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You are on page 1of 52

Problems:

1. The distance between the two parallel plates is 0.00914m and the lower plate is being pulled

at a relative velocity of 0.366 m/s greater than the top plate. The fluid used is soy bean oil with

a viscosity of 4 x 10-2 Pa.s at 303K.

(a) Calculate the shear stress and the shear rate in fps and SI units.

(b) If glycerol at 293 K having a viscosity of 1.069 kg/m-s is used instead

of soybean oil. What relative viscosity in m/s is needed using the same

distance between the plates so that the same shear stress is obtained

as in part (a). Also, what is the new shear rate?

Answers: (a) shear stress = 3.34 x 10-2 lbf/ft2, shear rate = 40.0 s-1

(b) relative velocity = 0.01369 m/s, shear rate = 1.5 s -1

GIVEN: dy=0.00914 m

du=0.366 m/s

= 4X10-2 Pa.s

b. du

c. du/dy

SOLN:

a.

du 0.366m / s

= = 40.044 / s

dy 0.00914m

du 4 x10 -2 Pa.s

= =

dy 40.044 / s

= 0.03347 lbf/ft2

b.

= 1.602 Pa

du

1.602 Pa = 1.069 Pa.s

0.014m / s

c.

du du 1.602 Pa du

= ; = = = 1.499/s

dy dy 1.609 Pa.s dy

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

2. A 15-cm long cylindrical metal rod slides inside a tube filled with oil. The inner diameter of

the tube is 5 cm and the clearance is 0.05 mm. The mass of the bar is 0.5 kg when immersed in

the oil. What is the viscosity of the oil? If the steady-state velocity of the rod is 0.1 m.s?

L=15cm oil

m=0.5 kg

v= 0.1 m/s

5cm

SOLN:

du

= ; du= 0.1 m/s ; dy=0.05 mm

dy

F mg (0.5)(9.8)

= = = = 207.962 Pa

A p dhgc p (0.15)(0.05)(1)

207.962

= = = 0.10398 Pa.s = 103.98 cp

du / dy (0.1/ 0.05) /1000

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

3. Water at 20C flows at a velocity of 1 m/s over a plane surface 50 cm wide and I cm long.

(Take critical NRex = 3.2 x 105. Calculate:

(a) the at a distance of 5cm from the leading

edge

(b) the at which transaction from streamline to

turbulent flow occurs on the boundary layer

(c) the at a

distance of 50 cm from the leading edge

GIVEN:

H2O @ 20C

V= 1 m/s

NRe,x = 3.2x105

5cm 1m

REQUIRED:

a)thickness of the boundary layer

b)distance from the leading edge

c)thickness of the boundary layer as well as of the laminar sublayer

SOLN:

a) Since the boundary layer is laminar:

1

= 4.64 NRe,x 0.5

x

1 = 0.0410 cm

b) NRe,x = ;3.2 x105 =

1.04cp (0.001)kg / m.s

x= 0.3334m

1 1

c) = 0.376 NRe,x 0.2 = 71.5 NRe,x 0.9

x x

1 1

= 0.376 NRe,x 0.2 = 71.5 (3.2x105) 0.9

50cm x

= 1.4898cm 1= 0.0397cm

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

4. Problem 3.1 (McCabe and Smith, 6th ed.) p.64: Calculate the Re,

(a) water at 10C flowing at an average velocity of 2m/s in a 100-mm pipe;

(c) oil with a specific gravity of 0.78 and a viscosity of 20 cP flowing at 5ft/s in a 2-

in. pipe;

(d) polymer melt with a density of 900 kg/m3 and a viscosity of 1 Pa.s flowing at 0.2

m/s in a 15-mm tube.

SOLN:

a) ID=100mm

H2O

T = 10C

V = 2m/s

r = 1000.32 kg/m3

Dv r (0.1m)(2m / s)(1000.32kg / m3 )

Re = = = 152,720.61 (turbulent)

1.31x10-3 cp

b)

Air

P=2atm

T=180F ID=12in

v=50 ft/s

PM (2atm)(28.84)

r= =

RT (0.7302)(355.222)

(12 /12)(50)(0.123425)

Re= r = 0.123425 ib/ft3

(0.02)(6.72 x10-4 )

Re = 459,170.387 (turbulent)

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

c) Oil

=20cp

v=5ft/s ID=2in

Re = =

6.72 x10-4 lbm / ft.s

20cp

1cp

Re = 3017.8571 (turbulent)

d)

15mm tube

r=900 kg/m3

=1 Pa.s

v=0.2m/s

(15/1000)m(0.2m/s)(900kg/m3)

Re =

1 N

m2.s

Re = 2.7 (laminar)

ANS.

a.Re =152,720.61 (turbulent)

d. Re = 2.7 (laminar)

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

Use the nomograph in Appendix 8 to determine the value of n in the equation of gas viscosity

for carbon monoxide and for helium over the ranges 0 to 300C to 600C.

SOLN:

carbon monoxide carbon monoxide

/o = (T/273)n

CO @ 300C = 0.028cp CO @ 600C = 0.038cp

n n

0.017cp 573.15 K 0.017cp 873.15 K

= =

0.028cp 273.15 K 0.038cp 573.15 K

n = -0.6733 n = -1.9108

Helium: Helium:

He @ 300C = 0.032cpHe @ 600C = 0.043cp

n n

0.0182cp 573.15 K 0.032cp 873.15 K

= =

0.032cp 273.15 K 0.043cp 573.15 K

n= -0.7614 n= -0.7019

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

a) Estimate the transition length at the entrance to a 15-mm tube through which 100 percent

glycerol at 60C is flowing at a velocity of 0.3 m/s. The density of glycerol is 1,240

kg/m3.

(b) Repeat part (a) for 100 percent n-propyl alcohol entering a 3-in pipe at 30C and

a velocity of 7 ft/s. The density of n-propyl alcohol is 50 lb/ft 3.

