You are on page 1of 86

991 033 m

A BRITISH STANDARD BS 5839 :


Part 1 : 1988
Incorpomting
Amendment Nos. 1,2
and 3

Fire detection and alarm


systems for buildings
Part 1. Code of practice for system
design, installationand servicing

NO COPYING WITHOUT BSI PERMISSION EXCEPT AS PERMITTED BY COPYRIGHT LAW

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services
S T D - E S 1 ES 5839: PART L-ENGL L988 L b 2 4 b b 9 0734892 T7T m

Foreword

This Part of dS 5839 has been prepared under the direction (f) Monitoring of circuitsconnecting detectors, sounders,
of the Fire Standards Committee. It is a revision of call points, power supplies and control and indicating
BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1980, which is withdrawn. equipment is recommended.
In addition to the existing BS 5839 : Parts 2, 3,4 and 5, (9) With the exception of control equipment for small
a specification for line-typeheat detectors is in preparation. manual systems, (see appendix G ) , all recommendations
Parts of EN 54 'Components of automatic fire detection relating to the specification of control equipment have
systems' (in preparation by Technical Committee been transferred to BS 5839 : Part 4.
CEN/TC 72, Automatic fire detectionsystems, of the
(h) The maximum delay in the response to the operation
European Committee for Standardisation)will be published of manual call points has been altered to 8 S, and is further
as Parts of BS 5445. Standards prepared by subcommittee reduced to 3 S from 1 January 1990.
ISO/TC 21/SC 3, Fire detectionand alarm systems,
(i) Following recent research, the provision of detectors
(of Technical Committee TC 21, Equipment for fire
in rooms adjoining escape routes is now recommended,
protection and fire fighting, of the International
particularly for sleeping accommodation.
Organization for Standardization) that are accepted as
British Standards will be included in BS 5445 i f adopted (i) More detailed recommendations on the avoidance of
by CEN, and in BS 5839 if not. false alarms are included.
( k ) The effect on manual call points of the removal of
As far as possible, this Part of BS 5839 takes account of
detectors from their bases is included.
the work of CEN/TC 72 and lSO/TC 21/SC 3.
Current legislation requires that an effective means of
The major part of this revision was updating the
recommendations and important changes made are as giving warningin case of fire be provided in certain
follows. premises. The fire authority and the Health and Safety
Executive will advise on legislation that applies t o any
(a) Classifications have been introduced to allow the
building. Consultation with the appropriate authority is
specification of system type t y principal purpose (.e.
advisable and may be obligatory.
life or property protection) and extent of protection
provided (.e. entire premises, areas of special risk only, The protection of property witha fire detection and alarm
or escape routes only). system may permit an insurance company to offera
reduced premium provided that thesystem is acceptable.
(b) Recommendations have been included to cover
Early consultation withthe insurer is advisable.
systems utilizing recent advances in technology, e.g. the
use of microprocessors, analogue detector signalling, Fire protectionshould not be confused with fire precautions,
multi-function indicators and radio-linked systems. and the provision of a fire detection and alarm system
should never be regarded as giving complete protection
(c) Advances in technology have led to systems in which
against fire. In particular, it should not be used as an excuse
circuits serve more than a single zone: recommendations
have been incorporated to restrict the effect of faults in for reducing measures intended to prevent the Occurrence
such circuits. of fire. For detailed recommendations on fire precautions
in buildings, reference should be made to the relevant Parts
(d) Recommendations on self-contained smoke alarms of BS 5588
for domestic use are no longer included in the body of
It has been assumed in the drafting of t h i s Part of BS 5839
this Part of BS 5839.
that the execution of its provisions will be entrusted t o
(e) Consideration has been given to problems which appropriately qualified and experienced persons.
might arise from the combination intoone system of
components from several manufacturers. Compliance with a British Standard does not of itself
confer immunity from legal obligations.

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services
STDmBSI B S 5839: P A R T 1-ENGL L988 m 1 6 2 4 6 6 9 0734893 90b m
Issue 1, August 1996 BS 5839 :Part 1 : 1988

Summary of pages
The following table identifies the current issue of each page. Issue 1 indicates that a page has been introduced
for the first time by amendment.. Subsequentissue numbers indicate an updated page. Double sidelining on
replacement pages indicatesthe most recent changes (amendment, addition, deletion).

Page Issue Page Issue


Front cover 2 18to 34 original
Inside front cover original 35 2
a 1 36 to 62 Original
b blank Inside back cover 2
1to 16 original Back cover 2
17 2

*
v,
*

a
COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards
Licensed by Information Handling Services
ES 5839 : Part 1 : 1988

Contents

Page Page

Foreword Inside front cover Section three. Workmanship, installation and


Committees responsible Back cover commissioning
21 Work off site 37
Code of practice 22 Work on site 37
23 Siting and accommodation 37
Section one.General 24 Installation of cables and wires 37
1 Scope 2 25 Installation of equipment 39
2 Definitions 2 26 Inspection, initial testing, commissioning and
3 Types of system 3 certification of systems 39
4 Exchange of information 5 27 Extensions and alterations to existing systems 40
5 Planning schedule 6
Section four. User responsibilities
Section two. Design considerations 28 General 41
6 General 7 29 Servicing 42
7 Zones 11
8 Communications with the fire brigade and Appendices
other off site organizations 12 A Automatic connection t o the fire brigade 46
9 Audible and visual alarms 13 B Model certificate of installation and
10 Manual call points 16 commissioning of a fire alarm system 47
11 Types of fire detector 16 C Model certificate of testing of a fire alarm
12 Detectors installed primarily for the system 48
protection of property (typeP) 19 D Model log book for fire alarm systems 49
13 Detectors installed primarily for life safety E Ionization chamber smoke detectors 51
(type L) 23 F Fire alarm systems integrated with other
14 False alarms 25 systems 51
15 Control equipment 27 G Control equipment and power supplies for
16 Power supplies 29 small manual systems (type M) 52
17 Cables, wiring and other interconnections 31 H Smoke alarms in the home 54
18 Radio-linked systems 35 J Guide to recommendations applicable t o
19 Ancillary services 36 specific t y p e s of system 60
20 Radio and electrical interference 36
Table
1 Limits of ceiling heights 20

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services
BS5839:Part1:1988
Code of practice. Section one

Section ,one. General

1 Scope 2.2 aspirating detector. A detector system in which a


sample of the atmosphere in the protected space is sucked
by a fan or pump into a detector which may be remote
This Part of BS 5839 provides recommendations for the
planning, design, installation and servicing of fire detection from the protected space.
and alarm systems in and around buildings. It does not 2.3 automatic system. A system in which an alarm of fire
recommend whether or not a fire alarm system should be can be initiated automatically.
installed in any given premises. 2.4 competent person. A person competent to perform a
The systems covered in this Part of BS 5839 ate referred to defined task.
as fire alarm systems. This Part of BS 5839 covers systems NOTE. Normaily a competent person will be an employee of a
ranging from simple installations with one or two manual manufacturer, supplier, installer or servicing contractor, or a
call points, up to complex installations withautomatic member of the user's staff who has received suitable training from
detectors, manual call points, control and indicating a manufacturer or supplier.

equipment, connection to the public fire service, etc. 2.5 detector. A part of an automatic fire detection system
It also covers systems capable of providing signals t o initiate, that contains a t least one sensor which constantly or a t
in the event of a fire, the operation of ancillary services frequent intervals monitors a t least one suitable physical
(such as fixed fire extinguishing systems) and other and/or chemical phenomenon associated with fire, and that
precautions and actions, but it does not cover the ancillary provides a t least one corresponding signal to the control
services themselves. and indicating equipment. The decision to give the alarm
This Part of BS 5839 does not cover systems combining of fire or t o operate automatic fire protection equipment
fire alarm functions with other non-firerelated functions, may be made a t the detector or a t another part of the
although some guidance on such integrated systems is given system, for example a t the control and indicating
in appendix F. equipment.
Although recommendations on the installation of self- Detectors may be classified by the form of their output
contained smoke alarms are not included in this Part of as follows:
BS 5839,advice from the Home Departments* is (a) analogue detector. a detector which gives an output
reproduced in appendix H. signal representing the value of the sensed phenomenon.
This Part of BS 5839 does not cover street fire alarms, This may be a truly analogue signal or a digitally coded
the 999 emergency call system, or manually or mechanically equivalent of the sensed value. This detector does not
operated sounders. itself make a decision of fire;
This Part of BS 5839 does not cover systems whose primary (b) multi-state detector. a detector which gives one of a
function is t o extinguish or control the fire, such as limited number (greater than two) of output states
sprinkler or automatic extinguishingsystems, even though relating to 'normal' or 'fire alarm' and other abnormal
they might have a secondary alarm function; it does, conditions;
however, cover the use of a signal from an automatic (c) two-state detector. a detector which gives one of two
extinguishing system as one initiating element of a fire output states relating to either 'normal' or 'fire alarm'
alarm system. conditions.
This Part of BS 5839 applies only to fire alarm systems in a
2.6 final voltage of a battery. The voltage a t which the
temperate climate such as that of the United Kingdom.
cell manufacturer considers the cells to be fully discharged
Recommendations for fire detection systems in electronic a t the specified discharge current.
data processing installations are given in BS 6266.
2.7 lantern-light. A construction standing above the
NOTE. The titles of the publications referred to in this standard
are listed on the inside back cover.
surface of a roof and intended to admit light t o the space
below.
2.8 manual system. A system containing no automatic
2 Definitions detectors and in which an alarm of fire may only be
initiated manually.
For the purposes of this Part of BS 5839 the following 2.9 mimic diagram. A topographic representation of the
definitions apply. protected premises and their subdivisions, carrying
2.1 addressable system. A system in which signals from indicating devices for each subdivision such that the
each detector and/or call point are individually identified indications of the fire alarm system can be rapidly related
a t the control panel. to the layout of the premises.
NOTE. Hybrid systems are possible in which groups of devices on a 2.10 monitored wiring. Wiring in which a failure, whether
circuit can be separately identified, but not individual devices to open circuit or to short circuit, will result in a fault
within the group.
warning and not an alarm of fire.

The Home Office (in England and Wales), the Scottish Home and Health Department andthe Northern Ireland Office.

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services
BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988
Section one

2.23 staged alarm system. An alarm system in which two or


more stages of alarm can be given within a given area. (See
appendix K.)
2.11 normal supply. The supply from which the fire alarm
NOTE 1. Examples of staged alarm systems are a two.srage system
system is expected t o obtain i t s power. The normal supply capable of giving 'alert' or 'evacuate' signais, or a three-stage alarm
is usually derived from the public electricity supply system. system capable of giving 'staff alarm'. *alert.or 'evacuate' signals.
NOTE 2. The normal condition, under which no alarm is given, i s
2.12 protection nof counted as a stage of alarm.
(1) The presence o f one or more detector(s) able t o NOTE 3. In this srandardLin order to avoid confusion:
initiate actions needed for the safety of life or property la) the term 'stage' is used to describe the different stages of alarm
in the event of a fire. in one area of the premises:

(2) The provision of mechanical protection t o prevent (bl the term 'phare' ir used in describing the sequence of phases of
evacuation of different areas of the premises.
damage t o system components from impact, abrasion,
rodent 'attack, etc. 2.24 state. The outputs of a detector.
(3) The provision o f fire resistance to prevent damage 3 Types of system
to system components from fire in their vicinity. 3.1 General
(4) The provision of electrical protection t o prevent Fire alarm systems may be installed in buildings in order to
temporary or permanent disruption t o the system due satisfy several different needs. They may be installed for
t o overvoltage, excessive current, high transient or
the protection of property; they may be installed for the
' protection of life; in some applications they may be
radio-frequency interference, etc.
installed to meet a mixture of purposes, either
2.13 responsible person. The person having control of the simultaneously or differing in time or place.
premises, whether as occupier or otherwise, or any person Because of the great variety of systems covered by this
delegated by the person having control of the premises t o Part of BS 5839, the systems have been divided into a
be responsible for the firealarm system and the fire number of different types, each identified by a letter.
procedures. Type P systems are automatic detection systems intended
for the protection of property. They are further subdivided
2.14 search distance. The distance which has t o be
into:
travelled by a searcher within a zone in order t o determine
visually the position o f a fire. type P l : systems installed throughoutthe protected
building;
2.15 sector. A subdivision of the protected premises type PZ: systems installed only in defined partsof the
normally containing several zones. A sector may cover protected building.
more than one building. Type L systems are automatic detection systems intended
for the protection of life. They are further subdivided into:
2.16 smoke. Particulate and aerosol products of
combustion generated by a fire, whether this be of the type L1:systems installed throughout the protected
smouldering or open flame type. building;
type L2:systems installed only in defined parts of the
NOTE. In general the particle diameters range from 1 nm
(invisible smoke) to 10 pm (visible smoke). protected building:a type L2 system should
normally include the coverage required of a
2.17 smoke alarm. A device containing within one housing type L3 system;
all the components, except possibly the energy source, type L3:systems installed only for the protection of
necessary for detecting fire and giving an audible alarm. escape routes.
2.18 standby supply. An electricity supply, commonly Type M systems are manual alarm systems, and have no
from a rechargeable battery, which is automatically further subdivision.
connected t o the fire a!arm system when the normal In Some buildings control of various parts of the building
supply fails. may lie with several different occupants or even external
authorities. The requirements for fire alarm systems in such
2.19 two-stage alarm system. A fire alarm system in which buildings may differ from those in which control lies with
the initial alarm is given only in a restricted part of the a single occupant because of the need for liaison between
premises, with an alert signal being given in the remainder occupants and possibly interconnection or overlap of the
of thepremises. alarm systems. Systems intended for use in multi-occupancy
buildings are given the suffix letter X.
2.20 zone. A subdivision of the protected premises such
that t h e occurrence of a fire within it will be indicated by Premises protected by automatic detection systems, both
of types L and P, should normally also be provided with
a fire alarm system separately from an indication of fire in
manual call points.
any other subdivision.
Some of the recommendations of thls Part of 8s 5839
NOTE. A zone will usually consist of an area protected by several
apply to all systems, while other recommendations apply
manual call points and/or detectors, and i s separately indicated to
assist in location of the fire, evacuation of the building and fire- only to a limited number of system types. In order t o
fighting. clarify the application of the recommendations, those
2.21 condition. The condition of a control equipment. clauses havlng limited appllcation are shown with the
NOTE. For example. the control equipment may be in the normal applicable system type designatlon in parentheses followlng
condition, the fault condltlon. the alarm conditlon. e t c . the clause tltle. Clauses without system designations should
2.22 phased evacuation, A system of evacuation in which be taken as having general application. Appcndix J lists the
different parts of the prernlser are evscuated in a controlled clauses ( g m ! r a l or specific) applylng to each type o f
sequence af phases, those parts of the premires expected to be system
a t greatest risk being evacuated first. (See appendix K.)
NOTE. A pha:sd evacuation will normally require a l loast a twomage
COPYRIGHT British alarm syStCm Institute on ERC Specs and Standards
Standards BEST COPY AVAILABLE
Licensed by Information Handling Services
3 ~~~
BS 5839: Part 1 : 1988
Section one

