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Complilation of Notes in Che 411

Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

Problems:

1. The distance between the two parallel plates is 0.00914m and the lower plate is being pulled
at a relative velocity of 0.366 m/s greater than the top plate. The fluid used is soy bean oil with
a viscosity of 4 x 10-2 Pa.s at 303K.
(a) Calculate the shear stress and the shear rate in fps and SI units.
(b) If glycerol at 293 K having a viscosity of 1.069 kg/m-s is used instead
of soybean oil. What relative viscosity in m/s is needed using the same
distance between the plates so that the same shear stress is obtained
as in part (a). Also, what is the new shear rate?
Answers: (a) shear stress = 3.34 x 10-2 lbf/ft2, shear rate = 40.0 s-1
(b) relative velocity = 0.01369 m/s, shear rate = 1.5 s -1

GIVEN: dy=0.00914 m

du=0.366 m/s
= 4X10-2 Pa.s

REQD: a. du/dy, in Pa.s


b. du
c. du/dy

SOLN:

a.
du 0.366m / s
= = 40.044 / s
dy 0.00914m
du 4 x10 -2 Pa.s
= =
dy 40.044 / s

= 0.03347 lbf/ft2

b.
= 1.602 Pa
du
1.602 Pa = 1.069 Pa.s
0.014m / s

du= 0.014 m/s

c.
du du 1.602 Pa du
= ; = = = 1.499/s
dy dy 1.609 Pa.s dy
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

2. A 15-cm long cylindrical metal rod slides inside a tube filled with oil. The inner diameter of
the tube is 5 cm and the clearance is 0.05 mm. The mass of the bar is 0.5 kg when immersed in
the oil. What is the viscosity of the oil? If the steady-state velocity of the rod is 0.1 m.s?

GIVEN: clearance = 0.05 mm

L=15cm oil
m=0.5 kg
v= 0.1 m/s

5cm

REQUIRED: viscosity of the oil

SOLN:

Oil: Newtonian Fluid

du
= ; du= 0.1 m/s ; dy=0.05 mm
dy

F mg (0.5)(9.8)
= = = = 207.962 Pa
A p dhgc p (0.15)(0.05)(1)

207.962
= = = 0.10398 Pa.s = 103.98 cp
du / dy (0.1/ 0.05) /1000
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

3. Water at 20C flows at a velocity of 1 m/s over a plane surface 50 cm wide and I cm long.
(Take critical NRex = 3.2 x 105. Calculate:
(a) the at a distance of 5cm from the leading
edge
(b) the at which transaction from streamline to
turbulent flow occurs on the boundary layer
(c) the at a
distance of 50 cm from the leading edge

GIVEN:

H2O @ 20C
V= 1 m/s
NRe,x = 3.2x105

5cm 1m

REQUIRED:
a)thickness of the boundary layer
b)distance from the leading edge
c)thickness of the boundary layer as well as of the laminar sublayer

SOLN:
a) Since the boundary layer is laminar:

1
= 4.64 NRe,x 0.5
x

1 = 0.0410 cm

x x r x(1m / s)(1000kg / m)(998.204kg / m3 )


b) NRe,x = ;3.2 x105 =
1.04cp (0.001)kg / m.s

x= 0.3334m

1 1
c) = 0.376 NRe,x 0.2 = 71.5 NRe,x 0.9
x x

1 1
= 0.376 NRe,x 0.2 = 71.5 (3.2x105) 0.9
50cm x

= 1.4898cm 1= 0.0397cm
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

4. Problem 3.1 (McCabe and Smith, 6th ed.) p.64: Calculate the Re,
(a) water at 10C flowing at an average velocity of 2m/s in a 100-mm pipe;

(b) air at 2atm pressure and 180F flowing at 50 ft/s in a 12-in.duct;

(c) oil with a specific gravity of 0.78 and a viscosity of 20 cP flowing at 5ft/s in a 2-
in. pipe;

(d) polymer melt with a density of 900 kg/m3 and a viscosity of 1 Pa.s flowing at 0.2
m/s in a 15-mm tube.

SOLN:

a) ID=100mm

H2O
T = 10C
V = 2m/s
r = 1000.32 kg/m3

Dv r (0.1m)(2m / s)(1000.32kg / m3 )
Re = = = 152,720.61 (turbulent)
1.31x10-3 cp

b)

Air
P=2atm
T=180F ID=12in
v=50 ft/s

@ 180F = = 0.02cp Assume ideal gas behavior:


PM (2atm)(28.84)
r= =
RT (0.7302)(355.222)

(12 /12)(50)(0.123425)
Re= r = 0.123425 ib/ft3
(0.02)(6.72 x10-4 )

Re = 459,170.387 (turbulent)
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

c) Oil
=20cp
v=5ft/s ID=2in

Dv r (2 /12) ft (5 ft / s)(0.78 x62.4lbm / ft 3 )


Re = =
6.72 x10-4 lbm / ft.s
20cp
1cp

Re = 3017.8571 (turbulent)

d)
15mm tube

r=900 kg/m3
=1 Pa.s
v=0.2m/s
(15/1000)m(0.2m/s)(900kg/m3)
Re =
1 N
m2.s

Re = 2.7 (laminar)

ANS.
a.Re =152,720.61 (turbulent)

b.Re = 459,170.387 (turbulent)

c.Re = 3017.8571 (turbulent)

d. Re = 2.7 (laminar)
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

5. Problem 3.3 (McCabe and Smith, 6th ed.) p.64


Use the nomograph in Appendix 8 to determine the value of n in the equation of gas viscosity
for carbon monoxide and for helium over the ranges 0 to 300C to 600C.

SOLN:

0 - 300C 300C - 600C


carbon monoxide carbon monoxide

/o = (T/273)n

CO @ 273.15 = 0.017cp CO @ 300C = 0.017cp


CO @ 300C = 0.028cp CO @ 600C = 0.038cp

n n
0.017cp 573.15 K 0.017cp 873.15 K
= =
0.028cp 273.15 K 0.038cp 573.15 K

n = -0.6733 n = -1.9108

Helium: Helium:

He @ 0C = 0.0182 cp He @ 300C = 0.032cp


He @ 300C = 0.032cpHe @ 600C = 0.043cp

n n
0.0182cp 573.15 K 0.032cp 873.15 K
= =
0.032cp 273.15 K 0.043cp 573.15 K

n= -0.7614 n= -0.7019
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

6. Problem 3.4 (McCabe and Smith, 6th ed.) p.65

a) Estimate the transition length at the entrance to a 15-mm tube through which 100 percent
glycerol at 60C is flowing at a velocity of 0.3 m/s. The density of glycerol is 1,240
kg/m3.

