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Non-uniform Carrier

Concentration

Roy Paily
Professor
EEE Department, IIT Guwahati
roypaily@iitg.ernet.in
Key questions
Are u and D related?
Einstein's relation connecting mobility and diffusivity
Is it possible to have an electric field inside a
semiconductor in thermal equilibrium?
If there is a doping gradient in a semiconductor, what
is the resulting majority carrier concentration in
thermal equilibrium?
What is meant by Quasi-neutral situation
60 mV Rule
Einsteins Relation connecting and D

D
What is ?
u
Einsteins Relation connecting and D

l2
D
2 c

q c
*
m

D kT
VT
u q
Uniformly doped semiconductor
in thermal equilibrium

n-type
lots of electrons, few holes
focus on electrons
no = Nd independent of x
Volume charge density [C/cm3]:
= q(Nd no) = 0
Non-uniformly doped semiconductor in TE

What is the resulting electron concentration in thermal


equilibrium?
Non-uniformly doped semiconductor in TE

Option 1: Every donor gives out one electron

no(x) = Nd(x)

Gradient of electron concentration


net electron diffusion
not thermal equilibrium!
Non-uniformly doped semiconductor in TE
Option 2: Electron concentration uniform in space
no = naverage f(x)

Think about space charge density:


(x) = q[Nd(x) no(x)]
If Nd(x) no(x) that means (x) 0
Electric field and net electron drift
not thermal equilibrium!
Non-uniformly doped semiconductor in TE

Option 3: Demand Jn = 0 in thermal equilibrium (and Jp = 0 too) at


every x

Diffusion precisely balances drift:

What is no(x) that satisfies this condition?

Nd(x) no(x) What does this imply ?


Non-uniformly doped semiconductor in TE
Space charge density, (x) = q[Nd(x) no(x)]

Nd(x) no(x) What does this imply ?


Non-uniformly doped semiconductor in TE
Electric Field

(x) = q[Nd(x) no(x)]

Gauss Law

Integrate from x = 0 to x:

Gauss Law: The net electric flux through any closed surface is equal to
1 times the net electric charge enclosed within that closed surface
Non-uniformly doped semiconductor in TE

Electrostatic potential

Integrate from x = 0 to x:

Need to select reference!


Physics is in potential difference,
not in absolute value!
select (x = 0) = ref
Non-uniformly doped semiconductor in TE
Non-uniformly doped semiconductor in TE

Only majority
carriers are
relevant
Non-uniformly doped semiconductor in TE

Given Nd(x), can solve for no(x) and all the rest

But.. no analytical solution for most situations!

However, Quasi-neutral assumption will lead to an


analytical solution
Quasi-neutral situation

no(x) tracks Nd(x) well


Minimum space charge
Semiconductor is quasi-neutral
EB Diagram

Intrinsic on left side and n-type on the right-side


EB Diagram

Only majority
carriers are
relevant
Einsteins Relation connecting and D
Einsteins Relation connecting and D
Relation between Potential and Carrier concentration
Relation between potential and carrier concentration
Relation between potential and carrier concentration
60 mV Rule
60 mV Rule
60 mV Rule
Note: cannot exceed 550 mV or be smaller than 550 mV
(beyond these points, different physics come into play).
60 mV Rule
Total Current Density
Acknowledgements

Various articles from internet


Semiconductor Devices: Modelling and
Technology Nandita DasGupta and Amitava
DasGupta, PHI, 2004