I f a system is intended to fulfil the purposes of more than areas where a fire might hazard people sleeping without
one type of system, and the recommendations for the types supervision; other areas of low fire risk remote from the
differ, then the system should comply with the recommend- sleeping accommodation might be left without detector
ations for each of the types. For example, a system whose coverage although alarm sounders and manual call points
sole purpose is to provide full coverage property protection should be provided. The areas protected by a type L2
(type P l ) need only have a small number of sounders; but system should normally include escape routes, .e. those
if it is also used t o provide coverage of the escape routes for areas that would be protected by a type L3 system.
life safety, the number of sounders used will have to be A type L3 system is intended only to protectescape routes,
sufficient to give warning throughout the building. by giving warning of a fire in time forthe escape routes t o
be used before they become blocked by heat or smoke. A
3.2 Systems for the protection of property (type P ) type L3 system should not be expected to protectpeople
The longest delay in detection of fire is likely to occur who might be involved with the fire a t ignition or in i t s
when no person is present to detect the fire either a t early stages; it is intended only t o ensure escape for those
ignition or while it is in its early stages of growth. For the not immediately involved. It should be noted that
reduction of 'property loss, therefore, automatic detection protection of escape routes may also involve the
is likely t G be more successful than a simple manual system; installation of detectors in adjacent rooms (see 13.5).
however, manual call points should always be provided since Type M systems provide only for manual initiation of t h e
people may be able to give an earlier alarm of fire if they alarm. In many small buildings this may be all that is
are present..\
required, but it should be remembered that the efficiency
A fire can start virtually anywhere on the premises and, of a type M system depends critically on the presence o f
if undetected, may grow until extinction becomes difficult people t o detect the fire, and on the training they are given
or impossible. The highest level of property protection in the procedures to be followed if a fire occurs.
obtainable from a fire alarm system will therefore be given
by a type P 1 system, giving full coverage of all parts of the 3.4 Single-family dwellings
premises. Such a system will generally be the only type In large private dwellings, for example a country mansion,
acceptable t o fire insurers. the protection will usually need t o be of t y p e s L and/or P,
A lower level of protection, still giving a useful reduction depending on purpose, and advice should be obtained from
in fire hazard, may often be obtained by the installation of competent advisors. The use of self-contained smoke alarms;
fire detectors in only those parts of the building having a even if interconnected, is n o t considered t o be a suitable
high fire risk. The areas where detectors are required can method of protection.
frequently be identified from the presence of ignition
However, in smaller, single-family, dwellings the installation
sources and easily ignitable materials, the potential for
of self-contained smoke alarms can give a significant
rapid fire spread, the absence of supervision, or the serious
improvement in the level of fire safety. For the improve-
consequences of loss. Areas where detectors are less
ment to be achieved, though, it is essential that the smoke
necessary might be those containing few combustibles or
alarms are correctly installed, used and serviced. Advice on
ignition sources, having continuous supervision and having
this i s contained in the booklet 'Smoke alarms in the home',
good structral fire separation from the remainder of the
produced for the Home Departments by the Central Office
building. Such a partial cover system is a type P2 system.
of Information; the contents of this booklet are reproduced
as appendix H. In single-family dwellings smoke alarms
3.3 Systems for the protection of life (types L and M)
will usually be installed by the occupier, who will probably
I n some buildings the hazard t o life from firemay be
have no training in installation techniques and will probably
considered so small that no fire alarm is needed. In others,
not seek advice from any competent authority. I t is
the only need may be for a device by which the alarm may
realised that the occupier is also unlikely to consult this
be manually sounded. But in the majority of larger
Part of BS 5839, and hence it is important that smoke
buildings there will be.a need for a system by which the
alarms intended for installation by the occupier should be
alarm can be sounded throughout the building, and,
accompanied by installation instructions generally following
particularly where a wakeful watch cannot be guaranteed,
the relevant recommendations of this Part of BS 5839 and
the alarm sounders may need to be initiated by automatic
of the HMSO booklet referred t o above. Occupiers should
detectors. also be advised to keep a record of their installation,
As with property protection, the greatest benefit will be particularly where some parts such as wiring might be
given by a full coverage system (type L1j. Such a system concealed once the system is installed.
should give the earliest practicable warning of fire,
wherever ignition may occur, and will then raise the alarm 3.5 Buildings in multiple occupation ( X )
throughout the premises. However, a reduced but still
Buildings in multiple occupation may be buildings occupied
useful level of protection may be obtained from a type L2
by more than one commercial undertaking, or may be large
system, in which detection is only provided at points where
family houses adapted t o provide accommodation for
the presence of a fire (or of the products of a fire) would
several households in separate self-contained units. In some
lead to a significantly high life hazard. A type L2 system
might, for instance, give detector coverage only in those

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services
~ ~~~~~~

.
~~

STD-BSI BS 5839: P A R T L-ENGL 1988 1624669 07348q8 498 m

BS 5839 :Part I : 1988


Section one
It should be noted that extension, correction or
modification of software-controlled systems may involve
modification of the control software. Consideration should
be given a t the contract stage t o providing forcontinued
support ofsuch changes throughout the expected lifetime
of the system.

cases they may include a combination of uses,such as a 4.2 Action inthe event of an alarm
of fire
ground f h r shop and first floor offices with dwellings on To a large extent the design of the fire alarm system will
higher floors. Fires occurring in one occupancy may then
depend on the actions required after the alarm has been
a hazard to people Or property in Other occupancies.given. I t is .thus essentialthat these actions are preplanned
To provide adequate warning of firesoccurring within the and the of early discussion.
building, fire alarm systems may need to extend across
In particular, i f thepreferred mode of evacuation of the
occupation boundaries or t o be interconnected with
~

building i s such that different actions may be required in


systems in otheroccu~ancies.Cooperation and liaison different of the building,then thealarmsystemshould
between occupants will then be needed. be SO designed that the necessary commands, messagas 01
signals can be distributed easily. In many cases proper Control'
3.6 Specification of system type of evacuation will require a system capable of giving speech I
Because of the wide range of systems covered by the messages (see 9.12). Thearea in which the fire is first detecied
recommendations of this Part of BS 5839, it should be will usually determine the initial distribution of alarm signals.
appreciated that the specification ofrequirements for a The relationship between thelocation of the fire and the
system simply by reference to the number or title of this alarm distribution should be carefully definedand specified
Part of BS 5839 without further restriction willhave little prior to the design of the system, since it may reflect strongly
on the faciiitien required in the control equipment and on the
meaning. The type of system to be installed should always
wiring acrangement. For example, a high building using a
be included in the specification, and the specification for a
phased evacuation scheme could require an evacuation signal
type P2, L2 or L3 system should always include details of in some areas, while in others only an alert signal would be
those areas of the building which are to be protected. given initially, and it is essential that the control equipment
Where mixed or combined types of systems are required in and the sounder distribution network is capable of providing
a building, the type or types of protection required in each this differentiation. Particularcare should be taken in parts
part of t h e building should be identifiable from the of the building where signals relating to more than one area
specification. may be audible (such as stair enclosures).T h i s code is concer-
ned only with the design of the fire alarm system; the require-
ments for the evacuation scheme shouldbe determined in
consultation with the relevant authorities(see also the relevant
4 Exchange of information Part of BS 55881.
I f the building contains alarm systems associated with
4.1 General hazards other than fire, then the various hazard alarms
The system requirements, including those imposed by the should be properly coordinated-and be distinct from each
configuration and usage of the premises, should be other. I n these buildings the relative prioritiesshould be
ascertained as accurately as possible by consultation carefully assessed, and the system arranged SO that a
between the purchaser of the system and other interested higher priori,ty alarm cannot be prevented or obscured by
parties. On the basis of these consultations, documents one of a lower priority. Although ingeneral fire will have
should be prepared showing the following: t h e highest priority, there are buildings in which other
(a) details of the installation proposed, including hazards may have higher priorities than fire.
system type;
4.3 Consultations
(b) any special accommodation required for the
equipment; The interested parties who should be consulted on behalf
. .
of the user or occupier may include the following:
(c) any special structural provision required for the
equipment or i t s wiring, such as chases, ducts or conduits; (a) the installer of the system;
( d l any remote communication link. (b) the local fire authority;
I t is desirable that, a t the contract stage, one organization (c) the Health and Safety Executive;
(usually the main contractor) should take overall (d) the fire insurer;
responsibility for the performance of the system, and that (e) consultants (including architects);
this responsibility i s clearly defined in the documentation.
(f) the supplier of any communication link;
(9) the central alarm receiving station, if one is used.
Any deviations from t h e recommendations of t h i s Part of
BS 5839 should be agreed by the interested parties.
4.4 Multi-occupancy buildings(X)
I f the building is under the control of more than one
occupant, a fire in a part of the building under t h e control
of one occupant may spread to or otherwise affect a part
or parts under the control ofothers, and it is important
t h a t all those who might be affected by,the fire should he
consulted, These consultations should take place early in
the planning ofthe new system, since the interactions with
other occupancies may significantly affect the design of
the system.
COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards
Licensed by Information Handling Services 5
_ _ _ _ _ ~ ~ ~
BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988
Section one

5 Planning schedule (9)commissioning and certification;


(r)documentation;
A typical l i s t of events to be taken into consideration in (S) user training;
preparing a planning schedule is as follows, probably,
(t) acceptance by the client and other interested parties;
but not necessarily, in the order stated:
(u) handover of the system;
(a) a survey of the building or examination of the plans,
(v) operational audit.
and an assessment of the usage of the building including
any periods of non-occupation; In large buildings it will be normal practice for all these
(b) choice of type and purpose of system, including stages t o be included in the critical path chart. Control and
possible future needs for extension or alteration; indicating equipment for large installations will almost
(c) consideration of the action to be taken in the event certainly have to be specially manufactured, and the
of fire; importance of ordering in good time is self-evident. To
avoid conflict with buildingor decorative work, wiring
( d ) in a multi-occupancy building, consultation with
should be carried out a t times or stages of work agreed
other occupants;
with the person in charge of the building and with other
(e) system specification and/or design for estimating
contractors working in the same areas. Installation of
purposes; equipment should be carefully integrated with the
(f) quotation; operations of other trades to minimizedamage from damp,
(9) consideration of proposals, prices and delivery times; dust, wet processes, etc. Temporary physical protection
(h) consideration of servicing requirements; I
may be necessary, both against the effects of other
(i) agreement on the action to be taken in the event authorized work and as security against unauthorized
of fire; intruders and vandalism.
(jl ordering; The final connection, switching on and commissioning of
the fire alarm system should be made a t times agreed
(k) detailed system design for installation;
between the interested parties. There may, however, be an
(I) agreement on any variation of specification; interim period of partial operation, either because of
(m) productionand delivery of equipment; partial occupation of the building or to provide protection
(n) wiring (including installationand testing); against risks during construction. Such operation is a
(o) installation of equipment; matter for agreement between the interested parties
(see 26.7).
(P) connecting up and testing (including audibility
testing);

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services
BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988
Section two

Section two.Design considerations

6 General that in most fires the phenomenon that first threatens


human life is the reduction of visibility in escape routes.
6.1 Purposes of fire alarm systems The longest delay in giving the alarm is likely to occur
when no one is present t o detect the fire, either a t ignition
A fire alarm system may be required t o give an early alarm
or while it is in i t s early stage of growth. Since the response
of fire in a building for one or both of the following
of an automatic detection system does not depend on the
purposes:
presence or actions of people, automatic detection is likely
(a) to enhance the safety of the occupants by increasing to give a better guarantee of success than manual detection.
their chance of escape t o safety or by initiation of other However, manual call points should always be provided
emergency actions; since people can often give an earlier alarm of fire when
(b) to increase the probability of early extinction of fire they are present.
and hence t o reduce the loss of, or damage to, property. Fire alarm systems will often be required in order to meet
The design criteria for a fire alarm system may vary statutory or legal obligations and the system may require
according to whether it is required primarily or exclusively the approval of the fire authority.
for the protection of life or property. In premises in which normally active occupants can be
expected to react t o an emergency in a rational manner,
6.2 Protection of property (type P) a manual fire alarm system by which an alarm can be
A fire alarm system, although it can do nothing t o reduce sounded throughout the building may be sufficient to
the incidence of fire, can help t o lessen the resultant loss meet the purposes outlined jn 6.1 (a). This is a type M
by reducing the delay between ignition and the start of system. In other premises where a type M system would
effective fire-fighting. The provision of a fire alarm system not alone provide an acceptable level of protection, a type
may be related t o the cost of insuring the property, and L3 system may suffice.
would then require the insurers approval. I t is accepted that many pesplc are unwilliny to walk
A satisfactory fire alarm system for the protection of through smoke wher. visihi!ity is !ess than about 10 m,
property is one which automatically detects a fire a t an even though this in itself constitutes C O great hazard. This
early stage, raises an effective alarm in time tosummon visibility has been adopted as representing the point in the
the fire-fighting forces, both building staff and the fire progressive smoke logging of zn escape route a t which its
brigade, and indicates the location of the fire in the use is no longer possible, and an alarm of fire should
building. therefore be given while sufficient time remains for the
The usefulness of a fire alarm system in reducing property occupants t o use the escape routes before the visibility falls
loss depends critically on the preplanned actions in the to this level. The choice, siting and spacing of detectors as
event of fire {see 4.2) and the provision of satisfactory fire- recommended in clause 13 should achieve this for a type L3
fighting resources. Fire-fighting appliances such as hose system.
reels and fire extinguishers should be provided (see In residential premises, where a greater than normal time is
BS 5306 : Parts 1 and 3) and staff should be trained in required to evacuate the building, a further enhanced level
their use. The attendance time of the fire brigade (works or of fire protection is likely to be required. Such a case might
local authority) should be considered, together with the arise, for instance, where the routine does not ensure
likely spread of fire that might occur after detection; immediate availability of staff members t o take charge in
in general an attendance time less than 10 min is preferred, an emergency, br where the occupants require assistance to
and fire alarm systems are unlikely to give satisfactory evacuate the building. If the required level of fire protection
protection where the attendance time exceeds 15 min. is not achieved by the structure of t h e building, then an
If the attendance time of t h e fire brigade is incompatible automatic fire detection system may be needed to
with the probable rate of spread of fire an automatic fire complement the building structure by providing an early
extinguishing system should be considered; guidance on alarm of fire. A type L1 or L2 system should achieve the
the choice of suitable systems is given in BS 5306 : Part O. required level of protection.
In some premises the probable rate of spread of fire may
be so high that, even with the shortest practical attendance 6.4 Actuation of ancillary services
time, the fire is likely t o be difficult toextinguish and to The fire alarm system may be designed to close or open
lead t o a large loss. In such cases, although a detection circuits to ancillary services by means of relays or similar
system may in some fires give a useful warning, an auto- devices. Facilities of this kind may be required in any
matic extinguishing system should be installed. Amongst system, whether for life protection, property protection,
other such cases, an automatic extinguishing system should or a combination of both. Systems operating ancillary
be considered in any store in which combustible goods or services may have special requirements for the number,
packaging are stacked to a height exceeding 5 m. zoning and siting of detectors, provision of power supplies,
control, indication or other facilities. The recommendations
6.3 Protection of life (types L and W?) of this Part of BS 5839 may not fully satisfy these special
Fire can kill or maim in many ways, e.g. by asphyxiation, requirements, and reference to specifying authorities or
radiant heat, poisoning or burning, However, most other codes of practice may be necessary. Further
accidental fires begin with smouldering and the evolution recommendations are given in clause 19.
of smoke and other combustion products, and it is known

