normal reaction).
The forces acting on A are N (horizontal) and mg (weight downwards).
Hence statemt I is false.
11. If the lift is retarding while it moves upward, the man shall feel lesser weight as compared to when lift was at
rest. Hence statement1 is false and statement 2 is true.
12. Newton's third law of motion is valid in all reference frames. Hence statement-1 is incorrect.
13. (i) (True)
(ii) (True)
14. (i) Earth (ii) 4N (iii) No (iv) 4N , Earth, book , upward
(v) 4N , hand , book , downward (vi) nd (vii) rd

EXERCISE-4
PART - I
1. 2mg cos = 2 mg
1
cos = = cos 45 = 45
2
2. After string is cut, FBD of m
mg
a= = g
m
FBD of 2m (when string is cut tension in the spring takes 3mg
finite time to become zero. How ever tension in the string
immediately become zero.) 2m
3mg 2mg g
a= =
2m 2 2mg
3. F = 2T sin
T cos
a=
m

F cos F x
a = 2m sin =
2m a x2
2

a
tan
g
a dy
g = dx
d a
(kx2) = g
dx
a
x = 2gk = D

## RESONANCE SOLN_NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION - 24

PARTII
1.

F
asystem =
Mm
FBD of m
mF
T = masystem =
Mm
dx 2 dx
2. V1 = 1 V2 = 1
dt
1 2 dt 2
Impulse = |P| = |m(V2 V1)| = |0.4 (1 1)| = 0.8 Ns
3. Vertical component of acceleration of A
a1 = (g sin ). sin
3
= g sin 60 . sin 60 = g .
4
That for B
1
a2 = g sin 30 . sin 30 = g
4
3g g g
(aAB)= = = 4.9 m/s2
4 4 2

2 3
4. A = , B = K = KAA = KBB
5 5

2 5K 5K
K = K A KA = KB = .
5 2 3

dv F0 bt
5. F = ma = F0 ebt e
dt m
v t t
F F0 e bt
dv 0 e bt dt
v= m
m b 0
0 0

F0
v= 1 e bt

mb

## RESONANCE SOLN_NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION - 25

TOPIC : FRICTION

EXERCISE-1
PART - I
SECTION (A)

A-1.

A-4. Friction is kinetic because their is relative motion. Direction of friction is such that it opposes the relative
velocity.
A-5. a = mg/m = g = 1 m/s2
V 2 Vi2 = 2as (V = 0 V = 5 m/s)
f f i
25
s= = 12.5m.
21
SECTION (B)

B-4.

R = mg + 60 = 160 N

f = 80 N ( No sliding )

f 80 1
angle of friction = tan1 = tan1 = tan1 Ans.
R 160 2
mg
B-5. ablock = = g = 0.15 10 = 1.5
m
aT = 2
ST Sb = 5
1 1
aT t2 a t2 = 5
2 2 B
1 2
t [2 1.5] = 5
2
t2 = 20
1
ST = a t2
2 T
1
= 2 20 = 20 m.
2

RESONANCE SOLN_FRICTION - 26
B-6. N = mg F sin
F cos = N = [mg F sin ]
mg
F=
cos sin
F is minimum when cos + sin is max
d
(cos + sin ) = 0
d
sin + cos = 0
= tan
or ;k = tan1
also vr% cos + sin

## = 1 2 for = tan-1 d sfy ,

mg
thus Fmin =
1 2
SECTION (C)

C-1.

30 = smg 30 = s 5 10
s = 0.6.
Again,

kN
kmg

1 2
S= at
2
2S 2 10
a= 2 = = 0.8.
t 25

30 m 0.8
30 kmg = m 0.8 k = mg = 0.52.

F 15
C-2. (i) aA = = =3
m 5

0
aB = =0
10
fAB = 0, fBG = 0.

(ii)

fBG 75
Since fAB cant be greater than fBG therefore acceleration of B will be zero.
30 25
and aA = = 1m/sec2
5
fAB = 25 N, fBG = 25 N.

RESONANCE SOLN_FRICTION - 27
(iii)

25
fAB 25 aA or aA 5
5
Let there is no sliding between A and B then common acceleration of A and B.
200 75
= = 8.33
15
Since aA 5 Hence, there will be sliding between A and B in that case.
200 100
aA = 5 m/sec2, aB = = 10 m/sec2
10
fAB = 25 N, fBG = 75 N.

(iv)
aA 5
Let A and B move together then common acceleration.
90 75
= = 1m/sec2
15
As common acceleration is less than aA hence A and B will move together
aA = 1m/sec2, aB = 1m/sec2
fAB = mA 1 = 5N, fBG = 75 N.

PART - II
SECTION (A)

A-1.

## Let acceleration in Ist case is a1 and that in second case is a2

1 2 1 a1
Now , a1t = a2(2t)2 a2 = ............(i)
2 2 4

## Clearly a1 = mg sin = g sin ............(ii)

m
mg sin mg cos
and rFkk a2 = = g sin g cos ............(iii)
m
From (i), (ii) and (iii),
we get = 0.75.

## A-2. The normal reaction on the block is

N = mg F sin
Net force on block is
Fcos N = Fcos mg + Fsin
or acceleration of the block is
F(cos sin ) mg F
a= = (cos + sin) g
m m

RESONANCE SOLN_FRICTION - 28
A-3.

N = 50 40 sin30 = 30
40 cos 30 0.2 30
a= = 5.73 m/sec2
5

A-4.

## Apply Newtons law for system of m1 and m2

(m1 m 2 )g sin 37 [m1g cos 37 m 2 g cos 37 ]
a= m1 m 2
= g[sin37 cos37]
Now apply Newtons law for M1

## m1g sin37 + T m1gcos37 = m1a = m1g[sin37 cos37]

T = 0 and a = 4m/sec2
SECTION (B)

B-3.

N = ma, mg = N
g
mg = ma a=

## B-4. Solving from the frame of truck Fpseudo

= 51
f mg = 6 f = 5N. = 5N Rest
B-7. Apply Newtons law for system along the string
mB g = (mA + mC) g
mB 5
mC = mA = 10 = 15 kg
0 .2

RESONANCE SOLN_FRICTION - 29
SECTION (C) :

C-2.

fs fk ( s k ) mg
a= = = (S k) g
m m
= (0.5 0.4)10 = 1 m/sec2
C-3. When F is less than smg then tension in the string is zero.
When smg F < s2mg then friction on block B is static.
If F is further increase friction on block B is kinetic.

## C-4. Solving from the frame of elevator

g
geff. = g + = 12.5
4
1
f= 2 12.5 = 5N
5
5
a2 = = 2.5 m/s2
2

30 5 25
a1 = = m/sec2
8 8

EXERCISE-2
PART - I
SECTION (A)
mg k mg g
2. a1 = = (1 k)
2m 2
k mg k g
a2 = =
4m 4
1
s1 = a t2
2 1
1
s2 = a t2
2 2
7 1 g 1 g 7
s1 s2 = (1 k)t2 k t2 =
8 2 2 2 4 8
7 7
t2 = 2g(1 ) g = g(2 3 )
k k k

1 1 k g 7 7 k
s2 = a2 t2 = g(2 3 ) = 8(2 3 )
2 2 4 k k

RESONANCE SOLN_FRICTION - 30
4. Solving from the frame of rod.
ma cos ma sin
ab = = a [cos sin ]
m

1 2 2
Now, = a t2 ab =
2 b a[cos sin ]

5. f1 = 3 0.25 10 = 7.5

F = 17.5 + 25 + 37.5 = 80 N
If F = 200 then aB = aC
T f 1 f 2 = m Ba .........(1)
F T f2 f3 = mCa .........(2)
from equation (1) and (2)
F f1 2f2 f3 = (mB + mC)a
F f1 2f2 f3 200 7.5 35 37.5
a = = 10 m/sec2
mB m C 12
6. The F.B.D. of A and B are

(force of friction)

1
For sliding to start between A and B, the frictional f = N = 2 10 = 5 N = fmax
4
Applying Newtons second law to system of A + B
F = (mA + mB) a = 6a .....................(1)
Applying Newtons second law to A
fmax 5
f = mA a amax = m = = 2.5 m/s2 .......................(2)
A 2
from (1) and (2) Fmin = (mA + mB) 2.5 m/s2 = 6 2.5 = 15 N
7. (i) The F.B.D. of A and B are

## For A to be in equilibrium ; F = N sin .....................(1)

For B to just lift off ; N cos = mg + s N .....................(2)
For horizontal equilibrium of B ; N = N sin ................(3)
From (2) and (3)

4 2 3 5
N (cos s sin ) = mg or N = mg or N = mg ...............(4)
5 3 5 2

3 3
From equation (1) F=N F= mg
5 2

RESONANCE SOLN_FRICTION - 31
(ii) The acceleration of the block A be a and B be b
F N sin = 2ma ...............(1)
N cos mg kN = mb ...............(2)
N = N sin ................(3)
From constraint =
a sin = b cos ................(4)
3g
Solving (1), (2) , (3) and (4) we get b =
22

10. Considering the forces on the chain for the given situation we have

F k ( x)g = a
F k ( x )g dv
= .v..
dx
v
F k ( x )
dx g dx = dv v

0 0 0

v
x 2 v2

F
x g k x
0 2 2
0 0

F v2
g k =
2 2

2F
k g = v..

PART - II
3. On smooth surface a1 = g sin
v2 = u2 + 2a1s1
= 0 + 2 g sin .m
On rough surface
a2 = g sin g cos
v2 = v2 + 2a2s2
O = 2mg sin + 2g (sin cos )n
m n
= tan
n

6.

## If acceleration of the car is a0, acceleration of the block 2a0 = 2 2 = 4 m/s2 ()

F = N = 0.3 50 10 = 150
T F = ma
T 150 = 50 4
T = 350 N.

RESONANCE SOLN_FRICTION - 32
8. FBD of A
N
T

8m N C a

a
mg
8mg
If the acceleration of C is a
For block A N = 8 ma .... (1)
8 mg N = 0 .... (2)
and acceleration a can be written by the equation of system (A + B + C)
m 1 g = (10 m + m 1) a .... (3)
m1g
8 mg = 8 m 10m m
1
10 m + m 1 = m 1
10 m
10 m = ( 1) m 1 m1 = Ans.
1
10.

## (i) Let the blocks does not move

then T1 = 20 4
T2 = T1 8 = 20 4 8 = 8
Since T2 < max possible friction force for 6 kg block
hence it will be at rest and this assumption is right. Therefore tension in the string connecting 4kg and 6 kg
block = 8N
(ii) friction of 4 kg block = N = 0.2 4 10 = 8N
(iii) friction force on 6 kg block = 8N

## 11. So block Q is moving due to force while block P due to friction.

Friction direction on both +Q blocks as shown.

P
4 fmax=8

fmax=8
Q 5 F
fmax=9

First block Q will move and P will move with Q so by FBD taking P and Q as system
F9=0 F=9N
When applied force is 4 N then FBD

Q
0
0
P 4
4
4 kg block is moving due to friction and maximum friction force is 8 N.

8
So acceleration = = 2 m/s 2 = amax.
4
Slipping will start at when Q has +ve acceleration equal to maximum acceleration of P i.e. 2 m/s 2.
F 17 = 5 2 F = 27 N.

RESONANCE SOLN_FRICTION - 33
13.

Applying Newtons law for the system of m and 3m along the length of the string
we get
3mg sin45 3mg cos 45 mg sin45 = (3m + m)a
2 g
= as a=
5 5 2
now making the F.B.D. of m we get
T mg sin 45 = m a
mg mg
T= +
5 2 2

6 mg
T=
5 2
Now from F.B.D. of pulley we get

## Force exerted by string on pulley

6mg 6mg
= T 2 = 2 = (downward)
5 2 5

14.

## F.B.D. for B block

RESONANCE SOLN_FRICTION - 34
for block A
mg sin f1 = ma .........(1)
for motion w.r.t. block B
mgsin mg cos = ma .........(2)
for limiting case
a=0
and a=b=0
mg sin = mg cos
= tan
= tan1
for block B
mgsin + f1 f2 = mb
for motion w.r.t wedge
f2 = 2mg cos
mgsin + f1 2mg cos = mb ..........(3)
for no relative motion between A and B block from equation (1) & (3) : a = b
2mg sin 2 mg cos = 2ma
for limiting case a = 0
= tan1 ()
for motion tan1 ()
when block B is moving w.r.t wedge
mgsin + f1 2 mgcos = mb
But f1 = mg cos mg sin mg cos = mb
for block A
mg sin mgcos = ma a = b.

## 16. * The free body diagram of the block is

N is the normal reaction exerted by inclined plane on the block.

Applying Newtons second law to the block along and normal to the incline.
mg sin 45 = T cos 45 + N ............... (1)
N = mg cos 45 + T sin 45 ............... (2)
Solving we get
= 1/2
so any value of greater than 0.5 is answer
18.* Applying NLM on the part that moves through slit.
T2 f T1 =0
For 4 kg mass 40 T2 = 4a
T1
For 2 kg mass T1 20 = 2a T2 T1
On solving 10 = 6a
f
5 m1 m1
a= m/s2
3
40 20
70
Force exerted on 2kg mass by string = T1 = N. T2
3
Tension in the string will not be same throughout, due to the friction force exerted by the slit.

RESONANCE SOLN_FRICTION - 35
19.* The breaking force is insufficient, so the block will not slide.
So friction force = 100 N
and acceleration will be 20 m/sec 2 only
Net contact force on the block = ( 200)2 (100)2 = 100 5 N
All mechanical interactions are electromagnetic at microscopic level.
20.*
There are two possibilities
(i) 100 kg block slides down the incline
(ii) 100 kg block slides up the incline

case-(i)

## we get, 100 g sin 37 (100 g) cos 37 mg = 0

100 3 4
m= 0.3 100 = 36 kg
5 5
case (ii) mg = 100 g sin 37 + g cos 37 100
100 3 100 4
m= + 0.3
5 5
= 84 kg
To remain in equilibrium, m [36, 84] kg
therefore, m can be 37 and 83 kg.
N 20 N

2 2
8 +6
21.*_

mg = 50 N
N = 50 20 = 30 N
Limiting friction force = N = 12 N and applied force in horizontal direction is less than the limiting
friction force, therefore the block will not slide.
For equilibrium in horizontal direction, friction force must be equal to 10 N.

53

6i + 8j
From the top view, it is clear that = 37 i.e. 127 from the x-axis that is the direction of the friction
force. It is opposite to the applied force.
Contact force = N2 f 2 = 10 10 N

RESONANCE SOLN_FRICTION - 36
22.*

F1 = mgsin + mg cos .
F2 = mgsin mg cos .
But q mg = w
= tan
sin
F1 = w (sin + cos) F1 = w sin( + )sec
cos
Now F1 = 2 F2
mg sin+ mg cos = 2 (mg sin mg cos)
sin+ cos = 2 sin 2 cos 3cos = sin tan = 3
tan = 3tan.
23.*_ mgsin + mg cos = ma
a = g sin + g cos
3 4
= 10 = 14 m/sec 2.
5 5

3 3mg
If f r = mg sin = mg = < f r max
5 5 n t
f r < f r max n sta
co fr
v=
3mg 4mg
= < hence insect can
5 5
sin
move with constant velocity. mg

EXERCISE-3
PART - I
1. (i) FBD in (case (i)) {1 = 0, 2 = 0.1}
O 2N

1 kg N = 10 1 kg N = 10

A B

mg 2N mg
While frictions work is to oppose the relative motion and here if friction comes then relative motion will start
and without friction there is no relative motion so both the block move together with same acceleration and
friction will not come.

A B

aA = aB = 10 m/s2
mg mg

RESONANCE SOLN_FRICTION - 37
1 0

A B
10 10
1 kg 1 kg
(ii)
1

10 0 10
Friction between wall and block A oppose relative motion since wall is stationary so friction wants to stop
block A also and maximum friction will act between wall and block while there is no friction between block.
Note : Friction between wall and block will oppose relative motion between wall and block only it will not do
anything for two block motion.
1

A B

10 10
aA = 9 m/s2 ; aB = 10 m/s2
1 f

A B
(iii)
10 f
10 10
Friction between wall and block will be applied maximum equal to 1N but maximum friction available between
block A and B is 10 N but if this will be there then relative motion will increase while friction is to oppose
relative motion. So friction will come less than 10 so friction will be f that will be static.
1 f

A B

f
10 10
19
by system (20 1) = 2 a a = = 9.5 m/s2
2

10 1

A B
(iv)
10

10 1 10

11 10
aA = = 1 m/s2
1
10 1
aB = = 9 m/s2
1

RESONANCE SOLN_FRICTION - 38
2. The acceleration of two block system for all cases is a = 2 m/s 2
In option (p) the net force on 2 kg block is frictional force
Frictional force on 2 kg block is
f = 2 2 = 4N towards right
In option (q) the net force on 4 kg block is frictional force
Frictional force on 4 kg block is
f = 4 2 = 8N towards right
In option (r) the net force on 2 kg block is 2 2 = 4N
Friction force f on 2 kg block is towards left.
6f=22 or f = 2N
In option (s) the net force on 2 kg block is ma
= 2 2 = 4N towards right.
Friction force on 2 kg block is 12N towards right.

(A) 4.2 m/s2 (B*) 3.2 m/s2 (C) 16/3 m/s2 (D) 2.0 m/s2
3. & 4.
First, let us check upto what value of F, both blocks move together. Till friction becomes limiting, they will
be moving together. Using the FBDs

F a1
F

f f
F
F
15 kg
F

a2

10 kg block will not slip over the 15 kg block till acceleration of 15 kg block becomes maximum as it is
created only by friction force exerted by 10 kg block on it
a1 > a2(max)
Ff f
= for limiting condition as f maximum is 60 N.
10 15
F = 100 N.
Therefore for F = 80 N, both will move together.
Their combined acceleration, by applying NLM using both as system F = 25a
80
a= = 3.2 m/s2
25
5. If F = 120 N, then there will be slipping, so using FBDs of both (friction will be 60 N)
For 10 kg block
120 60 = 10 a a = 6 m/s2
For 15 kg block
60 = 15a a = 4 m/s2
6. & 7.
In case 80 N force is applied vertically, then

80 F

f
f
F
F
F

## For 10 kg block 80 60 = 10a

a = 2 m/s2
For 15 kg block in horizontal direction.
F f = 15a
a = 4/3 m/s2, towards left.
RESONANCE SOLN_FRICTION - 39
8. F sin + f = mg
and Fcos = N
for minimum ; f = N = Fcos
mg
Fmin. =
sin cos

9. As f = 0 F sin = mg
mg
F=
sin
10. If F < Fmin. ; block slides down due to mg

## 11. Friction always opposes relative motion.

12. Due to pseudo force, the person observes the block to move back. Also the accelerating person does
not observe any relative motion between body and the rough surface.
13._ The minimum force required to pull the block of mass m lying on rough horizontal surface is
mg
F= = 60 N, inclined at an angle tan1 with horizontal (where is the coefficient of friction). Hence
2 1
statement 1 is true and statement 2 is false.

14._ There is no tendency of relative motion between the blocks. Hence Statement-1 is True, Statement-2 is True;
Statement-2 is a correct explanation for Statement-1
A
15._ R = f 2 N2 = mg if body does not move. f
But if it moves then f < mg sin f
B Fext
R= 2 2 < mg
f (mg cos )
16. (i) Since the initial velocity of block is along positive x-axis. So the direction of frictional force will
be in i at that moment i ... Ans.
(iii) The block begins to slide if
F cos 37 = (mg F sin 37)
5t [cos 37 + sin 37] = mg
4 3
5t = 70 or ;k t = 10 second
5 5

EXERCISE-4
PART - I

1.

F 3
N = mg + F sin 60 = 3 10 + ...... (i)
2
F cos 60 = N ................. (ii)

F 1 F 3
= (10 3 + )
2 2 3 2

F F F
=5+ =5 F = 20 N
2 4 4

RESONANCE SOLN_FRICTION - 40
8 7
2. aA = g [sin 45 A cos 45] = , aB = g [sin 45 B cos 45] =
2 2
1
aAB = aA aB = g (B A) cos 45 = , sAB = 2
2

1 1 1
Now sAB = aAB t2 2 = t2 t = 2 sec.
2 2 2

1 1 8
Again sA = aA t2 = ( ) 4 sA = 8 2 m
2 2 2

3.

## Let accleration of the block relative to the disc is a then

25 m cos N = m a ..........(i)
Now, there will be two normal as there are two contacts (i) Horizontal and (ii) vertical
3
NH = 25 msin = 25 m = 15 m
5
NV = mg = 10 m
2 2
f = NH + NV = (15 m) + (10 m) = 10 m
5 5
m (25 cos 10)
from (i) we get a= = 10 m/sec2
m
4. Statement-1 is also practical experience based; so it is true.
Statement-2 is also true but is not the correct explanation of statement-1. Correct explanation is ''there
is increase in normal reaction when the object is pushed and there is decrease in normal reaction when
object is pulled".

5.

P1 = mgsin mgcos
P2 = mgsin + mgcos
Initially block has tendency to slide down and as tan > , maximum friction mgcos will act in positive
direction. When magnitude P is increased from P1 to P2, friction reverse its direction from positive to negative
and becomes maximum i.e.mgcos in opposite direction.

RESONANCE SOLN_FRICTION - 41
6.

mg mg
F1 =
2 2

mg mg
F2 =
2 2
F1 = 3F2
1 + = 3 3
4 = 2
1
=
2
N = 10
N = 5 Ans.

7.

f = 0, If sin = cos = 45
f towards Q, sin > cos > 45
f towards P, sin < cos < 45

RESONANCE SOLN_FRICTION - 42
PART - II
1. Force, F = R = Mg
weight of block = R = 0.2 10 = 2N
a
2. F = ma mg = ma =
g
Now , v = u + at or 0 = 6 + 10a
0 .6 a 0.6
or = a = 0.6 so = g 10 0.06
10
3. Let the mass of block be m.
Frictional force in rest position R F
F = mg sin 30
1
10 = m 10
2 mg sin 30 mg cos30
2 10 mg
m= = 2 kg 30
10
4. When fiction is absent
1 2
a1 = g sin s1 = a1t1 ........ (i)
2
When friction is present
1
a2 = g sin g cos s2 = at2 ........ (ii)
2 22
From Eq. (i) and (ii)
1 2 1 2
a1t1 a 2 t 2
2 2
or a1t12 = a2 (nt1)2 ( t2 = nt1) or a1 = n2a2

## a 2 g sin g cos 1 g sin 45 g cos 45 1

or 2 or 2
a1 g sin n g sin 45 n

1 1
or 1 k = or k = 1
n2 n2
5. According to work-energy theorem,
W - K = 0
(Initial and final speed are zero)
Work done by friction + work done by gravity = 0

(mg cos) + mgl sin = 0
2
cos = 2 sin = 2 tan

## v2 100 100 100 100

6. s= = = 1000 m
2 k g 2 0.5 10 52
7. F1 = mg sin + mg cos
F2 = mg sin mg cos
F1 sin cos
F2 = sin cos

tan 2 3
= = = 3.
tan 2

RESONANCE SOLN_FRICTION - 43
TOPIC : GRAVITATION

EXERCISE-1
PART - I
SECTION (A)

## A 2. mass of each sphere

m = Volume
4 3
= r
3
m.m
F = G
(2r )2
2
4
G r 3
3
=
4r 2

4
= G22r4 N. Ans.
9
8 4
A 3. tan = =
6 3
= 53
GmM
F =
r2
0.260 0.01
= G
(0.1) 2

2F cos
a =
m
0.260 3
= 2G
(0.1)2 5
= 31.2 G m/s2

SECTION (B)
v
B 1. Ex = = (20x + 40y) = 20
x x

v
Ey = = y (20x + 40y) = 40
x

E = Ex i + Ey j = 20 i 40 j Ans.
It is independent of co ordinates

Force = F = m E = 0.25 { 20 i 40 j } = 5 i 10 j

magnitude of F = 5 2 10 5 = 5 5 N

RESONANCE SOLN_GRAVITATION - 44
SECTION (C)
C 1. Potential energy at ground surface
GMm
potential energy =
R
potential energy at a height of R is
GMm
potential energy =
2R
When a body comes to ground
Loss in potential energy = Gain in kinetic energy

## GMm GMm 1 GMm 1

= mv2 = mv2
2R R 2 2R 2

GM
gR = v2 2 g v = gR
R

1
C 2. Initial kinetic energy = M V2
2 S
GM A MS GMBMS 2GMS
Initial potential energy = = (MA + MB)
d/2 d/2 d

1 2GMS
Total initial energy = M V2 (MA + MB)
2 S d
Finally, Potential energy = 0
Kinetic energy = 0 Limiting case
Applying energy cnservation

1 2GMS G(M A MB )
MSV2 (MA + MB) = 0 V = 2 Ans.
2 d d

SECTION (D)

r3 (1.01r )3
D 2. T1 = 2 , T2 = 2
GMe GMe

3/2
T2 1.01r T2 3
3/2
T1 = r T1 = [1 + 0.01] = 1 + 2 0.01

T2 (T2 T1 )
T1 1 = 0.005 3 T1 100 = 0.015 100 = 1.5%.