(b) Repeat part (a) for 100 percent n-propyl alcohol entering a 3-in pipe at 30C and
a velocity of 7 ft/s. The density of n-propyl alcohol is 50 lb/ft 3.

SOLN:

Dv r (15/1000)m(0.3m /s )(1240kg /m 3 )
Re = =
a) 0.001
85cP kg /m.s

1cP

Re=65.6471(laminar)

XT
= 0.05(65.6471) = 49.2353mm
15mm

Dv r (3/12) ft (7 ft /s )(50lbm / ft 3 )
Re = =
b) 6.72x10-4
1.78cP lbm / ft .s
1cP

Re=73150.75 (turbulent)

XT=(45)(3 in) = 135 in.


Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

7. Problem 3.8 (McCabe and Smith, 6th ed.) p.65


Air at 30C and 5 bars, is flowing inside a -in. Schedule 0 steel pipes. If the flow is at 4.0
ft3/min at standard temperature and pressure (0C and 1atm), is the flow likely to be laminar or
turbulent?

GIVEN:

sched 40

Air
30C & 5 bar
q=4 ft3/min

REQD: type of flow

SOLN: Assume ideal gas behavior

1atm
PM
( 5 bars ) ( 28,84 lb/lbmol )



1.01325bar

r= =
RT atm - ft 3
0.7302
( 86 + 460 ) F
lbmol - F

= 0.357 lb/ ft3

@30C =0.018 cP; D (1/2 in sched 40) = 0.622in.

v = q/s; s=p/4 D2 = (p/4)(0.662/12)2; S= 2.11x103 ft2

m(30C, 5 bars) = m(0C, 1 atm)

where m =vrS ; v1r1S1 = v2r2S2

V P
V1(30C ,5bars ) = 2 2 =
( 1atm ) ( 28.84) = 0.08 lb/ft3 (0C ,1atm )
r1 ( 0.7302) ( 492)

V (30C ,5bars ) =
( 31.6) ( 0.08 ) = 7.08 ft/s
( 0.357 )

Re =
( 0.662/12) ( 7.07 ) ( 0.357 )
( 0.018x 6.72x10 ) -4 =

Re= 10832.89 (turbulent)

8. Problem 3.9 (McCabe and Smith, 6th ed.) p.65


Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

Crude oil is pumped at 1.5 m/s through a pipeline 1 m in diameter above. What value
of the oil viscosity would laminar flow exist?

GIVEN: v = 1.5 m/s


D = 1m
roil = 0.86x1000 kg/m3 = 860 kg/m3

REQD: when laminar flow exists

SOLN:

Re = Dvr

Dv r ( 1m ) ( 1.5m /s ) ( 860kg /m )
3

= =
Re 2100

= 0.6142 kg/m-s

9. Problem 3.10 (McCabe and Smith, 6th ed.) p.65


The apparent viscosity of a non-newtonian liquid at a given shear rate is the value indicated by
a viscometer operating on the liquid at that shear rate. It is the viscosity that would be
indicated by the viscometer if the liquid were Newtonian. (a) Calculate the apparent viscosity
of a 4 percent suspension of paper pulp in water at shear rates du/dy of 10s -1 and 1000s-1. (b)
Repeat for a 25 percent suspension of clay in water.

Given:
a) 4% suspension of paper pulp
b) 25% clay suspension

du/dy=10/s
Reqd:
du/dy=1000/s

Soln:

n'
du du
= k' ; =
dy dy

a) k = 20.02 b) k = 1.59
n = 0.575 n=0.185

if du/dy = 10/s if du/dy = 10/s

= 20.02 [ 10] = 1.59 [ 10]


0.575 0.185
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

= 75.2426 Pa = 2.4344 Pa

75.2426 Pa 2.4344 Pa
= = = =
du 10 du 10
dy dy

= 7.524 Pa-s = 0.24344 Pa-s

if du/dy = 1000/s if du/dy = 1000/s

= 20.02 [ 1000] = 1.59 [ 1000]


0.575 0.185

= 1062.83 Pa = 5.707 Pa

1062.83 Pa 5.707 Pa
= = = =
du 1000 du 1000
dy dy

= 1.06283 Pa-s = 5.7068x10-3 Pa-s

FLUID FLOW
Problems:
1. A 20 wt. % sucrose solution having a density of 1074 kg/m3 is flowing through the piping
system shown:

3 in.

1 in.

1 - in

The steel pipes are schedule 40 pipes. The flowrate entering pipe 1 is 1.892 m 3/hr. the flow divides
equally in each of pipes 3. Calculate the following using SI units:
(a) the total mass flowrate in pipe 1 and pipes 3.
(b) The average velocity in pipes 2 and 3.
(c) The mass velocity in pipes 2 and 3.

Given:
Inside diameter:
1 in = 1.049 in
in = 1.610 in
3 in = 3.068 in r= 1074 kg/m3

Reqd:
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

a) m in 1 in. & 3in. pipes


b) v in 2in and 3in pipes
c) G in 2in and 3in pipes

Soln: Law of Conservation of mass: m1=m2; m3=m1/2

a) m=qr
m1 = 1.892 m3/hr(1074 kg/m3) = 2032.008 kg/hr

m3= m1/2= 2032.008/2 kg/hr= 1060.004 kg/hr

b) v= q/s

1.892m3 /hr
v2 = = 0.11 m/s

( 3.068 ( .0254 ) )
2

1.892m3 / hr
v3 = = 0.40 m/s
p
( 1.61x0.0254 )
2

4
c) G = m/s
1hr
2.032.008 kg/hr
G2 = 3600 s = 118.36 kg
p m2 -s
( 3.068 ( 0.0254 ) )
2

2. Water is being pumped from an open water reservoir at a rate of 2.0 kg/s at 10C to an open
storage tank 1500-m away. The pipe is 3 - in. Schedule 40 pipe and the frictional losses in
the system are 625 J/kg. The surface of the water reservoir is 20-m above the level of the
storage tank. The pump has an efficiency of 75%. What is the kW power required for the
pump?