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards E S T COPY AVAILABLE
Licensed by Information Handling Services
BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988
Section two

6.5 installation in potentiallyexplosive or flammable If the system is such that the removal of a detector or call
atmospheres point from the circuit could affect the operation of other
If it is necessary to install fire alarm equipment or wiring detectors or call points then:
in areas where there may be a potentially explosive or (a) removal of a detector or call point should cause a
flammable atmosphere, then the appropriate 'fault' signal to be generated a t the control equipment
recommendations of BS 4683, BS 5345, BS 5501, BS 6467 indicating the need t o replace the missing detector or
and CP 1003 should be followed. call point as soon as possible; and
(b) the operating instructions (see 26.1) should draw the
6.6 Circuit design user's attention to any adverse effects on the remainder
6.6.1 General. Care should be taken t o ensure compatibility of the system due to the removal of one or more
of all components which are part of the fire alarm system or detectors and/or call points.
connected with it in any way (see 6.7). Where detectors are designed t o be removable from their bases.
with or without locking devices, removal of any detector($\
When considering the compatibility of components with
from the circuit should not affect the operation o f any manual
respect to operating or signal voltages (including tolerances),
due allowance should be made for voltage transients. If
surge protection or suppression is not provided as an
call pointeDuringthedesign stage, consideration should be given
the possibility of malicious removal of detectors. If
malicious removal is considered likely, detectors o f a type
10
'4
'

integral part of the eauipment, then surge suppression that can be removed only by the use of a special tool
components should be provided on the connections to should be used.
any vulnerable equipment. N O T E A speclal tool 10 lhls c o n l e x i I S d 1001nut lhkcly i o b ~ :
The design of a fire alarm system should provide reliable c a r r t u d by a member 01 the general p u b l ~ cSlot,headed screws
would not bo acceptable, since varIous a r t l c l e r can bc uscd J I
facilities for transmission t o the control and indicating orcitnnrv screwdrivers.
equipment of signals from manual call points or detectors,
The system should be so designed as to minimize any
and for the transmission of any resultant fire signal to disruption during maintenance and testing. In particular
sounders and indicating equipment and to any ancillary It i s desirable that provision should be made so that
equipment which is t o be operated by the fire alarm individual detectors can be tested without either sounding
system (see 6.4). an alarm or requiring the complete system to be disabled
Except in small manual systems (see 15.2.2) or radio-linked to prevent such an alarm. In a single zone system, Isolation
systems (see 18.3), circuits should be so arranged that an of all the detector or call point signals I S permissible, but a
indication is given a t the control and indicating equipment facility should be retained for giving a general alarm from
within 100 S of the occurrence of any disconnection, open the control and indicating equipment. Any provisionfor
the isolation of detectors or call points for maintenance or
or short circuit ina cable which woulddisable one or more
testing should besuch as to allow the operation of alarm
detectors and/or call points, or of a failure of any other
sounders In response tg the operation of detectors or call
interconnection, and this should be done without giving a
points that have not been isolated (see 29.4.4).
false alarm.
'6.6.3 t:~rct~Its containing fire alarm sounders. I f a l a r m
Even where the wiring of a system is monitored, the
SolrIIdu;; u s e thesame wiring as detectors, theft no alarm
regularity of routine testing is important and should be
sour.Jor should be affected by the removal of any detector.
considered a t the design stage. It may be considered Any sounder that i s necessary in order to reach the audibility
desirable t o include a method of manually testing circuits lev~lsrecommended in clause 9 should be capable of electrical
' . and such a method should always be provided where wiring discormcction from the alarm sounder circult only by the use
or other interconnections are unmonitored. A manual call of a specla1 tool and the disconnection should generate a fault
point may be used to provide a method of manual testing warning a t the control and indicating equipment,If such alarm
for detector and/or call point circuits, but the call point sotlndcrs are localed so that [hey are easily accesslble, consid-
used should be one remote from the control equipment so eration should b e glven to the e f f e c t s of rnallcious interfer.
that all the wiring of the circuit is tested. ence.'
NOTE. In some systems the connections to call points are such that

A
operation of a call point will not fully test the cables feeding
detectors.

6.6.2 Circuits containing firedetectors. The wiring arrange-


The wiring of sounder circuits should be so arranged that,
in the event of a short circuit developing in any part of the
wiring of sounder circuits during a fire, a minimum of one
A
1
ment of the system should be such that:
(1) if separate circuits areused for eachzone, then a fault
alarm sounder will continue t o sound. This minimum I
' orfaults on one circuit cannot affect any other circuit;
provision should ensure that a general alarm can be given
a t the start of a fire and for a significant period thereafter,
(2) if any circuit is used for more than one zone, then a and that in the event of the fire burning through a sounder
single fault on that circuit cannot remove protection from cable, the alarm will be maintained a t a t least one point in
an area greater than that allowed under 7.2(a) to (d) for the building, usually near the control equipment.
a single zone; 1
(3)if a circuit is used for more than one zone and multiple i
faults within one fire compartment could remove protection
from an area greater than that allowed under 7.2(a) to (d)
for a zone, then the circuit within that Compartment is
suitably protected (see 17.t5);
(4) t w o simultaneous faults should2qot remove protection
COPYRIGHT British Standards
area
3111an Institute
greater than 10on
O00ERC
Licensed by Information Handling Services
.
m Specs and Standards B
S T D . B SBI S 5839: PART 1-ENGL 1988 m 1624664 0734902 749 m
BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988
Section two

The minimum sounder circuit provision does not ensure


that the reduced alarm is audible throughout the building.
In some installations the minimum provision against loss
Of signal may not be sufficient. I f audibility of the alarm
throughout the building is required to be maintained even stage: this will usually be the principal contractor for the
in the event of attack by fire on the sounder cables, then fire alarm
system. ,
either:
Compliance of an individual component with a Part of
(a) cables likely to resist fire for a considerable time either BS 5839, BS 5445 or BS 5446 does not necessarily
should be used; or guarantee that it will work satisfactorily in conjunction
(b) a greater number of separate sounder circuits with another component complying with a Part of
should be provided; or BS 5839, BS 5445 or BS 5446. For example, even though
(c) sounder cables protected against cable faults a fire detector made by one manufacturer and a control
(see 6.6.5) should be used. and indicating equipment made by a second manufacturer
individually comply with the relevant Parts of BS 5839,
6.6.4 Ring systems. If devices such as detectors, call points BS 5445 or BS 5446,they may not work satisfactorily
or sounders are connected to control equipment by a ring together. Where the components of a particular installation
circuit, then, provided that the devices can receive or send are made by different manufacturers, it is essential that
signals in either direction, they will continue to operate compatibility between components is taken intc account
even with a single open circuit or high series resistance in by the designer of the installation. The designer should
the ring. Such faults should be indicated a t the control and consider the following subjects, and the data provided with
indicating equipmentwithin 60 minof their occurrence. each item should a t least provide the information necessary
A simple ring circuit, however, cannot give protection for the consideration of its compatibility with other items.
against short circuit faults and hence such faults need to be I n relation to a given control and indicating panel such
indicated, without giving a false alarm of f.ire, within 100 S
consideiation should include a t least the following.
(see 6.6.1). Where sounders are used on simple ring circuits,
(a} For all devices:
the distribution wiring to each sounder circuit should be
protected against overload due to short circuit by a fuse or (1) the requirements of the system in order to meet
similar device. electrical safety;

6.6.5 Circuitsprotected against cable faults. In some ring


(2) any provision for earthing;
systems (usually those using computer techniques with (3) the earth insulation resistance;
addressable devices) short circuit isolating devices can be (4) the method of adjustment where:adjustment is
provided, such that a short circuit will only affect t h e required to ensure compatibility;
section between the isolators. The isolators may be (5) any preferred method(s) for monitoring line
independent devices, or may be contained within other continuity;
devices on the circuit. In such a system a single fault,
(6) whether the current taken or delivered has an
whether to open or to short circuit conditions, can affect
appreciable reactive component;
a t most the section of the loop between the nearest
isolators. (Other circuit arrangements may be possible
(7) the characteristics of any signals passing between
having the same general effect.) Where the effect of the components;
fault is to reduce to one the number of signal paths to any (8) the ability of the control and indicating equipment
detector or call point, the control equipment should t o operate in conjunction with the number of devices
indicate the fault within 60 min of i t s occurrence and t o which it will be connected;
should preferably indicate the position of the fault. It is (9) any software provided for programming the system
essential that action is taken to repair such faults, since if or i t s components, and the compatibility of other
a fault is left unrepaired the system has no protection components with the software;
against further faults. However, if, because of redundancy (10) any limitations on the numbers, types, sizes or
in the circuit design, a t least two signal paths t o each other parameters (such as impedance) of wires that
detector and to each call point remain, it is necessary only can be connected.
to ensure the indication of the fault within 24 h of its (b) Forfire detectors:
occv ence.
(1) the form of output provided;
NOTE. Cable faults which disable one or more detectors andlo!
call pdints should be Indicated, without giving a false alarm, (2) the operating voltage, including tolerances;
within 100 S of their occurrence (see 6.6.1). (3) the quiescent current;
In the event of two fadts, any devices between the two (4) the alarm current or maximum permissible alarm
faults will usually be isolated and no longer function. current rating;
I f both sides of a ring feeding one fire compartment pass ( 5 ) the method of resetting the device after an alarm;
through a second compartment, a fire in this compartment (6) the states of the detector which indicate normal,
could damage both cables and thus isolate the devices in fault and fire conditions;
the first compartment (see 17.15 and, if applicable, 6.6.2).
(7) any requirements for indications of operation to be
provided in the vicinity of a detector, together with any
6.7 Compatibility
resultant changes in system conditions, e.g. reliability or
All the individual components of a fire alarm system should power consumption;
be mutually compatible. The organization responsible for
(8) the number of conductors required.
ensuring compatibility should be identified a t an early

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards BEST COPY AVAILABLE
Licensed by Information Handling Services 9
STDmBSI ES 5839: PART L-ENGL L988 m Lb24bb9 0734903 b85
BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988
Section two

(c) For alarm devices: 6.8 Compliance with British Standards


( 1 ) whether polarized connection is required; I n general, all components used in the system should
(2) whether precautions may be required in order to comply with relevant British Standards, and should have
suppress any interference generated by the device; undergone type testing to those standards. Components
(3) what methods for monitoring the interconnections having approval to a recognized quality approval scheme
can be employed; (comprising third party certification of product conformity
against a relevant standard, based on testing and continuing
(4) whether the power supply arrangements canprovide
surveillance, together with assessment of the suppliers
sufficient power;
quality systems against the appropriate Part of BS 5750)
(5) whether a high starting current is required.
should be preferred.
( d ) For manual call points: Where there is no relevant British Standard, non-standard
(1) whether of open or closed circuit operation; components may be used, but care should be taken t o
(2) whether of polarized operation; ensure as far as possible that the components are fit for
(3) the method of discrimination between alarm and their purpose.
fault conditions;
(4) the method of resetting the device after an alarm.
6.9 Program controlled systems
Fire detection systems are available in which the primary
(e) For power supplies: function is carried out by microprocessors or similar
(1) the correct voltage for the type of battery employed devices, in which the particular characteristics of a system
(.e. lead acid or alkaline types); are dependent on a stored program. In addition tothe
(2) the correct charging characteristics for the type of recommendations of this Part of BS 5839,
battery (.e. constant current or constant voltage); such systems should comply with the following
(3) the relationship between polarity and earth, or if recommendations.
the potential is earth free; (a) Facilities provided for the alteration of the stored
(4) the current ratmg in relation t o calculated maximurn program should be protected against unauthorized
demand; interference (see clause 27).
(5) the permissible limits of ripple; (h)Those functions of the system which are recomm-
(6) the degree of stabilization; ended in this Part of BS 5839 should not depend on
(7) the formula for power capacity for the system, programs stored on rotating disks, other storage media
including the storage capacity of the standby supplies using moving parts, or any other form of easily
and the required standby duration; corruptible memory.
NOTE 1. Memories that are designed to be wrttten to as part of
(8)the permissible range for the supply voltage;
their normal operation, such as RAM, are consldered to be
(9) whether the standby power supplies are able to easily corruptible.
provide the necessary current for the specified duration. (c) The decision algorithm used within the control
( f ) For automatic fire protection equipment: system should-be such that the sensitivity of the system
( 1 ) whether the energy required by the automatic fire cannot fall outside that specified in the relevant Part of
protection equipment is available from the control and BS 5839, BS 5445 or BS 5446, except in time related
indicating equipment or whether additional power systems (see 14.6). Where manual changes t o the
supplies will be required; algorithm or i t s parameters are possible the ability t o
(2) whether the voltage(s) required by the automatic carry out the alterations should be restricted to
fire protection equipment are compatible with those authorized competent personnel (see item (a) and
avai!able from the control and indicating equipment; cl ause 27).
(3) whether compatible with proposed monitoring (d) The operation of processors should be continuously
facilities; monitored; this is particularly important where it is
possible for the stored program t o be accidentally
(4) whether requiring positive or negative switched
input; corrupted (e.g. by transient interference) in such a way
as t o interfere with the correct operation of the system.
( 5 )whether normally energized or normally de-energized. In the event of failure a fault warning should be given
( 9 ) For remote indication and control panels: which should be automatically reset after the system has
(1) the functions provided; been restarted; either the fault should be automatically
(2) the signal conditions for each function; recorded, or a warning of automatic resetting given.
(3) the terminal connections (e) To,improve reliability, a methodical and formal
(h) Equipment for transmitting fire alarms and fault approach to software design should be followed.
warnings to remote manned centres should be compatible ( f ) Following reinitialization, repair of any fault, or
with the equipment a t the remote manned centre. restoration of any power supply failure, the system
should be capable within 30 S of sounding a general