GMm GM 2
D 3. (a) F = 2 =
(2R ) 4R 2

Mv 2 GM 2
(b) =
R 4R 2

GM
v =
4R

2R 2R R3
T = = = 4
v GM GM
4R

RESONANCE SOLN_GRAVITATION - 45
(c) Angular speed

2 2 GM
= = =
T R3 4R 3
4
GM

## (d) Energy required to separate = { total energy }

= { Kinetic energy + Potential energy }
1 2 1 2 GM2 2 GM2
= 2 Mv 2 Mv 2R = Mv 2R

GM GM2 GM2 GM 2
= M 4R 2R = 4R = Ans.
4R

## (e) Let its velocity = v

1
Kinetic energy = mv2
2
GM GM 2GM
Potential at centre of mass = =
R R R
2GMm
Potential energy at centre of mass =
R
For particle to reach infinity
Kinetic energy + Potential energy = 0
1 2GMm
mv2 = 0
2 R

4GM
v = Ans.
R

GMmA
UA rA m A rB
D 4. (a) = =
UB GMm B mB rA
rB
rB = 19200 + 6400 = 25600 Km
rA = 6400 + 6400 = 12800 km, mA = mB
UA 25600
= =2
UB 12800

GMmA
KA 2rA m A rB
(b) = = =2
KB GMmB mB rA
2rB

GMm
(c) As T.E. = ,
2r
Clearly farther the satellite from the earth, the greater is its total energy. Thus B is having more energy.

RESONANCE SOLN_GRAVITATION - 46
SECTION (E) :

E 2. Period of pendulum = 2
g
Let T1 be the time period at pole and T2 is time period at equator.

R 2
T1 g2 g 1 e 1
T1 g R 2 2
T2 = g1 1 e
1 g g

Re2 Re2
T1 = 1 2g
. Since g
<< 1

2 2
1 Re 1 ( 2 ) 6400 10 3
So , T1 = 1 = 1
2 g 2 (86400)2 9.8
= 0.998 second Ans.

PART - II
SECTION (A)
A-2. Net torque = F2 . F1 .
2 2

= (F2 F1)
2

2H2
F2 = mgH = mg 1
2
R

2H1
F1 = mgH = mg 1
1
R

mg (H1 H2 )
= (F2 F1) = Ans.
2 R

MV 2
A-4. 2 Fg cos 30 =
R

GM2 3 MV 2
2 2
=
L 2 L/ 3

GM
V=
L

SECTION (B)
B 2. dEnet = 2dE sin
Gdm
= 2 sin
r2
rd
= 2G . sin
r2
2G
= sind
r

RESONANCE SOLN_GRAVITATION - 47
/2
2G
Enet = dEnet = 0 sin d = 2G
r r

m
= and r =

2Gm
Enet =
2
Along + y axis Ans.

B 4. For point A :
For any point outside, the shells acts as point situated at centre.
G (M1 M2 )
So, FA = m
p2
For point B :
There will be no force by shell B.
GM1m
So, FB =
q2
,, For point C :
There will be no gravitational field.
So, FC = 0
B-6. Let the possible direction of gravitational field at point B be shown by 1, 2, 3 and 4(Figure 1). Rotate the figure
upside down. It will be as shown in figure 2.

1 B
Figure 1
2 4
3
= B Figure 3
3
2 4

1 B
Figure 2

Now on placing upper half of figure 1 on the lower half of figure 2 we get complete sphere. Gravitational
field at point B must be zero, which is only possible if the gravitational field is along direction 3. Hence
gravitational field at all points on circular base of hemisphere is normal to plane of circular base.
Circular base of hemisphere is an equipotential surface.
Aliter : Consider a shaded circle which divides a uniformly thin spherical shell into two equal halves.The
potential at points A,B and C lying on the shaded circle is same. The potential at all these points due
to upper hemisphere is half that due to complete sphere.Hence potential at points A,B and Cis also
same due to upper hemispehre

RESONANCE SOLN_GRAVITATION - 48
SECTION (C)
m
C 2. (a)
F
120 120

F 120 F
m m
Due to geometry net force is zero.

a2
(b) By geometry , x2 + = a2 and F1 = F2
4 F2

3a 2 F1
x2 = x
4 F

3a a
x =
2

Gm2 4 Gm2
Fnet = F = =
x2 3 a2

Gm 2 Gm 2 Gm 2 3 Gm 2
(c) Initial potential energy = =
a a a 2 a

## Work done on system = Final potential energy intial potential energy

3 Gm 2 3Gm 2 3 Gm 2
= = Ans.
2 a a 2 a

## (d) Initial kinetic energy = 0

Gm 2 Gm 2
Initial potential energy =
a a

2Gm 2
=
a

2Gm 2
Total initial energy =
a
1
Now, kinetic energy = mv2
2

2Gm 2 Gm 2 4Gm 2
Potential energy = =
a/2 a/2 a

1 4Gm 2
Total energy = mv2
2 a

2Gm 2 1
= mv2
a 2

4Gm
= v
a

Gm
v = 2 Ans.
a

RESONANCE SOLN_GRAVITATION - 49
SECTION : (D)
m
V
GMm mv 2
D-1. = r
r2 r
GM M
v =
r2
3 3

2r 2 r 2 2r 2 1
T = = = T
v GM 4 3
G r
3
D-5*. PE = G m1 m2/r, ME = G m1 m2 / 2r
On decreasing the radius of orbit PE and ME decreases

D-6. According to kepler's law applying angular momentum conservation m 1v1r1 = m 2v2r2 Vmax is (a) ans.

SECTION (E)
E 1. we = 50 10 = 500 N
wp = 50 5 = 250 N
Hence option A is correct
E 2*. In case of earth the gravitational field is zero at infinity as well as the the centre and the potential is
minimum at the centre .

EXERCISE-2
PART - I
2. (a) r < y < 2r y
Field due to outershell = 0
Distance from centre of solid spere = (y r)
Gravitation field intensity
GM
= distance from centre
y
r
x
GM
= (y r) in y - direction
r3
GM GM y
= (y r) j = (y r) ( j )
r3 r3
(b) Field due to outshell = 0
y
Distance from centre of solid spere = (y r)
GM GM 4r
E = 0 j = ( j )
2 2
(y r) (y r) r
x
(c) y > 8r
For any point outside, the shells acts as point situated at centre.
Distance from centre of hollow shell = (y 4r)
4GM
Field due to hollow shell =
( y 4r )
Distance from centre of solid spere = (y r)
GM
Field due to solid spere =
( y r )2

4GM GM
Total field = y 4r ( j )
( y r )2

RESONANCE SOLN_GRAVITATION - 50
3. (a) Force will be due to the mass of the sphere upto the radius r

## In case (i) 0 < r < b ; Mass M = 0, therefore F(r) = 0

4 4 b3
In case (ii) b < r < a ; Mass M = (r3 b3), therefore F(r) = Gpm r 2
3 3 r

4 4 a3 b3
(iii) a < r < ; Mass M = (a3 b3), therefore F(r) = Gpm 2

3 3 r

r2

(b) Uf Ui = Fc .dr
r1

## (i) 0 < r < b ; u(r) = - 2 Gm(a2 b2)

2Gm
(ii) b < r < a ; u(r) = (3ra2 - 2b3 - r3)
3r
4Gm 3
(iii) a < r < ; u (r) = (a b 3 )
3r

5. (a) The gravitation field is uniform inside the cavity and is directed along OO . Hence the particle will
strike at A.
(b) The gravitational field at any point P inside cavity.
4 4 4 2
|E | = G G
= Gy OO = GR
3 3 3 3

Total workdone = m | E | . S = m . 2 GR . R

3 2
Applying work - energy theorem
Workdone by all force = Change in kinetic energy
1
m . 2 GR . R = mv2
3 2 2

2GR 2
v = Ans.
3

1 GMsm 2G S
6. (a) mv2 = or V=
2 R R

1 G m G
(b) mve2 =0 or Ve =
2 2R R

1 GmM s 2GMs
m (V + Ve)2 = or V + Ve =
2 R R

GMs
V = 2 1 R

RESONANCE SOLN_GRAVITATION - 51
7. Applying angular momentum conservation :
mv0 = mvd
v0= vd .......... (i)
1
Intial energy = mv02 + 0
2
1 GMs
Final energy = mv2
2 d
Applying energy conservation ,
1 1 GMsm
mv02 = mv2
2 2 d
2GM s
v02 = v2 .......... (ii)
d
From equation (i) and (ii) :

v 022 2GM s
v02 = 2
d d

2GMs
d2 + 2 d 2 = 0
v0

2 2
2
GMs GMs GMs 1 v 0 1
2
d = 2 + = GM Ans.
v0 v 2
0

v 02

PART - II
1. Gravitational field at m due to hollowed - out lead sphere
= { Field due to solid spere } { Field due to mass that was removed }
GM GM
Field due to solid sphere = 2 = E1 =
d 4R 2
GM'
Field due to removed mass = = E2
x2
3
M 4 R M
M = 4 =
R 3 3 2 8
3
R
And x = d
2

GM GM GM
So , E2 = = =
R
2
3 R
2 18 R 2
8 d 8
2 2

Enet = E1 E2
GM 1 1 7GM
= =
R 2 4 18 36 R 2
7GMm
Fnet = mEnet = Ans.
36 R 2

RESONANCE SOLN_GRAVITATION - 52
Gm1
r1 3 m1 m2
4. = =
Gm 2 4 4 r12 4 r22
r2

m m1 Gm 5
m1 + m2 = m = or = = Ans.
4R 2 4 r12 Gm1 3
R
r1

2GM 2GM
5. Ve = V = KVe = K
R R
1 2GMm 1 2GM 2GMm
Initial total energy = mv2 = m.K2
2 R 2 R R
1 2GMm
Final total energy = m02
2 x
Applying energy conservation
1 2GM 2GMm 2GMm
mx2. = 0
2 R R x
1 1 x2 R
= x = Ans.
x R R 1 k2

GMmr
9. Fg =
R3
GMmr cos
pressing force = Fg cos =
R3
GMm
= 2 R2 = constant

## Fg sin GMr sin

a= =
m R3
GMy
a=
R3

10.* In elliptical orbit sun is at one of the foci hence the distance between the planet and sun changes as planet
revolves hence linear speed, kinetic energy and potential energy of planet donot remain constant

2 2
11.* S = , E =
1 .5 24

1 1
west to east = 2
1.5 24

2
T west to east = = 1.6 hours
west to east
Similarly
1 1
east to west = 2
1 . 5 24

24
T east to west = hours
17

RESONANCE SOLN_GRAVITATION - 53
EXERCISE-3
GMm 1
1. P.E. = K.E. = mV2
r 2
GMm 1
Total energy = + mV2
r 2

GMm 1 2GM
T.E. = 0 if mV 2 0 v =
r 2 r

2GM 2GM
For v < T.E. is ve for v > , T.E. is + ve
r r

GM
If V is i.e. equal to orbital velocity, path is circular..
r
If T.E. is negative, path is elliptical.
If T.E. is zero, path is parabolic.
If T.E. is positive, path is hyperbolic.

## 2. (A) At centre of thin spherical shell V 0, E = 0.

(B) At centre of solid sphere V 0 , E = 0.
(C) At centre of spherical cavity inside solid sphere V 0, E 0.
(D) At centre of two point masses V 0, E=0.

4 2 3 1/ 3
GM 2 1 GM
T = GM R
2
5. R= 2 T2 / 3 log R = log T + log 2
4 3 3 4
y = mx + c
2
(3) Slope =m=
3

20
GM 10 11 M
1 3 = 18
intercept c = log 2 = 6 log
3 4 4 10
(4) M = 6 1029 Kg
(5) T 2 R3
3 2 2 3 2
RA R R 1
= A = B = B B =
RB RB A 4R A A 8
rel = 80 0 = 70 rel = (rel) t 2 = (T0) t
2
t=
T 0

6. Let M and R be the mass and radius of the earth respectively. If m be the mass of satellite, then escape
velocity from earth e = ( 2 Rg)

e
Velocity of satellite s = = (2 R g) / 2 ......... (1)
2

GM R 2g
Further ]s = =
R h
r

R 2g
2s =
Rh
h = R = 6400 km

RESONANCE SOLN_GRAVITATION - 54
4 2 3
7. T2 = x
Gm
Hence time period of revolution T is

x3
T = 2 (Put x = 2R)
Gm

8R
T = 2 g

8. Now total energy at height h = total energy at earth's surface (from principle of conservation of energy)
m 1 m
0GM = m2 GM
Rh 2 R
1 GM m GMm
or m2 = ( h = R)
2 R 2R
v= gR

9 to 11
Let the angular speed of revolution of both stars be about the
common centre , that is, centre of mass of system.
The centripetal force on star of mass m is

2d Gm(2m) 4 2 3
m2 = . Solving we get T= d
3 d2 3Gm
The ratio of angular momentum is simply the ratio of moment of inertia
about center of mass of system.
2
2d
m
Lm Im 3
2 2
LM I M d
2m
3
Similarly, The ratio of kinetic energy is simply the ratio of moment of inertia about center of mass of
system.
2
1 2d
I m 2 m
Km 3
2 2 2
+ KM 1
I M 2 2m d
2
3

12. Till the particle reaches the centre of planet, force on both bodies are in direction of their respective velocities,
hence kinetic energies of both keep on increasing . After the particle crosses the centre of planet, forces on
both are retarding in nature. Hence as the particle passes through the centre of the planet, sum of kinetic
energies of both the bodies is maximum. Therefore statement-1 is True, Statement-2 is True; Statement-2 is
a correct explanation for Statement-1.
B2
13._ It is minimum ve (iii) Energy density = and B increases by a large factor..
2 0 r
15. for closed paths (circular or elliptical) the total mechanical energy is negative.
14. (i) g = g R cos 2
At equator = 0
g = g R
0 = g R

RESONANCE SOLN_GRAVITATION - 55
g 9.8
= = = 1.24 10 3 rad/s
R 6400 103

dA L
(ii) = = constant because angular momentum of planet (L) about the centre of sun is constant.
dt 2m
Thus, this law comes from law of conservation of angular momentum.
(iii) T r 3 / 2
3/2 3/2 3/2
T2 r2 r2 3.5 R
T2 =
T1 = r1 or T1 = (24) h = 8.48 h

r1 7R

EXERCISE-4
PART - I
1. Time period of a satellite very close to earths surface is 84.6 minutes. Time period increases as the distance
of the satellite from the surface of earth increase. So, time period of spy satellite orbiting a few hundred km,
above the earths surface should be slightly greater than 84.6 minutes. Therefore, the most appropriate
option is (C) or 2 hrs.
2. (A) Gravitational field is a conservative force field. In a conservative force field work done is path independent.
W I = W II = W III
2GM
3. speed of particle at A VA = escape velocity on the surface of moon =
R
At highest point B, VB = 0
From energy conservation.

1 UB U A
mVA2 = VB VA = m
2 m m

VA2 UB UA UA GM
or , also [3R2 r2]
2 m m m 2R 3
2
GM GM GM 2 R
1 .5R 0. 5 R
R R h R3 100

2
1 1 3 1 99 1
or
R R h 2R 2 100 R
or h = 99.5 R 99R Ans
rA C rB B
4. A
mA com mB

Gm A m B 4 2 4 2
= mArA = m B rB
(rA rB ) 2 TA2 TB2

m A rA mB rB

TA2 TB2
As C is com mArA = mBrB
hence TA = TB
5. (A) It is similar equation as v = a 2 x 2 in SHM.
(B) Particle on positive x-axis move towards origin with speed decreasing as x decreasing.
(C) It is spring mass system performing SHM.
(D) Object moves away from Earth so its speed will decrease, since its speed is greater than escape velocity
so it will never return back.

RESONANCE SOLN_GRAVITATION - 56
6. = 0 r<R
=0 r>R
Case I r < R
mV 2
FC =
r

r mV 2
mg (g = acceleration due to gravity at surface of sphere)
R r

g
V= r for r < R
R

Case II r>R
GMm mV 2
=
r2 r

GM g
V= R So
r r

7. If only gravitational force acts on astronaut (that is in state of free fall), he shall feel weightless. Thus
statement-2 is correct explanation of statement-1.
8. W ext = U UP
Gdm
W ext = 0 .1 P
x
M 2rdr 2GM rdr x
W ext = G 7R 2
16R 2 r 2
=
7R 2
16R 2 r 2
3R
2GM zdz 2GM r dr
= = [Z] 4R
7R 2 z 7R 2
4R
2GM 2 2
W ext = 16R r
7R 2 3R

2GM 2GM
W ext =
7R 2 4 2R 5R W ext =
7R 2
4
2 5 .

c.m.
A B
9. 2.2 Ms 5d d
6 6 11 Ms

5d 5d dd
( 2.2Ms ) (11 Ms )
Total angular momentum about c.m. 6 6 66
Angular momentum of B about c.m. = dd
= 6.
(11 Ms )
66

4
(G) R 3
GM 3
10. g= = ; g R
R2 R 2

4
g' ' R' 2 R' (G) ()) R 3
6 R' 3 6 GM 3
g = R = 3 R = 11 Given, = Ve = =

R 22 R R

Ve R ; Ve = 3 km/hr.

RESONANCE SOLN_GRAVITATION - 57
1 1 2
11. Ve = 2v 0 KE = mv 2e = m 2 v 0 = mv02
2 2

4
2GM 2.G. R 3 4G
12. Ves = = 3 = R
R R 3

Ves R
Sarface area of P = A = 4RP2
Surface area of Q = 4A = 4 RQ2 RQ = 2Rp
mass R is MR = MP + MQ
4 3 4 3 4 3
R R = R P + RQ RR3 = RP3 + RQ3
3 3 3
= 9RP3
RR = 91/3 RP RR > RQ > RP
VR VP 1
1/3
Therefore VR > VQ > VP VP = 9 and VQ = 2
PART - II
1. Electric charge on the moon = electric charge on the earth

## 2GM 2GMe 10 2GMe

2. V= = Re = 10 Re = 110 k m/s
R
10
3. Acceleration due to gravity at leight h from earth surface.
g g g

2 9 2
g' = 1 h h
1 h = 2R
R R

Gm G( 4m) 1 2
4. 2 = 2 =
x (r x ) x rx

r
r x = 2x 3x =
3
r
x=
3
Gm G( 4m) 3Gm 6Gm 9Gm
= Ans.
r /3 2r / 3 r r r

Gm 2
5. = m2R
(2R )2

Gm 2
= 2
4R 3

Gm Gm Gm
= 3 v = R v= 3 R =
4R 4R 4R

GMm GMm
6. W = 0
R R

m
= gR2 = mgR = 1000 10 6400 103
R
= 64 109 J = 6.4 1010

RESONANCE SOLN_GRAVITATION - 58
TOPIC : WORK, POWER AND ENERGY

EXERCISE-1
PART - I
SECTION (A)
A 1. f = mg = F
Displacement = vt
(a) W mg = mg vt cos90 = 0
(b) W N = N vt cos90 = 0
(c) W f = mgvt
(d) W F = Fvt = mgvt.

1
A 6. m = 500 g = kg
2
mg sin = fk
1 4
Wfk = (mg sin ) (2) = (10) 2=8J
2
5

A 7. W 1 = (mg sin )4
4
= (20 10 ) (4) = 640 J
5
WF2 + WGrav = K = 0

## WF2 (mg sin ) (4) = 0

W 2 = WF = 4 mg sin = 640 J
2

SECTION (B)
B 2. W = Area under given graph from x = 0 to x = 35m
1 1
= (20 + 40) 10 55
2 2
575
= J.
2
B 4. F at any moment
( x )
= mg

mg( x)
W= dx
0

mg
= .
2
SECTION (C)
C 4. Work done by resistive force = W R = K
1
= 20 103 (1002 8002)
2
= 6300 J
6300 J
So, average resistive force <R> = = 6300 N.
1m

## RESONANCE SOLN_Work, Power & Energy - 59

1 2
C 6. Work done by the force = F ds = F at
2
1 F
= F t2
2 m

F2 t 2 20 2 10 2
= = = 4000 J
2m 25
1
Now K = m(v2 u2)
2
1
= m (2as)
2
F 1 F
=m t2
m 2 m

F2 t 2
= = 4000 J
2m
W F = K.

C-10. U = K
1 2
kx 2mgx = 0
2
4mg
x= .
k

C-11. (a) Since, gravitational force is conservative, So, work done by it in round trip is zero.
5 1
(b) sin = =
10 2
= 30
W F = mg(sin + cos)
1 3
= 0.3 9.8 2 0.15 2 10 = 18.519 J

(c) W f = f.s
= mg cos (2)
3
= 2mg cos = 2 0.15 0.3 9.8 10 = 7.638 J.
2
(d) By W.E.T,
Kf Ki = W F + W f + W g
Kf = (18.519 7.638)J = 10.880 J.
C 12. Displacement of 4kg block = 2 2m = 4m
4kg = 2 2m = 4m
Final speed of 4kg block = 2 0.3 = 0.6 m/s
4kg = 2 0.3 = 0.6 m/s
W f + W g = K
1 1
4 10 4 + 2 10 2 = 4 (0.6)2 + 2 (0.3)2
2 2
40 0.81
160 = 40 (0.72 + 0.09) = = 0.2449
160

## RESONANCE SOLN_Work, Power & Energy - 60

C-14. (i) w.r.t. person in the train
Ft
v1 = at =
m
(ii) w.r.t. person on ground,
Ft
v = vc + v1 = vc +
m
(iii) According to person in the train,
1 F2 t 2
K1 = mv12 =
2 2m
(iv) According to person on ground,
2
1 Ft 1 2
K = m v c m 2 mv c .
2

1 2 Ft 2
(v) S1 = at = .
2 1 2m
(vi) According to person on ground,
1 F 2 Ft 2
S = vct + t = + vct.
2 m 2m
(vii) According to person in the train
work done by F = Fs1
F2 t 2
=
2m
According to person on ground,
Work done by F = F.s
Ft 2
= 2m v c t .
F

(viii) Comparing W g = Kg
and W c = Kc .