Given:

a
3 sched 40
20m b datum
H2O @
10C

=0.75
m= 2 kg/s; hf= 625 J/kg

Reqd: Power requirement


Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

Soln:

Pb -Pa g a Vb 2 -Va 2
Wp = + ( Z b -Za ) + +h f
r gc 2gc

Pa=Pb=1 atm
Va = Vb=0 (negligible due to large cross-sectional area)
Za=20 m
Zb=0

g J 9.8
Wp = h f - Z a = 625 - ( 20m )
gc kg 1

= 429 J/kg

429 J
wp = = 572
0.75 kg
J kg
1KW
P=572 2

kg s 1000W

P= 1.44 KW

3. A pipeline laid cross country carries oil at a rate of 795 m 3/d. The pressure of the oil is 1793
kPa gage leaving pumping station 1. The pressure is 862 kPa gages at the inlet to the next
pumping station 2. The second station is 17.4 m higher than the first station. Calculate the lost
work (friction losses) in J/kg mass oil. The oil density is 769 kg/m 3.

Given:

17.4 m

Reqd: hf
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

Soln:

Pb -Pa g a Vb 2 -Va 2
Wp = + ( Z b -Za ) + +h f
r gc 2g c

Pa = 1793 +10.325 = 1894.3325 KPa


Pb= 862 + 101.325 = 963.325 KPa
Za = 0; Zb= 17.4 m

Wp= 0 (no pump bet pts. A & B)

m = rvs

va=vb=q/s

P -P g
h f = b a - Z b
gc


1894.325x103 Pa - 963.325x103 Pa 9.8
hf =
kg - 1 ( 17.4 )
769 3
m

hf = 1040.143 J/kg
4. A pump delivers water from a holding tank at atmospheric pressure (100 kPa) to a process
equipment at 450 kpa at a flowrate of 6.2 L/s. The process equipment is located 100m higher
than the holding tank. Calculate the power requirement for the pump if its efficiency is 70%
and if the fluid and the changes in kinetic energy are negligible. Take the density of water to
be 995 kg/m3.

Given: b

Datum 100 m
a

Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

Reqd: Power

Soln:
Pa= 100 Kpa Pb= 400 KPa
Va = Vb=0 (negligible due to large cross-sectional area)
Zb= 100m; Za=0
q = 6.2 L/s (1m3/1000L) = 0.0062 m3/s
=70%
P = Wpm
m = qp

m3 kg kg
m= 0.0062 x 995 3 = 6.619 3
s m m

Pb -Pa g a Vb 2 -Va 2 3.55 + 0


Wp = + ( Z b -Za ) + +h f
r gc 2gc 2

100 - 450
.70W p = + 9.8(20)
995

Wp = 897.487 J/kg
P = 6.169 kg/s x 897.487 J/kg = 5,536.6 m

P = 5536.6 m
5. Water at 20C is pumped at a constant rate 9 m3/hr from a large reservoir resting on the floor
to the open top of an experimental absorption tower. The point of discharge if 5m above the
floor, and friction losses in the 50-mm pipe from the reservoir to the tower amount to 2.5 J/kg.
At what height in the reservoir must the water level be kept if the pump can deliver only 0.1
kW?

Given:

a 50mm(diameter)
Absorption 5m
Za H2O@ Tower
20C datum

Power= 0.1KW hf=2.5kg/hr


q=9m3/hr
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

Reqd: Za

Soln:
Pb -Pa g a Vb 2 -Va 2
Wp = + ( Z b -Z a ) + +h f
r gc 2g c

Pa=Pb=1 atm

Va =0

1hr
9m3 /hr
q 3600s = 1.27 m/s
Vb = =
s
( 0.05m )
2

Za=? Zb=5m

P = Wpm; but m = qr

9m 3 1 hr kg
m=
998.204 3 = 2.5 kg/m3
hr 3600 s
m

1000W
0.1KW
Wp = 1KW = 2.5 kg/s
2.5 kg/s

Pb -Pa g a Vb 2 -Va 2
Wp = + ( Zb -Za ) + +h f
r gc 2gc

9.8 1(1.27)2
40 = ( 5 - Za ) + + 2.5
1 2(1)

Za= 1.26m
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

6. A pump takes water at 60F from a large reservoir and delivers it to the bottom of an open
elevated tank 25 ft above the reservoir surface through a 3-in. ID pipe. The inlet to the pump is
located 10 ft below the water surface, and the water level in the tank is constant at 160 ft
above the reservoir surface. The pump delivers 150 gal/min. if the total loss of energy due to
friction in the piping system is 35 ft-lbf/lb, calculate the horsepower required to do the
pumping. The pump motor set has an overall efficiency of 55%.

Given: b

160 ft
25 ft
Datum
a

H2O@
10ft 60F

q = 15 gal/min
hf= 35 ft-lbf/lbm
=55%

Reqd: P in hp

Soln:
Basis: 1 min operation

2 2
Pb - Pa gV - V
Wp = + ( Z b - Za ) + b a
+ hf
gc 2gc

Pa=Pb=1 atm
Va = Vb=0 (negligible due to large cross-sectional area)
Za=0
Zb=160ft

32.174 lb ft.lb f
0.55W p = ( 160 ft ) f + 35
32.174 lbm lbm

Wp= 354.545 ft-lbf/lbm


Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

Power= Wpm; where m= qr r@60F= 999.013 kg/m3 = 62.37 lb/ft3

gal 1 ft 3
1min
m = 150
min 60s

(
62.73 lb/ft 3 )
7.481gal

m= 20.85 lb/s


ft-lbf
1 hp
lb
\ P=
354.55
20.85
;
lb m s550 ft-lbf
lb m

P = 13.4 hp

7. A pump pumps 0.200 ft 3/s or brine solution having a density of 1.15 g/cm 3 from an open
feed tank having a large cross-sectional area. The suction line has an inside diameter of 3.458
inches and the discharge line from the pump a diameter of 2.067 inches. The discharge flow
goes to an open overhead tank and the open end of this line is 75 ft above the liquid level in
the feed tank. If the friction losses in the piping system are 18.0 ft-lb f/lbm, what pressure must
the pump develop and what is the horsepower of the pump if the efficiency is 70%? The flow
is turbulent.