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services
- ~

STD-BSI ES 5839: P A R T L-ENGL L988 Lb24669 0734904 511


BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988
Section two

alarm, and within a further perlod of 10 min normal entall movement from the zone o f the fire to one of
operating conditions shouldbe attained without further temporary refuge.
manual intervention (other than the silencing of any In larger premises in particular, the fire alarm system should
fault warning). Particular care should be taken where therefore be designed and arranged SO that it is both fully
volatile memories are used. compatible with the emergency procedures and providesa t
NOTE 2. It ir wceptable for the restoration of functions some central or convenient point, or points, an indication
additional f o the recommendarionr of this Part of BS 6839 of the zone from which an alarm has originated. In the case
1e.g. giving additional intorrnafion about evacuation routes) fo of wo-stage alarms, clear and unambiguous signals should
require manual intervention andlorto take longer than 10 min.
indicate the emergency procedure to be adopted throughout
each zone.
8.10 Pro-alarm warnings
In general the signals usedin different zones in the same
In some types of system an early warningcan be given of
premises should be the same unless the background noise
conditions which might (or might not) represent a fire. in one or more zones is such as to require different sounders
Such warnings shouldnot initiate a full fire alarm, but may
(see 9.4).
be used to alert personnel to t h e need for an inspection,
thus reducing the numberof false alarms and possibly If the system has been installed for life Safety Purposes
giving earlier fire action (see 29.3.5). (type L or M),then each zone should be readily accessible
6.1 1 Deviations from the recommendations of the code from the point(s) where the indication of the location O f
I
i 1 The recommendations of this code are intended to be suitable
fire is provided. In general, access to any zone should be by
,normal circulation routes; however, where smallareas Of
for the majority of normal applications.There will, however, ,the building are defined as zones for specific Purposes
be a few applicationsin which the recommendations maybe ((such as the existence of a special risk) it may be permissible
unsuitable, and in which deviations from the code maybg
for access in the immediate vicinity of that zone to be by
necessary. Before agreement of any deviation by interested another route, for example through another room.
parties (see 4.31, consideration shouldbe made of at least
NOTE. In systems other than addressable systems, signals coming
the following factors: from individual detecfors or groups of detectors cannot be
( a l the quantity and type of contents, including theease separately identified. In these systems, therefore, to allow zone
of ignition, heat release rate, and probable rateof fire identification it is usual for each zone to be ted bya separate
circuit. If has thus become common for the concepts of zonel and
growth and spread; circuits to be used interchangeably. I n addressable systems,
(b) the probable false alarm ratesof different types of however, several zones (defined as rubdivisions of the premiser,
detector; see 2.20) can be fed from a single circuit whilst retaining zone
identification. It isthus important that in such systems the
(C) the method of transmission of fire product5 from the concepts of zoner and circuits be treated separalcy.
fire to the detector, including any possible adve;se environ-
mental effects; 7.2 Recommendationsfor the sire and number of zones
(d) the type of occupant, including discipline, fitness and The size and number of zones into which the premises are
training; divided should comply with t h e following.
(e) the attendance time of fira-fighting forces (including (a) The floor area of a single zone should not exceed
both the local authority fire brigade and any industrial 2000 m.
fire brigade); (b) The search distance, .e. the distance that has to be
travelled by a searcher inside the zone in order to
( f ) the degree of fire protection given by other methods
determine visually the position of the fire, should not
(such as partial sprinkler protection);
exceed 30 m. Remote indicator lamps outside doors,
(9) any needs for special facilities for control or indication; etc., may be helpful, especially if doors are likely to be
(h) any special provisions (either already existing orlikely locked. By making an area easier to search, the use of
to be needed) for maintained power supplies; remote indicator lamps may reduce the needfor a large
(i) the type of work carriedout in the building (for number of small zones.
example, hot, smoky or dusty operations may Geed ( c ) If the total floor area of a building is 300 m? or less,
special detection provision); then it may be considered as 8 single zone even though
(i) any special requirementsfor alarm devices, aither due to there may be more than one storey.
the type of occupant or to the sound environmentin the (d) I f the total floor area of a building is greater than
building; 300 m, then all zones should be restricted to a single
storey, except that:
(k) the fire routine for the building.
( 1 ) i f the total floor area of a fire compartment is
NOTE. All deviations should be listed In the lnstrliafionand
commissloning cerfificafe (lee appendix B ) ,
300 m or less, and any communication with other
fire compartments is only a t the lowest level of the
7 Zones building, then that fire compartment may be
considered as a single zone even though there may
7.1 Generalconsiderations be more than one storey within it; and
In most buildings an alarm of fire may initiate a number of (2) if detectors or call points are fitted instairwells,
different activities, e.9. the provision of asslstance, the lightwells, liftwells and other flue-like structures
commencement of emergency evacuation procedures, extending boyond the one floor but within one fire
summoning the fire brigade, etc., end it ir esrentlal that Compartment, then the volume of the well or shaft
these activities are coordlnated. In the preplanning of should be considered as one or more separate zones.
emergency procodurerfor a building It is therefore
(e) Where a zone extends beyond a single compartment,
important, for ease of communication and synchronlzetion
the zone boundaries should be boundarles of fire
of effort, to determlne a convonient number and
compartments. Thus it is permlssible to have two
arrangement of easily identifiable zones into which the
complete fire compartments in one zone, or two
building can bo divided.
complete zones in one fire compartment; it is not
When a signal of fire i$given it ir necessary that there permissible to have a zone which extends into parts of
should be no confurlon about the zone from which it Is W O compartments, or a compartment which extends
rccelved. To facilitate response by persons providing into parts of two zones.
assistance, the zone should be small enough for a fire to be
(flIn systems containing only manual call points
located qulckly. It is oltun important that there i 5 adequate
lwPe M systems) location of a fire will usually be known
fire separation between the zones; this is particularly so if
COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC in Specs and Standards 11 to thePersonoperatingthe call point. If satisfactorv
the initialgvacuation procedures the buildino will t w t d l v
Licensed by Information Handling Services
.. . .. .
STD-BSI BS 5839: PART II-ENGL II988 m IIb24bb9 0734905 458 m
BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988 Section two
8 Communications with the fire brigade
Provlslon 1s made for this information to be passed to
the person in charge of the building, limitations on the and other off site organizations
size Of the zone may be relaxed. I t should however be
borne in mind that if the area covered by a zone is 8.1 General
i t may be difficult to locate a call point from For a fire detection system to give the maximum benefit,
which an alarm originated. its alarm should be passed on to the f i r e brigade with the
rflaxallon on the s u e of !he zone doer not apply srnallzst possible time delay. It may be permissible for the
0 Iw rccommendaclonr lor power supplier in type M ,yrtemr alarm to be passed on by telephone, if there is an
Ylven In 16.6.
(9) For systems in buildings in multiple occupation adequately trained person on the premises, but frequently
thc only reliable method will be over an automatic link.
(see 4.4) the zoning arrangement should take account of
For property protection, consuitatlonwith the insurers is
the fact that premises rnay not all be occupied a t the advisable.
same time and no zone should include areas in more Provision may also be made for Communications with
than one occupancy other off Site bodies, including service organizations and
(h) Invery large systems such as those covering more key-holders. The information transmitted should be
than one building it may be necessary to create sectors sufficient for i t s purpose, without being so excessive as to
in order to restrict the number of zones from which cause confusion.
alarms may originate simultaneously or in succession. If a building is divided into separate occupancies, then
Such restrictions should only be applied after consult- tenants or occupiers should make reliable arrangements to
ation among the interested parties listed in 4.3, call the fire brigade. The responsibility for calling the fire
brigade should be both clearly specified and clearly

T
( i ) In premises having phased evacuation schemes, the understood; uncertainty in responsibility can lead to a
zoning of fire detectors should be compatible with the number of calls being made almost SimultaneOUSlY or, more
evacuation procedures. seriously, to the fire brigade not being called a t all.
Particular care should be taken in enclosures common to Consultation with the fire authority is advisable for
more than one floor, such as stairways and atria (See systems serving buildings in multiple occupation.
also 4.21. If public telecommunications operator linesare used in the
Where a special fire risk is present within a larger protected transmission of fire alarms to the fire brigade, then i t i s
area, and i+ is considered important to obtain rapid desirable to limit the risk of the lines being damaged by fire
identification of a fire in that risk, the risk should be before the alarm has been transmitted. Within the building
considered as a separate zone. the lines should be routed to avoid areas where fire is likelv
In premises providing sleeping accommodation the factors to start or to spread rapidly, and should be protected as
mentioned in (a) to (h) should be considered in relation to recommended in 17.11. Lines for fire alarm transmission
the fire routine adopted for the premises. In any zone in should be discussed with the public telecommunications
which automatic detectors are provided for the PurPoses O f operator so that, where practicable, the use of overhead
life safety it is of paramount importance that the precise lines can be avoided near the building.
location of the origin of an alarm of fire can bc quickly If a special telephone line is provided for the transmission
determined. of emergency calls (either automatic or manual1 through a
I f the arrangement of an area is complex and time is likely switched network, then the line should be barred from
to be wasted in a search tor the fire, then notwithstanding receiving incoming calls. It should never be used for
any limits shown above, the area should be further sub. outgoing calls other than emergencycalls, unless emergency
dlvided into zones that are easier to search. calls can be transmitted despite the presenceof other
NOTE 2. In somo clauses of this Part o f BS 5839 an moa constraint signals.
IS given based on the area allowed under 7.2 for a SlnDlu ,Ono. The Alarm signals should not bc routed through private
area allowed should be considered ar subject 10 111 lhe ronStrmIlr
exchanges which may themselves be involved in ihe fire or
of 7.2, and not simply lhe 2000 m allowed bv 7 . 2 b l .
which may be automatlcally closed down in the event
of fire.
7.3 Zoning of manual call points
Manual call points included within a zonc may be wired to 8.2 Automatic transmission of the alarm
the detector circuit for that fire zone as long as the
Some of the available methods of automatic connection t o
recolnmendations givenin 6.6 are followed. I t shouid be
remcmlmred, however, that people escapingfrom a fire the fire brigade are described in appendix A.
will not necessarily operate the manual call point nearest The lines and the equipment for transmitting and receiving
I O the fire, To prevent misleading indicationof the Position the alarm signal (including any link between the control
of the fire, It may brr preferable for manual Call Points to equipment and a separate signalling unit) should, if
be indicated separately from detectors. I f manUd call practicable, be monitored. I n the event of a failure of lines
points have been sited, for oxample, on the Staircase or equipment, a fault warning should be given a t a
landings, so that in a multi-zone building their indication ccntinuously manned point, usually a t the remote manned
of the position of the fire rnay be misleading, then it is
centre, and the occupier of the premises should, if
preferable for them oither to be arranged as a SeParate zone.
practicable, be informed so that arrangements can be made
or t o be incorporated in the zone descrihod in item (dI(2)
o f 7.2.
for the continued protection of the premises.
7.4 Zoning of fire detectors If the alarm i s transmitted to the fire brigade via a remote
Zoning of fire detectors shouldbe such that upon activation of manned centre, then users should satisfy themselves of the
any device the fire alarm system will respond in the correct reliability of the method ofcommunication used between
manner. T h i s is particularly important where phased the remote centre and the appropriate fire brigade. The 999
evacuation is involved, as evacuation procedures could be system is normally only usable if the remote manned centre
adversely affected i f incorrect alarm signals were given. and the protected premises are in the same fire authority
For example, careful consideration should be given to the type area. If the public switched network is used it is important
of alarm that should result from the operation of fire detectors that the fire brigade number is one nominated by the
located in positions which may not be related directly to that brigade as reserved for emergency calls. Calls via a fire
of t h e fire incident, suchas in atria, stair enclosures,shafts, brigade administrative number should not be used.
ducts, etc.

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services
BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988
Section two

Transmission of the alarm should not be prevented by the 9.3 Fire alarm sounders for life protection (types L and M)
act of silencing alarm sounders, nor should it depend on The number of fire alarm sounders used should be sufficient
the state of any silencing switch. to produce the sound level recommended in 9.4 in all
accessible parts of the building. It is essential that an
8.3 Non-automatic transmission of the alarm audible fire alarm can still be given in the event of failure
I f communication with the fire brigade is by means of of one sounder, and hence a minimum of two sounders
telephones, care should be taken that the operation of fire should be provided even if the recommended sound level
alarm and fault warning sounders does not interfere with could be achieved with a single sounder. A t least one
telephone speech. sounder should be provided in each fire compartment.
NOTE. Cases have been reported in which the telephone Sounders should be suitably distributed throughout the
mouthpiece has picked up the sound of the fire alarm sounders.
The resultant signal has confused the tone-selective dialling system building having regard to the attenuation of sound caused
leading to fallure of the emergency call. The frequency range used by walls, floors, ceilings and partitions. Particular attention
for tone-selective dialling is the same as that recommended in this should be paid to attenuationwhere sounders in corridors
Part of BS 5839 as having the best audibility. are expected to serve surrounding rooms. Most single doors
I f the alarm is intended t o be sent by a designated person, will give an attenuation of a t least 20 dB, and solid doors,
such as an operator or receptionist, then consideration such as fire doors, may give attenuations greater than 30 dB.
should be given to possible effects of the fire on that Thus it is unlikely that sound levels in a room will be
person and to any consequential need for fire protection. satisfactory if it is separated from the nearest sounder by
more than one door. A larger number of quieter sounders
rather than a few very loud sounders may be preferable in
9 Audible and visual alarms 01-der to prevent excessive sound levels in some areas.