SOLN:

Dv r (15/1000)m(0.3m /s )(1240kg /m 3 )

Re = =

a) 0.001

85cP kg /m.s

1cP

Re=65.6471(laminar)

XT

= 0.05(65.6471) = 49.2353mm

15mm

Dv r (3/12) ft (7 ft /s )(50lbm / ft 3 )

Re = =

b) 6.72x10-4

1.78cP lbm / ft .s

1cP

Re=73150.75 (turbulent)

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

Air at 30C and 5 bars, is flowing inside a -in. Schedule 0 steel pipes. If the flow is at 4.0

ft3/min at standard temperature and pressure (0C and 1atm), is the flow likely to be laminar or

turbulent?

GIVEN:

sched 40

Air

30C & 5 bar

q=4 ft3/min

1atm

PM

( 5 bars ) ( 28,84 lb/lbmol )

1.01325bar

r= =

RT atm - ft 3

0.7302

( 86 + 460 ) F

lbmol - F

V P

V1(30C ,5bars ) = 2 2 =

( 1atm ) ( 28.84) = 0.08 lb/ft3 (0C ,1atm )

r1 ( 0.7302) ( 492)

V (30C ,5bars ) =

( 31.6) ( 0.08 ) = 7.08 ft/s

( 0.357 )

Re =

( 0.662/12) ( 7.07 ) ( 0.357 )

( 0.018x 6.72x10 ) -4 =

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

Crude oil is pumped at 1.5 m/s through a pipeline 1 m in diameter above. What value

of the oil viscosity would laminar flow exist?

D = 1m

roil = 0.86x1000 kg/m3 = 860 kg/m3

SOLN:

Re = Dvr

Dv r ( 1m ) ( 1.5m /s ) ( 860kg /m )

3

= =

Re 2100

= 0.6142 kg/m-s

The apparent viscosity of a non-newtonian liquid at a given shear rate is the value indicated by

a viscometer operating on the liquid at that shear rate. It is the viscosity that would be

indicated by the viscometer if the liquid were Newtonian. (a) Calculate the apparent viscosity

of a 4 percent suspension of paper pulp in water at shear rates du/dy of 10s -1 and 1000s-1. (b)

Repeat for a 25 percent suspension of clay in water.

Given:

a) 4% suspension of paper pulp

b) 25% clay suspension

du/dy=10/s

Reqd:

du/dy=1000/s

Soln:

n'

du du

= k' ; =

dy dy

a) k = 20.02 b) k = 1.59

n = 0.575 n=0.185

0.575 0.185

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

= 75.2426 Pa = 2.4344 Pa

75.2426 Pa 2.4344 Pa

= = = =

du 10 du 10

dy dy

0.575 0.185

= 1062.83 Pa = 5.707 Pa

1062.83 Pa 5.707 Pa

= = = =

du 1000 du 1000

dy dy

FLUID FLOW

Problems:

1. A 20 wt. % sucrose solution having a density of 1074 kg/m3 is flowing through the piping

system shown:

3 in.

1 in.

1 - in

The steel pipes are schedule 40 pipes. The flowrate entering pipe 1 is 1.892 m 3/hr. the flow divides

equally in each of pipes 3. Calculate the following using SI units:

(a) the total mass flowrate in pipe 1 and pipes 3.

(b) The average velocity in pipes 2 and 3.

(c) The mass velocity in pipes 2 and 3.

Given:

Inside diameter:

1 in = 1.049 in

in = 1.610 in

3 in = 3.068 in r= 1074 kg/m3

Reqd:

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

b) v in 2in and 3in pipes

c) G in 2in and 3in pipes

a) m=qr

m1 = 1.892 m3/hr(1074 kg/m3) = 2032.008 kg/hr

b) v= q/s

1.892m3 /hr

v2 = = 0.11 m/s

( 3.068 ( .0254 ) )

2

1.892m3 / hr

v3 = = 0.40 m/s

p

( 1.61x0.0254 )

2

4

c) G = m/s

1hr

2.032.008 kg/hr

G2 = 3600 s = 118.36 kg

p m2 -s

( 3.068 ( 0.0254 ) )

2

2. Water is being pumped from an open water reservoir at a rate of 2.0 kg/s at 10C to an open

storage tank 1500-m away. The pipe is 3 - in. Schedule 40 pipe and the frictional losses in

the system are 625 J/kg. The surface of the water reservoir is 20-m above the level of the

storage tank. The pump has an efficiency of 75%. What is the kW power required for the

pump?

Given:

a

3 sched 40

20m b datum

H2O @

10C

=0.75

m= 2 kg/s; hf= 625 J/kg

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

Soln:

Pb -Pa g a Vb 2 -Va 2

Wp = + ( Z b -Za ) + +h f

r gc 2gc

Pa=Pb=1 atm

Va = Vb=0 (negligible due to large cross-sectional area)

Za=20 m

Zb=0

g J 9.8

Wp = h f - Z a = 625 - ( 20m )

gc kg 1

= 429 J/kg

429 J

wp = = 572

0.75 kg

J kg

1KW

P=572 2

kg s 1000W

P= 1.44 KW

3. A pipeline laid cross country carries oil at a rate of 795 m 3/d. The pressure of the oil is 1793

kPa gage leaving pumping station 1. The pressure is 862 kPa gages at the inlet to the next

pumping station 2. The second station is 17.4 m higher than the first station. Calculate the lost

work (friction losses) in J/kg mass oil. The oil density is 769 kg/m 3.