Given:

75ft datum

brine

r=1.15g/cm3

D=2.067

3.548(D) hf=18 ft-lbf/lbm


=0.70
q=0.2 ft3/s

Reqd: a) P in hp
b)Pressure that the pump must develop

Soln:
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

Pb -Pa g a Vb 2 -Va 2
Wp = + ( Z b -Za ) + +h f
r gc 2gc

Pa=Pb=1 atm
Za=0
Zb=75ft
q 9 ft 3 / s
Vb = = 2
= 8.58 ft/s
Va=0; s p 2.067

4 12

lbf ( 1) ( 8.58) + 18 ft - lbf


2

0.70Wp =
1 ( 75) +
lb m 2 ( 32.174 ) lb m

Wp= 134.49 ft-lbf/lbm

Power= mWp where m= qr

rbrine= 71.77 lb/ft3

m= 0.2 ft3/s (71.77 lb/ft3)=14.354 lb/s


1hp
Power = 134.49 ft-lbf/lbm (14.354 lb/s)
ft-lbf = P = 3.51 hp
550
lbm

Consider the pump:

a b

Pb -Pa g a Vb 2 -Va 2
Wp = + ( Z b -Za ) + +h f
r gc 2g c

Assume= Zb-Za
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

0.2 ft 3 / s
Va= q/s = 2
= 2.91 ft/s
p 3.548

4 12
0.2 ft 3 / s
Va= q/s 2
= 8.58 ft/s
p 2.067

4 12
( 8.58) - ( 2.91)
2 2

Pb - Pa 1
( 0.7 ) ( 134.49 ) = +
71.77 2 ( 32.174 )

Pb-Pa = 6683.98 lbf/ft2

PROBLEMS:
1. Calculate the frictional pressure drop in pascal for olive oil at 293 K through a commercial
pipe having an inside diameter of 0.0525 m and a length of 76.2 m. the velocity of the
fluid is 1.22 m/s. is the flow laminar or turbulent? Use the friction factor method. For
olive oil, density= 919 kg/m3; viscosity = 84 x 10-3 Pa.s

Given:
ID = 0.0525m

oil
v=1.22m/s
roil=919kg/m3 L=76.2m
= 84x10-3 Pa.s T=293K
Reqd: Ps, Re, f
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

Soln:
Ps = r hf s
4 fLV 2
hf s =
2 gcD
.0525m ( 1.22 m/s ) ( 919kg / m 3 )
Re = = 700.7375 Flow is laminar
84 x10 -3 Pa.s
f = 16/Re
f = 16/700.7375 = 0.02283
4 ( 0.02283) ( 76.2 ) ( 1.22 )
2

hf s = = 98.65 J/kg
2 ( 1) ( 0.0525)
Ps = 919(98.65) = 90659.35 Pa

by Hagen Eqn
32 ( 84 x10 -3 ) ( 1.22 ) ( 76.2 )
Ps = = 90662.03 Pa
( 0.0525)
2

2. A liquid having a density of 801 kg/m3 and a viscosity of 1.49 cP is flowing through a horizontal
straight pipe at a velocity of 4.57 m/s. The commercial steel is 1 -in. Schedule 40. For a length of 61
m, calculate (a) friction loss
(b) For a smooth tube of the same diameter, calculate the friction loss (c) what is the % reduction?

Given:

ID = 1.61 in- .04089 m

liquid
v=4.57m/s
roil=801kg/m3 L=61m
= 1.49 cP T=293K

Reqd: a) friction loss; also for smooth tubes; and % reduction


Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

Soln:
4 fLV 2
hf s =
2 gcD
e= .0457mm
e 0.0000457
= = 0.0011176
D 0.04089

Re =
( 0.04089 ) ( 4.57 ) ( 801) = 100, 456.85
1.49 x10-3
Re = 1.0 x105
f= .0055

4 ( .0055) ( 61) ( 4.57 )


2

hf s = = 367.55 J/kg
2 ( 1) ( .04089 )
b) e/D = 0; f= .0045
4 ( .0045) ( 61) ( 4.57 )
2

hf s = = 280.34 J/kg
2 ( 1) ( .04089 )
367.55 - 280.301
c) % reduction = x100 = 23.73 %
367.55

3. Water at 60F is pumped from a reservoir to the top of a mountain through a 6-in schedule
120 pipe at an average velocity of 12 ft/s. the pipe discharges into the atmosphere at a
level of 3000 ft above the level in the reservoir. The pipeline itself is 4500 ft long. If the
overall efficiency of the pump and the motor driving it is 70% and the cost of electric
energy to the motor is 4 cents per kW-hr, what is the hourly energy cost of pumping this
water?

4. centrifugal pump takes brine from the bottom of a supply tank and delivers it into the
bottom of another tank. The line between the tanks is 600 ft of 4 -in schedule 40 pipe. The
flowrate is 400 gal/min. In the line are two-gate valves, four standard tees, and four ells.
What is the energy cost for running this pump for one 24-hr day? The specific gravity of
brine is 1.18, the viscosity of brine is 1.2 cP and the energy cost is $400 per hp-year on a
basis of 300 days per year. The overall efficiency of the pump and motor is 60%.
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

Given:

150ft
datum

a 4 sched 40

Brine
SG=1.18 q=400 gal/min L=600ft
= 1.2 cP

= 0.6 * 2 gate valves


Energy cost = $400/hp-yr * 4 standard tees
* 4 ells
Reqd: cost of pumping per day
Soln:

Pb -Pa g a V 2 -V 2
Wp = + ( Z b -Za ) + b a +hf s + hf e + hf c + hf f
r gc 2gc
Pb=Pa=Patm
Za=0
Zb= 150ft
Va=Vb= 0
4 fLV 2
Skin friction: hf s = ; L= 600ft D(4" sched 40) = 4.026 in.
2 gcD
1 1
400

q 7.481
60 = 10.08 ft/s
v= = 2
s p 4.026

4 12
f= f (e , Re)
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

4.026
Dv r
( 10.08) ( 1.18 x62.4 )

12
Re = = = 308794 = 3.1x105
1.2 ( 6.72 x10-4 )
e 0.0457
= = 0.00044 from fig 6.9(HB) f = 0.0044
D 4.026 ( 25.4 )
4 ( 0.0044 ) ( 600 ) ( 10.08)
2
ft-lbf
hf s = = 49.7
2 ( 32.174 ) ( 4.006 /12 ) lbm
contraction: Kc=0.4
0.4 ( 10.08)
2

hf c = = 0.6316
2 ( 32.174 )
Expansion: Ke=1
1 ( 10.08)
2

hf e = = 1.579
2 ( 32.174 )
fittings: Kf(gate valves) = 2(0.17)
Kf(tees) = 4(0.4)
Kf(ells) = 4(0.75)
Kf= 4.94
4.94 ( 10.08)
2
ft-lbf
hf f = = 7.8003
2 ( 32.174 ) lbm
0.6(Wp) = (1)(150 ft)+49.7+0.6316+1.579+7.8
Wp= 349.52 ft-lbf/lbm
1 1 lbm
m = r q = ( 1.62 x10-4 ) ( 400 ) = 65.63

7.481
60 s
P = Wp(m)
1
P = 349.52 ( 65.63) = 41.70 hp
550
400 1 yr
cost = 41.7 hp
300 days
1 hp-yr

cost = $ 55.61/day
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

Problem:

Determine the pressure in overcoming the friction in a coil through which water flows with a velocity
of 1.2m/s. The coil is made of steel pipe with an inside diameter of 30mm. The diameter of the coil is
1m. The no. of turns is 10. The average temp. of water is 30C.