## (ix) Workenergy theorem holds in moving frame also.

SECTION (D)
D 5. Let m1 = 2m2
(m1 m 2 ) m2
a = (m m ) g = 3m g = g/3
1 2 2

1 2
So, distance travelled by each block = at = g/6
2
2m1m 2 g 4m 2 g
Also T = m m = = 16
1 2 3

12
m2 = g

## Hence, loss in gravitation P.E. during first second

= (m1 m2)gh
g 12 g
= (2m2 m2) g = g g 6 = 2g.
6

## RESONANCE SOLN_Work, Power & Energy - 61

32 g
D 6. a= g=
32 5
(2n 1)a
Distance covered in fourth second =
2
( 2 4 1) g 7g
= =
25 10
Hence, work done by gravity = (m2 m1)gh
7g
= (3 2)g
10
7 2
= g .
10
D 7. W s + W g + W f = K
1 2
kx + mgx sin37 mg cos37 x = 0
2
1 3 4
100 (0.1)2 + 1 10 0.1 1 10 0.1
2 5 5
1
= .
8

SECTION (E)
mgh 400 10 120
E 4. Power developed by motor = = = 1600 W..
t 5 60

mgh
E 6. Power P =
t
Pt 2 10 3 60
m = gh = kg = 1200 kg.
10 10

mgh
E 7. P=
t

mgh 200 10 40
t= = sec. = 8 second.
P 10 1000

1
E 8. 20 kg / minute = 20 kg / 60 sec = kg/s
3

1 10 20
P = g (20) = watt
3
3
746 W = 1 H.P
100
P= HP
1119

## RESONANCE SOLN_Work, Power & Energy - 62

SECTION (F)

F 1. (a) w = F.ds

= ( x 2 y 2 i x 2 y 2 j ).(dx i dy j )

= ( x 2 y 2 dx x 2 y 2dy )
which is not a perfect integral and hence cannot be integrated without knowing y = f(x) or x = f(y). So, work

done by F depends on path. So, it is nonconservative force.
(b) While moving along AB, y = 0 and along BC, x = a.
a a
2 2 2 2
W ABC = x y dx x y dy
0 0

a3 a5
= 0 + a2
=
3 3
While moving along AD, x = 0 and along DC, y = a
a a
2 2 2 2
So W ADC = x y dx x y dy
0 0

a3 a5
= 0 + a2 . =
3 5
Along AC
x=y
a a
2 2 2 2
So W AC = x y dx x y dy
0 0

a
2 2 2 2
a
2a 5
= x x dx y y dy = .
0 0 5
dU
F 2. (a) F(y) = dy =

dU
(b) F(y) = dy = 3ay2 + 2by

dU
(c) F(y) = dy = U0 cos y..

## F 5. At x = 0, total energy is in form of K.E. since U = 0

and it turns back when its K.E. = 0
So, total energy is in form of P.E.
U = K
1 2
kx = 1
2
x2 = 1 2 2
x = 2m Ans.

PART - II
SECTION (A)
A 3. W = (force) (displacement ) = (force) (zero ) = 0
A 6. W = (2000 sin 15) 10 = 5176.8 J

## RESONANCE SOLN_Work, Power & Energy - 63

1 1 1
A 9. S1 = g 12 , s2 = g 22 , S3 = g 32
2 2 2
1 1
S2 S1 = g 3, S3 S2 = g5
2 2
W 1 = (mg) S1, W 2 = (mg) (S2 S1) , W 3 = (mg) (S3 S2)
W1 : W2 : W3 = 1 : 3 : 5

1
A 10. T = mg + ma, S = at2
2
WT = T S
m(g a)at 2
=
2

## A 14.* W = K > 0 K ( = kinetic energy) increases

p= 2mk , p as k.
A 15.* W f + W G + W N = K = 0
As W G = 0, W N = 0 so W f = 0.

SECTION (B)
x1
x12
B 1. W= cx dx = c
2
o

F 1 F2
B 2. F = K1x1 , x1 = K , W 1 = K x2 =
1 2 1 1 2 K1

F2
similarly W2 = since K1 > K2 , W 1 < W 2
2K2

SECTION (C)
Ft2
F 1 F 2
C 2. a= , S= t , W F = FS = F 2 m
m 2 m

1 gt 2
C 5. h= gt2, W = mgh = mg , W = Kf Ki
2 2

mg2 t 2 1 1 mg2 t 2
= Kf mu2, Kf = mu2 +
2 2 2 2
Hence Ans. is (A)

v x
dV V2 Kx 2
C-10. V = Kx, 2 2
dx
u 0
V2 u2 = Kx2
1 1 1
mu2 mV2 = mK x2
2 2 2
Loss x2

## RESONANCE SOLN_Work, Power & Energy - 64

x
C 12. (mg sin ) x mg cos dx = 0
0

x
sin x = o cos x dx
0

x2 2 tan
x tan = 0 , x= 0
2

SECTION (D)
1
D 3. Ui + 0 = Uf + mv2
2
1
Ui Uf = mv2
2
1
U= mv2
2
2U
m=
v2
1
D 4. mu2 = mgh, u2 = 2gh ....(i)
2

3h
mg 4 + K.E. = mgh

mgh
K.E. =
4

K.E. mgh / 4 1
= 3mgh / 4 =
P.E. 3

D 6. W F + W S = 0, W F U = 0 , W F = U = E
1 1
E= K x 2 , FxA = K x2
2 A A 2 A A

2F 2F 2E 2F2
K A = xA , K A = KA
, KA
=
E
...(i)

2F2 2F2
2F2
= 2 E

similarly KB = , KA = 2KB
EB E B
EB = 2E
Alter :
F = KA xA = KBxB
1
EA = K x2
2 A A
1
EB = K x2
2 B B
2
EA K A x A

EB K B x B
2
EA 1 1
2
EB 2
2

## RESONANCE SOLN_Work, Power & Energy - 65

1 1
D 7. 100 = K(2cm)2 , E = K(4cm)2
2 2
E
so =4, E = 400 J
100
E 100 = 300 J
1 11
D 13. ( 2m)u2 mv 2 .... (i)
2 22

1 1
(2m) (u + 1)2 = mv2 ....(ii)
2 2
1
From (i) and (ii) u=
2 1

## D 14. W 1 = work done by spring on first mass

W 2 = work done by spring on second mass
W 1 = W 2 = W (say)
W 1 + W 2 = Ui Uf
1
2W = 0 Kx2
2

Kx 2
W=
4

D 15. W a + W c = K = 0, W a mg 2 2 cos 60 = 0

mg 1 5
Wa = = (0.5) (10) 4 = J.
4 4
SECTION (E)

E 3. V = 0 + at, F mg = ma , F = mg + ma,
P = (mg + ma) at

## E 5. P = TV = 4500 2 = 9000 W = 9KW

E 6. P1 = 80 gh/15 , P2 = 80 gh/20
P1 20 4
P2 = 15 = 3

SECTION (F)
dU dU
F-2. ve, ve
dx x A dx x B
So, FA = positive, FB = negative

F-5. WC = WC + WC = 5 + 2 = 7
PR PQ QR
U
F-6. = cos (x + y),
x
U
y = cos (x + y)

F = cos (x + y) i cos (x + y) j

= cos (0 + ) i cos (0 + ) j
4 4
|F | = 1

## RESONANCE SOLN_Work, Power & Energy - 66

EXERCISE-2
PART - I
F F
1. a = (m m ) f1 = m1a = m1 (m m )
1 2 1 2

2F f1 f2 = m2a

## f2 = 2F + f1 + m2a = m1a + m2a 2F

F
f2 = (m2 + m1) (m m ) 2F = F 2F = F f2 = F
1 2
2F K (m2 + m1)g = (m2 + m1)a
F F
2F (m2 + m1) (m m ) = K (m2 + m1)g (m m )g = K
1 2 1 2

## W = work done by friction force on smaller block

m1F
= f 1x = x
(m 2 m1 )

2. mg = N + F sin .......(1)
N = F cos .......(2)
mg = F cos + F sin
mg
F= .......(3)
cos sin

WF = = Ans.
cos sin 5 tan

## F is min. if D = cos + sin is maximum and its maximum value is 1 2

mg 1 2 mg
Fmin. = 2 =
1 1 2

10
mg
WFmin =
1 2 1 2
= 0.2, mg = 4000 Nt
(0.2)( 4000 )10 400 20 8000
WFmin = = = = 7692.307 J Ans.
( 1 ( 0 . 2) 2 ) 2 ( 1 0.04 ) 2 1.04

m
4. fK = ( x)g

m( x )g

W= dx
x 4

2
mg [( x ) ] 4
W=
2
mg 9 2 9mg
= =
2 16 32

## RESONANCE SOLN_Work, Power & Energy - 67

7. (a) Taking F = 40 N, m = 4 kg , = 53
ax = (F cos mg sin )/m
4
= (40 cos 40 )/4 = 10 cos 8
5
F sin 40 sin
ay = = = 10 sin
m 4
1
x=02+ (10 cos 8) (2)2 = 20 cos 16
2
1
y= (10 sin ) (2)2 = 20 sin
2
WF = (F cos ) x + (F sin )y
WF = (40 cos ) (20 cos 16) + (40 sin ) 20 sin
= 800 cos2 640 cos + 800 sin2
WF = 800 640 cos
WF 800 640
WF 160 J
(b) If W F = 160 J then 160 = 800 640 cos cos = 1
y = 0 and x = 20 16 = 4
4
W G = (mg sin ) (4) = (4 10 )4
5
= 128 J
(c) F acts along the x-axis.
W G + W F = K
128 + 160 = K Kf = 32 J.

9.

## Work energy theorem (Between A & C)

W f + W G + W sp = K
mg cos (5 + 3) + mg 2 sin = 0
2 3
= tan 37o =
8 16
work energy theorem (bet. A & B)
W sp + W G + W f = K
1
mg 5 sin 37o mg 5 cos K (0.4)2 = 0
2
3 3 4 1 16
(4 10) 5 (5) = K
5 16 5 2 100

## K = 9000/ 8 N/m so x=9

10. Work energy Theorem on m
W G + N + W T + W f =K

2

mg R + O + W T (mg sin ) R d = 0
0

W T = mgR ( + 1)

## RESONANCE SOLN_Work, Power & Energy - 68

11. W F + W Sp + W fric = K
1
Fx Kx2 m1g x = 0 & Kx = m2g
2

1
F m2g m1g = 0
2

m 2 g
F = m1g +
2
13. mg = kx
mg 100
K= = = 500 N/m
x 0 .2

1 1
K (0.2)2 + mv2 = m 10 0.2
2 2

1 1
500 4 102 + 10 v2 = 10 10 0.2
2 2
10 + 5v2 = 20
v2 = 2
v= 2 m/s
Since u is 4 m/s ( ) so block will compress the spring.
Let x be the compression of spring.
1 1 1 1
mu 2 + K (0.2)2 + 0 = m(0)2 + Kx2 + mg (x + 0.2)
2 2 2 2

1 1 4 1
10 (4)2 + 500 = 500 (x)2 + 10 10 (x + 0.2)
2 2 100 2
80 + 10 = 250x2 + 100 x + 20
25 x2 + 10 x 7 = 0 solving this
x = 0.36 m
So from initial position distance is ( 0.2 + 0.36) m = 56 cm

## 15. (i) mg = T cos

2mg 2 x
mg = a x 2 a a
a

2 2
a x

a
x=
2

1 2 1 1
(ii) K 2a + mga = K (2a a)2 + mv2
2 2 2

1 2mg 1
(2a2 a2) + mga = mv2
2 a 2

4ga = v

## RESONANCE SOLN_Work, Power & Energy - 69

2
1 2 1 2 2
(iii) K 2a + mg a = K a y mg y
2 2

1 1
K2a2 + mg a = K(a2 + y2) mgy
2 2

## 1 2mg 1 2mg 2 1 2mg 2

2a2 + mg a = a + y mg y
2 a 2 a 2 a

mg y 2
3 mg a mg a = mg y
a

mg y 2
2 mg a = mg y
a
2a2 = y2 ay
y2 ay 2a2 = 0
y2 + ay 2ay 2a2
y (a + y) = 2a (y + a) y = 2a

16. (a) P = Fext . V

Where V is the vel. of point of application
Fext + m, g = T & m2g =T
Fext = m2g m,g = (m2m1) g
P = (m2m1) g v Ans.
(b) Fext + m,g T = m,a
Tm2g = m2a
_____________________________
Fext = (m1+ m2) a (m2m1)g
= m2(g+a) m1(g a)

P = (Fext) (0 + at)
= {m2(g+a) m1 (g a)} at Ans.

19.

a 1
g [ma + ma + M ] = g [ m2a + m0 + Ma] + (M + m + m)v2
2 2

Ma
2g[2ma ma Ma ma]
2 =v
M m m'

M 2(m m)
v= ag Ans.
M m m

## RESONANCE SOLN_Work, Power & Energy - 70

21. U (x) = 20 + (x 2)2
du
= 2(x 2)
dx
F = 2(x 2)
F = 2(x 2)
m (x 2) = 2 (x 2)
Let x = x 2
mx = 2 x
1x =2x
x=2x Simple Harmonic Motion
Mean position is x = x 2 = 0 x = 2
W2 = 2 ,
1
Kinetic energy = mv2
2
1
= (1) (2) (A2 x2) = x 2, x = 5 2 = 3
2
1
20 = (1) (2) {A2 32}
2
20 = A2 9 A2 = 29 A = 29
Aliter :
for mean position
dU
F= = 2(x 2) = 0 x=2
dx
At x = 5
K.E. = 20 J
U(x = 5) = 20 + (5 2)2 = 29 J
Total energy, T.E. = 20 + 29 = 49 J
At amplitude
U(x)max = 49 J = 20 + (x 2)2
29 J = (x 2)2
x=2 29
x=2+ 29 , 2 29
xmin = 2 29 = 3.38
xmax = 2 + 29 = 7.38
K.E.max when U(x) is minimum at x = 2
U(x)min = 20 J
KEmax = 29 J
22. Using work energy thoerem,
2
3R 1 4mg R 1 2
W f + mg
2

2 R 2
=
2
m 3gR
1
Wf = mgR
2

## f = N (as kinetic friction)

Wf = f dx =
Fs cos d x
( x = 2 R tan ; dx = 2 R sec2 d)
Fs = k 2 R (sec 1)

## RESONANCE SOLN_Work, Power & Energy - 71

0
2
Wf = 4 R k (sec 2 sec ) d 0 = tan 1 (3/4)
0

0 mgR
= 4 R2 k tan n (sec tan ) = 4 R2 k [ tan 0 ln (sec 0 + tan 0)] =
0 2

3 5 3 mg R
4 R2 k n = R2 k [3 4 ln 2] =
4 4 4 2
mg 1
= = Ans.
2 R k (3 4 n 2) 8 (3 4 n 2)

## 23. Velocity will be maximum when a = 0

For a = 0, F = 0
This situation occurs for ve following arrangement of springs.
Natural length is c = 150 mm
Now , Ui + Ki = Uf + Kf
1 1
Ui = K{ 5 c c}2 + K{ 2 c c}2
2 2 150 150
Ki = 0
1
Uf = 2. K{ 2 c c}2
2
1 1
K{ 5 c c}2 + K{ 2 c c}2
2 2
1 1
= mv2 + 2. K{ 2 c c}2
2 2
Solving the equation & putting the values
we have
1/ 2
15
v = ( 5 1)2 ( 2 1)2
m/s = 3.189 ms1 .
2

PART - II
3. W agent + W G = K = 0
W agent = W G, But W G is independent of the path joining initial and final position. W G is independent of time
taken.
5. W f + W G = K
1
mgd mgh = 0 m v02
2
1
gd + gh = (v02)
2
7
(0.6) (10) d + 10(1.1) = 18 d= = 1.1666 1.17
6
7. W S + W f = K
U + W f = Ki
Uf mgx = Ki
1 1
K x 2 + mgx = mu2
2 2
100 x 2 + 2(0.1) (50) (10) x = 50 4
x2 + x 2 = 0
x=1m

## RESONANCE SOLN_Work, Power & Energy - 72

ds
8. v= s s ,
dt
s t
ds
dt
s 2 s = t
0 0

s = t/2 ....(1)
W = workdone by all the forces = K

1 1 1 2 t 2
= mv2 = m 2s = m 2
2 2 2 4

10. K.E. + P.E. = constant fu;r = C (say)
1
K mg (tu sin gt2) = C
2
1
K = mg [tu sin gt2] + C [= parabolic]
2
C 0 so answer is (B)
dU
12. = positive constant
dx
For x < a, F = negative constant and for x > a, F = 0
so, ans. (C)
p2 1 1
14. E= , ( E) P = = constant
2m 2m
Rectangular hyperbola (C)

17. System is block & string. Applying work energy theorem on system
1
(200)10 10g(R R cos60) = (10)v2
2
2(200 10 5) = v2
v= 300 = 10 3 .

19. dW = F . ds where ds = dx i + dy j

and F = K ( y i + xj )
dW = K ( ydx + xdy = K d (xy)
( a, a ) ( a, a )
(a, a)
W= dW = K d ( xy ) = K [xy]
( 0, 0 ) ( 0, 0 ) (0, 0)
W = Ka 2
20. From given graphs :

3 3 3
ax = t and ay = t 1 vx = t2 + C
4 4 8
At t = 0 : vx = 3 C=3
3 2 3 2
vx = t 3 dx = t 3 dt .... (1)
8 8

3 2
Similarly; dy = t t 4 dt .... (2)
8

As dw = F. ds = F.( dx i dy j )
W 4
3 3 3 2 3
dw 4 t i 4 t 1 j . 8 t 3 i t 2 t 4 j dt
0 0
8

## RESONANCE SOLN_Work, Power & Energy - 73

W = 10 J
Alternate Solution :
Area of the graph ;

a x dt = 6 = V( x ) f ( 3) V(x)f = 3.

## and a y dt = 10 = V( y ) f ( 4) V(y)f = 6. Thus, u = 5 m/s and v = 45 m/s.

Now work done = KE = 10 J
1 1 1 1
22.* W G = K, mgh = mv2 mu2, mu2 + mgh = mv2
2 2 2 2
so v > u and v depends upon u.

23.* dW F = F . ds , if F perpendicular to ds then

ds
dW F = 0, ds is displacement of point of application of force, v = .
dt
(A), (C), (D) are true.

EXERCISE-3
1. The displacement of A shall be less than displacement L of block B.
Hence work done by friction on block A is positive and its magnitude is less than mgL.
And the work done by friction on block B is negative and its magnitude is equal to mgL.
Therefore workdone by friction on block A plus on block B is negative its magnitude is less than mgL.
Work done by F is positive. Since F>mg, magnitude of work done by F shall be more than mgL.

## 2. The FBD of block is

Angle between velocity of block and normal
reaction on block is obtuse
work by normal reaction on block is negative.
As the block fall by vertical distance h,
from work energy Theorem
Work done by mg + work done by N = KE of block
1
|work done by N| = mgh mv2
2
1
mv2 < mgh
2
|work done by N| < mgh
(B) Work done by normal reaction on wedge is positive
Since loss in PE of block = K.E. of wedge + K.E. of block
Work done by normal reaction on wedge = KE of wedge.
Work done by N < mgh.
(C) Net work done by normal reaction on block and wedge is zero.
(D) Net work done by all forces on block is positive, because its kinetic energy has increased.
Also KE of block < mgh
Net work done on block = final KE of block < mgh.
du
3. If the particle is released at the origin, it will try to go in the direction of force. Here is positive
dx
and hence force is negative, as a result it will move towards ve x-axis.

4. When the particle is released at x = 2 + it will reach the point of least possible potential energy (15 J)
where it will have maximum kinetic energy.
1 2
m v max = 25 vmax = 5 m/s
2

## RESONANCE SOLN_Work, Power & Energy - 74

6. (A) W CL + W f = KE W CL = KE W f
(a) During accelerated motion negative work is done against friction and there is also change is kinetic
energy. Hence net work needed is +ve.
(b) During uniform motion work is done against friction only and that is +ve.
(c) During retarded motion, the load has to be stopped in exactly 50 metres. If only friction is consid-
ered then the load stops in 12.5 metres which is less than where it has to stop.
Hence the camel has to apply some force so that the load stops in 50m (>12.5 m). Therefore the work
done in this case is also +ve.
7. W CL|accelerated motion = KE W friction where W CL is work done by camel on load.
1 2
= 2 mv 0 k mg.50

1 125
= 1000 5 2 0.1 10 1000 50 = 1000
2 2
similarly, W CL|retardation = KE W friction

1 2 75
0 2 mv [k mg.50] = 1000 2

## WCL |accelerate d motion 125 5

WCL |retarded motion = = 5:3
75 3

## 8. Maximum power = Fmax V

Maximum force applied by camel is during the accelerated motion.
We have V2 U2 = 2as
25 = 02 + 2 . a . 50
a = 0.25 m/s 2 ; for accelerated motion
FC f = ma
FC = mg + ma = 0.1 1000 10 + 1000 2.5
= 1000 + 250 = 1250 N
This is the critical point just before the point where it attains maximum velocity of almost 5 m/s.
Hence maximum power at this point is = 1250 5 = 6250 J/s.
14. Potential energy depends upon positions of particles
15. (i) The net force on the body may have acute angle with its velocity, but one of the constituent force
may have obtuse angle with the velocity. Such a force shall perform negative work on the body even
though the kinetic energy of the body is increasing.
(ii) A net force that is always perpendicular to velocity of the particle does no work but changes the
direction of its velocity.
(iii) A force which is always constant is also conservative.
(iv) From Work - Energy theorem
W all forces = KEfinal KEinitial

EXERCISE-4
PART - I

1. Power P = F . V = FV
dm
F=V = V d( volume = density
dt dt
d( volume
= V = V (AV)
dt
2
= AV
Power P = AV3
or P V3

## RESONANCE SOLN_Work, Power & Energy - 75

Alternate Solution
Power output is proportional to number of molecular striking the blades per unit time [which depends
on the velocity V of wind] and also proportional to energy to striking molecules or proportional to square
of velocity V2 Therefore, power output P V3
dU
2. F=
dx
x
3
dU = F . dx or ;k U(x) = ( kx ax ) dx

0

2 4
kx ax
U(x) =
2 4
2k
U(x) = 0 and x = 0 and x=
a

2k
U(x) = negative for x>
a
From the given function we can see that
F = 0 at x = 0 i.e. slope of U-x graph is zero at x = 0. Therefore, the most appropriate option is (d).
3. Let x be the maximum extension of the spring. From conservation of mechanical energy :
decrease in gravitational potential energy = increase in elastic potential energy
1 2
Mgx = kx
2
2Mg
or x=
k

dU
4. From F =
dx
U( x ) x x

dU Fdx (kx ) dx
0 0 0

kx 2
U(x) =
2
as U(0) = 0
Therefore, the correct option is (A).

5. In horizontal plane Kinetic Energy of the block is completely converted into heat due to Friction but in the
case of inclined plane some part of this Kinetic Energy is also convert into gravitational Potential Energy. So
decrease in the mechanical energy in second situation is smaller than that in the first situation. So state-
ment-1 is correct.
Cofficient of Friction does not depends on normal reaction, In case normal reaction changes with inclination
but not cofficient of friction so this statement is wrong.

6.

## RESONANCE SOLN_Work, Power & Energy - 76

As springs and supports (m 1 and m 2) are having negligible mass. Whenever springs pull the massless
supports, springs will be in natural length. At maximum compression, velocity of B will be zero.