9.1General 9.4 Audibility of alarms


Advice on the'connection of sounder circuits is given
9.4.1 Level ofsound. A minimum sound level of either
in 6.6.3.Wiring used for sounders should be in accordance
65 dB(A), or 5 dB(A) above any other noise likely t o
with 17.2(a).
persist for a period longer than 30 S , whichever is the
A fire alarm system may be required to have a sounder greater, should be produced by the sounders in all
outside a building. The position of this sounder should be accessible parts of the building except as may
agreed with the fire brigade, it should be adequately be recommended in 8.3.If the fire routine for the premises
protected from the weather, and its case should be clearly requires the audible alarm t o arouse sleeping persons then
marked 'FIRE ALARM'. the minimum sound level should be 75 dB(A) a t the
I n buildings in multiple occupancy it may be necessary for bedhead with all doors shut. This will not guarantee that
an alarm of fire to be given in premises other than those in every person will be awakened but can reasonably be
which the alarm has been initiated. expected to wake a sleeping person in most circumstances.
A clearly labelled facility should be available for starting or Due t o the short period for which the fire alarm sound
restarting the fire alarm sounders. Operation of this should be experienced, damage t o hearing is unlikely to be
facility should not be dependent on the state of any caused by sound levels below 120 dB(A). Where levels
silencing device. higher than this might be required, special provisions
(such as visual signals) may be necessary.
9.2 Fire alarm sounders for property protection (typeP ) NOTE. An instrument complying with BS 5969, type 2, with slow
The primary purpose of systems installed for property response and A weighting, is suitable for measuring the sound level.
protection is to summon fire-fighting assistance. The 9.4.2 Discrimination. The type, number and location of
number of alarm sounders within the building need only fire alarm sounders should be such that the alarm sound i s
be sufficient to summon local fire fighting effort, such as distinct from the background noise. The note of the fire
trained staff or a works fire brigade. I n the areas where an alarm sounders should be distinct from any other sounders
alarm is required, it should meet the audibility likely to be heard, and in particular should be distinct from
recommendations of 9.4. the audible fault warning signal given in the control
A sounder should be provided.near the control and equipment. All fire alarm sounders within a building should
indicating equipment t o draw attention to the indications have similar sound characteristics, unless particular
of fire. The sound level of this sounder should be suitable conditions such as an area of high background noise makes
for i t s application, e.g. the sound level required in a fully this impracticable; in this case other types of fire alarm
manned security room may be low, while that required may also be provided (see also 9.4.5 and 9 . 7 ) .
where the control equipment is unwatched in a noisy
9.4.3 Frequency. The ear of a young person is most
environment would be high. An external sounder should
sensitive t o sounds a t frequencies between 500 Hz and
be provided to guide fire-fighting assistance to the correct
8000 Hz. Age and hearing damage reduce the sensitivity of
entrance point tothe building.
the ear, particularly t o frequencies above 2000 Hz.
I n practice most buildings having property protection Partitions, dividing walls and doors will attenuate sound;
systems will also require an alarm system to protect the in general, the higher the frequency of the sound the
staff in the building. If this is integrated with the property greater will be the attentuation.
protection system, then the alarm sounders should also
satisfy the recommendations of 9.3.
BEST COPY AVAILABLE
COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards
Licensed by Information Handling Services
STD-BSI ES 5839: P A R T L-ENGL L988 L b 2 4 b b 9 0734907 2 2 0
BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988
Section two

The fire alarm sounder frequencies should therefor0 dually


9.6 Control sounders
Ile in the range 500 Hz to 1000 HZ. I f a two-tone alarm 1s
used, at least one of the maior frequencies shouldIla wittlin 9.6.1 Fire alarm control and indicating equipment d m ~ l d
this range. Where the frequency range of background noise incorporate, or have located near it, an audible device that
I s such as to mask the 500 Hz to 1000 Hz range. thon tho
sounds in the event of the operation of the first detector
use of sounder frequencies outside this range may ba or call point tooperate in any zone. This signal may. but
acceptable. need not, be the same as the general fire alarm sounders.

9.4.4 Soundcontinuity. The sound of the fire alarm should


be continuous although the frequencyand amplituda may
vary, for example as in a warbling note, provided thot tho
distinction from the alert signal described in 9.9 is claar.
9.4.5 Audible atarms in noisy areas. In parts of buIldinos The signal may be manually silencedbut should sound
where there are noisy machines, the Power requirements of again when the first detector or call point in another zone
the high power sounders needed to comply with tho operates.
recommendations of 9.4.1 may Place excessively hlgh 9.6.2 The operation of a silencing switch, either for the
demands on the capacities of standby supplies. In such general fire alarm sounders or fort h e signal described
cases, the sounders of t h e fire alarm system (the Primary in 9.6.1, should cause an audible signal to be given in or
sounders) may be reinforced by secondary soundors near the control equipment. This audible signal. whicb
operated directly from the mains supply and without may be the same as that for a fault warning, i: Intended
standby supplies, provided thatall of the following apply: to act as a reminder that the silencing switchhas been
(a) when the machine noise ceases and the secondary operated. It should give a distinctive sound different from
sounders are out of service, the primary soundors mou1 that of any other alarm sounder usedto give a fire alarm
the sound levels recommended in 9.4.1: and different from that of the signal described in 9.6.1.
(b) the primary sounders in all other Parts Of tho NOTE. The provision of 8 visual indication of operation of ruch 8
silencing switch may be desirable.
premises are distinctly audible a t all times when
operated; 9.6.3 The signals described in 9.6.1 and 9.6.2 should not
(c) failure of the supply to the secondary soundors will be so loud as to interfere with the making of callsto the
either result in the silencing of the noisy machlnor orin fire brigade (see 8.3).
the giving of an audible and visiblefault warning at t)le
control and indicating equipment. 9.7 Visual alarm signals

7
In areas where a normal type of sounder may be ineffective,
'9.4.6 Intefligibifitv. Any speechmessage carrying l?cformation
e.g. where the background noise is excessive, where the
or instructions relevantto fire action shouldbe intelligible
occupants are deaf or where hearingprotection is likely to
above the background noise in any part of the building to
be worn, visual signals should also be used.
which the message i s addressed. Where the level of Sound of
this message falls below that recommended in 9.4.1, tho In general, visual signals should only be used to supplement
message should be preceded for at least 6 s by an attantion. audible alarms; they should not be used on their own. The
operation of a sounder should not be prevented by a defect
drawing s,ignal, having at least the loudness recomrnondod
by 9.4.1 and which is used only as a fire warning slgnol.
in a visual signal or vice versa.
Where the fire action in the building depends on the recop. Any visual signal forming partof the fire alarmsystem
tion of verbal messages. the attentiondrawing signal Sllould should be clearly distinguishable from any other visual
not normally last for more than 10 s. signal used in the premises. Where flashing lights, such as
xenon flash tubes or rotating beacons, are used it is
,"
I
I
NOTE. Advtce on planning and installation of such systems
BS 6259.'
9.5 Grouping of fire alarmrounders
,L
important that there is no possibiliry of confusion with
two-stage alarms (see 9.9). The flashing rate shouldbe in
the range 30 to 120 cycles per minute.
In a small building the sounding of alarms can (and usually
will) be so arranged that any alarm operates the Sounders The intensity of the light should be sufficient t o draw the
throughout the building. attention of people in the vicinity, but not so high as to
cause difficulty invision due to glare.
If the fire alarm system extends to several buildings, or to
other parts of a building unlikely to be affected by a firo in Wiring to visual alarm signalling devices should comply
one zone, then the system may be so arranged that the with recommendations for wiring to alarm sounders,
alarms sound initlally only in the zone Of Origin. or In that .e. should be in accordance with 17.2(a).
zone and in adjoining areas, or in that zone and in other
areas where fire might be particularly dangerous, Perhaps 9.8 Coded fire alarm signalling
because of flammable contents ordifficult egress. Coded fire alarm signalling on alarm sounders (e.g. onering
It is essential that the grouping of fire alarm sounders ir meaning 'first floor' and two rings meaning 'second floor',
based on consideration ofthe fire routine of the bulldlng etc.) should not be used. Such coded signals on alarm
or individual premises and on the actionwhich would sounders are liable to misinterpretation however well
required of people in those areas if fire should occur.The drilled fire-fighting staff or occupants may be.
" groupingshould be so designed that,whereverthe orlgin
of the fire, any person needing immediate warning, Whather 9.9 Two-stage fire alarms
for evacuation or any other actlon,will receive that warning In certain large and/or high rise buildingsit may be desired
automatically and wlthoutany manual intervention, Tho to evacuate first those areas of the premises at the greatest
grouping shouldbe reflected in the fire inbtructionr ISSued risk, usually those closest to t h e fire or immediately above
for +he useof the occupants (see also 9.9 and 9.10). it. In such cases a two-stage alarm may be used in which an
fire alarm sounders are grouped. the Control equipment evacuation signal is given in a restricted area, together with
should have facilities both for controlling each group an alert signal in other areas. If such a system is considered,
individually and for sounding an alarm (either alert or early consultation with the fire authority is essential. It is
evacuate) in all groups simultaneously. The wiring should be important that in any such system the evacuation signal
$0 arranged that failure of a sounder or Of sounder Wiring in should immediately and automatically be given in t h e zone
one group will not cause the failure of any other 9roup.' of origin of the alarm. Consideration shouldbe given to the
communications that may be needed to control evacuation. -
r-
COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards
14
Licensed by Information Handling Services
BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988
Section two

( c ) not cancel any visual signal of the alarm at the


control equipment;
(d) not prevent the proper receipt of alarms from any
The boundaries of each of the restricted areas in which zone($)not already providing an alarm;
signals can be given should be those of f.ire compartments (e) not prevent the correct operation of any control for
having accepted standards of fire separation from other starting or restartingthe alarm sounders (see 9.1);
compartments. The 'evacuate' signal should be in ( f ) not prevent the transmission of an alarm to a remote
accordance with 9.4; the 'alert' signal should be manned centre.
intermittent, 1 f 0.5 S m and 1 5 0.5 S off. Provision In addition to the silencing switcha t the control
should be made for manually changing the 'alert' signal t o equipment, provision may be made for silencing switches in
the 'evacuate' signal in any area. Provision may also be individual zones remote from the control equipment.
made for automatically changing from the 'alert' signal to Operation of a remote silencing switch should:
the 'evacuate' signal. These provisions should be defined in (1) require a manual operation;
the discussion of the action in the event of fire (see 4.2). (2) result in an audible signal a t the remote switch
If an alarm is given from a manual call point by an escaping which should continuewhile the alarm sounders remain
person, then the position of the call point may not be silenced;
directly related to that of the fire. Any areas not to be (3) be automatically reset on operation of the main
given an evacuation alarm in response to such a signal will silencing switch or cessationof the alarm condition.
require careful consideration. The responsibility and criteria for operating any silencing
device should be decided as part of the action to be taken
9.10 Staff alarms in the event of fire, and should be clearly specified and
understood. Automatic silencing of alarms or alert signals
In some premises an initial general alarm may be
should not be used.
undesirable. In places of entertainment, shops, dance halls
The reset switch should not be used as a method of
or exhibitions, for example, an evacuation controlled by
silencing the alarm sounders, since this may destroy the
staff may be preferred. In some hospital departments, indication of the location of a fire. I t is preferable for the
distress or disturbance due to alarms may create additional control equipment to be so arranged that the equipment
problems for staff. In such premises it may be desirable, cannot be reset until the silencing device has been operated.
subject t o statutory or other requirements, to restrict the
local alarm in the first instance t o the staff. A restricted 9.12 Audible alarms by intercommunicationor public
alarm system should only be used where staff, including address equipment
night staff, are sufficient in number and fully trained in Where intercommunication or public address equipment is
the action that they are to take in the event of a fire. used in lieu of conventional sounders, the following should
The restricted alarm may be given by means of sounders or be ensured.
other types of communication (including personal paging (a) That the alarm of fire is automatically and
systems) not noticeable t o public, residents or patients. simultaneously transmitted to all areas in which the
Sounders may be supplemented by an adequate number of alarm is required, taking priority and overriding every
other facility and circuit condition of the equipment.
visual signals throughout the premises for staff recognition
only. A restricted alarm system should incorporate means (b) That other signals, e.g. meal-brcak, startand stop
work, cannot be confused with the fire alarm signals
of summoning fire-fighting staff to the outbreak when the
and cannot be broadcast at the same time as fire alarm
alarm is given.
signals.
Premises having a restricted alarm system should also have (c) That the power supply equipment complieswith the
provision for sounding a general alarm, which should be recommendations of clause 16, If the intercommunication
sounded either if a responsible person considers i t desirable or public address equipment shares the power supply of
to do so, or automatically after a predetermined period. the fire alarm system, then the total standby and alarm
The responsibility and criteria for sounding the general loads of both systems should be considered when
alarm should be decided as part of the action to be taken calculating the battery capacity.
in the event of fire, and should be clearly specified and (d) That in the event of malns failure, the duration of
understood. Restriction of the alarm in this way should not the standby supply cannot be made t o fall below that
prevent immediate transmission of the alarm to the fire recommended in clause 16 by the use of the system for
brigade or other remote manned centre. The authorities purposes other than giving the fire alarm.
concerned should be consulted very early in the design (e) That the cable and wiring of the system comply
stage as to the specification of an appropriate system. with clause 17and are monitorcd in accordance with 6.6
( f ) That the amplifier is constructed to comply with
clauses 4 and 5 of BS 6838 : Part 4 : 1988.
A
9.1 1 Silencing devices
I t should be a principle of design and operation of a fire (9) That where the fire alarm system does not include
control equipment havingcontrol sounders, the
aiarm system that once an alarm state has been initiated
recommendations of 9.6 are met.
it should continue until normal conditions have been
restored. However, a silencing device should be provided (h) That where the fire action in the building depends on a ,

which can silence general alarms or, in two-stage systems, b continuing ability to give signals over the public address
alert signals. system, consideration should be given to the consequences
of failure O f amplifiers, tone generators, synthesizers, pre.
The operation of a silencing device should: recorded tapes. etc., and to any consequenrial need for
(a) require a manual operation; duplication. In general, systems using moving parts (such
(bJcause the audible signaldescribed in 9.6.2 t o be given; ar tapes) should be considered as less reliablethanother
systems.'