Reqd: Pcoil

Soln:
4 fLV 2 Dvr ( 0.03) ( 1.2 ) ( 995.647 )
hf s = ; Re = = = 42,165.58 = 4.2 x10 -5
2 gcD ( 0.85x10 ) -3

e 0.0457 mm
= = 1.52 x10-3
D 30 mm
from fig 6.9 (HB) = f = 0.0065
L= Dc(no. of turns)
L = (1m)(10) = 31.42 m
4 ( 0.0065) ( 31.42 ) ( 1.2 )
2

hf s = = 19.60 J/kg
2 ( 1) ( 0.030m )
Ps = (995.647)(19.6)= 19518.20 N/m 2
3.54d 3.54 ( 0.03)
Pcoil = Ps
1+ = 19518.20
1+
D 1m
Pcoil = 21591.04 Pa
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

Assuming the nozzle is to be used supersonically, what is the maximum Mach number at the
discharge of the divergent section?

Mass velocity at the discharge:

3476
G= = 1738 kg/m2.s
3

1-
1
1
( 2)(1.4)(12.72)( 20)(1.01325x10 5 ) Pr 1.4 Pr 1.4
17.38 = 0.4
1-
Po
Po

Pr = 0.0939
Po


2 1
Ma =
1.4 - 1 1 -1
1-
0.0939 1.4

Pr
= Ma = 2.20
Po

When LB = Lmax, P, T, negligible


(The gas leaves at asterisk condition, Mab = 1)

For acoustical velocity:


Aa =
2

(1.4)(1000 R)(0.7302atm. ft 3 / lbmol R)(14.7lbf .N / s 2 .m 2 / 1atm)1 ft 2 (32.174)
1 / 144in
29lbm / lbmol

Aa = 1549.4529 ft/s

Velocity at the entrance of the pipe is:

a = (0.05) (1549.4529 ft/s) = 77.5 ft/s

Ta 1 + [ ( - 1) / 2] Ma, b 2
=
TB T * 1 + [ ( - 1) / 2] Ma, a 2
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

1000 24
=

T * 2 1 + [ (1.4 - 1) / 2]0.05 2
T*= 834R

r a Ma, b 1 + [ ( - 1) / 2] Ma, a 2
=
r * B Ma, a 1 + [ ( - 1) / 2] Ma, b 2


0.795 1 2 1 + [ (1.4 - 1) / 2]0.05 2
=

r * 0.05 2.4

*=0.0435 lbm/ft3

r a Ma, b 1 + [ ( - 1) / 2] Ma, b 2
=
r * Ma, a 1 + [ ( - 1) / 2] Ma, a 2

20 1
= 1.2
r * 0.05

*=0.913atm

Exit velocity is sonic:

T=T*=834R

834
a = * = 1549.4529
1000

*=1416 ft/s

G through the entire pipe:

G = (0.795)(77.5 ft / s )

G = 61.61 lb/ft2.s
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

Example Problem 6.2:


Air flows from a reservoir through an isentropic nozzle into a long, straight pipe. The
pressure and temperature in the reservoir are 20 atm and 1000R, respectively, and the Mach
number at the entrance of the pipe is 0.05. (a) What is the value of L max/rH? (b) What are the
pressure, temperature, density, linear velocity, and mass velocity when L b=Lmax? (c) What is
the mass velocity when Lmax/rH = 400?

Required:
fL max
a)
RH

b) P*, Aa, a, Ga, T*, *

c) G*

Solution:

a)
fLmax 1 1
= -1 -
+1
ln 2

1 + [ ( - 1) / 2] Ma, a 2
RH Ma a 2 2 Ma, a 2 ( + 1)

fLmax
=
1 1
-1 -
1.4 + 1
ln 2

1 + [ (1.4 - 1) / 2]0.05 2
RH 1.4 0.05 2 2 0.05 2 (1.4 + 1)

fL max
= 280.0203
RH

Pa 1
=
b) Po 1 + ( - 1) Ma 2 1

2 1 -1 /

20
Pa =
1.4 - 1 1
1 + 0.05 2
2 1 - 1 / 1.4

Pa= 19.9650 20 atm


Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

fLmax 1 1
= 2 -1 - ln

+ 1 2 1 + [ ( - 1) / 2] Ma, a 2
c)
RH Ma , a 2 Ma 2 , a(1.4 + 1)

400 =
1 1
- 1 - ln

1.4 + 1 2 1 + [ (1.4 - 1) / 2] Ma, a 2

1.4 Ma 2 , a 2 Ma 2 , a (1.4 + 1)

Ma, a = 0.04194

0.04194
a = ( 77.5)
0.05

a = 65 ft/s

G = (65)(0.795)

G = 51.7 lb/ft2.s

Problem 6.4:
A standard 1-in schedule 40 horizontal steel pipe is used to conduct chlorine gas. The
gas enters the pipe through a rounded entrance at a pressure of 6 atm abs, a temperature of
120C, and a velocity of 35m/s. (a) What is the maximum possible length of the pipe? (b)
What are the pressure and stagnation temperature of the gas at the end of the pipe at
maximum length? Assume adiabatic flow. For Chlorine, = 1.36 and M = 70.91.

Given:

Gas :
Pa = 6 atm
Ta = 120C
= 35 m/s
= 1.36
M= 70.91 g/mol

Required:
a) Lmax
b) Pb and T

Solution:
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

-1 2

2 1 + Ma a
fL max 1 1 +1 2
= -1- ln
RH Ma 2 a 2 Ma 2 a ( + 1)




2M
Ma 2 a = a =
( 35m / s ) ( 70.91kg / mol )
2

Ta R m 3 .atm 101325Pa
(1.36)(120 + 273)
0.08205 kmol.k

1atm

Ma 2 a = 0.019548656

At Point a:

ra =
PM
=
( 6atm )( 70.91)
RT ( 0.08205)(120 + 273)
r a = 13.196 kg/m3

@ 120C = 0.018 Cp

1.049 1
( 35)(13.196)
12 328
Re =
0.018 x10 - 3

Re = 683, 845.9

0.0457mm
= = 0.0017
D (1.049 )( 2.54 )

From Figure 6.9 (HB):


a = 0.0056

At Point b:

Ta 1 + [ ( - 1) / 2] Ma 2 b
=
Tb 1 + [ ( - 1) / 2] Ma 2 a

Ma2b=1
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

1.36 - 1
1+ 1
120 + 273 2
=
Tb 1.36 - 1
1+ 0.01954
2

Tb = 334.22K 61.22C

Pa Ma b 1 + [ ( - 1) / 2] Ma 2 b
=
Pb Ma a 1 + [ ( - 1) / 2] Ma 2 a

Pb = 0.7735 atm

r a Pa Tb
=
r b Pb Ta

13.19 6atm( 334.22 )


=
rb 0.7735( 393.15)

r b = 2.0002 kg/m3

@ 334.22 K = 0.015cP

b =
Tb R
=
(1.36)( 334.22)( 0.08205)(101325)
M 70.91

b = 230.85 m/s

1.049 1
( 230.85) ( 2 )
DVr 12 3.28
Re = =
0.015 x10 - 3

Re = 820, 330. 79 8.2 x 105

0.0457
= = 0.0017 ; b = 0.0057
D (1.049)(25.4)
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

0.0056 + 0.0057
f = = 0.00565
2

1.36 - 1
21 + 0.01954
0.00565( Lmax ) 1 1 1.36 + 1 2
= -1- ln
1.049 1 ft 1m 1.36 0.01954 2 0.01954(1.36 + 1)
in
4 12in 3.28

L max = 39.65 m
b) Stagnation Condition: (Ma = 0)

- 1 2
1 + Ma b
Ta 2
=
Tc ( s ) - 1 2
1 + Ma a
2

1.36 - 1
1 + 0
393.15 2
=
Tc ( s ) 1.36 - 1
1 + 0.01954
2

Tc( s ) = 394.53 K

Or

Use data at end of line:


T = 334.35

1.36 - 1
1+ 0
334.35 2
=
Tc 1.36 - 1
1+ 1
2

Tc = 394.53 K

FLOW PAST IMMERSED BODIES:


Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

(Example Problem 3.1-1, Transport Processes and Unit Operations, 3 rd ed. By Geonkoplis,
Christi)
Air at 37.8C and 101.3KPa absolute pressure flows past a sphere having a diameter of
42 mm and a velocity of 23 m/s. What is the drag coefficient and the force on the sphere?

Given:

V= 23 m/s. 42mm

Air :
t=37.8C
P=101.3KPa

Required:
a) CD
b) FD
Solution:

FD
AP
CD = 2
o
2gc

Dp vr
Re p =

air @ 37.8C = 0.0185cP

(421000)( 23m / s )(1.13)


Re p =
0.0185 x10 -3
Re p = 59, 004

From Figure 7-3: CD = 0.5

C D A p r 2
FD =
2 gc
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

( 0.5) p ( 0.042) 2 ( 4.13)( 23) 2


4
FD =
2(1)

FD = 0.207 N
FLOW PAST A PACKED BED:

1. Air at 311 K ia flowing through a packed bed of spheres having a diameter of 12.7mm.
The void fraction of the bed is 0.38 and the bed has a diameter of 0.61 m and a height of
2.44 m. the air enters the bed at 1.10 atm abs at the rate of 0.358 kg/s. Calculate the
pressure drop of the air in the packed bed.

Given:

0.61m

Dp=12.7mm
2.44 m = 0.38

Air:
T=311K
P=1.10 atm abs
m=0.358 kg/s

Required: P
Solution:

P 150Vo (1- ) 2 1.75rVo 2 (1- )


= 2 2 3 +
L s Dp sDp 3
L=2.44m
Dp=12.7m
= 0.38
=1
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

m 0.358
Vo = = = 0.88m / s
rs p 2
(1.24) (0.61)
4

(1.1atm)(28.84)
r air = = 1.24kg / m 3
(0.08205)(311K )

air@311K=0.018cP

P 150(0.99)(0.018 x10 -3 )(1 - 0.38) 2 1.75(1.24)(0.99) 2 (1 - 0.38)


= +
2.44m (1) 2 (0.0127) 2 (0.38) 3 (1)(0.0127)(0.38) 3

P = 4900.25 Pa

2. A partial oxidation is carried out by passing air with 1.2 mole percent hydrochloride
through 40mm tubes packed with 2m of 3-mm by 3-mm cylindrical catalyst pellets. The
air enters at 350C and 2 atm with a superficial velocity of 1 m/s. What is the pressure
drop through the packed tubes? How much would the pressure drop be reduced by using
4-mm pellets? Assume = 0.40.

Given:

Catalyst pellets
Dp=3mm
2m

40mm
Air with
1.2% mole HCl
T=350C
P=2 atm
V=1 m/s
= 0.40.

Required:
a) P
b) P if dp=4mm

Solution:
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

P 150(Vo )( )(1- ) 2 1.75rVo 2 (1- )


a) = 2 2 3 +
L (s) Dp sDp 3

P 150(1)(3.1x10 -4 )(1 - 0.4) 2 1.75(1.1281)(1)(1 - 0.4)


= +
2m 2 p 3
2
p 3 3
(1) (0.4)
3 (1) (0.4)
4 1000 4 1000
P = 89, 717. 0340 Pa

b)P if dp = 4 mm

P (150)(1)(3.1x10 -4 )(1 - 0.4) 2 (1.75)(1.1281)(1)(1 - 0.4)


= +
2 p 4
2
p 4 3
(1) 2 (0.4)
3 (1) (0.4)

4 1000 4 1000

P = 53, 411. 4539 P

FLOW IN A FLUIDIZED BED

1. Catalyst pellets 5 mm in diameter are to be fluidized with 45, 000 kg/h of air at 1 atm
and 80C in a vertical cylindrical vessel. The density of the catalyst particles is 960
kg/m3; their sphericity is 0.86. If the given quantity is just sufficient to fluidize the
solids, what is the vessel diameter?

Given:

Catalyst pellets
Dp=5 mm
p=960 kg/m3
s=0.86

Air
P=1 atm
T=80C
m=45, 000 kg/h

Required: D
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

Solution:
g ( r - r ) = 150Vo (1- ) + 1.75rVom
2 2

gc p s 2 Dp 2 3 sDp m 3

Assume: m = 0.45

(1atm)(28.84)
r air = = 0.996kg / m 3
(0.08205)(80 + 273)

9.8 150Vom (0.02 x10 -3 )(1 - 0.45) (1.75)(0.995)(Vom ) 2


( 960 - 0.996 ) = +
1 (0.86) 2 (0.005) 2 (0.45) 3 (0.86)(0.005)(0.45) 3

Vom = 1.35 m/s

(450009kg / hr )(1hr / 3600s )


m = VrS ; S = = 9.3m 2
(1.35m / s )(0.996)

p 2 4(9.3)
S= D ;D = = 3.44m
4 p

2. Solid particles having a size of 0.12 mm, a shape factor of 0.88 and a density of 100
kg/m3 are to be fluidized using air at 20 atm and 25c > the voidage at minimum
fluidizing conditions is 0.42.