Given:

17.4 m

Reqd: hf

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

Soln:

Pb -Pa g a Vb 2 -Va 2

Wp = + ( Z b -Za ) + +h f

r gc 2g c

Pb= 862 + 101.325 = 963.325 KPa

Za = 0; Zb= 17.4 m

m = rvs

va=vb=q/s

P -P g

h f = b a - Z b

gc

1894.325x103 Pa - 963.325x103 Pa 9.8

hf =

kg - 1 ( 17.4 )

769 3

m

hf = 1040.143 J/kg

4. A pump delivers water from a holding tank at atmospheric pressure (100 kPa) to a process

equipment at 450 kpa at a flowrate of 6.2 L/s. The process equipment is located 100m higher

than the holding tank. Calculate the power requirement for the pump if its efficiency is 70%

and if the fluid and the changes in kinetic energy are negligible. Take the density of water to

be 995 kg/m3.

Given: b

Datum 100 m

a

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

Reqd: Power

Soln:

Pa= 100 Kpa Pb= 400 KPa

Va = Vb=0 (negligible due to large cross-sectional area)

Zb= 100m; Za=0

q = 6.2 L/s (1m3/1000L) = 0.0062 m3/s

=70%

P = Wpm

m = qp

m3 kg kg

m= 0.0062 x 995 3 = 6.619 3

s m m

Wp = + ( Z b -Za ) + +h f

r gc 2gc 2

100 - 450

.70W p = + 9.8(20)

995

Wp = 897.487 J/kg

P = 6.169 kg/s x 897.487 J/kg = 5,536.6 m

P = 5536.6 m

5. Water at 20C is pumped at a constant rate 9 m3/hr from a large reservoir resting on the floor

to the open top of an experimental absorption tower. The point of discharge if 5m above the

floor, and friction losses in the 50-mm pipe from the reservoir to the tower amount to 2.5 J/kg.

At what height in the reservoir must the water level be kept if the pump can deliver only 0.1

kW?

Given:

a 50mm(diameter)

Absorption 5m

Za H2O@ Tower

20C datum

q=9m3/hr

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

Reqd: Za

Soln:

Pb -Pa g a Vb 2 -Va 2

Wp = + ( Z b -Z a ) + +h f

r gc 2g c

Pa=Pb=1 atm

Va =0

1hr

9m3 /hr

q 3600s = 1.27 m/s

Vb = =

s

( 0.05m )

2

Za=? Zb=5m

P = Wpm; but m = qr

9m 3 1 hr kg

m=

998.204 3 = 2.5 kg/m3

hr 3600 s

m

1000W

0.1KW

Wp = 1KW = 2.5 kg/s

2.5 kg/s

Pb -Pa g a Vb 2 -Va 2

Wp = + ( Zb -Za ) + +h f

r gc 2gc

9.8 1(1.27)2

40 = ( 5 - Za ) + + 2.5

1 2(1)

Za= 1.26m

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

6. A pump takes water at 60F from a large reservoir and delivers it to the bottom of an open

elevated tank 25 ft above the reservoir surface through a 3-in. ID pipe. The inlet to the pump is

located 10 ft below the water surface, and the water level in the tank is constant at 160 ft

above the reservoir surface. The pump delivers 150 gal/min. if the total loss of energy due to

friction in the piping system is 35 ft-lbf/lb, calculate the horsepower required to do the

pumping. The pump motor set has an overall efficiency of 55%.

Given: b

160 ft

25 ft

Datum

a

H2O@

10ft 60F

q = 15 gal/min

hf= 35 ft-lbf/lbm

=55%

Reqd: P in hp

Soln:

Basis: 1 min operation

2 2

Pb - Pa gV - V

Wp = + ( Z b - Za ) + b a

+ hf

gc 2gc

Pa=Pb=1 atm

Va = Vb=0 (negligible due to large cross-sectional area)

Za=0

Zb=160ft

32.174 lb ft.lb f

0.55W p = ( 160 ft ) f + 35

32.174 lbm lbm

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

gal 1 ft 3

1min

m = 150

min 60s

(

62.73 lb/ft 3 )

7.481gal

m= 20.85 lb/s

ft-lbf

1 hp

lb

\ P=

354.55

20.85

;

lb m s550 ft-lbf

lb m

P = 13.4 hp

7. A pump pumps 0.200 ft 3/s or brine solution having a density of 1.15 g/cm 3 from an open

feed tank having a large cross-sectional area. The suction line has an inside diameter of 3.458

inches and the discharge line from the pump a diameter of 2.067 inches. The discharge flow

goes to an open overhead tank and the open end of this line is 75 ft above the liquid level in

the feed tank. If the friction losses in the piping system are 18.0 ft-lb f/lbm, what pressure must

the pump develop and what is the horsepower of the pump if the efficiency is 70%? The flow

is turbulent.

Given:

75ft datum

brine

r=1.15g/cm3

D=2.067

=0.70

q=0.2 ft3/s

Reqd: a) P in hp

b)Pressure that the pump must develop

Soln:

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

Pb -Pa g a Vb 2 -Va 2

Wp = + ( Z b -Za ) + +h f

r gc 2gc

Pa=Pb=1 atm

Za=0

Zb=75ft

q 9 ft 3 / s

Vb = = 2

= 8.58 ft/s

Va=0; s p 2.067

4 12

2

0.70Wp =

1 ( 75) +

lb m 2 ( 32.174 ) lb m

1hp

Power = 134.49 ft-lbf/lbm (14.354 lb/s)

ft-lbf = P = 3.51 hp

550

lbm

a b

Pb -Pa g a Vb 2 -Va 2

Wp = + ( Z b -Za ) + +h f

r gc 2g c

Assume= Zb-Za

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

0.2 ft 3 / s

Va= q/s = 2

= 2.91 ft/s

p 3.548

4 12

0.2 ft 3 / s

Va= q/s 2

= 8.58 ft/s

p 2.067

4 12

( 8.58) - ( 2.91)

2 2

Pb - Pa 1

( 0.7 ) ( 134.49 ) = +

71.77 2 ( 32.174 )