## And by energy conservation

1 1 y 1
(4K) y2 = Kx 2 Ans. (C)
2 2 x 2
2m1m2 2 0.72 0.36
7. T = m m g = 10
1 2 0.72 0.36
T = 4.8 N
m1 m2 g 1 2 1 g 10
a = m m g = s= at = (1)2 =
1 2 3 2 2 3 6
Work done by T = (T) (S)
10
= (4.8) =8J Ans.
6

8. Fdt p
1 1 9
43 1.5 2 = pf 0 pf = 6 1.5 =
2 2 2
p2 81
K.E. = = ;K.E. = 5.06 J Ans.
2m 4 22

PART - II
1. Let initial velocity is u and retardation is a
u2
So, (vr%) = u2 2a (0.03) ...(i)
4

u2
0= 2a S ..(ii)
4
here S is required distance
from equation (i) & (ii)
S = 0.01 m = 1 cm
2. W C = U
= (Ufinal Uinitial)
1 2 1 2
= k 15 k 5 ]
2 2
W C = 8 Joule
3. K = 5 103 N/m
x = 5 cm
1 1
W 1 = k x12 = 5 103 (5 102)2 = 6.25 J
2 2

W2 = k(x1 + x2)2
2

= 5 103 (5 + 102 + 5 102)2 = 25J
2
Net work done = W 2 W 1 = 25 6.25 = 18.75 J
= 18.75 N-m

## RESONANCE SOLN_Work, Power & Energy - 77

M 4
4. Mass per unit length = = = 2 kg/m
L 2
The mass of 0.6 m of chain = 0.6 2 = 1.2 kg
0.6 0
The centre of mass of hanging part = = 0.3 m
2
Hence, work done in pulling the chain on the table
W = mgh
= 1.2 10 0.3
= 1.2 10 0.3
= 3. 6 J

m 0
7. F = ma = a
T T
Instantaneous power = F
= ma
m m
= . at = . .t
T T T

m2
= .t
T2

## 8. Maximum height attained by the particle

u2 52 5
H m
2g 2 10 4
W g = -MgH = -0.1 10 (5/4) = -1.25 J

## 9. Velocity of ball just after throwing

v= 2gh = 2 10 2 = 40 m/s
Let a be the acceleration of ball during throwing, then

v2 40
v2 = u2 + 2as = 02 + 2as a= = = 100 m/s2
2s 2 0 .2
F - mg = ma F = m(g + a) = 0.2(10 + 100) = 22 N
(2) is correct

1 1 1 v2 11 K
10. mv 2 k m( v cos 60)2 m mv 2
2 2 2 4 42 4

## 11. Assuming mass of athlete is between 40 kg to 100 kg

here we will consider mass of athlete m = 50 kg
100
V = S/t = = 10 m/sec
10
So, K = 1/2 mv2 1/2 (50 102) = 2500 J
So Answer is (C)

12. K.E. = ct
1
mv2 = ct
2

P2
= ct
2m
P= 2ctm

## RESONANCE SOLN_Work, Power & Energy - 78

TOPIC : CIRCULAR MOTION

EXERCISE-1
PART - I
SECTION (A)

A 1. Given v = 2i 2j

## (a) when moves in clockwise `

Ans. : First quadrant
(b) When moves in counter clockwise

## Ans. : Third quadrant

A 3. Given 0 = 0 , = const
1 2
= 0t + t
2
for first two seconds
1
1 = 0 + (2)2 = 2
2
for next two seconds
1 1
2 = 4 2 = (4)2 (2)2 = 6
2 2
2 / 1 = 3 : 1 Ans.
A 5. Given = R = 1 cm , t = 15 Second

V V2 V1
V = 2V
V = R
2 2
V= 1 = cm/sec. V = cm/sec.
60 30 30

V 2
a= = cm/sec2. Ans.
t 30 15

SECTION (B)
B 1. R = 0.25 m , = 2 rev./sec. = 4 rad/sec. (at = 0)
ac = 2R
= (4)2 0.25
= 42 m/s2. Ans.

## RESONANCE SOLN_Circular Motion - 79

B 3. R = 1.0 cm , V = 2.0 t
at t = 1 sec V = 2.0 cm/sec.
v2
ac = = 4 cm/sec2.
R
dv
at = = 2.0 cm/sec2.
dt

a= a c2 a 2t = 2
4 2 2 2 = 2 5 cm/sec . Ans.

SECTION (C)
C 1. m = 200 g = 0.2 kg , g = 2 m/s2

cos 1. 2 6
Time period = 2 = 2 = 2 Ans.
g 2 5

mg 0.2 2 13
Tension = cos = = N Ans.
12 / 13 6

mv 2
C 3. N= given r = 5 m , v = 5 5 m/s
r
for no slipping f mg
min N = mg
mg rg
min = = 2
N v
5 10 2
min = = Ans.
(5 5 ) 2 5

2 1500
C 5. = 2n = rad/sec
60
d
r= = 60 cm = 0.6 m
2
m = 1 g = 103 kg
2
2
2 1500
F = m r = 10 3 0.6
60

15 2
= = 14.8 Ans.
10
This force is exerted by blade of fan and equal force is exerted by particle on blade in same magnitude but
opposite in direction.
SECTION (D)

D 1.

v 2 u2 sin2
R= = Ans.
a g

## RESONANCE SOLN_Circular Motion - 80

SECTION (E)
E 1. Tension is maximum in circular motion in vertical plane at lowest position.
At lowest position
Tmax mg = m2R 30 0.5 10 = 0.5 2 2
25
2 = = 5 rad/sec. Ans.
0. 5 2

## E 3. When string become slack apply equation for centripetal force.

mv 2 ga
= mg cos 60 v= ....(i)
a 2
apply energy conservation
1 1
mu2 = mv2 + mga(1 + cos) ....(ii)
2 2
from equation (i) & (ii)

7ga
u=
2
apply equation for centripetal force at lowest position.

mu2
T mg =
a
put the value of u and we get
T = 9mg/2
E 5. Using energy conservation :
1 2mgh
mv B2 = mgh vB = vB = 2hg .....(1)
2 m
Also to complite vertical circle
vB = 5gR .....(2)

2
R= h = 2 cm
5

Section (F)
F 1. For safe driving vmax = rg

10 = rg

10
for wet road v = rg = = 5 2 m/s Ans.
2 2

## F 4. v = 48 km/hr = 40/3 m/s.

For safe turn without friction

v2 h v2 ( 40 / 3)2 2
tan = = given x = 1m h= = = m Ans.
rg x rg 400 10 45

cos h
F 7. T = 2 geff . = 2 geff .
geff. = g + a ; T = 2 put geff = 20 g + a = 20 a = 10 m/s2.
Ans. Retardation = 10 m/s2
2
Ans. 10 m/s

## RESONANCE SOLN_Circular Motion - 81

PART - II
SECTION (A)
2r
A 1. Speed v1 =
t

2r v 1 2
v2 = 1 = r t ...(i)
t 1

v 2 2
2 = 2r t ...(ii)
2

1 t 2 t2
From eq. (i) and (ii) 1= t
2 t1 1

20
A 3. r= m, at = constant

n = 2nd revolution
v = 80 m/s
v 80
0 = 0, f = = = 4 rad/sec
r 20 /
= 2 2 = 4
from 3rd equation
2 = 02 + 2 (4)2 = 02 + 2 (4) = 2 rad/s2
20
at = r = 2 = 40 m/s2 Ans.

## A 5.* In curved path, may be circular or parabolic.

In circular path speed and magnitude of acceleration are constant.
In parabolic path acceleration is constant.

2 2
A 7. second = = rad/sec.
T 60
2
v = .r = 0.06 m/s = 2 mm/s Ans.
60

v v f v i = 2 v = 2 2 mm/s Ans.

SECTION (B)
B 1. Angular velocity of every particle of disc is same
aP = 2rp , aQ = 2rQ
rP > rQ aP > aQ Ans.

v2
B 3. ac = , radius is constant in case (a) and increase in case (b). So that magnitude of acceleration is
r
constant in case (a) and decrease in case (b).
SECTION (C)
C 1. r = 144 m, m = 16 kg, Tmax = 16 N
mv 2
T=
r

Tr 16 144
v= = = 12 m/s Ans.
M 16

## RESONANCE SOLN_Circular Motion - 82

C 3. Uniformly rotating turn table means angular velocity is constant. New radius is half of the original value.
r = r/2 and = constant
v = r= r/2 = v/2 = 5 cm/s Ans.
a = 2 r = r/2 = a/2 = 5 cm/s2 Ans.

C 5.

M 2 L
T1 T2 = T 1 > T2 Ans.
2 2
SECTION (D)
v2 u2
D 1. At t = 0 a = g cos , R= =
a g cos
SECTION (E)
E 1. Let the car looses the contact at angle with vertical
mv 2 mv 2
mg cos N = N = mg cos
R R
During descending on overbridge is incerese. So cos is decrease
therefore normal reaction is decrease.

mv 2
E 3. T mg cos = ....(1) (from centripetal force)
r
from energy conservation.
1 1
mu2 = mv2 + mgr (1 cos ) (here u is speed at lowest point)
2 2
from (1) and (2)

mu2
T= + 3mg cos 2mg for = 30 & 60 T 1 > T2
r
E 5.* For normal reaction at points A and B.

mv 2 mv 2
mg N = N = mg
r r
NA > NB and normal reaction at C is NC = mg, so NC > NA > NB Ans.

E-7._ T . a = | T | | a | cos = 0
either | T | = 0 or |a|=0 or = 90

V2
a= 0 for whole motion there is velocity.
r
So T = 0, T=0 for

mV 2 mV 2
T + mg = T= mg

1 1
mg 2 + mV2 = mu2
2 2

mu 2
V2 = u2 4 gl T= 5 mg T=0 or T<0 u 5 g

E 9_ T . V = | T | | V | cos
= 90 every time.

So T . V = 0 for every value of u.

## RESONANCE SOLN_Circular Motion - 83

Section (F)
F 1. Here required centripetal force provide by friction force. Due to lack of sufficient centripetal force car thrown
out of the road in taking a turn.
F 3. When train A moves form east to west

m( v R)2 m( v R)2
mg N1 = N1 = mg
R R
N1 = F 1
When train B moves from west to east

m( v R)2 m( v R)2
mg N2 = N2 = mg
R R
N2 = F 2 F1 > F2 Ans.

g
F 5_ mg = m2 R , =
R
EXERCISE-2
PART - I
1. Change in velocity when particle complete the half revolution : v = vf vi = 2v
R
Time taken to complete the half revolution t =
v
v 2v 2v 2 2 52 10
average acceleration = = = = = m/s2 Ans.
t R / v R 5

3
3. ac = a cos 30 = 25 m/s2 Ans.
2

v2 3
ac = v2 = aCR = 25 2.5
R 2
1/ 2
3
v = 125 m/s Ans.
4

25
at = a sin 30 = m/s2 Ans.
2

mv 2
5. (i) The normal reaction by wall on the block is N =
R

mv 2
(ii) The friction force on the block by the wall is f = N =
R

f v 2
(iii) The tangential acceleration of the block = =
m R
v 2R
dv
dv v 2 dv v 2
ds
(iv)
dt
=
R
or v
ds
=
R
v = R
v0 0

v
integrating we get n v = 2 or v = v0 e2
0

## RESONANCE SOLN_Circular Motion - 84

7. Centripetal acceleration
m2 r = T1 cos + T2 cos .... (1)
apply Newton law in vertical direction
T1 sin = mg + T2 sin .....(2)
given m = 4 kg, T1 = 20 kgf = 200 N, r = 3m
3 4
cos = , sin =
5 5
Put in equation (2) T2 = 150 N Ans.
Put in equation (1) we get
210 35 35
2 = = = rad/s
43 2 2

1 35 30 35
n= = rev/sec. n= rev/min. Ans.
2 2 2 2
9. Time take by ring to fall on ground.
2h
T= g
from centripetal force
dv
m2x = ma = mv
dx

dv v L2 v 2
2x = v 2 x d x vdv
2 vx = L
dx 0 0 2 2

2h 2h
x = . T = g vy = L y = T = g

## distance of one ring from center is = y 2 ( x )2

distance between the point on the ground where the rings will fall after leaving the rods.

2h
= 2 y 2 ( x )2 where x = y = g

## 12. (i) CP = CO = Radius of circle (R)

COP = CPO = 60
OCP is also 60
Therefore, OCP is an equilateral triangle.
Hence, OP = R
Natural length of spring is 3R/4.
Extension in the spring
3R R
x=R =
4 4
mg R mg
Spring force, F = kx = =
R 4
4
The free body diagram of the ring will be a shown.
C
mg
Here, F = kx =
4
P
and N = Normal reaction O F
mg

## RESONANCE SOLN_Circular Motion - 85

(ii) Tangential acceleration ar = The ring will move towards
the x-axis just after the release. So, net force along x-axis :

mg 3 3

Fx = F sin 60 + mg sin 60 = + mg 2
4 2

5 3
Fx = mg
8
Therefore, tangential acceleration of the ring.

Fx 5 3
aT = ax = = g
m 8

5 3
aT = g
8
Normal Reaction N : Net force along y-axis on the ring just after the release will be zero.
Fy = 0
N + F cos 60 = mg cos 60

mg mg 1 mg mg
N = mg cos 60 F cos 60 = =
2 4 2 2 8

3mg
N=
8
14. (a) at equator
T + m2 R = mg.

T 2R 4 2 6400 1000
100 = 0.65 % Ans.
% = = 2
T g ( 24 60 60 ) 9 .8

mg
(b) T = ....(1)
2
T + m2R = mg ....(2)
from (1) and (2)
g
2R = g/2 =
2R

2 2R
T= = 2 g = 2hr Ans.

16. Block B rotate in vertical plane. Tension is maximum in string at lowest position. When block B at lowest
position and block A does not slide that means block A not slide at any position of B.
At lowest position

mv 2 mv 2
T mg = T = mg + ....(1)

From energy conservation
1
mg(1 cos ) = mv2 ...(2)
2
from equation (1) and (2)
T = mg + 2mg (1 cos )
= 3mg 2mg cos
for no slipping.
T = mg = 3mg 2mg cos
min = 3 2 cos Ans.

## RESONANCE SOLN_Circular Motion - 86

18. Constant speed = 18 km/hr = 5m/sec.
m = 100 kg, r = 100 m

mv 2 100 5 2
(a) at B mg NB = = = 25 NB = 975 N Ans.
r 100

mv 2
at D ND mg = ND = 1025 N Ans.
r
(b) at B & D friction force act is zero.
1
at C f = mg sin 45 = 100 10 ( v = constant) = 707 N Ans.
2
(c) for BC part
mv 2
mg cos 45 NBC = NBC = 682 N
R
for CD part
mv 2
NCD mg cos 45 = NCD = 732 N
R
f
(d) f N
N
position where its maximum and N is minimum which is in part BC at C position.
mg sin 45 707
2
= 1.037 Ans.
mv 682
mg cos 45
r

PART - II
1. QP = 2 5 = 3 rad/s
RP = 3 5 = 2 rad/s
/2 1
Time when Q particle reaches at P = t1 = = sec.
3 6
5 / 2 5 9 / 2 3
t2 = = sec. t3 = = sec.
3 6 3 2
1 3 3
Time where R particle reaches at P. t1 = = sec. t2 = = sec.
2 2 2 2
3
Common time to reaches at P is sec. Ans.
2
3. at loose contact N = 0
mv 2
mg cos = ....(1)
R
from energy conservation
1
mgR(1 cos ) = mv2 ....(2)
2
from (1) & (2)
2 5
cos = sin =
3 3

5g
tangential acceleration = g sin = Ans.
3

## RESONANCE SOLN_Circular Motion - 87

6. For M to be stationary
T = Mg .... (1)
Also for mass m,
T cos = mg .... (2)

mv 2

T sin = .... (3) Tcos
sin
dividing (3) by (2) m
T Tsin
v2 g
tan = v= . sin M
g sin cos mg
Mg
2 sin
2 R g
Time period = = . sin
v cos

m m
From (1) and (2) cos = then time period = 2
M gM

k
9. F = kx, T1 = ka = m2 2a =
2m

2 2m
Time period = = 2 =T
k

2k
T2 = 2ka = m23a =
3m

3m 3

Time period = 2 = T T = 2 T Ans.
2k
12. (i) at angle at = g sin
mv 2
from centripetal acceleration T mg cos = ...(1)

From energy conservation :
1
0 + mg cos = mv2 v = 2g cos ....(2)
2
from (1) & (2) T = 3mg cos aC = 2g cos

a= a 2t a c2 = g 1 3 cos 2
(ii) Vertical component of sphere velocity is maximum when acceleration in vertical is zero that means
net force in vertical direction is zero.
Net force in vertical at angle
mg
T cos = mg T= ...(3)
cos
and tension also from equation
T = 3mg cos ....(4)
from (3) & (4)
mg 1
3 mg cos = cos =
cos 3
T = mg 3 Ans.
(iii) Total acceleration is directed along horizontal that means avertical = 0
1
cos = Ans.
3

## RESONANCE SOLN_Circular Motion - 88

14. For vertical circular motion, in lower half circle tension never be zero anywhere. Tension is maximum at
lowest point of oscillation. Tension decrease both side in same amount. Therefore correct option is (D).
16. Maximum retardation a = g
For apply brakes sharply minimum distance require to stop.

v2
2
0 = v 2gs s=
2g
For taking turn minimum radius is

v2 v2
g = , r= , here r is twice of s
r g
so apply brakes sharply is safe for driver.

d 2d
19. = 2 = = 2 0.4 = 0.8 rad/s
dt dt
1
vAC = r = 0.8 = 0.4 m/s
2
1
aC = 2r = (0.8)2 = 0.32 m/s2
2
a = aC = 0.32 m/s2 (at = 0)

## 21. Energy conservation from initial and final position

1 1
mgr + mg r 1 = 1 mv2 + 1 mv2 v= 2gr gr Ans.
2 2 2 2
Normal reaction at bottom position A
2
gr
mv 2 mv 2 m 2gr mg
N mg = N= + mg = 2 + mg = 3 mg = 2.29 mg
r r 2
r
23. The acceleration vector shall change the component of velocity u|| along the acceleration vector.

v2
r=
an
Radius of curvature rmin means v is minimum and an is maximum.
This is at point P when component of velocity parallel to accelera-
tion vector becomes zero, that is u|| = 0.
u|| = 0

u 2 42
R= = = 8 meter..
a 2
2 T cos 60o
T 3 mv
25. = ........(1)
2 ( 3 / 2)
60o

T
= mg .......(2) 60o T / 2
2
Hence T = 2 mg , So (B) holds 3/2
V
From (1) & (2) V2 = 3 g/2 T sin 60 o

3 9.8 1.6
V=
2
mg

## RESONANCE SOLN_Circular Motion - 89

( 3 g / 2)
ac = V2/r = = 3 g = 9.8 3 m/s2
( 3 / 2)
(D) holds

2 r 2 3 /2
t= = t = 4/7 (A) holds.
v (3 g / 2)

## 27. Speed of cage = gr = const.

Normal reaction at (weight reading)

mv 2
NA mg =
r
NA = 2mg = 2w Ans.
Weight reading at G & C = mg = w Ans.
weight reading at E

mv 2
mg NE =
r
NE = 0 Ans.
29. Tangential acceleration = at = gsin
Normal acceleration = an = g cos
at = an
g sin = g cos = 45
vy = vx
uy gt = ux
20 (10)t = 10
t = 1 sec.
During downward motion
at = an
vy = vx
20 10 t = 10 t = 3 sec.

EXERCISE-3
1. From graph (a) = k where k is positive constant
d
angular acceleration = = k k = k2
d
angular acceleration is non uniform and directly proportional to . (A) q, s

## From graph (b) 2 = k . Differentiating both sides with respect to .

d d k
2 =k or = Hence angular acceleration is uniform. (B) p
d d 2
From graph (c) = kt
d
angular acceleration = =k Hence angular acceleration is uniform (C) p
dt
From graph (d) = kt2
d
angular acceleration = = 2kt Hence angular acceleration is non uniform and directly proportional to t.
dt
(D) q,r

## RESONANCE SOLN_Circular Motion - 90

2. v = 2t2
Tangential acceleration at = 4t

v2 4t 4
Centripetal acceleration ac =
R R

v 4t at 4tR R
Angular speed = = , tan = = 3
R R ac 4t 4 t

Sol. 3 to 5.
The angular velocity and linear velocity are mutually perpendicular

v = 3x + 24 = 0 or x=8

v 5 1
The radius of circle r = = = meter
10 2
The acceleration of particle undergoing uniform circular motion is

a v = ( 8 i 6 j ) (3 i 4 j ) = 50 k

mu02
6. mg = u0 = gr
r
Now, along vertical

1 2 2r
r= gt t=
2 g

## Along horizontal ; OP = 2u0t = 2 2 r

7. As at B it leaves the hemisphere,
N=0
A N
u0/3
mV 2
mg cos = B
r r mg
c os

h
v
h mV 2
mg = O
r r
mv2 = mgh .............(1)
By energy conservation between A and B
2
1 u0 1
mgr + m = mgh + mv2
2 3 2

19r
Put u0 and mv2 h=
27

v2
8. As ac = = g cos
r
at = g sin
anet = g
Alternate Solution :
when block leave only the force left is mg.
anet = g.

9. geff g a a

Tension would be minimum when it (tension) is along geff
mg 4 g
tan = 3 = = 53 . geff
mg 3
4

## RESONANCE SOLN_Circular Motion - 91

10.

5 5g
Vmin = geff = g = .
4 2

5 15
11. Tmax = 6 mgeff (geff = g) = mg
4 2
12. For conical pendulum of length , mass m moving
along horizontal circle as shown
T cos = mg .... (1)
T sin = m2 sin .... (2)
g
From equation 1 and equation 2, cos =
2
cos is the vertical distance of sphere below O point of suspension. Hence if of both pendulums are
same, they shall move in same horizontal plane.
Hence statement-2 is correct explanation of statement-1.
13. The normal reaction is not least at topmost point, hence statement 1 is false.
14. Let the minimum and maximum tensions be Tmin and Tmax and the minimum and maximum speed be u and v.
mu2
Tmax = + mg
R

mv 2
Tmin = mg
R

u2 v 2
T = m R R + 2 mg.

From conservation of energy
u2 v 2
= 4g is indepenent of u.
R R
and T = 6 mg.
Statement-2 is correct explanation of statement-1.

v2
15. Statement-2 is wrong. R = , where a is acceleration component perpendicular to velocity..
a
and as particle goes up, v2 decreases and a increases so radius of curvature R decreases hence statement
-1 is true
16. (i) False. It has tangential as well as radial acceleration. The angle is less than 180.
(ii) True. The angle between velocity and radial acceleration is 90.
(iii) True. It has no acceleration in verticall direction
initial final
(iv) False. = is valid only for constant angular acceleration.
2
2
dv
(v) False. aT = a c2 > ac
dt

## RESONANCE SOLN_Circular Motion - 92

17. (i) Given that tangential acceleration = at = 3 m/s2

v2 20 2
Centripetal acceleration = ac = = = 4 m/s2
r 100

` Now a= a c2 a 2t = 4 2 3 2 = 5 m/s
2

v 2 R 2R2
(ii) <a> = average acceleration = = =
t R / R
Instantaneous acceleration = 2R
a 2
= Ans.
a
(iii) Tension before cutting
T sin = mg
mg
T1 =
sin
Tension after cutting.
T2 = mg sin
T2
2
T1 = sin Ans.

h
(iv) tan = (v2/rg) = ]
b h2
2

1/ 2
ghr
Ans :
2 2
b h
(v) Acceleration at lowest position
v2
aL =
R
From energy conservation
mv 2
mgR (1 cos ) =
2

v2
= 2g(1 cos)
R
aL = 2g (1 cos)
acceleration at highest position.
aH = g sin
according to problem
aL = aH
2g(1 cos ) = g sin
2 (1 cos ) = sin
2(1 1 + 2 sin2 /2) = 2 sin /2 cos /2
1
tan =
2 2
2 tan 2

2 21 4
tan = = = 53 Ans.
1 tan 2
2
1 1
4 3

## RESONANCE SOLN_Circular Motion - 93

EXERCISE-4
PART - I

1. Net acceleration a of the bob in position B has two components. A
//////////////////////////
(i) an = radial acceleration (towards BA)

(ii) ar = tangential acceleration (perpendicular to BA) an

Therefore, direction of a is correctly shown in option (C).
a

d B
2. (a) h = R (1 cos)
2
at
velocity of ball at angle is
d
v2 = 2gh = 2 R (1 cos)g .......(1)
2
Let N be the total normal reaction (away from centre) at angle . Then

mv 2
mg cos N = h
d
R v
2 mg
Substituting value of v2 from equation (1) we get
mg cos N = 2mg (1 cos)
N = mg (3 cos 2) Ans.
(b) The ball will lose contact with the inner sphere when
2
N=0 or 3cos 2 = 0 or = cos1
3
After this it makes contact with outer sphere and normal reaction starts acting towards the centre. Thus for
2
cos1 :
3
NB = 0
2
and NA = mg (3 cos 2) and for cos1
3
NA = 0
and NB = mg (2 3cos)
The corresponding graphs are as follows
NB
NA

5mg
mg
2mg
cos cos
-1 2/3 +1 -1 2/3 +1
3. By energy conservation,
1 1
mu2 = mv2 + mg(1 cos)
2 2
V2 = U2 2g (L L cos)
5gL
= 5gL 2gL (1 cos)
4
5 = 20 8 + 8 cos
7 3
cos = << Ans. (D)
8 4

## RESONANCE SOLN_Circular Motion - 94

4. T sin = m Lsin2
324 = 0.5 0.5 2
324
2 =
0 .5 0 .5

324
=
0.5 0.5

18
= = 36 rad/sec.
0 .5
5. Since distance of particle P from point O is initially decreasing then in-
creasing so, its angular velocity will initially increase then decrease. So,
angle swept by P is more than angle swept by disc. So it will fall in un-
Since distance of particle Q from O is continuously increasing so its is
continuously decreasing. So angle swept by Q is less than angle swept by
disc. So it will fall in unshaded portion.