(a) If the cross section of the empty bed is 0.30 m 2 and the bed contains 300 kg of solid,
calculate the minimum height of the fluidized bed.
(b) Calculate the pressure drop at minimum fluidizing conditions.
(c) Calculate the minimum velocity for fluidization.

Given:
Dp=.12 mm
p=100 kg/m3
s=0.88

Air
P=20 atm
T=25C
Voidage=0.42.
Required:
a) Lm
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

b) P
c) Vom

Solution:
PM (2atm)(28.84)
r air = = = 2.36kg / m 3
RT (0.08205)(298.15)

300kg
V solid = = 0.3m 3
1000kg / m 3

V = LS , V solid = V fluidized (1- m)


V solid 0.3m 3
V fluidizedbed = =
(1- m) 1 - 0.42
V fluidizedbed = 0.517m 3

0.517 m 3
Lm =
a) 0.3m 2
L m = 1.72m

b) P = L m ( g / gc)(1- m)( r p - r )
9. 8
P = 1.72 (1 - 0.42)(1000 - 2.36)
1
P = 9753.41Pa

c)
9.8 150(Vom )(0.018 x10 -3 )(1 - 0.42) 1.75( 236)(V 0m 2 )
(1000 - 2.36 ) = +
1 (0.88) 2 (.00012) 3 (0.42) 3 (0.88)(0.00012)(0.42) 3
Vom = 5.15x10-3m/s

FLOW IN EXPANDED BED

Using data in problem no.2, estimate the voidage of the bed if an operating velocity of 3
times the minimum is used.

Given:
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

Dp=.12 mm
p=100 kg/m3
s=0.88

Air
P=20 atm
T=25C
V=3(minimum)

Required: ; Le

Solution:
g 150V (1- ) 1.75 rVom 2
( r p - r ) = +
gc s 2 Dp 2 m 3 sDp m 3

Flow is Laminar:
3 150Vo
= = Km.Vom
1- s Dp 2 g ( r p - r )
2

0.42 3
(1 - 0.42)
Km = = 24.8 = Ke
5.15 x10 - 3

e3
= ( 24.8)(3)(5.15 x10 - 3 )
1- e

e = 0.555
Vsolid @min. condition=Vsolid @exp.condition

V bed (1- m) = V bed (1- e)


L m S (1- m) = L e S (1- e)
(1.72)(1 - 0.42) = L e (1 - 0.555)

Le = 2.22m

MOTION OF PARTICLES THROUGH FLUIDS


Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

1. Oil droplets having a diameter of 20 microns are to be settled from air at an air
temperature of 37.8C at 101.3 KPa pressure. The density of the oil 900 kg/m 3.
Calculate the terminal setting velocity of the drops.

Given:

Dp= 20 microns
=900 kg/m3

Air
P=101.3 KPa
Required: Ut T=37.8C
Solution:
1/ 3
gr ( r p - r )
K = Dp
2

101.3
( 28.84)
PM 101.325
r air = =
RT (0.08205)(37.8 + 273)

r air = 1.13kg / m 3

air = 0.018cP

(9.8)(1.13)(900 - 1.13)
K = 20 x10 - 6 m
(0.0185 x10 - 3 ) 2

K = 0.62 (Stokes Law range)

(9.8)(20 x10 -6 ) 2 (900 - 1.13)


Ut =
18(0.0185x10 - 3 )

U t = 0.0106m / s

BAROMETRIC CONDITION
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

2.2
The temperature of the Earths atmosphere drops about 5C for every 1000 m of
P.42

elevation above the Earths surface. If the air temperature at ground level is 15C and the
pressure is 760mmHg, at what elevation is the pressure 380mmHg? Assume that the air
behaves as an ideal gas.

Given:
P= 380mmHg

Z 1000m above ground


T drop of 5C

Ground level
T=15C
P=760mmHg,

Required: Z

Solution:
For non-isothermal case:

P2 BZ gM
= 1 -
P1 To gcRB

dT 5C 5K
- =B= =
dz 1000m 1000m

5
( Z )
380mmHg 1000 9.8( 28.84)
= 1 -
760mmHg 288 K 1(0.08205 x101325)(0.005)

Z = 5582.68m

HYDROSTATIC PRINCIPLE IN A CENTRIFUGAL FIELD


Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

2.6
A centrifuge bowl with 250 mm ID (Internal Diameter) is turning at 4000 r/min. It
P.42

contains a layer of aniline 50 mm thick. If the density of the aniline is 1002 kg/m 3 and the
pressure at the liquid surface is atmospheric, what gauge pressure is exerted on the wall of the
centrifuge bowl?

Given:

ID=250 mm
4000 r/min

50 mm
=1002 kg/m3

Required: P2 P1 (Pressure exerted by the fluid)

Solution:
P2 - P1 =
2r
2 gc
( 2
r2 - r1
2
)

2p ( 4000)
= = 418.88 / s
60

250
r2 = = 125mm = 0.125m
2

r1 = r2 - thickness
r1 = 0.125m - 0.050m
r1 = 0.075m

P2 - P1 =
( 418.88) 2 (1002kg / min)
[
(0.125) 2 - (0.075) 2 ]
2(1kg.m / N .s 2 )

P2 - P1 = 879056.88 Pa

2.5
What should be the volume of the separator in Prob. 2.4 to separate 1600 kg/h of
P.42

wash liquid? The wash liquid is to be continuous phase; its viscosity is the same as that of the
operating temperature of 35C.
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

Given:

m=1600 kg/h
T=35C.

Required: Volume of Decanter

Solution:

V mixture = VC 6 HCl + V washliquid


V mixture
V decanter =
0.90

1600kg / hr
q chlorobenzene = 3
= 1.44m 3 / hr
1109 kg / m

2100kg / hr
q wash liquid = 3
= 2.06m 3 / hr
1020kg / m

100 100(0.723cP)
t= =
r A - r B (1109 - 1020)

t = 0.81hr

H 2O
@ 35C = 0.723cP) Appendix 6

VC6 H 5Cl = 1.44m 3 / hr (0.81hr ) = 1.17 m 3


3
V washliquid = 2.06m 3 / hr (0.81hr ) = 1.67 m
2.84m3

2.84m 3
V decanter =
0 .9
V decanter = 3.16m 3

CENTRIFUGAL DECANTER

2.7
The liquids described in Problem 2.4 are to be separated in a tubular centrifuge bowl
P.42

with an inside diameter of 150mm, rotating at 8000 r/min. The free liquid surface inside the
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

bowl is 40mm from the axis of rotation. If the centrifuge bowl is to contain equal volumes of
the two liquids, what should be the radial distance from the rotational axis to the top of the
overflow dam for the heavy liquid?