PROBLEMS:

1. Calculate the frictional pressure drop in pascal for olive oil at 293 K through a commercial

pipe having an inside diameter of 0.0525 m and a length of 76.2 m. the velocity of the

fluid is 1.22 m/s. is the flow laminar or turbulent? Use the friction factor method. For

olive oil, density= 919 kg/m3; viscosity = 84 x 10-3 Pa.s

Given:

ID = 0.0525m

oil

v=1.22m/s

roil=919kg/m3 L=76.2m

= 84x10-3 Pa.s T=293K

Reqd: Ps, Re, f

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

Soln:

Ps = r hf s

4 fLV 2

hf s =

2 gcD

.0525m ( 1.22 m/s ) ( 919kg / m 3 )

Re = = 700.7375 Flow is laminar

84 x10 -3 Pa.s

f = 16/Re

f = 16/700.7375 = 0.02283

4 ( 0.02283) ( 76.2 ) ( 1.22 )

2

hf s = = 98.65 J/kg

2 ( 1) ( 0.0525)

Ps = 919(98.65) = 90659.35 Pa

by Hagen Eqn

32 ( 84 x10 -3 ) ( 1.22 ) ( 76.2 )

Ps = = 90662.03 Pa

( 0.0525)

2

2. A liquid having a density of 801 kg/m3 and a viscosity of 1.49 cP is flowing through a horizontal

straight pipe at a velocity of 4.57 m/s. The commercial steel is 1 -in. Schedule 40. For a length of 61

m, calculate (a) friction loss

(b) For a smooth tube of the same diameter, calculate the friction loss (c) what is the % reduction?

Given:

liquid

v=4.57m/s

roil=801kg/m3 L=61m

= 1.49 cP T=293K

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

Soln:

4 fLV 2

hf s =

2 gcD

e= .0457mm

e 0.0000457

= = 0.0011176

D 0.04089

Re =

( 0.04089 ) ( 4.57 ) ( 801) = 100, 456.85

1.49 x10-3

Re = 1.0 x105

f= .0055

2

hf s = = 367.55 J/kg

2 ( 1) ( .04089 )

b) e/D = 0; f= .0045

4 ( .0045) ( 61) ( 4.57 )

2

hf s = = 280.34 J/kg

2 ( 1) ( .04089 )

367.55 - 280.301

c) % reduction = x100 = 23.73 %

367.55

3. Water at 60F is pumped from a reservoir to the top of a mountain through a 6-in schedule

120 pipe at an average velocity of 12 ft/s. the pipe discharges into the atmosphere at a

level of 3000 ft above the level in the reservoir. The pipeline itself is 4500 ft long. If the

overall efficiency of the pump and the motor driving it is 70% and the cost of electric

energy to the motor is 4 cents per kW-hr, what is the hourly energy cost of pumping this

water?

4. centrifugal pump takes brine from the bottom of a supply tank and delivers it into the

bottom of another tank. The line between the tanks is 600 ft of 4 -in schedule 40 pipe. The

flowrate is 400 gal/min. In the line are two-gate valves, four standard tees, and four ells.

What is the energy cost for running this pump for one 24-hr day? The specific gravity of

brine is 1.18, the viscosity of brine is 1.2 cP and the energy cost is $400 per hp-year on a

basis of 300 days per year. The overall efficiency of the pump and motor is 60%.

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

Given:

150ft

datum

a 4 sched 40

Brine

SG=1.18 q=400 gal/min L=600ft

= 1.2 cP

Energy cost = $400/hp-yr * 4 standard tees

* 4 ells

Reqd: cost of pumping per day

Soln:

Pb -Pa g a V 2 -V 2

Wp = + ( Z b -Za ) + b a +hf s + hf e + hf c + hf f

r gc 2gc

Pb=Pa=Patm

Za=0

Zb= 150ft

Va=Vb= 0

4 fLV 2

Skin friction: hf s = ; L= 600ft D(4" sched 40) = 4.026 in.

2 gcD

1 1

400

q 7.481

60 = 10.08 ft/s

v= = 2

s p 4.026

4 12

f= f (e , Re)

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

4.026

Dv r

( 10.08) ( 1.18 x62.4 )

12

Re = = = 308794 = 3.1x105

1.2 ( 6.72 x10-4 )

e 0.0457

= = 0.00044 from fig 6.9(HB) f = 0.0044

D 4.026 ( 25.4 )

4 ( 0.0044 ) ( 600 ) ( 10.08)

2

ft-lbf

hf s = = 49.7

2 ( 32.174 ) ( 4.006 /12 ) lbm

contraction: Kc=0.4

0.4 ( 10.08)

2

hf c = = 0.6316

2 ( 32.174 )

Expansion: Ke=1

1 ( 10.08)

2

hf e = = 1.579

2 ( 32.174 )

fittings: Kf(gate valves) = 2(0.17)

Kf(tees) = 4(0.4)

Kf(ells) = 4(0.75)

Kf= 4.94

4.94 ( 10.08)

2

ft-lbf

hf f = = 7.8003

2 ( 32.174 ) lbm

0.6(Wp) = (1)(150 ft)+49.7+0.6316+1.579+7.8

Wp= 349.52 ft-lbf/lbm

1 1 lbm

m = r q = ( 1.62 x10-4 ) ( 400 ) = 65.63

7.481

60 s

P = Wp(m)

1

P = 349.52 ( 65.63) = 41.70 hp

550

400 1 yr

cost = 41.7 hp

300 days

1 hp-yr

cost = $ 55.61/day

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

Problem:

Determine the pressure in overcoming the friction in a coil through which water flows with a velocity

of 1.2m/s. The coil is made of steel pipe with an inside diameter of 30mm. The diameter of the coil is

1m. The no. of turns is 10. The average temp. of water is 30C.