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services
A
Where the transmitted alarmis a voice messagethe 10 Manual call points
be made
following should be ensured and reference should
to Bs 7443. 10.1 General
(1) That a suitable alarm (either pre-recordedor Manual call points should complywith BS 5839 : Part 2.
synthesized) is immediately and automatically
transmitted onthe receipt of a fire signal; this It is important that manual c a l l points are clearly
transmission shouldnot depend on the presence of identifiable and simpleto use without the need for
an operator. instructions as to their method of operation. The method
of operation of all manual cal points in an installation
(2) That the time interval between successive messages
should be identical unless thereis a special reasonfor
does not exceed 30 S, and that 'fill-in' signals similarto differentiation. I f necessary a striker shouldbe provided
those of conventional sounders are used wherever adjacent to the call point tofacilitate breakingthe frangible
periods of silence might otheNvise exceed10 s.
cover.
(31That during fire alarm conditionsall audio input
sources are automatically disconnected except the A person operating a manual cal point should not be left in
speech modules (or equivalent message generators) doubt as to the success of the operation. The delay
W h give the warning, or those microphones between operationof a call point and the giving of the
designated as fire microphones. These should be general alarm should therefore not exceed
3 s.
NOTE. A mauimumddry of 8 t appliedto systems installedbefore
retained incircuit so that announcements and
1 January 1990.
instructions relating to the emergency canbe given.
At least one firemicrophoneshould normally be sited If the design of the system is such that the indication of
near to the control equipment It may be necessary for the alarm could be unwittingly cancelled at the callpoint
additional fire microphone positionsto be provkkl at after the glass has first been broken, thenthe delay
~wellseparatedfromthefirst.Insuchcasesthe between operation of the call point and the giving of the
system should be so designedthat it is not possible general alarm shouldnot exceed 1 s.
for mesagesfrom more than one microphone, speech Requirements additionalto those of BS 5839 :Patt 2 may
module or message generator to be broadcast be necessary where call points are to be used in flammable
simultaneously. or explosive atmospheres (see 6.5). or where frangible
(4) That all voice messagesare clear, short, unambiguous element fragments are objectionable, suchas in food
and, as far as practicable, preplanned. preparation areas.
(5)That the level of sound in the buildingcomplies
102 Siting
with the recommendationsof 9.2 for property protection
Manual callpoints should be locatedon exit routes and in
systems, or 9.3 for life protectionsystems.
particular on the floor landings of stainways and at exitsto
Where the transmitted alarmis not a voice message. its the open air. (Special consideration may need to be given
audibility should comply with the recommendationsof 9.2 for staged alam systems (see73 and 9.9)J They should be
for property protectionsystems or 9.3 for life protection so locatedthat to give the alarm, no personinthe
systems. premisesneedtravelmorethan30m.Itmaybe~ry
tohavetraveldista~toacallpointmudrlessthan30m
9.13 Limitationof alam information where the wpected occupantsof the buildingare likelyto
In some systems muchinformation about both the state of be slow in mommmt or where potentially hazardous
the system and any fire condition is available. It is conditionsexist e.g. in dose proximity to cellulose spray
important that, in order to avoid confusion, the amount of boothsThe action to be taken inthe event of fire may
information given is limited to that whcih is both necessary make the provisionof additional manualcall points
and wfficient necessary.
In general, cal points should be fixed a t a height of 1.4 m
9.14 Use of the fire alarm sound foc ather purposes abovb the floor, a t easily accessible, wel illuminated and
Ingeneral, fire alarm sounds should be used for other conspicuous positions free from obstruction. Manual call
purposes only if the response required is identical to that points should be s i t g against a contrasting backgroundto
which would be required in a fire, .e. immediate assist in easy recognition. They maybe flush mounted in
evacuationafthe area in which the alarm is sounding by locations where theywill be seen readily, but where they
the use of any route desiinated as a fire exit. If any other will be viewed from the side (e.g. in corridors) they should
response is required then fire alarm sounds should not be be surface mounted or semi-recessed in order to present a
used unless accompaniedby other information.However, side profile area of notless than 750 mm2.
as an established exception, it may be permissible in
schoolsto use a coded signal of short duration to indicate 10.3 Manual a l l points in automatic systems
the start or finish of predeterminedperiods. The duration of If manual and automaticdevices are to be installed in the
the cocled signal shouldnot exceed 5 s.Where new same buildingfor the purpose of providinga general alarm
-S are being installed, or where sounders are being of fire, then they may be incorporated into a single system;
replaced, the use of sounders capable of delivering several
zoning of such systems is covered in 7.3, and the connection
distinct sounds should be considered, with one of the
of call points to circuits containingfire detectors is covered
sounds beingreserved for fire alarm use.

Previous page 17
is blank
BEST COPY
COPYRIGHT British Standards AVAILABLE
Institute on ERC Specs and Standards
Licensed by Information Handling Services
STDmESI ES 5839: PART L-ENGL L988 9 1624669 07349310 835 m ''
~ BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988

in 6.6.2. Where manual call points are incorporated in an as requiring a detector response equivalent t o t h a tof a detector
containing the separate elements. Particularly in analogue output
automatic system the delay between the operationof the
detectors, the response of a single temperature sensor can be
call point and the indications of alarm should comply with electrically modified to produce the desired detector response.
the recommendations of 10.1.
11.3 Smoke detectors
There are two commonly used classes of detectorsfor
11 Types of fire detector detecting smoke.
(a) Ionization chamber smoke detectors. These are
11.1 General based on the fact thatthe electric current flowing
Fire detectors are designedto detect one or more of three between electrodesin an ionization chamber is reduced
characteristics of a fire: smoke, heat and radiation (flame). when smoke particles enter the chamber.
No one type of detector is the most suitablefor all (b) Optical smoke defectors. These operate by detecting
applications and thefinal choice will depend on individual the scattering or absorption oflight by smoke particles.
circumstances, It will often be useful to employ a mixture There are 'point' type smoke detectors that detect smoke
of differenttypes of detector. a t one position and which maybe based on optical or
Most, if not all, fire detectors are affected not only by the ionization chamber principles, aspirating smoke detectors
level of the detected phenomenabut also by the behaviour in which air is taken from a number of positionsto a central
of the phenomenawith time. In some cases this is deliberate, detector and 'beam' type smoke detectors working on the
as with detectors respondingto rate-of-change of optical obscuration principle. Beam detectors are effectively
phenomena; in others it is the effect, for instance, of delays line detectors since they can detect the presenceof smoke
in smoke entry or of thermallags. In systems using analogue in onlya small part of thebeam.
detectors, the time response of the system can often be Some optical beam smoke detectors can also sense thermal
controlled or modified by the processing softwarein the turbulence from a fire by detecting the refractionof the
control equipment. beam at turbulent interfaces betweenhot and cold air.
All fire detectors will respond to some extent to Point smoke detectors should complywith BS 5445 : Part 7
phenomena other than fire; reducing the incidence of suchor, for residential applications, BS 5446 : Part 1 (excluding
false alarms is covered in clause 14. self-contained smoke alarms). Smoke detectors (other than
self-contained smoke alarms)complyingwith BS 5446 :
11.2 H u t detectors Part 1 may also be suitable for an industrial or commercial
There are two main types of heat-sensitive detector. One is environment that is similar to that present in residential
the 'point' type of detector respondingto the temperature premises. Optical beam smoke detectors should comply
of the gases in the immediate vicinity of a single point. The with BS 5839 : Part 5.
other is the 'line' type of detector which respondsto t h e In an aspirating smoke detector, the tubefrom the
temperature of the gases in the vicinity of a line (not protected spaceto the central detectormay have
necessarily straight). Line detectors can be integrating or one or more holes through which smoke may be drawn.
non-integrating: in the integratingtype the response to Design of the system should takeinto account anydilution
temperature at one point on the lineis modified by the of smoke taken into one holeby clean air taken into others.
temperature of the remainder of the line, while in the non- The amount of air entering each hole is usually small, and
integrating typethe response to temperature at one point should not be considered as modifying air or smokeflows
is independent of temperatures at other points on the line. within the protectedspace. In general, each hole may be
In both main types (point and line) there are two main considered as a separate point smoke detector, andsiting
subdivisions. of the holes maybe based on the siting requirementsfor
(a) Fixed temperature (static) elements. These are point smoke detectors. The system shouldbe such that
designed to operate when they reacha pre-selected separate signals are obtainedfrom each zone. The design
threshold temperature. and sizingof the tubing system should complywith the
(b) Rare-of-rise of temperature elements. These are manufacturer's recommendations.
designed to operate when their temperature rises
abnormally quickly. 11.4 Flame detectors
Point heat detectors should complywith BS 5445 : Part 5, Flame detectors detectultraviolet and/or infra-red
except in high temperature areas (see 11.5.2 and 12.3.2). radiation. Both typesuse radiation-sensitive cells that'see'
where heat detectorscomplying withBS 5445 : Part 8 the fire either directly or through built-in lenses or
should be used. reflectors.
Heat detectors complyingwith BS 5445 will always have Infra-redflame detectors are intended to respond to the
fixed temperature elements, and mayadditionally contain flickering radiation emitted by the diffusion type of flame
rate-of-rise elements. Heat detectors not containing fixed normally foundin fires. Because of the presence of other
temperature elements areunlikely to respond to very slow infra-redsources, such as the sun, infra-redflame detectors
growing fires, and should thereforenot be used. will usually have some method of discriminating between
NOTE. Reference in this clause to static and rate-of-rise elements fire and non-fire radiation; flickersensing or the use of one
should not be taken as requiring physically separate elements, but or more specificinfrared emission bands are common
techniques.

18
COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards
Licensed by Information Handling Services
r

--

BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988


Section two

Ultraviolet flame detectors detect theultraviolet radiation


emitted from flames, and normally operate in the range of 11.5.3 Smoke derecturs. lonizardonchamber smoke
wavelengths from 200 nm t o 270 nm. Solar radiation in detectors are particularly sens, ;ve to smoke Containing
this range is absorbed by the high altitude Ozone laVert small particles such as are pro;: iced in rapidly burning
and hence ultraviolet detectors do not normally respond flaming fires,but may be less sensitive to the larger Particles
to sunlight. found inoptically dense smoke which may be produced
by smouldering materials. Optical smoke detectors are
11.5 Choice of fire detectors sensitive t o the larger, optically active, particles found in
. 11.5.1 General. I n any automatic fire detection system a optically dense smoke, but are less sensitive to the small
c detector has t o discriminate between a fire and the nOmd particles found in clean-burning fires. Both tvpesof smoke
environment existing within the building. The system detector have a sufficiently wide range of response t o be
chosen should have detectors that are suited t o the con- of general use. In some premises, however, there may be
ditions and that provide the earliestreliable warning. Each specific risks for which one type is particularly suitable
type of detectorresponds a t a different rate to different (or particularly unsuitable); this should be determined a t
an early stage.
kinds of fire. With a slowly smouldering fire such-asthe
Certain materialswhen overheated (e.g. PVC) or when
initial stages of a fire involving cardboard, a smoke detector
smouldering (cg. polyurethane foam) producesmokes
would probably operate first. A fire that evolves heat
having mainly large particles to which ionization chamber
rapidly and with very little smoke could operate a heat
smoke detectors are relatively insensitive.
detector before a smoke detector. With a flammable liquid
fire a flame detectorcould operate first. Tobacco smoke usually reaches ceiling mountedsmoke
detectors only after it has coalesced to form large particles;
In general, smoke detectors give appreciably faster
this, and the usually low rate of arrival of tobacco smoke,
responses than heat detectors, but may be more liable to make ionization chamber smoke detectors less likely to give
give false alarms (see 14.3). a false alarm than optical smoke detectors underthese
A combination of various typesof detector may be conditions.
necessary. The likely flre behaviour of the contentsof each Smoke detectors cannot detect the products from clean-
part of the buildings, the processes taking place or planned burning liquids (such as alcohol) which do not produce
and the design of the building should be considered. The smoke particles. This is not usually a serious disadvantage
susceptibility of the contents to heat, smoke and water because a fire will normally involve other combustible
damage should also be considered. materials a t an early stage. Clean-burning fires canbe
Heat and smoke detectorsrely on transport of the products detected by their resulting thermal turbulence, so optical
from the fire to the detector by convection.The plume beam smoke detectors incorporating thermal turbulence
above a fire is relatively narrow, andin general these detection are particularly suitable for such risks.
detectors rely on the presence of a ceiling (or other similar Smoke detectors incorporating thermal turbulence
near-horizontalsurface) to direct the products outwards detectors maybe unsuitable for installation immediately
from the plume to the detector. Heat and smoke detectors above blower heaters or industrial processesthat produce
are therefore suitablefor use in most buildings, but are appreciable wasteheat.
generally unsuitablefor open-air applications.
Where there areproduction or other processes that produce
Flame detectors areparticularly suited to outside smoke, fumes, dust, etc. which might operate smoke
applications, where there is no ceiling to direct the products detectors, an alternative type of detector should be used,
outwards; they are especially suited to risks in which .e. heat or flame.
smouldering is unlikely (such as in liquid fuels). Flame
detectors in.buildlngs are mainly used to supplement heat 115.4 Flame detectors. Because of their inability t o detect
and smoke detectors, particularly under high ceilings and smouldering fires, flame detectors shouldbe used in
provided that an unobstructed view is possible. specialized applicationsor as a supplement to heat or smoke
The choice of detector may also be affected by the detectors, and not be considered as general purpose
environmental conditions within the premises. In general, detectors.
heat detectors havea greater resistance to adverse Because they do not depend on the convective transport of
environmental conditions than have other types. fire products to the detector, but on the virtually
instantaneous and straight-line transmission of flame
11.5.2 Heat d@t@ctols. Heat dttectors are, in general;]ess radiation, flame detectorscan respond to a flaming fire
sensitive than smoke detectors. They are unlikely to more quickly than can heat or smoke detectors, and do not
respond to smouldering fires, and, as a simp[e rule of thumb need to be mounted on a celling. They are particularly
will require the flames from the fire to reach about one- suitable for use in applications such as the general
third of the distance to the ceiling before they will operate. surveillance of large open areas in warehouses or timber
They are therefore not suitable for the protection of places , yards, or the local surveillanceof critical areas where
where unacceptable losses could be caused by small fires, flaming fire may spreadvery rapidly, e.g. a t pumps, valves
e.g. in computer rooms. Before final selection of detector or pipework containing flammable liquids, orareas of thin
type, an estimate shouldbe made of the extent of the vertical combustibles such as panelling or oil paintings.
damage likely to occur before operationof a heat detector. Where flammable liquids are involved the areas will often
Heat detectorswith rate-of-rise elements are more suitable have potentially explosive atmospheres (see 6.51.
where ambient temperatures arelow or vary only slowly,
while fixed temperature detectors are more suitable where
the ambient temperatureis likely to fluctuate rapidly over
short periods. Where very high temperatures are likely to
be encountered (see 12.3.21 heat detectors complyingwith
BS 5445 : Part 8 should be used.

