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Concentration

Roy Paily

Professor

EEE Department, IIT Guwahati

roypaily@iitg.ernet.in

Key questions

Are u and D related?

Einstein's relation connecting mobility and diffusivity

Is it possible to have an electric field inside a

semiconductor in thermal equilibrium?

If there is a doping gradient in a semiconductor, what

is the resulting majority carrier concentration in

thermal equilibrium?

What is meant by Quasi-neutral situation

60 mV Rule

Einsteins Relation connecting and D

D

What is ?

u

Einsteins Relation connecting and D

l2

D

2 c

q c

*

m

D kT

VT

u q

Uniformly doped semiconductor

in thermal equilibrium

n-type

lots of electrons, few holes

focus on electrons

no = Nd independent of x

Volume charge density [C/cm3]:

= q(Nd no) = 0

Non-uniformly doped semiconductor in TE

equilibrium?

Non-uniformly doped semiconductor in TE

no(x) = Nd(x)

net electron diffusion

not thermal equilibrium!

Non-uniformly doped semiconductor in TE

Option 2: Electron concentration uniform in space

no = naverage f(x)

(x) = q[Nd(x) no(x)]

If Nd(x) no(x) that means (x) 0

Electric field and net electron drift

not thermal equilibrium!

Non-uniformly doped semiconductor in TE

every x

Non-uniformly doped semiconductor in TE

Space charge density, (x) = q[Nd(x) no(x)]

Non-uniformly doped semiconductor in TE

Electric Field

Gauss Law

Integrate from x = 0 to x:

Gauss Law: The net electric flux through any closed surface is equal to

1 times the net electric charge enclosed within that closed surface

Non-uniformly doped semiconductor in TE

Electrostatic potential

Integrate from x = 0 to x:

Physics is in potential difference,

not in absolute value!

select (x = 0) = ref

Non-uniformly doped semiconductor in TE

Non-uniformly doped semiconductor in TE

Only majority

carriers are

relevant

Non-uniformly doped semiconductor in TE

Given Nd(x), can solve for no(x) and all the rest

analytical solution

Quasi-neutral situation

Minimum space charge

Semiconductor is quasi-neutral

EB Diagram

EB Diagram

Only majority

carriers are

relevant

Einsteins Relation connecting and D

Einsteins Relation connecting and D

Relation between Potential and Carrier concentration

Relation between potential and carrier concentration

Relation between potential and carrier concentration

60 mV Rule

60 mV Rule

60 mV Rule

Note: cannot exceed 550 mV or be smaller than 550 mV

(beyond these points, different physics come into play).

60 mV Rule

Total Current Density

Acknowledgements

Semiconductor Devices: Modelling and

Technology Nandita DasGupta and Amitava

DasGupta, PHI, 2004

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