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# Non-uniform Carrier

Concentration

Roy Paily
Professor
EEE Department, IIT Guwahati
roypaily@iitg.ernet.in
Key questions
Are u and D related?
Einstein's relation connecting mobility and diffusivity
Is it possible to have an electric field inside a
semiconductor in thermal equilibrium?
If there is a doping gradient in a semiconductor, what
is the resulting majority carrier concentration in
thermal equilibrium?
What is meant by Quasi-neutral situation
60 mV Rule
Einsteins Relation connecting and D

D
What is ?
u
Einsteins Relation connecting and D

l2
D
2 c

q c
*
m

D kT
VT
u q
Uniformly doped semiconductor
in thermal equilibrium

n-type
lots of electrons, few holes
focus on electrons
no = Nd independent of x
Volume charge density [C/cm3]:
= q(Nd no) = 0
Non-uniformly doped semiconductor in TE

## What is the resulting electron concentration in thermal

equilibrium?
Non-uniformly doped semiconductor in TE

## Option 1: Every donor gives out one electron

no(x) = Nd(x)

net electron diffusion
not thermal equilibrium!
Non-uniformly doped semiconductor in TE
Option 2: Electron concentration uniform in space
no = naverage f(x)

## Think about space charge density:

(x) = q[Nd(x) no(x)]
If Nd(x) no(x) that means (x) 0
Electric field and net electron drift
not thermal equilibrium!
Non-uniformly doped semiconductor in TE

every x

## Nd(x) no(x) What does this imply ?

Non-uniformly doped semiconductor in TE
Space charge density, (x) = q[Nd(x) no(x)]

## Nd(x) no(x) What does this imply ?

Non-uniformly doped semiconductor in TE
Electric Field

## (x) = q[Nd(x) no(x)]

Gauss Law

Integrate from x = 0 to x:

Gauss Law: The net electric flux through any closed surface is equal to
1 times the net electric charge enclosed within that closed surface
Non-uniformly doped semiconductor in TE

Electrostatic potential

Integrate from x = 0 to x:

## Need to select reference!

Physics is in potential difference,
not in absolute value!
select (x = 0) = ref
Non-uniformly doped semiconductor in TE
Non-uniformly doped semiconductor in TE

Only majority
carriers are
relevant
Non-uniformly doped semiconductor in TE

Given Nd(x), can solve for no(x) and all the rest

## However, Quasi-neutral assumption will lead to an

analytical solution
Quasi-neutral situation

## no(x) tracks Nd(x) well

Minimum space charge
Semiconductor is quasi-neutral
EB Diagram

## Intrinsic on left side and n-type on the right-side

EB Diagram

Only majority
carriers are
relevant
Einsteins Relation connecting and D
Einsteins Relation connecting and D
Relation between Potential and Carrier concentration
Relation between potential and carrier concentration
Relation between potential and carrier concentration
60 mV Rule
60 mV Rule
60 mV Rule
Note: cannot exceed 550 mV or be smaller than 550 mV
(beyond these points, different physics come into play).
60 mV Rule
Total Current Density
Acknowledgements

## Various articles from internet

Semiconductor Devices: Modelling and
Technology Nandita DasGupta and Amitava
DasGupta, PHI, 2004