184
Copyright by the British Standards Institution
Tue Oct 13 09:49:24 1998
COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards
Licensed by Information Handling Services
STD-BSI BS 5839: P A R T L-ENGL L988 m L b 2 4 b b 9 0734912 b98 .m
BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988
Section two

For flame detectors to work withmaximum efficiency, Before a fire detection system is installed for insurance
they should have a clear line-of-sightt o the area being purposes, early consultations should be held with the
protected. Although reflected radiation may be sufficient insurers.
for operation, much of the radiation is then absorbed
rather than reflected; a significantly bigger fire will be 12.2 Spacing and siting of heat- or smoke-sensitive
needed for operation l i reflected radiation is used. detectors
The transmission of radiation depends on the ratio of the 12.2.1 General. Heat- and smoke-sensitive detectors
radiation wavelength t o the particle size in the smoke. depend on the convective movement of fire products from
Infrared radiation will penetrate smoke well, while the fire t o the detector. The spacing and siting recommend-.
ultraviolet radiation may be rapidly absorbed. If there is a ations for these detectors are based on the needs to restrict
chance that the fire may have an initial smouldering phase the time taken for this movement and t o ensure that the
in which the smoke produced could smoke log the area, products reach the detector in adequate concentration.
then infra-red detectors should be used, since any 12.2.2 Spacing. For open areas under flat horizontal
ultraviolet radiation could be absorbed by the smoke ceilings, the horizontal distance from any point in the area
before i t reaches the detector. t o the detector nearest to that point should not exceed
5.3 m for heat detectors or 7.5 m for smoke detectors.
For line or beam detectors, the distance should be taken as
12 Detectors installed primarily for
the the distance to the nearest point on the line or beam.
protectionof property (type P) NOTE. For estimation purposes, in any room or compartment
the number of point-type detectors fitted should not normally be
less than the room or compartment area divided by 100 m* for
12.1 Coverage smoke detectors, or 50 r n 2 for heat detectors, except as varied
A fire detector installation is intended t o enable a fire to by 12.2.3.
be detected a t a sufficiently early stage for it t o be easily 12.2.3 Ceilingsandroofs. In a building the hottest gas and
extinguished without extensive property damage. I n general the greatest concentration of smoke (visible or invisible)
people are the most sensitive fire detectors, but they are will generally collect a t the highest parts of the enclosed
not always present or alert; there may be parts of the areas and it is here, therefore, that heat or smoke detectors
premises that are not normally attended during working should be sited. Except i n shallow voids (see 12.2.11).
hours, and outside working hours there may be no one on detectors should be sited so that their sensitive elements
the premises. The use of detectors can then significantly are not less than 25 mm or more than 150 mm below the
reduce the property loss, provided that suitable provision ceiling or roof for heat detectors, and not less than 25 mm
has been made for the necessary subsequent action. or more than 600 m m below the ceiling or roof for smoke
When fires start in unoccupied areas they may grow, detectors.
if undetected, to a stage where they cannot be easily If a protected space has a pitched roof or north-light roof,
extinguished; since any area may be unoccupied a t some then detectors should be installed within each apex. I f the
time, for maximum protection total coverage of the difference in height between the top and bottom of an
premises should be provided. Every portion of the apex is less than the maximum depth allowed between the
building(s) should be suitably protected and each roof and the detector (150 mm for heat detectors or
effectively enclosed space should be considered separately 600 mm for smoke detectors) then the roof may be treated
for this purpose, although lavatories and water closets as i f i twere flat.
need not have independent coverage. Such a system, giving
For detectors mounted inthe apex of a pitched or north-
total coverage for property protection, is a type P 1 system.
light roof, the recommendations of 12.2.2 for the
I n some premises, however, the fire risk may be sufficiently horizontal distance from the point tothe detector may be
low in some parts of the premises that the installation of an increased by 1 % for each degree of slope of the roof up to
automatic fire detection system in those parts is not a maximum increase of 25 %, and the area limits per point-
considered t o be justified. In such premises a type P2 type detector given in 12.2.2 may be increased in proportion
system, covering only part ofthe premises, can give a useful to the square of the increased distance. For example, i f the
reduction in the probability of fire loss a t a lower roof slopes a t IO" the distance may be increased by 10 % to
installation cost than would a type P l system. 1.1 times the given distance, and the area covered may be
I n those areas protected by a type P 2 system, the spacing increased to 1.21 times the given area.
and siting of detectors should generally be the same as
12.2.4 Effects of ceiling height. As the smoke and hot gas
those of a type P1 system. If a fire starting outside the
from a fire rise, they become diluted with clean, cool air
protected area spreads inside it then the fire growth rate in
from around the plume. Hence the size of fire required in
the area is likely t o be much higher than if the fire had
order to operate heat or smoke detectors increases rapidly
been started in the protected area by a small ignition
as the height of the ceiling above the fire increases. To some
source. Although the system in the protected area would
extent the effect can be overcome by the use of more
respond quickly, the rate of growth would probably be
sensitive detectors.
such that a high loss would ensue before fire-fighting
could start. In order t o prevent such spread, areas protected I n addition t o reducing the smoke density, the dilution will
by a type P 2 system should therefore be separated from increase the total volume of fire products in the plume, and
unprotected areas by fire-resisting construction. hence cause it to spread further on reaching the ceiling.

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services
STD.BSI B S 5839: PART L-ENGL L988 m Lb24669 0734933 524

BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988


Section two

Optical beam smoke detectors are less sensitive t o the


effects of height than are point-type detectors, since the Table 1. Limits of ceiling heights
increased size of plume will involve a greater proportion of
the beam and help to alleviate the effects of reduced I Ceiling heights
smoke density. Detector type General Rapid
In general i t should be considered that the protection of limits attendance
compartments exceeding 9 m in height presents special
problems, depending on such factors as the height and m m
configuration of the contents. Heat detectors
5s 5445 : Part 5 grade 1 9.0 13.5
12.2.5 Limits of ceiling height. Except in the exceptional
grade 2 7.5 12.0
cases of this clause and 12.2.6, detectors should not
grade 3 6.0 10.5
normally be mounted on ceilings higher than the general
limits of table 1. If small sections of a ceiling (not
Point smoke detectors as 10.5 15.0
exceeding in total 10 % of the ceiling area) exceed in height
described in 11.3
the general limits of table 1, those higher sections may be
protected by point-type heat detectors provided that the
ceiling height in the higher sections does not exceed 10.5 m,
Hlgh temperature heat 6.0 10.5
detectors
or by point-type smoke detectors provided that the ceiling
BS 5445 : Part 8
height in the higher sections does not exceed 12.5 m.
12.2.6 Ceiling height limits with rapidattendance. Optical beam smoke 25.0 40.0
Although an increased ceiling height means that the fire detectors
will be larger when it is detected, the size of the fire when BS 5839 : Part 5
fire fighting starts will also depend on the delay between
detection and the start of fire-fighting. I f this delay is small,
then the increase in fire size a t detection due to a higher 12.2.9 Walls and partitions. Detectors (other than optical
ceillng can be acceptable. beam smoke detectors, see 12.4.3) should not be mounted
If the detection system is automatically connected t o the within 500 mm of any walls or partitions. Where rooms are
fire brigade either directly or via a central (fire alarm) divided into sections by walls, partitions or storage racks
station as described in appendix A, and the usual reaching to within 300 mm of the ceiling, the dividers
attendance time of the fire brigade is not more than 5 min, should be considered as if they reached the ceiling and the
then the rapid attendance limits of ceiling height given in sections should be considered as separate rooms.
table 1 may be applied. If small sections of a ceiling (not 12.2.10 Obstructions. If the passage of smoke or hot gas
exceeding in total 10 % of the ceiling area) exceed in heigh: from a point to a detector is likely t o be disturbed by a
the limits of table 1 , those higher sections may be protected ceiling obstruction (such as a beam) having a depth greater
by point-type heat detectors if their height does not exceed than 150 mm but less than 10 % of the height of the
15 m, or by point-type smoke detectors if their height does ceiling, then the distances allowed by 12.2.2, 12.2.3
not exceed 18 m. and 12.2.8 should be decreased by twice the depth of the
12.2.7 Low ceilings. Under low ceilings the converse obstruction. Detectors should not be mounted within a
distance of 500 mm from any such obstruction. Ceiling
to 12.2.4 applies. Since there is little dilution, the detector
will respond to very small fires. For smoke detectors, care obstructions deeper than 10 % of the ceiling height should
be treated as walls, and the recommendations of 12.2.9
in siting is necessary t o avoid nuisance operation by
should be followed.
tobacco smoke and smoke from other small sources. Less
sensitive detectors may b e useful, and the detector Isolated attachments to the ceiling such as lighting fittings
manufacturer may be able to supply a cover to prevent and luminaires do not normally a c t as obstructions t o the
direct entry of smoke from below without inhibiting general flow of smoke. They may, however, cause a local
normal entry from the side a t ceiling height. disturbance, and detectors should not be mounted closer
to such attachments than twice the depth of the attachment.
12.2.8 Corridors. In a corridor less than 5 m wide, the
12.2.11 Voids. Voids less than 800 mm in height need not
horizontal distance given in 12.2.2 may be increased by
have independent coverage unless the void is such that
half the difference between 5 m and the width of the
extensive spread of fire or fire products, particularly
corridor, e.g. in a corridor 3 m wide the distances may be
between rooms or compartments, can take place within it
increased by 1 m. A corridor wider than 5 m should be
before detection. Where it is considered necessary to install
treated as an open area as recommended in 12.2.2.
detectors in shallow voids having poor ventilation (for

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


BEST COPY AVAILABLE
Licensed by Information Handling Services 2-Q ~ ~~
BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988
Section two

instance, under-floor service voids) then special care should However, if ceiling level detectors are used, then as the fire
be taken with the positioning of the detectors. gets bigger and releases more heat the plume will break
In a fire the initial smoke layer will usually take up only through the stratification layer and the detectors will
the top 10 % of the void height. In shallow voids the operate. Thus ceiling level detectors should always be used,
thickness of the layer may be small compared with the even where supplementary detectors are mounted a t an
detectors dimensions, and therefore care should be taken expected stratification level.
that the sensing element of the detector lies within the top Since the normal ceiling temperature is unlikely to approach
10 % of the void. To do this it may be necessary to mount the operating temperature of a heat detector, stratification
the detector in an unusual orientation; precautions against is unlikely to affect the response of heat detectors, and
the deposition of dirt or dust may be needed. even in the presence of stratification smoke detectors are
likely to operate before heat detectors.
12.2.12 Vertical shafts and ceiling penetrations. Where
stairways, enclosed chutes through floors, or shafts for lifts, 12.2.16 Ventilation and air movement. In siting heat or
hoists or escalators penetrate ceilings, detectors should be smoke detectors, consideration should be given to the
so sited that a t each level at least one detector is placed on possible patterns of air movement in the premises. Air
the ceiling within 1.5 m of the penetration. A detector conditioning and ventilation systems with high air change
should also be sited a t the top of each stairway, enclosure rates may adversely affect the response of detectors by
or shaft. I f an eleyator or stairway has a sloping ceiling then directing fresh air over them, by drawing heat and smoke
there may be a need for detectors to be sited on that ceiling. away from them, or by diluting the hot gases produced by
a fire. In these conditions the siting and provision of
12.2.13 Enclosed stairways. In enclosed stairways detectors
detectors both require special consideration. In general,
should be sited on each main landing.
if the room ventilation rate exceeds four changes per hour
12.2.14 Lantern-lights, A detector should be sited in any then additional detectors may be required. For applications
lantern-light used for ventilation or having a height above in computer suites or data processing areas, BS 6266 should
the ceiling greater than 800 mm. Detectors fitted in be consulted.
lantern-lights are liable to rapid temperaturevariations due Detectors should not be mounted directly in the fresh air
to solar and/or internal heating. Where heat detectors are input from air conditioning systems. In general, a spacing
used they should not include rate-of-riseelements, and of not less than 1 m between the detector and the air inlet
should be protected from direct sunlight. should be maintained. Where the air inlet is through a
12.2.15 Stratification. As the plume from a fire rises, it perforated ceiling, the ceiling should be imperforate for a
draws in air from round about it. This dilutes the fire radius of a t least 600 mm round each detector.
products and brings the temperature of the plume closer to The use of exploratory smoke tests to identify the optimum
that of the surrounding air. If the temperature of the positions for detectors in ventilated areas is recommended.
surrounding air rises with height, then it is possible for the Consideration should also be given to the detection of fires
plume to be so cooled in the lower part of the room height which might occur when the ventilation i s turned off.
that it is cooler than the higher air. The plume will then
12.2.17 Remote indication of operation. I f a detector is
spread out to forma smoke layer before it reaches the
concealed, for example in a void, then it may be desirable
ceiling, and will thus not operate ceiling mounted detectors.
to provide a remote indication of its operation. I f necessary
In general, the temperature variation with height in a room a label should be provided a t the indicator to show the
has i t s greatest gradient a t the height a t which most of the location of the detector.
heat is fed into the room. Convection from the room
heaters tends to stir the air above the heaters, bringing it to 12.2.18 Additional detectors. The use to which any room,
a roughly constant temperature, while the air below the space, area or void is to be put, or its structural features,
heaters remains cool. The most likely height for smoke may necessitate the installation of detectors additional to
stratification to occur is therefore the level of the room those otherwise recommended.
heaters. 12.2.19 Adverse environments. Where possible, detectors
If the room heaters are a t low level, then the fire plume is should not be mounted in places where they are subjected
unlikely t o be significantly cooled before reaching the to local adverse environmental conditions, e.g. on a
heater level, and thus is likely to rise through the heater machine producing high levels of vibration, shock or
level without stratifyipg. If the room heaters are a t high pollution. I f it is not possible to avoid such conditions,
level, however, smoke stratification is likely to occur a t or if the adverse environment is general in the area, then
about the heater level. It should be remembered that the the manufacturer should be consulted.
heat input tothe room may not be confined to the main
room heaters; solar heating of the roof or heating by 12.3 Additional recommendations for siting of heat-
ceiling-level hot water pipes can be very effective in causing sensitive detectors
stratification.
12.3.1 Rapidly changing ambient temperatures. Where
Because of the variables associated with different heating sudden changes in temperature are likely, e.g. in kitchens,
patterns, it is usually difficult to predict withcertainty the boiler houses, furnace or kiln rooms, the risk of false alarms
level a t which stratification will occur. I f detectors are caused by rapidly rising temperatures should be minimized
mounted a t an expected stratification level, and stratific- by the use of heat detectors without a rate-of-rise element.
ation does not occur or occurs a t a higher level than the Such circumstances should be the subject of consultation
detectors, then detection may be dangerously delayed. with interested parties.
COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards
Licensed by Information Handling Services 21
BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988
Section two