Reqd: Pcoil

Soln:

4 fLV 2 Dvr ( 0.03) ( 1.2 ) ( 995.647 )

hf s = ; Re = = = 42,165.58 = 4.2 x10 -5

2 gcD ( 0.85x10 ) -3

e 0.0457 mm

= = 1.52 x10-3

D 30 mm

from fig 6.9 (HB) = f = 0.0065

L= Dc(no. of turns)

L = (1m)(10) = 31.42 m

4 ( 0.0065) ( 31.42 ) ( 1.2 )

2

hf s = = 19.60 J/kg

2 ( 1) ( 0.030m )

Ps = (995.647)(19.6)= 19518.20 N/m 2

3.54d 3.54 ( 0.03)

Pcoil = Ps

1+ = 19518.20

1+

D 1m

Pcoil = 21591.04 Pa

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

Assuming the nozzle is to be used supersonically, what is the maximum Mach number at the

discharge of the divergent section?

3476

G= = 1738 kg/m2.s

3

1-

1

1

( 2)(1.4)(12.72)( 20)(1.01325x10 5 ) Pr 1.4 Pr 1.4

17.38 = 0.4

1-

Po

Po

Pr = 0.0939

Po

2 1

Ma =

1.4 - 1 1 -1

1-

0.0939 1.4

Pr

= Ma = 2.20

Po

(The gas leaves at asterisk condition, Mab = 1)

Aa =

2

(1.4)(1000 R)(0.7302atm. ft 3 / lbmol R)(14.7lbf .N / s 2 .m 2 / 1atm)1 ft 2 (32.174)

1 / 144in

29lbm / lbmol

Aa = 1549.4529 ft/s

Ta 1 + [ ( - 1) / 2] Ma, b 2

=

TB T * 1 + [ ( - 1) / 2] Ma, a 2

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

1000 24

=

T * 2 1 + [ (1.4 - 1) / 2]0.05 2

T*= 834R

r a Ma, b 1 + [ ( - 1) / 2] Ma, a 2

=

r * B Ma, a 1 + [ ( - 1) / 2] Ma, b 2

0.795 1 2 1 + [ (1.4 - 1) / 2]0.05 2

=

r * 0.05 2.4

*=0.0435 lbm/ft3

r a Ma, b 1 + [ ( - 1) / 2] Ma, b 2

=

r * Ma, a 1 + [ ( - 1) / 2] Ma, a 2

20 1

= 1.2

r * 0.05

*=0.913atm

T=T*=834R

834

a = * = 1549.4529

1000

*=1416 ft/s

G = (0.795)(77.5 ft / s )

G = 61.61 lb/ft2.s

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

Air flows from a reservoir through an isentropic nozzle into a long, straight pipe. The

pressure and temperature in the reservoir are 20 atm and 1000R, respectively, and the Mach

number at the entrance of the pipe is 0.05. (a) What is the value of L max/rH? (b) What are the

pressure, temperature, density, linear velocity, and mass velocity when L b=Lmax? (c) What is

the mass velocity when Lmax/rH = 400?

Required:

fL max

a)

RH

c) G*

Solution:

a)

fLmax 1 1

= -1 -

+1

ln 2

1 + [ ( - 1) / 2] Ma, a 2

RH Ma a 2 2 Ma, a 2 ( + 1)

fLmax

=

1 1

-1 -

1.4 + 1

ln 2

1 + [ (1.4 - 1) / 2]0.05 2

RH 1.4 0.05 2 2 0.05 2 (1.4 + 1)

fL max

= 280.0203

RH

Pa 1

=

b) Po 1 + ( - 1) Ma 2 1

2 1 -1 /

20

Pa =

1.4 - 1 1

1 + 0.05 2

2 1 - 1 / 1.4

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

fLmax 1 1

= 2 -1 - ln

+ 1 2 1 + [ ( - 1) / 2] Ma, a 2

c)

RH Ma , a 2 Ma 2 , a(1.4 + 1)

400 =

1 1

- 1 - ln

1.4 + 1 2 1 + [ (1.4 - 1) / 2] Ma, a 2

1.4 Ma 2 , a 2 Ma 2 , a (1.4 + 1)

Ma, a = 0.04194

0.04194

a = ( 77.5)

0.05

a = 65 ft/s

G = (65)(0.795)

G = 51.7 lb/ft2.s

Problem 6.4:

A standard 1-in schedule 40 horizontal steel pipe is used to conduct chlorine gas. The

gas enters the pipe through a rounded entrance at a pressure of 6 atm abs, a temperature of

120C, and a velocity of 35m/s. (a) What is the maximum possible length of the pipe? (b)

What are the pressure and stagnation temperature of the gas at the end of the pipe at

maximum length? Assume adiabatic flow. For Chlorine, = 1.36 and M = 70.91.

Given:

Gas :

Pa = 6 atm

Ta = 120C

= 35 m/s

= 1.36

M= 70.91 g/mol

Required:

a) Lmax

b) Pb and T

Solution:

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

-1 2

2 1 + Ma a

fL max 1 1 +1 2

= -1- ln

RH Ma 2 a 2 Ma 2 a ( + 1)

2M

Ma 2 a = a =

( 35m / s ) ( 70.91kg / mol )

2

Ta R m 3 .atm 101325Pa

(1.36)(120 + 273)

0.08205 kmol.k

1atm

Ma 2 a = 0.019548656

At Point a:

ra =

PM

=

( 6atm )( 70.91)

RT ( 0.08205)(120 + 273)

r a = 13.196 kg/m3

@ 120C = 0.018 Cp

1.049 1

( 35)(13.196)

12 328

Re =

0.018 x10 - 3

Re = 683, 845.9

0.0457mm

= = 0.0017

D (1.049 )( 2.54 )

a = 0.0056

At Point b:

Ta 1 + [ ( - 1) / 2] Ma 2 b

=

Tb 1 + [ ( - 1) / 2] Ma 2 a

Ma2b=1

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

1.36 - 1

1+ 1

120 + 273 2

=

Tb 1.36 - 1

1+ 0.01954

2

Tb = 334.22K 61.22C

Pa Ma b 1 + [ ( - 1) / 2] Ma 2 b

=

Pb Ma a 1 + [ ( - 1) / 2] Ma 2 a

Pb = 0.7735 atm

r a Pa Tb

=

r b Pb Ta

=

rb 0.7735( 393.15)

r b = 2.0002 kg/m3

@ 334.22 K = 0.015cP

b =

Tb R

=

(1.36)( 334.22)( 0.08205)(101325)

M 70.91

b = 230.85 m/s

1.049 1

( 230.85) ( 2 )

DVr 12 3.28

Re = =

0.015 x10 - 3

0.0457

= = 0.0017 ; b = 0.0057

D (1.049)(25.4)

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

0.0056 + 0.0057

f = = 0.00565

2

1.36 - 1

21 + 0.01954

0.00565( Lmax ) 1 1 1.36 + 1 2

= -1- ln

1.049 1 ft 1m 1.36 0.01954 2 0.01954(1.36 + 1)

in

4 12in 3.28

L max = 39.65 m

b) Stagnation Condition: (Ma = 0)

- 1 2

1 + Ma b

Ta 2

=

Tc ( s ) - 1 2

1 + Ma a

2

1.36 - 1

1 + 0

393.15 2

=

Tc ( s ) 1.36 - 1

1 + 0.01954

2

Tc( s ) = 394.53 K

Or

T = 334.35

1.36 - 1

1+ 0

334.35 2

=

Tc 1.36 - 1

1+ 1

2

Tc = 394.53 K

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

(Example Problem 3.1-1, Transport Processes and Unit Operations, 3 rd ed. By Geonkoplis,

Christi)

Air at 37.8C and 101.3KPa absolute pressure flows past a sphere having a diameter of

42 mm and a velocity of 23 m/s. What is the drag coefficient and the force on the sphere?

Given:

V= 23 m/s. 42mm

Air :

t=37.8C

P=101.3KPa

Required:

a) CD

b) FD

Solution:

FD

AP

CD = 2

o

2gc

Dp vr

Re p =

Re p =

0.0185 x10 -3

Re p = 59, 004

C D A p r 2

FD =

2 gc

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

4

FD =

2(1)

FD = 0.207 N

FLOW PAST A PACKED BED:

1. Air at 311 K ia flowing through a packed bed of spheres having a diameter of 12.7mm.

The void fraction of the bed is 0.38 and the bed has a diameter of 0.61 m and a height of

2.44 m. the air enters the bed at 1.10 atm abs at the rate of 0.358 kg/s. Calculate the

pressure drop of the air in the packed bed.

Given:

0.61m

Dp=12.7mm

2.44 m = 0.38

Air:

T=311K

P=1.10 atm abs

m=0.358 kg/s

Required: P

Solution:

= 2 2 3 +

L s Dp sDp 3

L=2.44m

Dp=12.7m

= 0.38

=1

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

m 0.358

Vo = = = 0.88m / s

rs p 2

(1.24) (0.61)

4

(1.1atm)(28.84)

r air = = 1.24kg / m 3

(0.08205)(311K )

air@311K=0.018cP

= +

2.44m (1) 2 (0.0127) 2 (0.38) 3 (1)(0.0127)(0.38) 3

P = 4900.25 Pa

2. A partial oxidation is carried out by passing air with 1.2 mole percent hydrochloride

through 40mm tubes packed with 2m of 3-mm by 3-mm cylindrical catalyst pellets. The

air enters at 350C and 2 atm with a superficial velocity of 1 m/s. What is the pressure

drop through the packed tubes? How much would the pressure drop be reduced by using

4-mm pellets? Assume = 0.40.

Given:

Catalyst pellets

Dp=3mm

2m

40mm

Air with

1.2% mole HCl

T=350C

P=2 atm

V=1 m/s

= 0.40.

Required:

a) P

b) P if dp=4mm

Solution:

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

a) = 2 2 3 +

L (s) Dp sDp 3

= +

2m 2 p 3

2

p 3 3

(1) (0.4)

3 (1) (0.4)

4 1000 4 1000

P = 89, 717. 0340 Pa

b)P if dp = 4 mm

= +

2 p 4

2

p 4 3

(1) 2 (0.4)

3 (1) (0.4)

4 1000 4 1000

1. Catalyst pellets 5 mm in diameter are to be fluidized with 45, 000 kg/h of air at 1 atm

and 80C in a vertical cylindrical vessel. The density of the catalyst particles is 960

kg/m3; their sphericity is 0.86. If the given quantity is just sufficient to fluidize the

solids, what is the vessel diameter?

Given:

Catalyst pellets

Dp=5 mm

p=960 kg/m3

s=0.86

Air

P=1 atm

T=80C

m=45, 000 kg/h

Required: D

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

Solution:

g ( r - r ) = 150Vo (1- ) + 1.75rVom

2 2

gc p s 2 Dp 2 3 sDp m 3

Assume: m = 0.45

(1atm)(28.84)

r air = = 0.996kg / m 3

(0.08205)(80 + 273)

( 960 - 0.996 ) = +

1 (0.86) 2 (0.005) 2 (0.45) 3 (0.86)(0.005)(0.45) 3

m = VrS ; S = = 9.3m 2

(1.35m / s )(0.996)

p 2 4(9.3)

S= D ;D = = 3.44m

4 p

2. Solid particles having a size of 0.12 mm, a shape factor of 0.88 and a density of 100

kg/m3 are to be fluidized using air at 20 atm and 25c > the voidage at minimum

fluidizing conditions is 0.42.

