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demonstrating/modeling. varying of activities  Change in classroom. An accommodation does not alter what the student is expected to learn. shortening length of test. individual or small group. sequential steps. give students an unfair advantage or in the case of assessments. reducing/minimizing distractions. Modification and Interventions ACCOMMODATION: An accommodation can be made for any student. notes provided by teacher. An accommodation makes learning accessible to the student and allows the student to demonstrate what they know. change what a test measures. concrete reinforcement.  Extended time. word processor. multi-sensory). copying from book  Positive reinforcement. cooling off period  Emphasizes varied teaching approaches (visual. study guides. generally referred to as good teaching strategies. use of manipulatives. Accommodations. They do make it possible for students with LD to show what they know without being impeded by their disability. Accommodations are basically physical or environmental changes. calculator. preferential seating. pre-teaching. frequent breaks. test format changed (multiple choice vs. physical arrangement of the room. fill in the blank)  Allow for verbal responses . not just students with a 504 plan or an IEP. visual cues. and/or large print  Directions given in small. graphic organizers  Highlighting material. auditory. Braille. before/after school tutoring  Reading test verbatim. Accommodations do not alter the content of assignments. note taking assistance. computer. Accommodations are alterations in the way tasks are presented that allow children with a disability to complete the same assignments as other children. checking for understanding.

and not meant to provide an undue advantage to the user. What if accommodations don’t seem to be helping? Selecting and monitoring the effectiveness of accommodations should be an ongoing process. scheduling. expectations. standard or test. Modification Modifications are generally made for students with significant cognitive or physical disabilities. standards. test preparation. It does fundamentally alter or lower the standard or expectation of the course. standard or test. After all. location. Modifications involve lowering the level of materials presented. Modifications are used in the classroom to meet the needs of every child’s strength. and changes (with involvement of students. The key is to be sure that chosen accommodations address students’ specific areas of need and facilitate the demonstration of skill and knowledge. accommodations are meant to “level the playing field. . A modification is a change in the course of study. student response and/or other attribute which provide access for a student with a disability to participate in a course. A modification does alter content knowledge expectations as well as assessment administration practices.  Presentation of curriculum is modified using a specialized curriculum which is written at a lower level of understanding.” provide equal and ready access to the task at hand.Should accommodations have an impact on how assignments are graded? School assignments and tests completed with accommodations should be graded the same way as those completed without accommodations. parents and educators) should be made as often as needed. timing.

http://www. such as based on IEP goals. texts are simplified by modifying the content areas—simplifying Modifications Accommodations level the playing field while Modifications change the field you’re playing on.  Testing Adaptations are used.  Assignments are changed using lower level reading levels.  Decisions must be based on the child’s unique and individualized Accommodations for Students with Learning Disabilities By: National Center for Learning Disabilities (2006) . worksheets and simplified vocabulary.  Grading is subject to different standards than general education. concepts and principles.  Materials are adapted. such as lowering the reading level of the test. not on what we do for all kids with a particular classification.  The use of accommodations or modifications should enable the child to demonstrate progress. . Accommodations vs.  Individual Education Plans should offer children equal opportunity for success.

and date collection.e. skill deficit versus performance deficit). Interventions require a targeted assessment. build a fluency skill. Academic or behavior interventions are strategies or techniques applied to instruction in order to teach a new skill. or encourage the application of existing skills to a new situation. Interventions focus on the needs of the “individual” student. Consideration is given to the nature of the problem (i. .Interventions: An intervention is a specific skill-building strategy implemented and monitored to improve a targeted skill (i. Ted Gennerman.D. Ph. Interventions differ from accommodations and modifications in that they teach new skills to help students overcome specific deficits or maladaptive response patterns.e. This often involves a changing instruction or providing additional instruction to a student in the area of learning or behavior difficulty. Interventions require a targeted assessment. and data collection (ideally including baseline data) to be effective. what is actually known) and achieve adequate progress in a specific area (academic or behavioral). planning. Interventions should be evidence based and monitored regularly to determine growth and to inform instruction. planning.

Interventions vs. make fit. think differentiated.” to make different in form” … adaptation. student. learning environment for a specific student Using grade level curriculum Additions to the curriculum to Change in curriculum standards via a different path – designed to help a student make standards. Students receiving special are included in classroom change the body temperature. Change in core program. use of Adaptations to the regular a parallel curriculum that does curriculum to make it possible for not include all grade level the child to be successful at standards benchmark Designates different benchmarks. Levels the “Playing Field” Ensures the “Playing Field” Creates the “Playing Field” Changes something about the Teaches the student a new skill. A change that helps a student overcome or work around a Teaches the student a strategy to learning problem. “to change to less extreme” Doctors use medications for Accommodations and adaptations intervention. Modifications Accommodations Interventions Modifications Accommodate is defined as “to An intervention is defined as “to Modify is defined as “to alter. use when applying a skill. structure. A change in what is being child's environment or services taught to or expected from the provided. Accommodations vs. both organizationally strategies. education services. grade level standards. Medications are Most often associated with are used to describe how students used to intervene with a fever to IDEA.” It is similar to come between. curriculum and and instructionally that allows a assessments to create a student to participate. instruction. Teachers use strategies to change a Teachers use modifications of Changes to the classroom student’s learning outcomes. progress toward benchmarks. .

phonetic patterns Provide a designated reader Follow up reading with story frame activities: story summary.g. etc. understanding. etc. tape writing. outline/study guides. setting. anticipatory guides. letters. question generating. important ides or plot. questions in class. checks for benchmarks could navigate the classroom. Create individualized that a student with a wheelchair directions. feedback) Classroom level: seating Increase opportunities to engage in arrangements. sight words Reduce the number of items per Build automaticity with known page or line information. words.) Repeat/confirm directions Multi-sensory techniques Additional time to complete Familiar Reading activities for assignment fluency Audio tape Speed sorts of ABCs. summarizing and clarifying . active academic responding (e. rationale. reading aloud.g. character analysis and comparison Present instructions orally Model metacognition Allow for verbal responses Utilize prereading strategies and activities: previews. and semantic mapping Allow for answers to be dictated Use reciprocal teaching to promote comprehension and comprehension monitoring: predicting...Accommodations Interventions Modifications Preferential seating Mini-lessons of skill deficits Student is involved in the same theme/unit but is provided different tasks/expectations Shortened assignments Targeted instruction based on Individualized materials are progress monitoring provided for student Peer-tutoring Additional instruction to students Eliminate specific standards in small groups or individually Moving obstacles in a classroom so Increase task structure (e. answering recorders. note talking.

Accommodations Interventions Modifications Permit response provided via Underline word and phrase clues computer or electronic device that lead to making an inference Allow frequent breaks Echo reading: the student imitates the teacher’s oral rendition. one sentence or phrase at a time Extend allotted time for tests Provide a place with minimal distractions Administer tests in several sessions Administer tests at a specific time of day Provide special test preparation Note: This is NOT an exhaustive list… .