6.

## vr = |2 v sin )| = |2v sin t)|

PART - II
1. For a particle moving in a circle with constant angular speed, velocity vector is always tangent to the circle
and the acceleration vector always points towards the centre of circle or is always point towards the centre
of circle or is always along radius of the circle. Since, tangential vector is perpendicular to radial vector,
therefore, velocity vector will be perpendicular to the acceleration vector. But in no case acceleration vector
is tangent to the circle
2. When a force of constant magnitude acts on velocity of particle perpendicularly, then there is no change in
the kinetic energy of particle. Hence, kinetic energy remains constant.
3. S = t3 + 5
Linear speed of the particle
dS
= = 3 t2 at t = 2 s v = (3 22) m/s = 12 m/s
dt
d
Linear acceleration a1 = =6t at t = 2 s, a1 = 12 m/s2
dt
The centripetal acceleration
2 122
a2 = = m/s2 = 7.2 m/s2
R 20
anet = a12 a 22 = 12 2 7.2 2 = 14 m/s2

V2 V2
4. aC = cos i sin j
R R
5. They have same .
centripetal acceleration = 2r
a1 2r1 r1

a 2 = 2r2 r2

## RESONANCE SOLN_Circular Motion - 95

TOPIC : CENTRE OF MASS

EXERCISE-1
SECTION (A)
1 0 2 1 3 1cos 60 7
A 1. xcm =
1 2 3 12

1 0 2 0 3 1sin 60 3 3 3
ycm =
6 12 4

2 2
7 3 49 3 76 2 19 19
r= = m
12 4 144 16 144 12 6

3 4
A 3. A = M, A = M
4 1 3

4 3a
x1m1 x 2m2 a M M / 3 4a a
xcm = m m2 = 3 2 = +
1 3 2
M

83
5
xcm = a 3 x 2 = a
6

5
Similarly ; ycm = a Ans.
6

A 5. M1 = (2R)2 M2 = (R)2 x1 = 0, x2 = R
m1x1 m2 x 2
So Xcm = m1 m2

4R2 0 R2 R R
Xcm = = towards smaller disc
4R2 R2 5

## A 8. length of the shaded region = 2y = 2kx2

dm = 2y dx
dm = 2kx2 dx
a
2
a
2 ka 3
M = dm 2 kx dx =
o o 3
a a a4
x dm
3
2 kx dx
2k
4
3a
0 0
Xcm = a a
Xcm =

4 a3
dm dm 2k

0 0
3
By symmetry the y-coordinate of the shown plate is zero.
SECTION (B)
10 7 30 x
B 2. 1= get x = 1 cm
40

1 1
2 20 20
2u2 sin cos 2 2
B 3. Xcm = = = 40 m.
g 10

40 m1x1 m 2 x 2 m 20 m x 2
x1 = = 20 m xcm = m1 m 2 40 = get x2 = 60 m
2 2m

## RESONANCE SOLN_Centre of Mass - 96

B 5. So, ms R = (40 + 60) x

## 1 2u2 sin cos

= 100 x get x = 0.1 m
g

Mh
B-7 initially Ycom =
Mm
since no external force is acting COM should be at rest.
m1y1 m 2 y 2
yCM =
m1 m 2
Let baloon descend by a distance x.
m( x ) M( x h)
0= Mh = (m + M) x
mM
Mh
x= (Distance decend by ballon)
mM
mh
hx= (Distance raised by man)
mM

SECTION (C)
C 1. 238 0 = 4 1.17 107 + 234 v2
V2 = 2 105 m/ses
C 3. (a) P1 = 2.4 1026 kgm/sec.
P2 = 7.0 1027 kgm/sec
P1 + P2 + P3 = 0
P3 = (24 1027 + 7.0 1027)
P3 = 31 1027
31 10 27
V3 = = 18.6 m/sec.
1.67 10 27

## (b) Pe = 2.4 1026 i

P an = 7.0 1027 j

P p = ( P e + P an) = (24 1027 i + 7.0 1027 j )

| Pp |
PP = ( 24 )2 (7.0) 2 1027 Vp = m = 15.0 m/sec.
p

C 4. P1 =20 20 i P3 = 40 20 k P2 = 30 20 j
Pi = P1 + P2 + P3 = Pf 400i +600 j + 800 k = 30 (10i + 20 k ) + 40v
100i 600 j 200k
get v= = 2.5 i + 15 j + 5 k Ans.
40

C 6. mc = 20 kg mT = 180 kg
5
Pi = 200 36 = 2000 kg m/sec
18

## just before jump Vbg = VbT + VTg = (10 + VT)

So MTVT + mc Vc = Pf = Pi
180VT + 20 (10 + VT) = 2000
1800 10
VT = = 9 m/sec. Time taken to cover 10 m t = = 1 sec.
200 10
distance covered by trolly = 9 1 = 9 m.

## RESONANCE SOLN_Centre of Mass - 97

dp
C 8. Net ext force = 0 F= = 0 , p = constt
dt
COM remain at rest
1 1
mg R = mv2 + MV2
2 2
mv = MV
MV mv
v= or V =
m M

2 2
1 1 m v mM m 2 2 M 2gR
mgR = mv2 + M 2mgR = v 2gR M m = v2 =v
2 2 M2 M
1
m
M
SECTION (D)
D 1. Energy Conservation
1 2 1 2
Total change in length of spring = 2x { kx ext = kx comp }
2 2
Time is same
no external force centre of mass is at rest
x1 m2
hence m1x1 = m2x2 x = m & x1 + x2 = 2d
2 1

## or, m1x1 = m2x2 & x1 + x2 = 2d

m2 x 2 m2 x 2 m 2
x 1= m1 m1 + x2 = 2d x2 m 1 = 2d
1

m2 m1 2dm1 2dm 2
x2 m = 2d
x2 = m m & x1 = m m
1 1 2 1 2

## D-3. By momentum conservation

m A VA
mAVA = mBVA (i) VB = mB

P2 m2 V 2 m V 2
K.EA = A A A A ...(i)
2m A 2m A 2

mB VB2
Similiarly K.EB = ...(iii)
2
dividing (ii) by (iii) we get.

## K.E A m A VA2 m A VA K.E A mB

K.EB = mB V 2 put VB = mB we get K.E = m .
B a
hence proved.
B

SECTION (E)
E 2. Pi = 200 103 ( 3i j )

Pf = 200 103 ( 3i j )
|Pi| = |Pf|
P = |Pf| |Pi| = 0

|P| = |Pf Pi| = |(200 103 3 i 200 103 j ) (200 103 3 i + 200 103 j )|

## RESONANCE SOLN_Centre of Mass - 98

E 4. v= 2gh = 2 10 4 = 80

1
(a) J = P = 2mv = 2 80
2
J = 4 5 N-s

(b) N dt = dP N 2 103 = 4 5

N = 2 5 103N.
SECTION (F)
F 1. from momentum conservation
u
mu + 0 = (m + m) v v=
2
2
1 1 u
from energy conservation P.E. = mu2 2m
2 2 2

1 K
mu2 = K P.E. =
2 2

F 3.

## After first collision

After collision of B from wall
vB = v + 2 0 = v

so

F 5. Particle B is a rest
mv + 0 = mv1 + 2mv2
v = v1 + 2v2 .....(i)
v 2 v1
=1
v 0
v2 v1 = v .....(ii)
Adding (i) + (ii)
3v2 = 2v
2 v
v2 = v v1 = v2 v =
3 3
Now, (iii) + (iv)
2r 2r 2r
t = v v = 2v v t= Ans.
2 1 v
3 3
SECTION (G)
G 1. m0 = 20 kg ; m = 180 kg.
Fth = (m +M)g = 2103 N
dm dm 2000
Fth = vr So = = 1.25 kg/s. Ans.
dt dt 1.6 103

m
0
v = vr n m gt.

## RESONANCE SOLN_Centre of Mass - 99

m 180
(i) t1 = dm / dt = = 90 s.
2

200
v1 = 1600 n 20 10 90 v1 = 2.784 km/s. Ans.

M 180
(ii) t2 = dm / dt = = 9 s.
20

200
v2 = 1600 n 20 10 9 v2 = 3.59 km/s.

PART - II
SECTION (A)
R2
A-2. A1 = R2 A2 =
16

3R
x1 = 0 x2 =
4

R2 3R
0
16 4 R
xcen = 2 20
R
R2
16

r 2 r 4r
A-4. A1 = 2r r = 2r2 A2 = x1 = x2 =
2 2 3

r r 2 r 2
2r 2 r 3 1
2 2 3 = 3 2r
xcm =
r 2 4 3[ 4 ]
2r 2 r2
2 2

1 7
A-9. ycm = 0 0.14 + h = 0
8 8

7h 0.14
= h = 0.02 below x-axis.
8 8
SECTION (B)
m1v 1 m 2 v 2 m(2 i ) m(2 j ) m(i j) m(0 )
B-2. vcm = vcm = acm = .
m1 m 2 2m 2m
vcm has same direction as of acm
straight line.

(nm m) (n 1)
B-3. a= g = g
nm m (n 1)
a1 = a2 = a
nma1 ma 2 (n 1)
acm = = a
(nm m) (n 1)

(n 1) 2
acm = g.
(n 1) 2

## RESONANCE SOLN_Centre of Mass - 100

m1 a 1 m 2 a 2 m0ma a
B 9. a cm = = =
m1 m 2 (m m) 2

given m1 = m2 = m a1 = 0

a2 = a

SECTION (C)
C-3. mv i + mv j + 2m v 3 = 0

( v i v j ) v v 1 1 1 v2
v3 = = ( i + j ) = . kf = mv2 + mv2 + 2m .
2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3mv 2
kf = .
2

500 100
C-4. 500 10 = 550 v v= = m/s .
55 11

C 6. Vcom = V cos
m 0 mv 2
V cos =
2m
v2 = 2V cos

C 8. M v = m. 0 + (M m) v

Mv
v =
(M m)

SECTION (D)
mv1 Mv 2
D 1. Pi = mv1 + mv2 Pf = (m + M) v Pi = Pf v = (m M)
By energy consarvation

1 1 1 1 (mv1 Mv 2 )2
mv12 + Mv22 = (M + m) v2 + kx2 mv12 + Mv22 = (M + m) kx 2
2 2 2 2 (M m )2

mM
solving x = (v1 v2) .
(M m)k

SECTION (E)
E 1. v1 = 2gh = 2 10 10 = 10 2

1 1
k2 = k v22 = v12
4 1 4
v1
v2 = = 5 2
2
|P| = |mv2 (mv1)| = m |v2 v1|

3 15 10 1
|P| = 50 103 10 2 =
2 2
J = P = 1.05N-s.

## RESONANCE SOLN_Centre of Mass - 101

E 3. From momentum conservation
u
mu = 2mv v=
2
from energy conservation
2
1 u u2
2m = 2 mgh h=
2 2 8g

SECTION (F)
F 5. 0.05 vp + m 0 = 5.05 v
1
vf 0.05 m( v f )2
v = = 102 2 = (102)2 = 104.
i 5 1 2
m( v i )
2

## F-6. m1 2gh + 0 = (m1 + m2) v

m1 2gh
v=
(m1 m 2 )

h h gh
v2 u2 + 2g = 6 + 2g =
9 4 2

gh
v=
2

gh m 2gh
Also, = 2m1 + m1 + m2
2 m1 m2

m1
m 1.
2

4 3 1 4
F-8. MA = r e= MB = (2r)3 = 8MA
3 2 3
mA v + 0 = mAv1 + mBv2 .........(i)
ev = v2 v1 .........(ii)
v 3v
Adding (i) + (ii) = 9v2 = v + =
2 2

v v v v v1 v /3
v1 = v2 = = . v = = 2.
2 6 2 3 2 v/6
F-9. V2 = Z0
Vel. of Sep = Vel of approach ( elastic)
20 + 5 = V 5
V = 30 m/s Ans.
vb = (v0 + 2v) m1 > > m2
vb = (20 + 10) = 30 m/sec.

2d
F-11. t = v (time for succeesive collision)
0
N t = dP = mv0 (mv0)
2d
N v = 2mv0
0

mv 02
N=
d

## RESONANCE SOLN_Centre of Mass - 102

F-14. If mass = m
first ball will stop v = 0
so K.E. = 0 (min)
(K.E. can't be negative )
SECTION (G)
dm
G 1. F=
dt
dm dm
210 = 300 = 0.7 kg/s.
dt dt
EXERCISE-2
PART - I
2h
2H 2 80 g 2 40
1. T= t= = (80 60 ) = = 2 s.
g = 10
= 16 = 4 s.
10 10
d 2
t = T t = 4 2 = 2 s V= = = 1 m/s
t 2
60 1
Mv = mv v= = 30 m/s Ans.
2
R = vt = 30 2 = 60 m Ans.

4.

By momentum conservation
Mu = mV (i)
M
V= u
m
By energy conservation
2
1 1 1 1 M
mgh = Mu2 + mV2 = Mu2 + m u2
2 2 2 2 m

2
1 1 M2 2 1 2 Mm M
mgh = Mu2 + u = u m
2 2 m 2
2m 2gh = u2 (Mm + M2)

2 m2gh
= u 2.
Mm M2

2 gh
u=m ...(ii)
Mm M2
By momentum conservation
mV = (M + m) V1
mV
V1 = ...(iii)
Mm
By energy conservation
1 1
mV2 = (m + M) V12 + mgh1
2 2

2
1 1 mV 1 1 m2 V 2
mV2 = (m + M) + mgh1 mV2 = mgh1
2 2 Mm 2 2 (M m)

## RESONANCE SOLN_Centre of Mass - 103

2
1 MmV 2

1 2 m m
V M m = mgh1 = mgh1 ...(iii)
2 2 (M m)

M 2gh 2gh
Put V = m u and u = m V=M ....(iv)
Mm M2 Mm M2

M2h
put value of V from eqn (iv) to (iii) h' =
(M m)2

6.

## By mechancnical energy conservation

1 1
( 2m)Vb2 mVr2 = 2 mgl
2 2
2 Vb2 + Vr2 = 4gl ....(1)
using momentum conservation
mVr = 2 mVb Vr = 2 Vb ....(2)
2
2Vb2 + 4Vb2 = 4 gl 6Vb2 = 4gl Vb = gl
3

2
(a) Vr = 2 Vb = 2 gl
3
when string be comes vertical velocity of block wrt to string.

2
Vbr = Vb ( Vr) = 3Vb = 3 gl
3

## 2m( Vbr )2 9 2gl ( 2)m

(b) T 2 mg = T = 2 mg + = 14 mg
3
8. m = 20 103 kg ; M = 5 kg
u = 400 d = 0.2 m
V = 200 =?
PBullet = PBlock
m (u v) = 20103 (400 200) = 4 kg. m/s.
2
P2 4
KEBlock = = = 1.6 J = Mgd
2M 25
1 .6 1 .6
= Mgd = = 0.16 Ans.
5 10 0 . 2

## 10. string will taut when A waves a distance of (.7 .25) m

at that Pt VA = 2gh and Now B starts on using with same velocity as A.
let us suppose it is u.

T dt = mB u + 0 ....(1)

T dt = mA (u VA) ....(2)

m A VA 6 6
from (1) and (2) u = m m =
A B 5
Tdt 3 5 = 3.6 m/s

## RESONANCE SOLN_Centre of Mass - 104

12. R1 = V cos T 1
R2 = V cos T 2
R3 = V cos T 3
R = R1 + R2 + R3 = u cos [T 1 +T 2 + T 3]
2 u sin 2 eu sin 2 e 2u sin
= V cos
g g g
(1 e e 2 ) V 2 sin 2
R=
g
( V )2
14. V2 = U2 + 2as 0 = (V)2 2as s=
2a
(a) e = 1 so after collision VA = 0 and VB = 5 m/sec

(5 ) 2
So mg = ma s = s = 6.25 m
2 0.2 10
(b) when e = 0 applying momentum conservation
m 5 + 0 = (m + m) V V = 2.5m/sec
(2.5)2 2 g
so V2 = u2 + 2as s= a= s = 3.12 m.
2 0.2 10 2

16. Px = 52 = 10 ; P = Px i + Py j
Py = 10 3 = 10 i + 10 3 j
= (5 + 10) V
10
= i 3 j
15

2
i 3 j
V = 3
4
V = m/s. Ans.
3
1 2 1 2 1
H = E = Ei Ef = 2 m1v1 2 m2u2 (m1+m2) V2
2
1 1 2 1 40 35
=
2
5 22 + 10
2
3
2
(10+5) (4/3)2 = 25
3
=
3
Ans.

## 18. (a) V= 2gl

In x dir
v 3 3
2m = 3 mV v= V = 2gl v = 3 gl Ans.
2 2 2

## (b) V = V 2 2gl(1 Cos ) = 2gl 2gl 2glCos

For = 60 V = gl

gl
Vx = gl Cos 60 (at heighest point) Vx =
2
20. Applying momentum conservation in horizontal direction
mV0 = Mu M = 2m
mV0 V0
u=
M 2
Eqn of e along normal
V
V cos u sin V cos 0 sin
e= = 2
V0 sin V0 sin

V 1
e = V cot + ...(i)
0 2

## RESONANCE SOLN_Centre of Mass - 105

Along incline surface of wedge friction is negligible so change in momentum
mV0 cos = mV sin
V
V0 = cot ...(ii)
Put value of (ii) in (i)
1 1 1 3
e = cot2 + given tan = 2 = Ans.
2 4 2 4
(b) h = (ut) tan
1 1
By (2)nd eq. of motion h = Vt gt2 (ut) tan = Vt gt2
2 2
1 1
or u tan = V gt gt = V + u tan
2 2
2 V0 2 1
t = g (V0 cot + tan ) t = g V0 tan (cot2 + )
2 2
3
2V0 tan 2e V0 tan 2 10 2
4
t= g (e) = g substituting values : = 3sec
10
22. (a) At highest point
V = 50 cos ...(i)
After striking bullet get embedded with bob
so by momentum conservation.
V
MV = 4Mu u= ....(ii)
4
50 cos
from (i) u=
4
By energy conservation after collission
2
1 1 50 cos 10 10 1
(4m) u2 = 4mg (1 + cos 60) = 1
2 2 4 3 2

50 50 cos2 16 4
= 100 cos 2 = cos = = 37
16 25 5

( 50 sin 37 )2 1 3 3
(b) Max height y= = 50 50 = 5 9 = 45
2g 20 5 5

## R 1 u2 sin 2 502 2 sin 37 cos 37

(c) x = 2 2 g

2 10 = 120 m Ans (a) = 37 (b) x = 120 m and y = 45 m

PART - II
1. COM can lie anywhere, within or at the radius r.
3. Since no external force is acting on the system hence VCM remain constant.
5. when cylinder reaches pt B.
then block get shifted by x
but since than there is no ext
force therefore com remain at its position
[(Rr) x]m = Mx
m (R r )
x=
Mm
8. Pi = 0 ...(i)
Pf = MV mV1 ....(ii)
M
MV mV1 = 0 u= V..
m
using V12 = u2 + 2ax.

MV
2 M2 V 2
a = g. = 0 + 2g x. x=
m 2m2g

## RESONANCE SOLN_Centre of Mass - 106

10. Taking the origin at the centre of the plank.
m 1x 1 + m 2 x 2 + m 3x 3 = 0
( x CM = 0)
(Assuming the centres of the two men
are exactly at the axis shown.)
60(0) + 40(60) + 40 (x) = 0 ,
x is the displacement of the block.
x = 60 cm
i.e. A & B meet at the right end of the plank.
12. yCM = 0
m 3m
yCM = y1 + y2 y1 = + 15
4 4
y2 = 5 cm
14. I. Since velocity of both R and S is positive they will move in same direction.
II. At mid point velocities of R and S are same.
III. Change in velocity of R is small as compare to change in velocity of S. But change in momentum is
same for both in magnitude. Hence mass of R should be greater than S.
Hence all three are correct.
2R
16. If we treat the train as a half ring of mass 'M' then its COM will be at a distance from the centre of

the circle. Velocity of centre of mass is :
VCM = RCM .
2R 2R V V
= . = . ( = )
R R
2V 2MV
VCM = MVCM =

As the linear momentum of any system = MVCM
2MV
The linear momentum of the train = Ans.

m( 2gh 2 2gh1 )
18. I = f t and F=
t

## 100 10 3 ( 2 9.8 0.625 2 9.8 2.5 )

F=
0.01
F = 105 N
20. Using momentum conservation

p1 p 2 p 3 p 4 0

p1 p 2 p 3 p 4 p1 p 22 p 32 p 24

p12 p 2 p 32 p 24
K. E1 = 2 = E0 + E0 + E0
2m 2m
Total energy = 3E0 + E0 + E0 + E0 = 6E0
v sin
22. e=
2gh cos
apply conservation of momentum
m 2gh sin = m vcos ......(i)

## e 2gh cos m = mv cos ......(ii)

tan
= cot.
e
e = tan2 on solving

## RESONANCE SOLN_Centre of Mass - 107

25. m2vcos = 3vy
vy 2
=
v cos 3

vy 2
Also e = = .
v cos 3

R/2
27. sin = ; = 30
R
Both have equal mass it means along
LOI particle transfer it velocity to disc which is vcos.

3V
so VD = Vcos = Vcos 30 =
2

29. v r v mc

vr = v m v c = v u = 0.

vrdm
since vr = 0 so Ft = = 0.
dt

dv dv dv
Fnet = m F + 0 = (m0 t) F = (m0t) .
dt dt dt

## 30. Neglecting gravity,

0 m
v = un m ;
t
u = ejection velocity w.r.t. balloon. m0 = initial mass mt = mass at any time t.

m0
= 2n = 2n2.

m0 / 2

v
34. mv = nvm v =
n

L
time for first collisen is t1 = (2nd block)
V

2
2nd collisions t2 = = 2t1 (3rd block)
V
so t = t1 + 2t1 + 3t1 + at1 ...........(n1) t1.
t = t1 [1 + 2 + 3] .......................(n1)]
(n 1) (n 1 1) n(n 1) L
= = so t = n (n 1).
2 2 2V

f
36. a= for elastic collission e = 1
m
2
v1 = 0 + 2ad

2F 2Fd
vb12 = .d vb1 =
m m
after collisin vb2 = 0.

## RESONANCE SOLN_Centre of Mass - 108

39.