Given:

ID= 150 mm
8000 r/min
d=40mm

Required: TA=?

Solution:

( rA ) 2 - ( r B / r A ) r 2 B
ri =
1- r B / r A

VC6 H 5 Cl = V washliquid

Wash liquid

Chlorobenzene

2
pri b - pr 2 B b = V washliquid
2 2
pr2 b - pri b = VC6 H 5Cl
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

2 2 2 2
r2 - ri = ri - rB
2 2
2 r + rB 150
ri = 2 ; r2 = = 75mm
2 2

(75) 2 + ( 40) 2
ri =
2

ri = 60.1mm

rA - 1020
2
( 1109
)(40) 2

60.1mm =
1020
1-
1109

rA = 41.97mm

2.3
How much error would be introduced in the answer to Prob. 2.2 if the equation for
P.42

hydrostatic equilibrium (Eq. 2.4) were used, with the density evaluated at 0C and an
arithmetic average pressure?

Given:
Assumption: Density () is constant

Required: % error

Solution:

Pb Pa
- = g ( za - zb)
r r gc

PM
r=
RT

Pa + Pb 380 + 760
Where: P = = = 570mmHg
2 2

T = 0C + 273 = 273K
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

(570mmHg )1atm ( 28.84kg / kmol )


760mmHg
r= 3
(0.08205m .atm / Kmol.K )(273K )

r = 0.9656kg / m 3

9.8 N
( )
2
( 760 - 380) mmHg 101325N / m = 0.9656kg / m 3 ( z )
760mmHg 1 kg

z = 5353.81m

5583 - 5354
%error = (100) = 4.1%
5583

4) Given:

=2 in

Kerosene
SG= 0. 815 Methane
T=60F

H 2O
= in
Required:
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

a) PA-PB (reservoir levels neglected)


b) PA-PB (reservoir levels accounted)
% error

Solution:
*@60F, r CH 4 = 0.042358lbm / ft
3

a) PA - PB = ( R - RO )( r A - r B )
3

[( ) ]
1 ft
PA - PB = (5.72in - 0) 0.042358lbm / ft 3 - (0.815)(62.37lbm / ft 3 )
12in
PA - PB = -0.1681inH 2 O

PB - PA = 0.1681inH 2 O

a a
b) PA - PB = ( R - RO ) r A - r B + r B - r C
A A

( 0.042358lbm/ft 3 ) - ( 0.815) ( 62.37lbm/ft 3 )



3
2 2 1ft/in

PA - PB = (5.72 - 0)in 1 1

4
4 lbm 12

+
( 0.815) ( 62.37 ) - 2 ( 62.37 ) 3
22 2 ft
PA - PB = -0.1687inH 2 O
PB - PA = 0.1687inH 2 O

0.1687 - 0.1681
%error = x100 ; % error = 0.3557%
0.1687

7. Earths atmospheric condition varies somewhat on a certain day. The sea level temperature
is 45F and sea level pressure is 28.9 in Hg. An airplane overhead registers a temperature of
23F and a pressure of 12 psi, estimate the planes altitude in feet.

Given:

P=12 psi; t=23F

X
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

sea level
t= 45F ;P=28.9 in Hg

Required: X (height or altitude of plane)

Solution:
M
PB Bz
g / gc
RB M
= 1 - ; Let g/gc =w
PA Ta RB

lbf 29lbm
x
w= lbm lbmol
2
1.8 R K 10.73 ft 3 .lbf 12in 1m
x0.0065 x x x
1 K m in 2 .lbmol R 3 .28 ft 1 ft

w = 5.26

1
12 psi 0.0065( z ) 3.29
ln = 5.26. ln 1 -
14.7 280.37
28 .9 x psia

29.92

z=4454ft

8. What is the pressure at the top of an 80 floor building on a day when air can be assumed
still and that the temperature of air at the first floor level is 24C? Temperature change is not
significant? Each floor in the building measures 10 feet high.

Given:
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

PTop?
TA = TTop

800ft

PA=1 atm
TA=24C

Required: PTop

PTop -g
M
gc RT
Z
Formula: =e
PA

Solution:

- 9.8KN 2 gkg 1m
x800 ft
PTop = 1atm e
1000kg 1Kmol air 3.28 ft
KN .m 3
8.314 2 ( 24 + 273N ) K
m .kmol.K

PTop = 0.9723atm

9. Resolve number 8 accounting for temperature change.

Given: Pa = 1 atm ; Nair= 29lb/lbmol ; z=800 ft ; T=297.15

Required: PTop

Solution:
g M
PTop Bz gc RB g M
= 1 - ; Let gc RB = w
PA TA

2
1lbf lbm 1.8 R 0.0065K 10.73 ft 3 .lbf 12in 1m
w= x 29 / K x x 2 x x
1 lbm lbmol m m .lbmol R 3. 28 ft 3 . 28 ft
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

w = 5.26
5.26
1m
(
0.0065 K / m 800 1 )
3.28
PTop = 1atm 1 -
297.15 K


PTop = 0.9723atm

EQUIVALENT DIAMETER OF DIFFERENT CROSS SECTIONAL


AREAS

1. SQUARE

Deq = 4xRH

Area
RH =
WettedPeri meter

a2
RH =
4a
a
Deq = 4 x
4
Deq = a

2. RECTANGLE
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

LxW
Deq = 4 x
2 L + 2W

4 LW
Deq = 2( L + W )

2 LW
Deq = ( L + W )

3. EQUILATERAL TRIANGLE

1
bh
Deq = 4 x 2 2
= h
3b 3

4. HALF-CIRCLE (OPEN)
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

p 2 1
D
4 2
Deq = 4 x
( pb ) 1
2

D
= 4x
4

Deq = b
5. HALF-CIRCLE (CLOSE)

pD 2
Deq = 4 x
4pD + 8

pD
= 4x
4p + 8

pD
Deq =
p +2

6. ANNULUS
Complilation of Notes in Che 411
Unit Operations 1- fluid Mechanics

p 2 p 2
D o - Di
Deq = 4 x 4 4
pDo + pDi

( Do + Di )( Do - Di )
=
( Do + Di )
Deq = Do Di