(a) If the cross section of the empty bed is 0.30 m 2 and the bed contains 300 kg of solid,

calculate the minimum height of the fluidized bed.

(b) Calculate the pressure drop at minimum fluidizing conditions.

(c) Calculate the minimum velocity for fluidization.

Given:

Dp=.12 mm

p=100 kg/m3

s=0.88

Air

P=20 atm

T=25C

Voidage=0.42.

Required:

a) Lm

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

b) P

c) Vom

Solution:

PM (2atm)(28.84)

r air = = = 2.36kg / m 3

RT (0.08205)(298.15)

300kg

V solid = = 0.3m 3

1000kg / m 3

V solid 0.3m 3

V fluidizedbed = =

(1- m) 1 - 0.42

V fluidizedbed = 0.517m 3

0.517 m 3

Lm =

a) 0.3m 2

L m = 1.72m

b) P = L m ( g / gc)(1- m)( r p - r )

9. 8

P = 1.72 (1 - 0.42)(1000 - 2.36)

1

P = 9753.41Pa

c)

9.8 150(Vom )(0.018 x10 -3 )(1 - 0.42) 1.75( 236)(V 0m 2 )

(1000 - 2.36 ) = +

1 (0.88) 2 (.00012) 3 (0.42) 3 (0.88)(0.00012)(0.42) 3

Vom = 5.15x10-3m/s

Using data in problem no.2, estimate the voidage of the bed if an operating velocity of 3

times the minimum is used.

Given:

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

Dp=.12 mm

p=100 kg/m3

s=0.88

Air

P=20 atm

T=25C

V=3(minimum)

Required: ; Le

Solution:

g 150V (1- ) 1.75 rVom 2

( r p - r ) = +

gc s 2 Dp 2 m 3 sDp m 3

Flow is Laminar:

3 150Vo

= = Km.Vom

1- s Dp 2 g ( r p - r )

2

0.42 3

(1 - 0.42)

Km = = 24.8 = Ke

5.15 x10 - 3

e3

= ( 24.8)(3)(5.15 x10 - 3 )

1- e

e = 0.555

Vsolid @min. condition=Vsolid @exp.condition

L m S (1- m) = L e S (1- e)

(1.72)(1 - 0.42) = L e (1 - 0.555)

Le = 2.22m

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

1. Oil droplets having a diameter of 20 microns are to be settled from air at an air

temperature of 37.8C at 101.3 KPa pressure. The density of the oil 900 kg/m 3.

Calculate the terminal setting velocity of the drops.

Given:

Dp= 20 microns

=900 kg/m3

Air

P=101.3 KPa

Required: Ut T=37.8C

Solution:

1/ 3

gr ( r p - r )

K = Dp

2

101.3

( 28.84)

PM 101.325

r air = =

RT (0.08205)(37.8 + 273)

r air = 1.13kg / m 3

air = 0.018cP

(9.8)(1.13)(900 - 1.13)

K = 20 x10 - 6 m

(0.0185 x10 - 3 ) 2

Ut =

18(0.0185x10 - 3 )

U t = 0.0106m / s

BAROMETRIC CONDITION

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

2.2

The temperature of the Earths atmosphere drops about 5C for every 1000 m of

P.42

elevation above the Earths surface. If the air temperature at ground level is 15C and the

pressure is 760mmHg, at what elevation is the pressure 380mmHg? Assume that the air

behaves as an ideal gas.

Given:

P= 380mmHg

T drop of 5C

Ground level

T=15C

P=760mmHg,

Required: Z

Solution:

For non-isothermal case:

P2 BZ gM

= 1 -

P1 To gcRB

dT 5C 5K

- =B= =

dz 1000m 1000m

5

( Z )

380mmHg 1000 9.8( 28.84)

= 1 -

760mmHg 288 K 1(0.08205 x101325)(0.005)

Z = 5582.68m

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

2.6

A centrifuge bowl with 250 mm ID (Internal Diameter) is turning at 4000 r/min. It

P.42

contains a layer of aniline 50 mm thick. If the density of the aniline is 1002 kg/m 3 and the

pressure at the liquid surface is atmospheric, what gauge pressure is exerted on the wall of the

centrifuge bowl?

Given:

ID=250 mm

4000 r/min

50 mm

=1002 kg/m3

Solution:

P2 - P1 =

2r

2 gc

( 2

r2 - r1

2

)

2p ( 4000)

= = 418.88 / s

60

250

r2 = = 125mm = 0.125m

2

r1 = r2 - thickness

r1 = 0.125m - 0.050m

r1 = 0.075m

P2 - P1 =

( 418.88) 2 (1002kg / min)

[

(0.125) 2 - (0.075) 2 ]

2(1kg.m / N .s 2 )

P2 - P1 = 879056.88 Pa

2.5

What should be the volume of the separator in Prob. 2.4 to separate 1600 kg/h of

P.42

wash liquid? The wash liquid is to be continuous phase; its viscosity is the same as that of the

operating temperature of 35C.

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

Given:

m=1600 kg/h

T=35C.

Solution:

V mixture

V decanter =

0.90

1600kg / hr

q chlorobenzene = 3

= 1.44m 3 / hr

1109 kg / m

2100kg / hr

q wash liquid = 3

= 2.06m 3 / hr

1020kg / m

100 100(0.723cP)

t= =

r A - r B (1109 - 1020)

t = 0.81hr

H 2O

@ 35C = 0.723cP) Appendix 6

3

V washliquid = 2.06m 3 / hr (0.81hr ) = 1.67 m

2.84m3

2.84m 3

V decanter =

0 .9

V decanter = 3.16m 3

CENTRIFUGAL DECANTER

2.7

The liquids described in Problem 2.4 are to be separated in a tubular centrifuge bowl

P.42

with an inside diameter of 150mm, rotating at 8000 r/min. The free liquid surface inside the

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

bowl is 40mm from the axis of rotation. If the centrifuge bowl is to contain equal volumes of

the two liquids, what should be the radial distance from the rotational axis to the top of the

overflow dam for the heavy liquid?