Pi = mv (i) Pf = (m + m) v
at maximum conservation
Pi = Pf v' = v/2
By energy compression

1 1 1 mv 2 m
mv2 + 0 = (2m) (v)2 + kx2 kx2 = x= v.
2 2 2 2 2k

1 v2
at maximum compression k = 2m k = mv'2 = mv2/4.
2 4

EXERCISE-3
1. (A) If velocity of block A is zero, from conservation of momentum, speed of block B is 2u. Then K.E. of
1
block B = m(2u)2 = 2mu2 is greater than net mechanical energy of system. Since this is not possible,
2
velocity of A can never be zero.
(B) Since initial velocity of B is zero, it shall be zero for many other instants of time.
(C) Since momentum of system is non-zero, K.E. of system cannot be zero. Also KE of system is
minimum at maximum extension of spring.
(D) The potential energy of spring shall be zero whenever it comes to natural length. Also P.E. of spring
is maximum at maximum extension of spring.
2. (A) Initial velocity of centre of mass of given system is zero and net external force is in vertical
direction. Since there is shift of mass downward, the centre of mass has only downward shift.
(B) Obviously there is shift of centre of mass of given system downwards. Also the pulley exerts a
force on string which has a horizontal component towards right. Hence centre of mass of
system has a rightward shift.
(C) Both block and monkey moves up, hence centre of mass of given system shifts vertically
upwards.
(D) Net external force on given system is zero. Hence centre of mass of given system remains at
rest.
3. (a) The acceleration of the centre of mass is
F
a COM =
2m
The displacement of the centre of mass at time t will be

1 Ft 2
x = a COM t 2 = Ans.
2 4m
4&5
Suppose the displacement of the first block is x 1 and that of the second is x 2. Then,

mx1 mx 2 Ft 2 x1 x 2 Ft 2
x = or, or, x1 + x2 = ...(i)
2m 4m 2 2m
Further, the extension of the spring is x 1 x 2. Therefore,
x1 x2 = x0 ...(ii)

1 Ft 2 1 Ft 2
From Eqs. (i) and (ii), x1 =
x0 and x2 =
x0
2m 2m
2 2

## RESONANCE SOLN_Centre of Mass - 109

6. During collision, forces act along line of impact. As collision is elastic and both the balls have same
mass, velocities are exchanged along the line of impact. Therefore ball B moves with velocity VB||, that
is equal to u cos 30. Ball A moves perpendicular to the line of impact with velocity VA = u cos60.
Along the line of impact, ball A does not have any velocity after the collision.
Therefore velocity of ball A in vector form after the collision

y
VA
30
VA|| u
30
x
R

60
VB||

## = VA cos60i + VA cos 30j

= (u cos 60) cos60i + (u cos 60) cos 30j
1 1 1 3
= 4. . . i + 4. . .j = (i 3 j) m/s
2 2 2 2
7. Using impulse-momentum equation for ball B x

N dt

N dt p f p i and as pi 0
VB||
N dt p f
= (mu cos 30) cos 30 i (mu cos30) cos 60 j B

3 3 3 1 m
= m. 4 . . .i m. 4 . . . j = (3 m i 3 m j) kg s
2 2 2 2
8. Suppose V2 is velocity of ball B along the line of impact and V1 is velocity of ball A along the line of
impact, after the collision, as shown.
1
Then (Velocity of approach) = Velocity of separation
2

1 3
. u V1
2 2 = V2 V1 .... (1)
A

## Conserving momentum along the line of impact V2

B
3
m. u = m. V2 + mV1 .... (2)
2
Solving and using u = 4 m/s

9 3 3
3 3 3 3 3 3
cos 60 j = 4 i 4 j m/s
V2 cos 30 i

V2 = m/s
2 2 2

EXERCISE-4
PART - I
m1v 1 m 2 v 2
1. vCOM =
m1 m 2

10 14 4 0
= = 10 m/s.
10 4

## RESONANCE SOLN_Centre of Mass - 110

2. Angular speed of particle about centre of the circle,

v2 v2
= , = t = t
R R

v p = ( v2 sin i + v2 cos j ) or v p = v v
v 2 sin 2 t i v 2 cos 2 t j
R R

and v m = v1 j
linear momentum of particle w.r.t. man as a function of time is

L pm = ( Vp Vm )

v2 v2
= m v 2 sin t i v 2 cos t v 1 j
R R

3. (i) X1 = V0 t A (1 cost)
m1x1 m 2 x 2 m1
Xcm = m1 m 2 = V0 t X2 = 0 t + m A (1cos t) Ans.
2

d2 x1
(ii) a1 = = 2 A cos t
dt 2
The separation X2 X1 between the two blocks will be equal to 0 when a1 = 0 or cos t = 0
m1 m1
m 1 A
x2 x1 = A (1cos t) + A (1 cos t) 0 = (cos t = 0)
m2 2
m1
Thus the relation between 0 and A is, 0 = m 1 A
2
8. According to Newtons Law

v 2 v1
e = u u
1 2

## For elastic collision cofficient of restitution e = 1 so

v 2 v 1 = u1 u 2 Statement - 1 is correct
Linear momentum is conserved in both elastic & non elastic collision but its not the explanation of
statement -1 so it is not the correct explanation of the statement A.

9. P1 p i P2 p i
as there is no external force so momentum will remain conserved

P1 P' 2 P1 P2

P1 P2 0
Now from option

(A) P1 P2 = (a1 a 2 ) i (b1 b 2 ) j c 1k

(B) P1 P2 = (c 1 c 2 ) k

(C) P1 P2 = (a1 a 2 ) i (b1 b 2 ) j

(D) P1 P2 = (a1 a 2 ) i 2 b1 j
and it is given that a1 b1 c 1 , a2, b2, c 2, 0

in case of A and D it is not possible to get P1 P2 = 0
Hence Ans. (A) and (D)

## RESONANCE SOLN_Centre of Mass - 111

10. At point B there is perfectly inelastic collision so component
of velocity to incline plane becomes zero and component
parallel to second surface is retained
velocity immediately after it strikes second incline

3 2 10 9
V= 2gh cos 30 = 2 10 3 =
2 4

V= 45 m/s

11. At point C
VC2 VB2 2gh
VC2 = 45 + 2 10 3
VC = 105 m/s

12. The block coming down from incline AB makes an angle 30 with incline BC. If the block collides with
incline BC elastically, the angle of block after collision with the incline shall be 30.
Hence just after collision with incline BC the velocity of block shall be horizontal. So immediately after
the block strikes second inclined, its vertical component of velocity will be zero.

m1y1 m2 y 2 m3 y 3 m4 y 4 m5 y 5
13. ycm = m1 m2 m3 m4 m5

## 6m(0) m(a ) m(0 ) m( a) m( a )

ycm =
m m m m 6m

a
= .
10

14. Since masses of particles are equal and collisons are elastic, so
particles will exchange velocities after each collision. The first
collision will be at a point P and second at point Q again and
before third collision the particles will reach at A.

## 15. from momentum conservation :

9m = (2m) V1 (m)V2
9 = 2V1 V2 ..... (1)
V1 V2
e= 1 ......(2)
9
from eqn(1) and eqn(2) V1 = 6 m/sec.
for second collision between second block and third block :
(2m) 6 + m(0) = (2m + m) VC VC = 4 m/sec.

## 16*. Since collision is elastic, so e = 1

Velocity of approach = velocity of separation
So, u=v+2 .............(i)
By momentum conservation :
1 u = 5v 1 2
u = 5v 2
v + 2 = 5v 2
So, v = 1 m/s
and u = 3 m/s
RESONANCE SOLN_Centre of Mass - 112
Momentum of system = 1 3 = 3 kgm/s
Momentum of 5kg after collision = 5 1 = 5 kgm/s
2 2
1 m1u 1 3
So, kinetic energy of centre of mass = (m1 + m2) = 1 (1 + 5) = 0.75 J
2 m
1 m 2 2 6

1
Total kinetic energy = 1 32 = 4.5 J.
2

2h 25 25
17. R= u 20 = V1 and 100 = V2
g 10 10
V1 = 20 m/s , V2 = 100 m/sec.
Applying momentum conservation just before and just after the collision
(0.01) (V) = (0.2)(20) + (0.01)(100)
V = 500 m/s

1 1
18. = 0.1 mu 2 = mg 0.06 + kx2
2 2
1
0.18 u2 = 0.1 0.18 10 0.06
2
N
0.4 = N = 4 Ans.
10

PART - II
14. If initial momentum of particles is zero, then they loss all their energy in inelastic collision but here initial
momentum is not zero.
Principle of conservation of momentum holds good for all collision.

## RESONANCE SOLN_Centre of Mass - 113

TOPIC : RIGID BODY DYNAMICS

EXERCISE-1
PART - I
SECTION (A)
A 1. i = 0 t = 5 sec = 50 (2) rad.
1
= it + t2
2
1
(50) (2) = 0 + (5)2
2
25
(50) (2) = 0 +
2

(50 )(2)(2)
= = 4 (2) = 4 rev/ se2
25
f = i + t
f = 0 + 4(5) = 20 rev/ sec

SECTION (B)

B 1.

## For first solid spheres

IAB = Iam + Md2
2 7 2
IAB = MR2 + MR2 = MR
5 5
Similar way for second sphere
7
IAB = MR2
5

14 2
I = 2 IAB = MR
5

mR 2
B 4.

I0 = 2

0 = cm + md2
2
mR 2 4R
= cm + m
2 3
2
mR 2 4R
cm = m
2 3

MR 2 2
4R
ICM = M
2 3

## RESONANCE SOLN_RIGID BODY DYNAMICS - 114

SECTION (C)

C 2. F1 = 2 i 5 j 6 k at point

F2 = i + 2 j k at point
r0(1,0,5)

r = (1 i + j + 0 k ) ( i + 0 j + k )
1

`
r = 2 i j k
1

= r F = 2 i j k 2 i 5 j 6k
1 1 1

= ( 10 k + 12 j 2 k 6 i 2 j 5 i )
1

= (11
1 i + 10 j 12 k )
1

2 2 2

= r F = i j k i 2 j k

Total = +
T 1 2

T

= 2 i j k 2 i 5 j 6k + i j k i 2 j k

= 14 i 10 j 9k
T

v 2 sin 2
C 4. (a) 0 = mg R/2 = mg

2g

v 2 sin 2 mv 2 sin 2
= mg
=

0 2g 2

= (mv2 sincos)
0

(b)

= mgR
0
= (2mv2 sincos)

## RESONANCE SOLN_RIGID BODY DYNAMICS - 115

SECTION (D)
D 2. The F.B.D. of rod is as shown
For rod to be in translational equilibrium
N1 = P ....(1)
N2 = W = mg ....(2)

## For rod to be in rotational equilibrium, net torque on rod

about any axis is zero.

## Net torque on rod about B is zero

i.e.,

mg cos N2 cos + P sin = 0 .......(3)
2
from equation (2) and (3) solving we get
mg
P= cot
2
D 3. For translational equilibrium
Fx = 0 Fy = 0
N1 = f N2 = 75g + 24g = 99g = 990 N
Rotational equilibrium = 0 (about any point)
B = 0
N1 6 = 24g (5cos 37) + 75g (8cos 37)
4 4
N1 6 = 24g (5 ) + 75g (8 )
5 5
N1 6 = (96g + 480 g)
N1 = 96g = 960 N
f = N1
N2 = N1
N1 96g 32
= N = 99g =
2 33

32
Ans. 990 N, 960 N ,
33

SECTION (E)
E 1. (a) Torque about hinge

(m1g m2g) = .
2

(m1 m 2 )g( / 2)
= 2 2

m1 m 2
2
2

2(m1 m 2 )g
= (m m )
1 2

2(6 3)10 10
2(6 3) 3

## RESONANCE SOLN_RIGID BODY DYNAMICS - 116

(b) If mass of rod is 3 Kg Torque about hinge

(m1g m2g) = ''
2

(m1 m 2 )g
2
' =
2
2
m 2
m1 m 2 3
2 2 12

## 2(m1 m 2 )g 2(6 3)10

' = = 2
m 3 = 3 rad/s
m1 m 2 3 2 6 3
3 3
For m1 block
m1g T1 = m1a
m1
T1 = m1g
2

623
T1 = 60 = 42 N
2
For m2 block
T2 m2g = m2a
323
T2 = m2g + m2 = 30 + T2 = 39 N
2 2

## E 3. Let be the angular acceleration of the pulley system.

For 6 kg block
6 g T1 = 6 (2) .........(i)
for 3 kg block
T2 3g = 3 .........(ii)
for pulley system
2T1 T2 = = 3 .........(iii)
From equation (i) and (ii) putting the values of T1 and T2.
2[6g 12] [3g + 3] = 3
12 g 24 3g 3 = 3
30 9g
90
= = 3 rad/s2 Ans.
30

SECTION (F)

## Using Energy conservation

Ki + Ui = Kf + Uf
1
0 + 3mg = 2
2 2
= (1 + 2)
m 2
[ = + m2]
3

1 m 2 2
3mg

=
m 2 2 + 0 2
3g= 3 2
2 2
3

4 2 9g
3g = =
3 4

## F-4. Initial and final positions are shown below

5R 5mgR
Decrease in potential energy of mass m = mg 2 =
4 2

R mgR
Decrease in potential energy of disc = mg 2 =
4 2
Therefore, total decrease in potential energy of system
5mgR mgR
= + = 3 mgR
2 2
1
Gain in kinetic energy of system = 2
2
W here = moment of inertia of system ( disc + mass ) about axis PQ.
= moment of inertia of disc + moment of inertia of mass
mR 2 2 2
R 5R 15mR 2
= m + m =
4 4 4 8
From conservation of mechanical energy -
Decrease in potential energy = Gain in kinetic energy
2
1 15mR 2
16 g
3 mgR = 8 =
2 5R
Therefore, linear speed of particle at its lowest point
5R 5R 16 g
v = = or v = 5 gR
4 4 5R
SECTION (G)

3x 5
G 2. 3x + 4y = 5 y
4 4
P = mv
= 2 8 = 16 (kg m/s)
L = (5/4) mv cos 37
4
L = 5/4 2 8 = 16 kg m2/s
5

G 3.

## initial position Final position

No external torque so L = cont.
Li = Lf
(i0 = f0)
mr 2 mr 2
2 2
4 0 = ( + mr + mr )

4
2
mr

2
2mr 2 0

## G 5. Angular momentum conservation about O

= mvR v
MR 2
= mvR M o m
2
R
MR = 2mv

MR
v =
2m
With respect to bord man's rotation v + R velocity so in one rotation
when velocity v + R angle taken by man (2).
2R
t
V R

2
Angular velocity bord is so at the same time angle covered by disc = . t R .
R V
2R 4m

MR M 2m
R
2m

SECTION (H)
H1 VA = (Vcm /2)
= 50 5 5 = 25 m/s

VB = Vcm 2

= 50 + 25 = 75 m/s
H4 (a) vA sin = v0 cos
v0 4v 0
vA = =
tan 3

4v
v 0 sin v A cos 3v 0 4 0 9v 0 16 v 0 5v 0
(b) = = 3 =
15 3
5

v Ax vBx v
(c) vx = = 0
2 2

1

v Ay v By =
2v 0
vy =
2 3

## RESONANCE SOLN_RIGID BODY DYNAMICS - 119

SECTION (I)
I-3. For linear motion :
mg T = ma ............(i)
For angular motion :
mR 2

T.R. = 2

mR
T= ............(ii)
2
For no sliping :
a = R ............(iii)
From equation (i), (ii) & (iii)
2
a= g.
3

I-4. Let R & r be the radii of hemispherical bowl & disc respectively
From energy conservation,
1 1
mg(R r) = mv2 + 2
2 2
For pure rolling,
v = r
2
1 1 1 2 v
mg(R r) = mv2 + mr
2 22 r

3
mg(R r) = mv2 ...........(i)
4
From FBD of bottom :
mv 2
N mg = ...........(ii)
(R r )
From equ. (i) & (ii),
7
N= mg.
3

I-5. Let v1 & v2 be minimum speed of ring of bottom & top of cylindrical part
At top of path
mv 22
N + mg =
(R r )
for minimum speed N = 0
v22 = g (R r) .......... (i)
From energy conservation between bottom & top point of cylindrical part
1 1 1 1
mv12 + 12 = 2 mg (R r) + mv22 + 22
2 2 2 2
v1 v2
For pure rolling 1 = , 2 =
r r

1 1 v 12 1 1 v 22
mv12 + (mr2) 2 = 2 mg (R r) + mv22 + (mr2) 2
2 2 r 2 2 r
mv12 = 2 mg (R r) + mv22 .......... (ii)
from equation (i) & (ii)
mv12 = 2 mg (R r) + mg (R r)
v1 = 3g(R r )

## RESONANCE SOLN_RIGID BODY DYNAMICS - 120

I-6. For linear motion,
F = ma ..........(i)
For angular motion,
2 2
F.R. = mR
5

5F
= ..........(ii)
2mR
1 2
= 0t + at
2
1 5F 2 8mR
2 = 0 + t t2 =
2 2mR 5F
Distance covered by sphere during one full rotation

1 2 1 F 8mR
S = ut + at =0 +
2 2 m 5F

4R
S=
5
SECTION (J)
J 2. (a) Pi = m2v

## Pf = (m1 + m2) Vcm

m2v = (m1+m2) Vcm
m2v
Vcm = m m
1 2

(b) v1 = (u Vcm)
m 2u m1u
V1 = v m m = m m
1 2 1 2

m1u
(c) V1 = Vcm = m m
1 2

L
m1(0) m 2
2 m 2L
(d) Xcm = =
(m1 m 2 ) 2(m1 m 2 )

L m 2L 1 m1L
L1 = 2(m m ) L1 =
2 1 2 2 m1 m 2
momentum of particle

1 m1L m 2u m 2m12u
1
m
Pi = 2 (u Vcm )L m 2 u =
2 2(m1 m 2 ) m1 m2 2(m1 m 2 )

2
m1L m2 u
Momentum for rod = m1Vcm L cm
2 (m1 m 2 ) 2
(e) For particle :
2 2
m 2m1 L2 m L2 m2 L
1 = m2L2 = 2 = 1 m1
4(m1 m 2 )2 12 2( m1 m )
2

m1(m1 4m 2 )L2
= 1 + 2 =
12(m1 m 2 )

## RESONANCE SOLN_RIGID BODY DYNAMICS - 121

(f) Velocity of centre of mass
m2v
= m m
1 2

## Using angular momentum conservation

m2v Lcm = cm
m1L
= m 2u 2(m m ) = cm .
1 2

## m1L m1(m1 4m 2 )L2 6m2 v

= m 2u 2(m m ) = = (m 4m )L .
1 2 12(m1 m 2 ) 1 2

SECTION (K)
K 1. Force balance
N= mg cos
f = mg sin
Torque balance (about centre of mass)
a amg sin a mg sin a tan
Nx = f = and x = =
2 2 2mg cos 2
a
Torque of normal force Nx = mg sin
2

PART - II
SECTION (A)
A 1. 0 = 3000 rad/min
3000
60
t = 10 sec
f = 0
f = 0 + t
= 50 (10)
1
= o t + t2
2
1
= (50) (10) + (10) (10)2
2
= 500 250 = 250 rad

## A 3.* Sphere is rotating about a diameter

so , a = R
but, R is zero for particles on the diameter.

SECTION (B)
B 3. B > A
B > A
so, If the axes are parallel
B 6. Moment of inertia of the elliptical disc should be less than that of a circular disc having radius equal to the
major axis of the elliptical disc.
Hence (D)

## RESONANCE SOLN_RIGID BODY DYNAMICS - 122

B 7. 0 = 1 + 2
2 2
m / 2 m / 2
2 2 m 2
0 = + =
3 3 12
SECTION (C)

C 1. F1 = 2i + 3j + 4k F2 = 2i 3j 4k

Net force Fnet F1 F2 0 the body is in translational equilibrium.

r1 = 3i + 3J + 4k r2 = i

1 = r1 F1 = (3 i 3 j 4k ) (2 i 3 j 4k )

1 = 9k 12 j 6 j 12 i 8 j 12 i

1 = 4 j 3k 2 = r2 F2 = ( i ) ( 2 i 3 j 4k )

= 3 k + 4 j 1 2 4 i 3k 3k 4 j 0

body in rotational equilibrium

C 3. j
F = 2 i + 3 k at point (2,3,1)
torque about point (0, 0, 2)

r = 2 i 3 j k 2 k

= r F = (2 i 3 j k ) (2 i 3 j k )

= (6 i 12k )

= (6 5 )

SECTION (D)
D 2. N1 = N2 ,
N1 + N2 = mg , A = o

3
3 N2 4 N1 mg = o
2
1
Hence = Ans.
3
Aliter
Using force balance
f1 = N1 N1 + f2 = mg (1)
f2 = N2 N2 = f 1
N2 = N1 (2)
Using aq (1)
N1 + N2 = mg
N1 + N1 = mg
mg
N1 +
2
1
torque about point B B = 0 For rotational equilibrium
f1 4 + mg (5/2 cos 53) = 3N1

## RESONANCE SOLN_RIGID BODY DYNAMICS - 123

3mg 3mg
4N1 + = 3N1 = (3 4) N1
2 2

3mg mg 3 3 4
= (3 4) =
1 2 1 2
2 2
3 + 32 = 6 8
32 + 8 3 = 0
32 + 9 3 = 0
3( + 3) 1 ( + 3)
( = 1/3)

w w1

D4 x x weight of object = w

w ( x) = w1x ...........(i)
If weight is kept in another pan then :
w2( x) = wx ...........(ii)
By (i) & (ii)
w w1
w2 = w2 = w1 w2
w

w= w 1w 2 .

SECTION (E)

E-3.

2
N = m 2

E-4. Initial velocity of each point onthe rod is zero so angular velocity of rod is zero.
=
m 2 20 (1.6 )2
20g (0.8) = 20g (0.8) =
3 3
3g
= = angular acceleration
3 .2
15 g
=
16
SECTION ( F )
F 2. By energy conservation
2
1 7 m 2 2 m 2
mg = . [ (about O) = m ]
4 2 48 12 4

7 24g
0 = ml 2 = Ans.
48 7

## RESONANCE SOLN_RIGID BODY DYNAMICS - 124

SECTION ( G )
v0t
G 3. x = v0 cos 45 t =
2

mgv 0 t dL
= mgx = =
2 dt

v0 / g
mgv 0 mv 30
L= t dt =
2
0
2 2g

G 5. external torque ext = 0
11 = 22
when he stretches his arms
so 1 < 2
then (1 > 2)
so, (L = constant)

G 7.* External force will act at hinge so linear momentum of system will not remain const. but torque of external

force is zero about hinge so L = const., collision is elastic so K.E = const.
SECTION (H)
H 3*. for pure rolling
V = R
VA = 2V
VB = 2 V
(VC = 0)

SECTION (I)
-3. mg sin f = ma
mg sin f
a= .......(i)
m
a is same for each body.
f .R
f.R =
mk 2
2
For solid sphere k2 = R2 is minimum there fore is maximum hence, k.E. for solid sphere will be max
5
at bottom.

-5. mg sin f = ma
mg sin f
a=
m
a is equal for each body so all the object will reach at same time.

-7. There is no relative motion between sphere and plank so friction force is zero then no any change in motion
of sphere and plank.

SECTION (J)
J-2.* at the moment when ring is placed friction will act between them due to relative motion. Friction is internal
force between them so angular momentum of system is conserved.
I11 = I22
mR 2
mR 2

2 0
0 = 2 mR

=
2 3

## RESONANCE SOLN_RIGID BODY DYNAMICS - 125

J-3. Conservation of angular momentum about C.O.M. of m and loop of mass m gives
2 2
mVR R R
m R 2 m m
=
2 2 2

V
V = 3 R =
3R

J-4.

velocity of COM after collision is V friction will act such that = o at some intant after some time (V = R)
SECTION (K)
K-2. For no slipping
mg cos mg sin .........(1)
For toppling
h a
mg sin mg cos. .........(2)
2 2
for minimum (by dividing)
2 2
. =
a h
a
min = .
h
[ Ans.: a/h ]
Sol.(2) If f > mg sin
mg cos > mg sin
( > tan ) block will topple before sliding
torque about point A A =0
a
mg sin h 2 = mg cos
2

tan = a h

> a h
If > tan (block will slide)

a
a/2
K-3.

b/2
mg

The block will not topple if mg acts from within the base area of the block. So,
a b b
cos cos
2 2 a

## RESONANCE SOLN_RIGID BODY DYNAMICS - 126

EXERCISE-2
PART - I
m
3. linear density =

m
dm = dx

2
m 2
AB = dm x = dx ( x cos 45)
o

x3
m2
x2

m m
dx =

0
2 2 3

0
6

4. dm = (2xdx)
R
2 2
= dm x = (2xdx).x
o

R
= 2 x 3 dx

0

R R R
3
= 2 x ( x )dx = 2
x 3 dx x 4 dx

0 o o

R 4 R 5

= 2 4 5

h y
5.
R r
R
r= y
h
dm = (r2dy)
1
dAB = (dm) r2
2
h
1 2 2
AB =
y 0
2 r dy r
R 4 h5
=
2 h4 5

m
4
m 3
= R h . 1 2 ........... = mR2
10 R h 1 2 10
3 R h
3

m
7. =
2
R

## For small ring friction force

dfr = K(2rdr)g
Torque of the friction
= (rdfr) = 2krgr2dr
R
2 2
= 2krg r dr = krgR3
3
0
For rotation about z-axis
( = )
2 ( R 2 )( ) 2 4kg
krgR3 = R =
3 2 3R
From equation of motion
= 0 + t
4kg 3R
0
0 = 0 + 3R t t =
4kg
m m
8. = m1 = x = x

(a = R) m 1g T = m 1a ............ (i)
MR 2

T R = 2 + (m m1) (R2) ............(ii)

MR Ma
T= + (m m1) R T= + (m m1) a
2 2
Ma Ma
m 1g (m m1) a = m1a m 1g ma + m1a = m1a
2 2
Ma
m1g = 2 ma

mx
2 g
2m1a 2mgx
= (M 2m) = (M 2m)R (M 2m)R

## 10. Using energy conservation

1 1 1
mgh = kx2 + 2 + mv2
2 2 2
String does not slip
So(V = r)

1 1 v2 1
mg x = kx2 + 2 + mv2
2 2 r 2

## x = 0.1m = 0.1 kg m2 r = 0.1 m K = 100 N/m

m = 11 kg

1 1 V2 1
11 10 0.1 = 100 (0.1)2 + 0.1 2 + 11 V2
2 2 (0.1) 2
22 = 1 + 10 V2 + 11 V2
21 V2 = 21
V = 1 m/s

## RESONANCE SOLN_RIGID BODY DYNAMICS - 128

11. (a) Energy conservation
loss in P.E. = gain in rotational K.E.
1 m2 2
mg (1 cos ) =
2 2 3
3g
2 = (1 cos )

3g
= (1 cos )

(b) = mg sin = 0
2

m2
mg sin =
2 3

3g sin 3g
= = sin
2 4
fy = may
3g
mg N2 = mat sin N2 = mg mat sin = mg m sin2
4

2
N2 = mg 1 3 sin
4
fx = max
m3 g
N1 = ma1 cos = sin . cos
4

## Ans. Normal reaction = N12 N22

3mg 3 sin2
where N1 = sin cos N2 = mg 1
4 4

12. (a) About the axis of rotation of rod, the angular momentum of the system is conserved velocity of the flying
bullet is V
2
M
mv = m2
3

mv 3mv
= = (m <<< M) ................. (i)
M M
m
3

## RESONANCE SOLN_RIGID BODY DYNAMICS - 129

conservation of mechanical energy of the system (rod + bullet)

1 2 M 2
m 2 = (M+m)g (1 cos ) (ii)
2
3
2

## From (i) and (ii)

M 2g
V= sin 2
m 3

(b) P = m () M 2 mv From v and w

1 g M 22
3mvx
mv = M 6 sin 2 mvx = 3 mx

P = =
2 M2
final momentum

M M 3 x
pf = mx + y
0

dy =
2
=
2
mv

3x 2
p = pf pi = mv 2 1 = 0 x
3

5. a = R (Pure rolling)
v = u + at (v = at)
For pure rolling = (v = R)
(a) After 2 sec
VA = V + R = 2V = 2at
VB = Vi + R (j) = ( 2 V) = 2 at
V0 = V R = 0

(b) a = R
aA = 2a i + 2R ( j )

2R 2
aA = 2a i + ( j )
R

2
4a 2 t 2
aA = (2a )2
R

16a 4 t 4
4a 2
R2

4a2 t 4
aA = 2a 1
R2

aB = (a 2R) i + (R) ( j )

4a2t 2
aB = a i + a ( j )

R
2
aC = R

v2 a2 t 2
aC = =
R R

## RESONANCE SOLN_RIGID BODY DYNAMICS - 130

16. V = R = (For pure rolling)
(linear acceleration = 0)
rolls with out slipping so
acc. only centripetal acc.
v2
aA = R
V = R
VA = (V V cos ) i + V sin j

VA = ( v v cos )2 ( v sin ) j
VA = (2V sin /2) = t
ds t
= 2 V sin \2 = 2 V sin 2
dt

s 2 /
t
ds = 2v sin dt = 8v = (8R)

0 O
2

18. Kinetic energy can become zero only for the case shown in figure ;
Torque equation :
MR 2 2g
(mg).R = . =
2 R

0 0R
Therefore , t = = 2g ............(1)

For translational motion
v0
t = g ............(2)

0R v0
From (1) & (2) 2g = g

2v 0 2(10)
0 = = = 100 rad/sec. Ans.
R 0. 2

21. (i)
(a) mg 4f = ma ......... (i)
a
fR = =
R M M

fR2 = a
MR 2
fR2 = a
2
Ma
f= M f M
2

4Ma f
mg = ma = (2M + m)a
2
M = 2kg, m = 5 kg
5g
a= ()
9

## RESONANCE SOLN_RIGID BODY DYNAMICS - 131

(b) If M=0 (c) m=0
f=0 mg = (2M + m) a
mg = ma 0=a
a = g() a=0
(ii)
(a) (m + 4M)g 4f = (m + 4M)a
Torque about centre of disk ( = a / R)
MR 2 a
f.R= .
2 R

Ma
f=
2
(m + 4M) g 2Ma = (m + 4M) a
(m + 4M) g = (m + 6M) a
(5 + 8) g = (5 + 12) a
13 g
a= ()
17
(b) If M=0 If M=0
mg = ma 4Mg = 6Ma
2g
a = g() a= ()
3
22. (a) mg sin f = ma (i)
fR = I
2
fR = mR2 . For pure rolling a = R
5
2
f= m (R)
5

2 2
f= m (R) = ma
5 5

2
mg sin ma = ma
5
2 7ma
mg sin = ma + ma =
5 5

5g sin
a=
7

## 2 5g sin 2mg sin

f= m =
5 7 7
f = N

f 2mg sin 2
= = 7mg cos = tan
N 7
(b) torque about com
2
f.R = mR2 .
5
2
NR = mR2.
5

## RESONANCE SOLN_RIGID BODY DYNAMICS - 132

1 2
tan (mg cos ) R = mR2
7 5

5g sin
=
14R
mg sin f = ma
1
mg sin tan . mg cos = ma
7
1
mg sin mg sin = ma
5

6
a = g sin
7

1 2 1 2
K.E mv
2 2
v2 = u2 + 2as
6
v2 = 0 + 2 g sin
7
12
v2 = g sin
7

1 2
s = ut + at
2
1 6
=0+ g sin t2
2 7

7
t =
3g sin
2
1 12 12 2 5g sin 7
K.E. = m g sin mR
2 7 25 14R 3g sin

6 5
K.E. = mgsin + mgsin
7 84
11
K.E. = mgsin.
12
23. Given mass of disc m = 2Kg and radius R = 0.1 m
(i) FBD of any one disc is

2
Truck a = 9m/s
x
y

## RESONANCE SOLN_RIGID BODY DYNAMICS - 133

Frictional force on the should be in forward direction.

a0

f
P
Let a0 be the acceleration of COM of disc the angular acceleration about its COM. Then
f
Q
2
a = 9m/s

f f
a0 = = ......(i)
m 2

f. R 2f 2f
= = = = = 10 f .......(2)
I 1 mR 2 0.1
mR 2
2
Since there is no slipping between disc and truk therfore.
Acceleration of point P = Acceleration of point Q
a0 + R = a
f 3 2a 2 9 .0
or + (0.1)(10 f) or f=a f = = N
2 2 3 3
f = 6N
Since this force is acting in positive x-direction.
Therefore, in vector form

f =( 6 i ) N Ans. 3 (i)

(ii) = r f
20cm = 0.2 m
Here f = ( 6 i ) N ( for both the discs

r = r = 0.1 j 0. 1 k and
P 1 2
1
z
O
rQ = r2 = 0.1 j 0. 1 k and
y
Therefore, frictional torque on disk 1 about O (centre of mass ) x

= r f = ( 0.1 j 0.1 k ) ( 6 i ) N-m P Q
f f
= ( 0.6 k 0.6 j )

or r1 = 0.6 ( k j ) N-m 0.6 ( k j )

and | r |=
1
(0.6)2 (0.6)2 = 0.85 N-m

Similarly, r1 = r2 f = ( 0.1 j 0.1 k ) ( 6 i ) N-m

r1 = 0.6 ( j k ) 0.6 ( k j )

and | r2 | = | r1 | = 0.85 N-m Ans. 3 (ii)

## RESONANCE SOLN_RIGID BODY DYNAMICS - 134

24. (a) The cylinder rotates about the point of contact. Hence, the machanical energy of the cylinder will be
conserved i.e.,

s
co

R
R

(PE + KE ) 1 = ( PE + KE ) 2

1 1
mgr + 0 = mgr cos + I 2 + mv 2
2 2
but = v / R ( No slipping at point of contact. ) V
1
and I= mv 2
2
Therefore,

1 1 mR 2 v2 1
mgR = mgR cos +
2
R 2 + 2 mv
2 2

3 2 s
or v = gR ( 1 cos ) co V
4 g
m
4
or v2 = gR ( 1 cos ) N=0
3
mg
2 4
v
or = gR ( 1 cos ) ...........(1)
R 3
At the time of leaving contact, normal reaction N = 0 and = c hence,
mv 2
mg cos =
R

v2
or = g cos ...........(2)
R
From Eqs. (1) and (2)
4
g ( 1 cosc ) = g cos c
3
7
or cos c = 1 or cosc = 4 / 7 or c = cos 1 ( 4 / 7 )
4

4
(b) v= gR (1 cos ) [From Eq. (1)]
3
At the time of losing contact
cos = cos c = 4 / 7

4 4
v= gR 1
3 7

4
v= gR
7

## RESONANCE SOLN_RIGID BODY DYNAMICS - 135

4
Therefore, speed of COM of cylinder just before losing contact is gR
7
1
Therefore, rotational kinetic energy KR = I 2
2

1 1 mR v 2 1 1 4
or KR = = mv 2 = m gR
2 2 R 2 4 4 7

mgR
or KR =
7
Now, once the cylinder losses its contact, N = 0, i.e., the frictional force , which is responsible for its rotation,
also vanishes. Hence, its rotational kinetic energy now becomes constant, while its translational kinetic
energy increases.
Applying conservation
decrease in gravitational PE = Gain in rotational KE + translational KE
Translational KE (K T) = Decrease in gravitational PE K R
mgR 6
or KT = (mgR) = mgR
7 7
From Eqs. (3) and (4)
6
mgR
KT 7 KT
KR = mgR or KR = 6
7

C2 C2 2
28. (i) (a) CM = M = 5 MC
12 4 12 12 4

A = CM + Mx 2

5 M C2 5 MC 2 20 MC 2
A = + =
12 4 16 48

C 6g
A mg = A = 5 C
2

6g 5C 6g
(b) acm = x = = 5C x
5C 4

6g C 6g
ax = acm cos = 5 C x . 4 . x =
20
= 0.3 g
6g C/ 2
ag = acm sin = 5 C x . x

= 0.6 g
a 0.3 g i 0.6 g j
(ii) (a) Mg T = M acm .... (1)
CM
C 5 MC2 5 MC
T = T= .... (2)
2 48 24
As aA = 0
(we know : acc. along the string is zero)
acm x cos(90 ) = 0

## RESONANCE SOLN_RIGID BODY DYNAMICS - 136

C
acm = x sin = ax.
2x
C
acm = .... (3)
2
5 MC 2 a cm 5 M a cm
T= = .... (4)
24 C 12
5 M a cm
Mg = M acm +
12
17 M a cm 12 g
= , acm =
12 17
2 a cm 24 g
(a) = =
C 17C
(iii)
mg C
(a) cm = = I cm
2 2

mg C 5 MC2 12 g
= = 5C
4 48
Mg
(b) FA =
2
g
Mg FA = m acm acm = = 0.5g
2

## 31. Coefficient of restitution m

m

V2 sin
2
e==
V1

(V1 = V2 + sin ) ..... (i)
2
angular momentum about point A

Li = mV1 sin
2

L = LCM + LA = ICM mV2 sin
2
Li = L
m 2
mV1 sin = mV2 sin ..... (ii)
2 12 2
Put equation (i) in (ii) equation
m 2
mV1 sin = m V1 sin sin
2 12 2 2

m 2 m 2
mV1 sin = mV1 sin + sin2
2 12 2 4
2 2
mV1 sin m m sin2 V sin = + sin2 V1 (12 sin )

12 4 1
12 4 3 sin 2 1

## RESONANCE SOLN_RIGID BODY DYNAMICS - 137

PART - II
1. The given structure can be broken into 4 parts
m 2 5m 2
For AB = CM + m d2 = ;
12 4
4 2
AB = ml
3
m2
For BO =
3
For composite frame : (by symmetry)
4m 2 m 2 10
= 2[AB + OB] 2
= 3 3 = ml 2.]
3
3. M of the system w.r.t an axis to plane & passing through one corner

2 2

ML M 3 L

ML2 ML2
= + + 12 2
3 3

ML2 3ML2
2ML2
= + 12 4
3

## 2ML2 10 ML2 3ML2 18ML2 3

= + = = = ML2
3 12 3 12 2

3
Now ML2 = 3k 2M k=
2 2

[ Ans.: ]
2

4. = 1 + 2 + 3
3
1 = 2 = mr2
2

mr 2
3 =
2
7
= 1 + 2 + 3 = mr2
2
Moment of inertia = 3mk2 where k is radius of gyration.

7 7
3mk2 = mr2 k= r
2 6

M
5. Taking mass of plate m =
6
m a2 m a2
Then M of two plates through which the axis is passing = 2=
6 3
M. of 4 plates having symmetrical position from the axis
m a2 2
a m a2

= 4 12 m =4 3
2

4 m a2 m a2 5 m a2 M 5 Ma 2
Total M = + = using =m = M =
3 3 3 6 18

6.

## Taking cylindrical element of radius r and thickness dr

M
dm = (2r dr)
(R 22 R12 )

R2
2M
AB = d e = dm r 2 = (R 2
.r 3 dr = 1 M (R 2 R 2 )
R1 2 R12 ) 2
2 1

## Using parallel axis theorem

1 M
IXY = M (R 22 R12 ) + MR22 = (3R 22 R12 )
2 2

10.

N1 = N2
4 6
N1 : N2 = 4 : 3

## 11. Balancing torque about the centre of the rod :

N1 . N2 . =0
4 4
N 1 = N 2.

12. Fnet ( 400 100 ) i (200 200 ) j = 300 i 400 j | F | = 500 N

300
Angle made by Fnet with the vertical is = tan1 = 37
400
also = 500 R therefore point of application of the resultant force is at a distance R from the centre.
Hence (C).

14. Immediately after string connected to end B is cut, the rod has tendency to rotate about point A.
Torque on rod AB about axis passing through A and normal to plane of paper is

m 2 3g
= mg =
3 2 2
Aliter : Applying Newtons law on center of mass
mg T =ma .....(i)
Writing = I about center of mass
m 2
T = ....(ii)
2 12

Also a = ....(iii)
2
From (i) , (ii) and (iii)
3g
=
2

## RESONANCE SOLN_RIGID BODY DYNAMICS - 139

16. For rigid body separation between two point remains same.
v1 cos60 = v2 cos30
v1 3 v2
= v1 = 3 v2
2 2

v2 3v1

v 2 sin 30 v 1 sin 60 2 2
disc = = d
d

v 2 3 3v 2 2v 2 v2 v2
= 2d = = disc =
2d d d

18. When ball at maximum height block and ball has equal velocity
So Using momentum conservation
Pi = mv
Pf = 2mv0 (v0 final velocity)
Pi = Pt
mv = 2 mv0
V
V0 = 2

Using energy conservation
1 2 1 1 1
+ mv2 = 2 + 2mv02 + mgh
2 2 2 2
( = mR2) v = R
1 1
mv2 = 2mv02 + 2mgh
2 2

2
v2 h` v

v2 2 = 2gh 4g
4

## 20. As torque = change in angular momentum

F t = mv (Linear) ..... (1)
2
F t = m

and (Angular) ..... (2)
2 12
Dividing : (1) and (2)
12v 6v
2= =

Using S = ut :
6v
Displacement of COM is = t = t and x = vt
2

2x
Dividing = x= Coordinate of A will be , 0
6 12 12 2
Hence (D).

dL
24. = =4
dt
from figure r 2 2 m
Hence = rF
4 = 2 2 .F F = 2 N Ans.

## RESONANCE SOLN_RIGID BODY DYNAMICS - 140

28. By conservation of angular momentum about hinge O.
L =
Md2 2
d d mvd md2 md2

mv = 12 m
2 2 2 2
4

mvd 3 2v
md2
2 4 3d

m fr
fr mg fr mg a1
a1 = = a2 = = m
m m m m fr
a2
a1 g i a 2 g i

arel a1 a 2 2g i
arel = 2g.

## 31. Using Energy conservation,

(at maximum distance V = 0 V0 = 0)
1
Kx2 = (mg x sin )
2

2mg sin
x= K

33. Since the two bodies have same mass and collide head-on elastically, the linear momentum gets interchanged.
Hence just after the collision 'B' will move with velocity 'v0' and 'A' becomes stationary but continues to rotate
v0
at the same initial angular velocity .
R
Hence, after collision.
1
(K.E.)B = mv 02
2
2
1 12 2 v (K.E.)B 3
and (K.E.)A = 2 = mR . 0 Hence (D).
2 23 R ( K.E.) A 2
Note : Sphere 'B' will not rotate, because there is no torque on 'B' during the collision as the collision is head-
on.

35. Decrease in PE =
Increase in rotational K.E
2
1 1 2m m. 2
2mg. mg. = . 2 = 4 4
2 2 2 2

mg 1 3m 2 3m 2 2
= . .=
2 2 4 8

4g 4g g
= and v = r = =
3 2 3 3

[ Ans.: (a) V = g / 3 , = 4g / 3 ]

## RESONANCE SOLN_RIGID BODY DYNAMICS - 141

36. Just before collision Between two Balls
potential energy lost by Ball A = kinetic energy gained by Ball A.
h 1 2 1 2
mg = cm mv cm
2 2 2
2
1 2 2 v cm 1 2
= mR mv cm
2 5 R 2

1 1
= mv 2cm + mv 2cm
5 2
5 mgh 1
mgh = mv 2cm = mv 2cm
7 7 5
After collision only translational kinetic energy is transfered to ball B
1 mgh
So just after collision rotational kinetic energy of Ball A = mv 2cm =
5 7

## 39. Torque about COM

f.R = (a = R)
mR 2
mR 2 ma
a = 2 R
f
f.R =
2
2

V0
41. Here, u = V0, 0 =
2R
At pure rolling ;
Ff
V = V0 t
m

V V0 Ff Ff .R
& = t (In pure rolling V = R) ( = = )
R 2R m.R mR 2
V0
V0 V = V +
2
V0 V
2V = V= 0 Ans.
2 4
42. As the disc is in combined rotation and translation, each point has a tangential velocity and a linear
velocity in the forward direction.
From figure
vnet (for lowest point) = v R= v v = 0.

v2 v2
and Acceleration = +0=
R R

## (Since linear speed is constant)

43. Since there is no slipping at any interface, the velocities of bottom and upper most point of lower and upper
cylinder are shown in figure.
2V V 3V
Angular velocity of upper cylinder = =
2R 2R
V 0 V
Angular velocity of lower cylinder = =
2R 2R
3
The ratio is
1

## RESONANCE SOLN_RIGID BODY DYNAMICS - 142

44. For maximum a, normal reaction will shift to left most position.
for rotational equilibrium P = = 0 [in frame of truck]
b
ma = mg
2 2
gb
a=

## 45. Torque about point A

TA = Fr d 2 + F2 (d)

3d
1A = Fr 4 + F1 (d)

d 3d
(F1 + F2) + F2d = (F1 + F2) 4 + F1d
2
F1 F2 3 3
+ F2 = 4 F1 4 F2 F1
2
F1 3 3 F2
F1 F1 = 4 F1 F2 2
2 4
F1 F F
F1 = 2 2
4 4 2
5F1 3F2
=
4 4
5F1 = 3F2
F1 3
F2 = 5 .

## 47. By angular momentum conservation ;

R
L = mv + mvR = 2mR2
2
3
mvR = 2mR2
2
3v
=
4R
Also at the time of contact ;
mv 2
mgcos N =
R
mv 2
N = mg cos
R

## RESONANCE SOLN_RIGID BODY DYNAMICS - 143

when it ascends decreases so cos increases and v decreases.
mv 2
mgcos is increasing and is decreasing
R
we can say N increases as wheel ascends.
48. Torque about point A
2
( mg) R = mR 2 .
5 A
v0

5 g w0
= 2 R
mg
v = u + at
0 = v0 gt
v 5g v0
t = 0 = 0 + t 0 = 0 . g
g 2P

5v 0
0 =
2R
EXERCISE-3
1. Since all forces on disc pass through point of contact with horizontal surface, the angular momentum
of disc about point on ground in contact with disc is conserved. Also the angular momentum of disc in
all cases is conserved about any point on the line passing through point of contact and parallel to
velocity of centre of mass.
The K.E. of disc is decreased in all cases due to work done by friction.
From calculation of velocity of lowest point on disc, the direction of friction in case A, B and D is
towards left and in case C is towards right.
The direction of frictional force cannot change in any given case.
2. (A) Speed of point P changes with time
(B) Acceleration of point P is equal to 2x ( = angular speed of disc and x = OP). The acceleration is
directed from P towards O.
(C) The angle between acceleration of P (constant in magnitude) and velocity of P changes with time.
Therefore, tangential acceleration of P changes with time.
(D) The acceleration of lowest point is directed towards centre of disc and remains constant with time

3. Let the angular speed of disc when the balls reach the end be . From conservation of angular momentum
1 1 m 2 m 2 0
mR2 0= mR2 + R + R or =
2 2 2 2 3
4. The angular speed of the disc just after the balls leave the disc is
0
=
3
Let the speed of each ball just after they leave the disc be v.
From conservation of energy
1 1 1 1 1 m 2 1 m 2
2
mR 02 = mR 2 2 + v + v
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
solving we get
2R0
v=
3

## NOTE : v = (R )2 v r2 ; vr = radial velocity of the ball

1m mR 2 20
5. Workdone by all forces equal Kf Ki = v2 =
2 2 9

## RESONANCE SOLN_RIGID BODY DYNAMICS - 144

6 to 8
The free body diagram of plank and disc is
Applying Newton's second law
F f = Ma1 .... (1)
f = Ma2 .... (2)
1
FR = MR2 .... (3)
2
from equation 2 and 3
R
a2 =
2
From constraint a1 = a2 + R
a1 = 3a2 .... (4)
3F F
Solving we get a1 = and =
4M 2MR
If sphere moves by x the plank moves by L + x. The from equation (4)
L
L + x = 3x or x=
2
9. The moment of inertia about both given axis shall be same if they are parallel. Hence statement-1 is
false.
10. As x increases, the required component of reaction first decreases to zero and then increases (with
direction reversed). Hence statement-1 is false.
11. For a disc rolling without slipping on a horizontal rough surface with uniform angular velocity, the
acceleration of lowest point of disc is directed vertically upwards and is not zero( Due to translation
part of rolling, acceleration of lowest point is zero. Due to rotational part of rolling, the tangential
acceleration of lowest point is zero and centripetal acceleration is non-zero and upwards). Hence
statement 1 is false.
12. The acceleration of any point on the disc rolling with uniform angular velocity in the frame of ground is equal
to centripetal aceleration of that point in the frame of centre of mass of disc. Hence Statement-1 is True,
Statement-2 is True; Statement-2 is a correct explanation for Statement-1.
13. Let v be the speed of centre of mass, be its angular speed
and R be the radius of disc respectively.
v = R, because the disc rolls without slippping.
The velocity of any point P on disc distant x from centre

O due to translation is v T = (vT = v) in horizontal direction and its

velocity due to rotation is v R (vR = x) as shown.