Given:

ID= 150 mm

8000 r/min

d=40mm

Required: TA=?

Solution:

( rA ) 2 - ( r B / r A ) r 2 B

ri =

1- r B / r A

VC6 H 5 Cl = V washliquid

Wash liquid

Chlorobenzene

2

pri b - pr 2 B b = V washliquid

2 2

pr2 b - pri b = VC6 H 5Cl

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

2 2 2 2

r2 - ri = ri - rB

2 2

2 r + rB 150

ri = 2 ; r2 = = 75mm

2 2

(75) 2 + ( 40) 2

ri =

2

ri = 60.1mm

rA - 1020

2

( 1109

)(40) 2

60.1mm =

1020

1-

1109

rA = 41.97mm

2.3

How much error would be introduced in the answer to Prob. 2.2 if the equation for

P.42

hydrostatic equilibrium (Eq. 2.4) were used, with the density evaluated at 0C and an

arithmetic average pressure?

Given:

Assumption: Density () is constant

Required: % error

Solution:

Pb Pa

- = g ( za - zb)

r r gc

PM

r=

RT

Pa + Pb 380 + 760

Where: P = = = 570mmHg

2 2

T = 0C + 273 = 273K

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

760mmHg

r= 3

(0.08205m .atm / Kmol.K )(273K )

r = 0.9656kg / m 3

9.8 N

( )

2

( 760 - 380) mmHg 101325N / m = 0.9656kg / m 3 ( z )

760mmHg 1 kg

z = 5353.81m

5583 - 5354

%error = (100) = 4.1%

5583

4) Given:

=2 in

Kerosene

SG= 0. 815 Methane

T=60F

H 2O

= in

Required:

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

b) PA-PB (reservoir levels accounted)

% error

Solution:

*@60F, r CH 4 = 0.042358lbm / ft

3

a) PA - PB = ( R - RO )( r A - r B )

3

[( ) ]

1 ft

PA - PB = (5.72in - 0) 0.042358lbm / ft 3 - (0.815)(62.37lbm / ft 3 )

12in

PA - PB = -0.1681inH 2 O

PB - PA = 0.1681inH 2 O

a a

b) PA - PB = ( R - RO ) r A - r B + r B - r C

A A

3

2 2 1ft/in

PA - PB = (5.72 - 0)in 1 1

4

4 lbm 12

+

( 0.815) ( 62.37 ) - 2 ( 62.37 ) 3

22 2 ft

PA - PB = -0.1687inH 2 O

PB - PA = 0.1687inH 2 O

0.1687 - 0.1681

%error = x100 ; % error = 0.3557%

0.1687

7. Earths atmospheric condition varies somewhat on a certain day. The sea level temperature

is 45F and sea level pressure is 28.9 in Hg. An airplane overhead registers a temperature of

23F and a pressure of 12 psi, estimate the planes altitude in feet.

Given:

X

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

sea level

t= 45F ;P=28.9 in Hg

Solution:

M

PB Bz

g / gc

RB M

= 1 - ; Let g/gc =w

PA Ta RB

lbf 29lbm

x

w= lbm lbmol

2

1.8 R K 10.73 ft 3 .lbf 12in 1m

x0.0065 x x x

1 K m in 2 .lbmol R 3 .28 ft 1 ft

w = 5.26

1

12 psi 0.0065( z ) 3.29

ln = 5.26. ln 1 -

14.7 280.37

28 .9 x psia

29.92

z=4454ft

8. What is the pressure at the top of an 80 floor building on a day when air can be assumed

still and that the temperature of air at the first floor level is 24C? Temperature change is not

significant? Each floor in the building measures 10 feet high.

Given:

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

PTop?

TA = TTop

800ft

PA=1 atm

TA=24C

Required: PTop

PTop -g

M

gc RT

Z

Formula: =e

PA

Solution:

- 9.8KN 2 gkg 1m

x800 ft

PTop = 1atm e

1000kg 1Kmol air 3.28 ft

KN .m 3

8.314 2 ( 24 + 273N ) K

m .kmol.K

PTop = 0.9723atm

Required: PTop

Solution:

g M

PTop Bz gc RB g M

= 1 - ; Let gc RB = w

PA TA

2

1lbf lbm 1.8 R 0.0065K 10.73 ft 3 .lbf 12in 1m

w= x 29 / K x x 2 x x

1 lbm lbmol m m .lbmol R 3. 28 ft 3 . 28 ft

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

w = 5.26

5.26

1m

(

0.0065 K / m 800 1 )

3.28

PTop = 1atm 1 -

297.15 K

PTop = 0.9723atm

AREAS

1. SQUARE

Deq = 4xRH

Area

RH =

WettedPeri meter

a2

RH =

4a

a

Deq = 4 x

4

Deq = a

2. RECTANGLE

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

LxW

Deq = 4 x

2 L + 2W

4 LW

Deq = 2( L + W )

2 LW

Deq = ( L + W )

3. EQUILATERAL TRIANGLE

1

bh

Deq = 4 x 2 2

= h

3b 3

4. HALF-CIRCLE (OPEN)

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

p 2 1

D

4 2

Deq = 4 x

( pb ) 1

2

D

= 4x

4

Deq = b

5. HALF-CIRCLE (CLOSE)

pD 2

Deq = 4 x

4pD + 8

pD

= 4x

4p + 8

pD

Deq =

p +2

6. ANNULUS

Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

p 2 p 2

D o - Di

Deq = 4 x 4 4

pDo + pDi

( Do + Di )( Do - Di )

=

( Do + Di )

Deq = Do Di

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