Since the magnitude of v R is less than or equal to magnitude of v T , the horizontal component of v R cannot

cancel v T to make velocity of any point P vertically upwards. Hence statement-1 is true.
In statement-2 R may be more than v. Hence condition of statement-1 may not be satisfied. Otherwise
statement-2 is true.
14. The applied horizontal force F has tendency to rotate the cube in anticlockwise sense about centre of
cube. Hence statement-2 is false.
15.

(i) =
I
= F r :
Torque is same in both the cases but moment of inertia depends on distribution of mass from the
axis.Distribution of mass in both the cases is different.Therefore,moment of inertia will be different or the
angular acceleration will be different.

= = F r :
I

## RESONANCE SOLN_RIGID BODY DYNAMICS - 145

(ii) S1 : The line of action of each action reaction pair is same. Therefore magnitude of couple of each such pair
is zero. Hence net torque of all internal forces is zero.
S2 : The direction of angular acceleration and angular velocity shall be opposite if the body is slowing down.
S3 : If net torque on a rigid body is zero, its angular velocity will be constant. The constant may necessarily
not zero.
S4 : Since the centre of mass is fixed, that is, at rest; hence net force on rigid body is zero. Therefore torque
on this rigid body about any point is same.
(iii) I 1 1 = I 2 2

MR 2

I1 2 4
2= I .1 = MR 2 M R 2 = 5
2
2 4 . 2

KR
(iv) In case of ring : K = 1
T
In case of pure rolling
K 1 K
or KR = KT = (0.3) v1 2 = .........(1)
2 2 2
KR 1
In case of disc : K =
T 2
2 1 2
or KT = K (0.4) v22 = K .........(2)
3 2 3
From Eqs. (1) and (2) ,
v1
v2 = 1
i . e ., v1 = v 2
(v) True
Angular momentum will be conserved if the net torque is zero .
Now for the sphere to move down:
mg sin > mg cos
Let x be the perpendicular distance of the point (as shown in figure)
about which torque remains zero.
for = 0 ; x > R as shown

Note: As mgsin > mgcos, the point should be inside the sphere.
16.
(i) Let the mass of disc without hole = m
R m
The mass of cut out hole of radius is
2 4
m 4
m =M or m = M.
4 3
Moment of inertia of given body about axis passing through O
= MI of complete disc MI of cut out hole.

1 4M 2 1 M R 2 M R 2
R 13
= 2 3 2 3 2 = MR2
2 3 24

## RESONANCE SOLN_RIGID BODY DYNAMICS - 146

k
(ii) mvr = K ( a constant ) v =
mr
2
mv 2 m K K2 1
T= = = .
r r mr m r3
2
where, A k

= Ar 3

m

Hence , n=3

(iii) under the given conditions only posibility is that friction is upwards and it accelerates downwards as shown
below :

## The equations of motion are :

mg sin f mg sin 30 f g f
a= = = .......(1)
m m 2 m

fR fR 2f
= = = = ......(2)
I I mR 2 mR
2
For rolling (no slipping)
a = R or g/2 f/m = 2f/m
3f
= g/2 or f = mg/6
m
(iv) Talking moments about of point O :

Moment of N (normal reaction) and f (force of friction) are zero. In critical case normal reaction will pass
through O. To tip about the edge, moment of F should be greater than moment of mg. or,
a a
F > (mg)
4 2
F > 2mg

## RESONANCE SOLN_RIGID BODY DYNAMICS - 147

EXERCISE-4
PART - I
1. mg sin component is always down the plane whether it is rolling up or rolling down. Therefore, for no
slipping, sense of angular acceleration should also be same in both the cases. Therefore, force of friction f
always act upwards.

2. Since, there is no external torque, angular momentum will remain conserved. The moment of inertia will
first decrease till the tortoise moves from A to C and then increase as it moves from C and D. Therefore
will initially increase and then decrease.
Let R be the radius of platform m the mass of disc and M is the mass of platform.
Moment of inertia when the tortoise is at A
MR 2
1 = mR2 +
2
and moment of inertia when the tortoise is at B
O
MR 2 ra
2 = mr2 +
2 B C D
2 2 2 vt
here r2 = a2 + [ R a vt ]
From conservation of angular momentum
0 1 = (t)2
substituting the values we can see that variation of (t) is nonlinear.

3. (a) The distance of centre of mass (COM) of the system about point A will be :

r=
3
Therefore the magnitude of horizontal force exerted by the hinge on the body is
F = centripetal force
or F = (3m) r2

or F = (3m) 2

3

or F = 3 m2 Ans.
(b) Angular acceleration of system about point A is
A
= I
A

3
(F)
2
=
2
2m
y
A
,
3F
=
4m x
Now acceleration of COM along x-axis is
3/2

3 COM
X = r=
F
3 4 m

B C

F
or ax =
4m

## RESONANCE SOLN_RIGID BODY DYNAMICS - 148

Now let Fx be the force applied by the hinge along x-axis. Then :
Fx + F = (3m) ax
F
or Fx + F = (3m)
4m

3 F
or Fx + F = F or Fx = Ans.
4 4
Further if Fy be the force applied by the hinge along y-axis. Then :
Fy = centripetal force
or Fy = 3 m2 Ans.

4. In uniform circular motion the only force acting on the particle is centripetal (towards center). Torque of this
force about the center is zero. Hence angular momentum about center remain conserved.

## 5. Let be the angular velocity of the rod.

Angular impulse = Change in angular momentum about centre of mass of the system
L
J = C M M
2

L ML2 V
(MV) = (2)

= J=MV
2 4
L

6. From conservation of angular momentum ( = constant), angular velocity will remain half. As,
1 2
K=
2
The rotational kinetic energy will become half. Hence, the correct option is (B).

7. In case of pure rolling bottommost point is the instantaneous centre of zero velocity.

Q
C
P

O
Velocity of any point on the disc, v = r, where r is the distance of point from O.
rQ > rC > rP
vQ > vC > vP
Therefore, the correct option is (A).
8. 0 = 1 2
where 1 = (M.. of full disc about O)
2 (M.. of small removed disc about O)
since mass area

R2
mass of cut disc 9 1
mass of total = R 2 = 9
mass of cut disc = m

R 2
2
(9m)R 2 3 2R
0 = m (by theorem of parallel axis.)
2 2 3

## 9mR 2 1 4 9mR 2 mR 2 8mR 2

= mR2 18 9 = = = 4mR2.
2 2 2 2

## RESONANCE SOLN_RIGID BODY DYNAMICS - 149

9. Only direction of L (angular momentum) is constant because the direction of rotation is unchanged.

## 10. From equilibrium,

friction = mg N=F
about centre of mass
=0 mg a = torque due to normal
Normal will produce torque
since F passes through centre its torque is zero.

## 11. Initial angular momentum about fixed point = mvL

ML2
2
final angular momentum = = 3 mL

where is moment of inertia of the system about the fixed point and is angular velocity about the fixed
point.
angular momentum before collision = angular momentum after collision
M mv 3mv
mLv = L2 m = =
3 M (M 3m) L
L m
3
12. 2/5 MR2 = 1/2 Mr2 + Mr2
2/5 MR2 = 3/2 Mr2
4 2
r2 = R
15
2R
r=
15
13.* necessary torque for rolling = fr, (frictional force provides this torque)
as mg sin f = ma
but a = r mg sin f = mr
as = fr = = fr/
r f
2
2mr

mg sin f = mrfr/ = 5f/2

5
q
7f
mg sin =
2
thus friction increases the torque in hence the angular velocity and decreases the linear velocity.
If decreases friction will decrease.
14*. As total mechanical energy at points A,B and C will be constant
A = B = C
mghA + KA = KB = mgh + KC
KB > KA (mghA + KA = KB)
and KB > KC (mghC + KC = KB)
KC K A
Also hA hC = mg when mghA + KA = mghC + KC

if hA > hC KC > KA
(if LHS is positive then RHS have to be positive)
15. (As collision is elastic)
dP 2mV
F= 2mV
dt 1

b b 3b b
torque about hinge = 2mV 100 = 2mV 100 = Mg
2 4 4 2
V = 10 m/s

1 1
16. (2)2 kx12
2 2
1 1 x1
2 2 kx 22 = 2
2 2 x2

## 17. Apply conservation of angular momentum

( 2) + (2 ) = ( + 2)
4
=
3
For Disc A
2
t = (2 ) =
3t
1 1
18. Initial Kinetic Energy k1 = (2)2 + 2 2
2 2
1 1
Final Kinetic Energy k2 = 2 + 2 2
2 2
Loss of Kinetic Energy= k1 k2
2
=
3
19. From the conservation of energy
loss in KE of body = Gain in potential energy
2 2
1 1 v 3 v
mv2 + = mg
2 2 r 4 g
on solving
mr 2
=
2
The body is a disc
20. If torque external = 0, then angular momentum = constant =

## 21. The acceleration of centre of mass of either cylinder

g sin
a= where K is radius of gyration.
K2
1
R2
So acceleration of centre of hollow cylinder
is less than that of solid cylinder.
Hence time taken by hollow cylinder will be more.
So statement-1 is wrong.
Ans. (D)
22. (A) Since there in no resultant external force, linear momentum of the system remains constant.
(B) Kinetic energy of the system may change.
(C) Angular momentum of the system may change as in case of couple, net force is zero but torque is not
zero. Hence angular momentum of the system is not constant.
(D) Potential energy may also change.

23*. VA V( i ) R( i ) ; VB V i ; VC V i R i

VC VA 2R i

2 VB VC 2 [ V( i ) V( i ) R( i )] = 2R( i )

Hence VC VA = 2( VB VC )

## RESONANCE SOLN_RIGID BODY DYNAMICS - 151

so | VC VA | = | 2( VB VC ) |

VC VB = R( i )

VB VA = R( i ) VC VB VB VA

Hence VC VA 2R( i )

VC VB VB VA ; 4VB = 4V( i ) = 4R ( i )

Hence VC VA 2( VB )

## 24. Angle of repose 0 = tan1 = tan1 3 = 60

5 2
tan = = . < 45.
15 / 2 3
Block will topple before it starts slide down.

## 25. f '2 F 2 2 ...(i)

a
FR f'R = 2mR2
R
F f' = 2ma = 1.2 ...(ii)
From (i) & (ii)
(1.2 + f ')2 + f '2 = 22
2f '2 + 2.4f ' + 1.44 = 4
f '2 + 1.2f ' + 0.72 2 = 0
f '2 + 1.2f ' 1.28 = 0
1.2 1.44 4 (1.28 )
f' =
2
= 0.6 0.36 1.28

## = 0.6 1.64 = 0.68

From eq. (2)
F = 1.88
0.68 P
= = P = 3.61 4 Ans.
1.88 10
Note : In Hindi friction force is aksed, so the answer is P = 6.8. (for Hindi)
Note : But if only normal reaction applied by the rod is considered to be 2 N
Law 2 f = 2 [0.3]
f = 2 0.6
f - 1.4 Nx ...(i)
a = R
0.3 = [0.5]
3
5
c = c
fR 2R = mR2
f 2 = mR

2 3
1.4 2 = 1.4 0.6 = 2
2 5
P
0.8 = 2 = 0.4 = P=4 Ans.
10

## RESONANCE SOLN_RIGID BODY DYNAMICS - 152

Note : In Hindi friction force is aksed, so the answer is P = 8. (for Hindi)
2 2 2 2 2
26. = MR 2 + MR Mx 2
5 5

2 2 2 2
= MR 2 + MR 2 + (Mx2) 2
5 5

2 2
= 4 MR + 2mx2
5

8
= MR 2 + 2mx2
5

2
8 0.5 5 2 (0.5) ( 4 2)10 4

= 5 2

5
= 8 104
5
= 9 104 = N 104
So, N = 9 Ans.

## 27. Friction force on the ring.

28. L = [m(vt)2]
L = mv2t2
dL
So = = 2mv2t
dt
t
straight line passing through (0, 0)

30.

( 4m) (2R )2 3
I0 = mR2
2 2
3 13
= mR2 [8 ] = mR2
2 2

## RESONANCE SOLN_RIGID BODY DYNAMICS - 153

3 mR 2 2 2
11 37
IP = (4m) (2R)2 2 m[( 2R) R ] = 24 mR2 mR 2 = mR 2
2 2 2

37
IP
2 37
3
IO 13 =
13
2
Ans. 3

31. Angular Velocity of rigid body about any axes which are parallel to each other is same . So angular velocity
is .

32. Since z- coordinate of any particle is not changing with time so axis must be parellel to z axis.

33. IP > IQ
g sin
aP =
IP mR 2

g sin
aQ =
IQ mR 2

1
aP < aQ V = u + at t
a
t P > tQ
V2 = u2 + 2as v a VP < VQ
1
Translational K.E. =mV2 TR KEP < TR KEQ
2
V = R V P < Q

34. V0 = 3R i
R R
VP (3R cos 60) i + sin 60 j
2 2

11R 3 R
= i i
4 4

PART - II

1 M 2 2
M 2
1. AC = 2 6 = M , EF = , AC = EF .

12 12

## RESONANCE SOLN_RIGID BODY DYNAMICS - 154

2. mg sin = maCM ..........(i)
.R = ..........(ii)
aCM = R ..........(iii)
On solving (i),(ii) & (iii)
g sin
aCM = .

1
MR 2

3. Central force is directed towards a point, therefore torque of the central force is zero.

2
a
4. IA = Icm + m
2

ma 2 ma 2
= +
6 2
2
= ma2
3

1
5. 2 = mgh
2

2
1 m 2
= mgh
2 3

2 2
h=
6g

6.

1 2
Angular Momentum = m ( v 0 sin gt )( V0 cos t ) ( V0 cos ) V0 sin t 2 gt

1
= mg V0 t2 cos 0 k
2

7.

From angular momentum conservation about vertical axis passing through centre. When insect is coming
from circumference to center. Moment of inertia first decrease then increase. So angular velocity inecrease
then decrease.

## RESONANCE SOLN_RIGID BODY DYNAMICS - 155

8. mg T = ma

mR 2 mR ma ma
TR = T= = mg = ma
2 2 2 2
3ma 2g
= mg a= Ans.
2 3

## 9. To reverse the direction d 0 (work done is zero)

= (20 t 5t2) 2 = 40t 10t2
40 t 10 t 2
= 4t t 2
10
t t3
= dt = 2t2
0 3
is zero at
t3
2t2 =0
3
t3 = 6t2
t = 6 sec.
6 t3
= dt =
( 2t 2 )dt
0 3
6
2t 3 t 4 2 1
= 216 3 = 36 rad.
3 12 2
0

36
No of revolution Less than 6
2

10. L0 = Pr
L0 = mv cos H
2 2
3 v sin 30 3mv 3
= mg . = .
2 2g 16g

## RESONANCE SOLN_RIGID BODY DYNAMICS - 156

TOPIC : UNIT AND DIMENSIONS
EXERCISE-1
PART - I
[U] ML2 T 3
3**. (i) U = AT4 [] = = = MT3 K4
[ A ][T 4 ] L2K 4
(ii) T = b [b] = [] [T] = LK
[F] MLT 2
(iii) F = 6rv [] = = = ML1 T1
[r ][ v ] L. LT 1

P ML2 T 3
(iv) = = = ML T3
A L2

1 2 [E]
(v) Energy = Mi [M] = = ML2T2 A2
2 [i 2 ]

[U] [B 2 ] [B 2 ] [ V ]
(vi) = =  =
[V] [2 0 ] [U]

F
Also , F = qVB B=
qv

(F ) 2 [ V ]
 = = MLT
T2A2 Ans.
[q 2 v 2 ][U]

## 8. We have the equation

Gm1m 2 [G][M] 2
=F = MLT
T 2
r2 [L] 2
[G] = M1L3T 2 .......... (i)
hc [h] [c ]
= Energy = ML2T 2 [c] = LT
T 1
[ ]
[] = L
[h] = ML2T 1 .............. (ii)
[c] = LT 1 ................ (iii)
taking the product of (i) & (ii)
[G] [h] = L5T 3
[c]3 = L3T 3
[G][h]
= L2
[c ] 3

G1 / 2h1 / 2 c 3 / 2 = L
again from (iii)
[L]
[T] = = 1 / 2 1/ 2 3 / 2 1 = G1 / 2h1 / 2 c 5 / 2
[c ] G h c
From (ii)
[h] = ML2T 1
MGhc 3
[h] = 1 / 2 1 / 2 5 / 2
G h c
[h] = MG1/2h1/2c 3+5/2 or G-1/2 h1/2 c 1/2 = M

## RESONANCE SOLN_UNIT & DIMENSIONS - 157

10. Let, w = KMarbGc where K is a dimensionless constant.
Writing the dimension of both the sides and equating then we have,
T1 = MaLb(M1L3T2)c
= Mac Lb+3c T2c
Equating the exponents
1
2c = 1 or c = ,
2

3
b + 3c = 0 or 3 c = b =
2

1
ac=0 . c=a =+
2

Gm
Thus the required equation is = K
r3

PART - II
5. All the terms in the equation must have the dimension of force
[A sin C t] = MLT2
[A] [M0L0T0] = MLT2 [A] = MLT2
Similarly, [B] = MLT 2

[A]
= MLT
[B]
Again [Ct] = MLT [C] = T1
[Dx] = MLT [D] = L1
[C]
= ML1T1 .
[D]

a
6. [P] = [a] = [P] [V2]
V2

10.** V = R
V has the dimensions of

[ work ] ML2 T 2
[V] = [ch arg e] = = ML2 T3 1
T

[v]
[R] = = ML2 T3 2
[]
11. [v] = [k] [a b gc] LT1 = La Mb L3b Lc T2c
LT1 = Mb La 3b + c T2c a = , b = 0, c =
so, v2 = kg

## 13. G = 6.67 1011 N m2 (kg)2

= 6.67 1011 105 dyne 1002 cm2 / (103)2 g2 = 6.67 108 dyne-cm2-g2
dx x
14. a n sin 1 1 .
2ax x 2 a
L.H.S. is the dimensionless as
denominator 2ax x 2 must have the dimension of [x]2

## RESONANCE SOLN_UNIT & DIMENSIONS - 158

(we can add or substract only if quantities have same dimension)

2
2ax x = [x]

Also, dx has the dimension of [x]

x dx
is having dimension L
2ax x 2
Equating the dimension of L.H.S. & R.H.S. we have
x
[an] = M0L1T 0 { sin1 1 must be dimensionless}
a
n=1
ma
16. [a] = ....(i)

ma
0 0 0
ma = M L T = [] = [] = L

1
17. [g] = LT2 and numerical value
unit

[h] ML2 T 1
18.** [] = [ 4 ] = = L2 T2
MT 3K 4 .K 4
So, unit of will be m2s2.
( weber ) ( )2 (Farad )2 Tm 2 . 2F2
= = m2s2
Tesla T

EXERCISE-2
PART - I
1.** Reynolds number and coefficient of friction are dimensionless quantities. Curie is the number of atoms
decaying per unit time and frequency is the number of oscillations per unit time. Latent heat and gravitational
potential both have the same dimension corresponding to energy per unit mass.
2.** X = 3YZ2
[X] = [Y] [Z]2

[ X] M 1L2 Q 2 T 2
[Y] = = = M3L2Q4T 4
[Z]2 M2 Q 2 T 2

## 3.* Torque and work have same dimensions = ML2 T2

Light year and wavelenth have dimension of length = L
4. Micron, light year & angstrom are units of length and radian is unit of angle.
Weber
5.* (A) L= or Henry =
i Ampere

## di e Volt sec ond

(B) e=L L= or Henry =
dt di / dt Ampere

1 2 2U Joule
(C) U= Li L= or Henry =
2 i 2 ( Ampere )2

1 2
(D) U= Li = i 2 Rt [L] = [Rt]. or Henry = ohm-second
2

## RESONANCE SOLN_UNIT & DIMENSIONS - 159

1 q1q2
6.* we have F = 4
0 r2

[q1 ] [q2 ] 2T 2
[ 0] = = = M1L3T 42
[F] [r 2 ] MLT 2 L2

1
Also C (speed of light) =
00

1
1/2 = [c ] [ ]
0
 = MLT2 2
1
7.** (None of the four choices) E2 is the expression of energy density (Energy per unit volume)
2 0

1 2
ML2 T 2
2 0 E
L3
[ML1 T2]
From this question, students can take a lesson that even in IIT-JEE, questions may be wrong or there
may be no correct answer in the given choices. So dont waste time if you are confident.
v
8.** X = 0L
t
v
[X] = [ 0 ] [L ]
t
[v] = [Electric field] [Length]
[Force] MLT 2L
= [ch arg e] [Length] = = MQ1L2T 2
Q
[ 0] = M1 L3T 42 (as in question no. 6)
= M1L3Q2T2
MQ 1L2 T 2
[X] = M1L3Q2T 2 L
T
= QT 1 =
[x] is that of current

Z k
9. k = [M0 L0 T0] [] =
Z

k
Further, [P] = [] = =
P ZP
Dimensions of k are that of energy. Hence,
ML2 T 2
0 2 0
[] = 1 2 = [M L T ]
LML T
Therefore, the correct option is (A).

## 10.** [Dipole moment] = LIT, [E] = ML3 /T 3 [E] = ML/T 3 .

GMeMs
11.** (A) 2 = Force
Re
[GMeMs] = [Force] [Re2]
= MLT2 L2 = ML3T2

## RESONANCE SOLN_UNIT & DIMENSIONS - 160

Hence S unit of GMeMs, will be (kilogram) (meter3)(sec2)
ie same as (volt) (coulomb) (metre)

3RT 3RT
(B) = VR.M.S. = [VR.M.S.]2 = L2T2
M M0
Hence S unit will be (metre)2 (second)2 ie same as (farad) (volt)2 (kg)1

[F 2 ] [q2 v 2B 2 ]
(C) = = [V2] = L2T2
[ q2 B 2 ] [q2B 2 ]
Hence S unit (metre)2 (second)2 i.e. same as (farad) (volt)2 (kg)1
GMe [Force] [R e ] MLT 2L
(D) = = = L2T2
Re [Mass] M
Hence S unit will be (meter)2 (second)2 i.e. same as (farad) (volt)2 (kg)1

PART - II
1. The dimensions of torque and work are [ML2 T2]
2. h = Plancks constant = Js = [ML2T1]
P =momentum = kg m/s = [MLT1]

1
v= 0 o
1
v2= = [LT
T1]2
0 o

1
2 2
0 o = [L T ]

F
= A v / z
x

## dim ensions of force [MLT 2 ]

Dimensions of = = 2 1 = [ ML1 T1]
dim ensions of area dim ensions [L ] [L ]
5. I = mr2
[I] [ML2]
and

= moment of force = r F
= [L] [MLTT2 ]
6. Energy stored in inductor

1 2 2U L2 T 2 ML2
U LI L [L ]
2 I2 Q2 / T 2 Q2
Since Henry is unit of inductance L
(4) is correct.

7. From F = qvB
[MLT2] = [C] [LT1] [B]
[B] = [MC1T1]