12.3.2 High temperatures. Where ambient temperatures stratification of the smoke. To avoid this further reduction
are likely to exceed 43 "C, e.g. in kitchens, boiler houses, it may be necessary to install a smoke detector near each
furnace or kiln rooms, the nominal operating temperature of the extract points.
of a heat detector may need to be greater than that In order t o avoid the effects of air turbulence, smoke
permitted by BS 5445 : Part 5. In such cases a heat detector detectors or probes should be installed in a straight stretch
complying with BS 5445 : Part 8 should be used. The of ducting, a t a distance from the nearest bend, corner or
nominal operating temperature should not exceed the junction of a t least three times the width of the ducting.
expected maximum ambient temperature by more than
30 "C. Such circumstances should also be the subject of If placed in high or variable speed air flows, some designs
consultation with interested parties. of smoke detector may malfunction, either by failure t o
give an alarm or by giving false alarms. Manufacturers of
12.3.3 Heat-sensitive line defectors. Heat-sensitive line such detectors will usually provide ancillary sampling tubes
detectors may be particularly suitable for protecting items or windshields, and these should be installed where
of plant or cabling. When used for these purposes, the necessary. Aspirating or air sampling detection systems in
detector should be mounted as close as possible t o the which air is drawn into the sampling point a t a controlled
place where fire or overheating might occur, and either be rate by a pump are generally independent of the rate of air
mounted above the risk or in thermal contact with it. flow near the sampling point, and may offer significant
advantages over conventional smoke detectors where the
12.4 Additional recommendations for siting smoke air speed in the duct is likely tovary widely.
detectors
12.4.1 General. Among other factors that can establish 12.4.3 Optical beam smoke detectors. Optical beam smoke
detectors should be installed in accordance with the
temporary or permanent conditions having an effect on the
siting of smoke detectors are the following: manufacturer's instructions, with not more than 3 m of the
beam within 500 mm of any wall or partition. Those parts
(a) the various forms of fan-assisted overhead heating;
of the beam within 500 mm of the beam's transmitter,
(b) air-cooled equipment with the exhaust air blowing receiver or reflector(s) need not be counted in the 3 m
out into the room or factory area; restriction.
(c) ambient air currents which may cause false alarms Because of the uncertainty in the position of a fire within
or inhibit correct operation; the beam length, the maximum length of the area protected
(d) roofs or ceilings of unusual shape or special by a single optical beam smoke detector should not exceed
construction, deep beams or smoke curtains; 100 m. Within this limitation the manufacturer's
( e ) lofty buildings, e.g. buildings with ceiling heights recommendations on beam length should be followed.
exceeding 10 m; If there is a probability of people walking in the area of the
( f ) stairways; beam, then the beam should be a t least 2.7 m above the
( g ) rooms with cooking equipment; floor.
(h) some boiler rooms and plant rooms; Where optical beam smoke detectors are used in roof void
areas having droppable smoke curtains, the beams should
(i) areas where vehicles powered by internal combustion
be so arranged that they are not broken by the smoke
engines (particularly those with overhead or vertical
curtains when they are dropped.
exhaust outlets) may be used.
12.4.2 Smoke detectors in ventilation ducts. Smoke 12.5 Recommendations for siting of flame detectors
detectors may be sited to monitorsmoke within ventilation Some types of flame detector respond to the instantaneous
extract ducts. In general such detectors are intended t o level of radiation received, while others depend on the level
assist in the prevention of spread of smoke by the received over a period. In either case the response will
ventilation system, by allowing any recirculation to be depend on the distance between the flame detector and the
shut off in the event of a fire. fire, since the radiation level received i s inversely propor-
Although they may be connected to the fire alarm system, tional t o the square of this distance. Increased distance
these smoke detectors should not normally be considered from the fire to the flame detector will therefore lead t o
as constituting on their own a satisfactory fire detection an increase in the size of the fire a t detection. Advice on
system. The dilution caused by the extraction of clean air the maximum spacings to be used should be sought from
together with smoke reduces the effectiveness of duct- the manufacturer.
mounted smoke detectors as a general fire detection and A clear line-of-sight to the area being protected is preferred.
alarm system, and if the air-handling equipment is switched Reflected radiation of sufficient intensity can actuate a
off the smoke detectors will be unable to obtain the air
flame detector, but the use of reflected radiation will
samples necessary for satisfactory operation. significantly increase the fire size a t detection, Where
Where the air from several extract points is combined into possible, flame detectors should be sited to avoid a direct
one duct the effectiveness of a smoke detector in the line-of-sight to likely sources of non-fire radiation which
combined duct may be further reduced by dilution or might cause false alarms.

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services
BS 5839: Part 1 : 1988
Section two

13 Detectorsinstalledprimarilyforlife 13.2.2 Protection of escape routes. The first level of


protection is a type L3 system. This should give warning
safety (type L) t o the occupants in time for those not already directly
affected by the fire t o use the escape routes.
13.1 Manual systems
It will not be sufficient simply to have automatic fire
In the event of a fire in a building, those people who are a t
detectors on the escape routes, since by the stage a t which
risk can be made safe either by escaping from the fire, or these detectors would operate the fire may be spreading
by the fire being extinguished. Neither of these methods rapidly, or the escape routes near the fire may already be
can be used until people are made aware of the fire. T o this blocked by smoke. For the protection of escape routes it
end, most premises (except domestic dwellings) should be
provided with some means of giving the occupants warning
in case of fire. In some very small premises simple hand-
operated devices such as hand bells or gongs may be
will therefore also be necessary to install detectors in
adjoining rooms.
13.2.3 Protection of vulnerable areas. The second level of
A
sufficient. However, in most other premises a more protection is a type L2 system, requiring the installation
sophisticated alarm system will be necessary, able t o be of detectors in those parts of the premises where the most
vulnerable people are likely t o be, or where the most
heard throughout the premises and perhaps incorporating
dangerous fires are likely to start, as well as for the
automatic fire detection.
protection of escape routes. The specification of the system
The effectiveness of an alarm system depends on the stage
should define those areas to be covered.
of the fire a t which it is operated. I f the alarm can be
sounded before the fire has affected the means of escape 13.2.4 Total coverage. The third level of protection
then, except perhaps for those caught in the earlier stages requires fire detection in all parts of the premises. Such a
of the fire, i t should be possible for all the occupants t o system is a type L1 system, and gives the maximum degree
escape without too much difficulty. An earlier alarm may of improvement in safety that can be achieved by a fire
help even those who may be close to the site of ignition; detection system.
a later one may render escape difficult or impossible.
A type M system, operated by manual call points only, 13.3 Choice of fire detectors
may be all that is needed in the following circumstances: 13.3.1 General. The general considerations of 11.5 apply.
(a) if there are likely to be alert (and preferably trained) Detectors installed for purposes of life safety will usually
people about near the site of ignition; and be of the smoke-sensitive type, although heat-sensitive

$A
(b) ifthe normal occupants of the building are likely t o types may be used for some purposes.
be able to escape a t a reasonable rate without assistance;
. 13.3.2 Point nd beam type smoke-sensitivedetectors.
and 'l-hcse should cornply with BS 5839 : Part 5 BS 5445 : Part 7
,or, for residential premises only, BS 5446 : Part 1 (other tlla
(c) if the escape routes are adequately protected by
self-containedsmoke alarms).
structural means from the spread of a fire or i t s products, 13.3.3 Heat-sensitive detectors. These should comply with
or alternative escape routes will always be available. BS 5445 : Part 5 or, in special cases, BS 5445 : Part 8
(see 11.5.2).
13.2 Automatic detection
13.2.1 General. In circumstances where a particularly early 18.4 Siting and spacing
warning of fire is necessary for the safety of life, automatic In those areas where detectors are installed for liYe
fire detectors should be installed. They should never be protection, the siting, spacing and m a coverage of
considered as sufficient on their own, however, but should detectors shouldbe generally as recommended in clause 12,
be used t o complement a manually operated fire alarm modified as recommended in 13.6 to 13.7. In corridors,
the increased distance allowed in 12.2.8 should only be
system. For example, the installation of automatic
applied if smokedetectors
ar3
sited in all rooms
detectors may be required in order to compensate for a
opening onto the.corridors, Additional suitably sited detectors
reduction, or low level, of supervision, either permanently
may be necessary to actuate fire protection devices ancillary
or a t certain times; to compensate for a special vulnerability to the fire alarm system, such as extinguishing systems Or doo'
of the usual occupants, for example, illness, age or closers.
unfamiliarity with the building: or to improve safety where
i t is impracticable to provide the degree of structural 13.5 Type L3 systems: protection of escape routes
separation that would normally be desirable t o prevent 13.5.1 General. A type L3 system should be so designed
spread of heat or smoke. Fire detectors may also be that in any fire an alarm is given a t a sufficiently early stage
installed in any other instance where an improved level of t o allow time for the escape routes t o be used before they
protection is desired. The extent of protection (see 3.3) are blocked by smoke. The latest time by which the alarm
required in any premises should be decided in the should have been given depends on the layout of the
consultations described in clause 4. The extent of building and on the abilities of the occupants t o respond
protection may be considered a t three levels: protection to an emergency. To give satisfactory protection of the
of escape routes; protection of vulnerable areas (including
escape routes): and total coverage.
escape routes, detectors should be installed both on the
escape routes and in rooms.opunlngonto the esc ao^! routes' A
COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards
Licensed by Information Handling Services 23
S T D D B S I BS 5837: P A R T L-ENGL L988 m L b 2 4 b b 7 0734737 L7T m
BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988
Section two

13.5.2 Detection in escape routes. In general the escape protection to the lift well, for example by a heat-sensttive
routes should be the normal clrculation areas within the line detector alongside the l i f t main supply cables, or by an
building, .e. the normal routes by which people move optical beam detector with a vertical beam.
round the building. In some cases a circulation area may Detectors may be necessary in dormitories (see 13.6.3).
be the only escape route avallable, for example, corridors
ogtside bedrooms. Escape through such a route would be 13.6 Type L2 systems: vulnerable areas
immediately made less likely by smoke penetrating from
13.6.1 Escape routes. In general, the most vulnerable areas
an adjacent area. Some parts of escape routes rnay fall
in any building are the circulation areas, since once these
outside the normal circulation areas, such as where an
are blocked it will be difficult for the occupants to carry
escape route leads through a room. A i l such routes should
out any of the preplanned actions of the fire routine. Hence
be treated as escape routes.
the first step in any type L2 system should be to comply
The basic provlsion of a type L3 system is the siting of with the recommendations for a type L3 system for escape
smoke detectors in all escape routes and circulation areas. route protection (see 13.5).
Further smoke detectors should be sited or1 the ceiling a t
the top of any stairway, and on landing ceilings such that 13.6.2 Other areas, In addition to the escape routes, the
the vertical distance between adjacent detectors does not other areas t o be protected will normally fall into the
exceed 10.5 m. Any points a t which ceilings below escape following two classes:
routes are penetrated ( f o l instance, by shafts for lifts or (a) those areas in which the normal occupants are
hoists) should have detectors sited as recommended especially vulnerable to fire starting in their vicinity; and
in 12.2.12. (b) those areas having a particularly high probability of
Heat detectors are unsuitable for use in escape routes ignition and from which fire or fire products could
because, in a slow-burning fire, the temperature required spread t o affect the building occ'Jpants.
to operate them may only be reached after the smoke The areas t o be protected should be decided during the
density in the escape routes has reached an intolerable level. consultations described in clause 4, and should be clearly
13.5.3 Detection in areas other than escape routes. A fire laid down in the system specification. Advice on the
which occurs in any room or enclosure and which i s allowed protection of specific areas is given in 13.6.3 to 13.6.7,
to develop will eventually affect adjoining escape routes. but all areas of the building should be considered when
In particular, passage of hot fire gases through a door crack deciding where detectors should be sited. If detectors are
can produce smoke sufficiently dense and cool for a installed for the protection of a room's occupants, then
corridor t o become smoke-logged before adequate warning smoke detectors should be used; if they are installed in
can be given by detectors in the corridor. For earlier order t o give warning of fire before i t spreads t o other areas
detection of fire, a detector (either heat- or smoke-sensitive) of the building, then either smoke or heat detectors may
should be fitted within the room. For this purpose the be used.
detector can be mounted near the doorway, either on the 13.6.3 Sleepingaccommodation. Any fire starting in a
ceiling or on the wall above door level; it need not be sited room immediately hazards all the room's occupants. I f a
as recommended in clause 12. The need for detectors in fire is likely to start in a room where the occupants are
rooms should form pzrt nf the consultations of clause 4. asleep, and there is no wakeful watch on the room, then
A detector (either heat or smoke) should be sited in each the recommendations of 12.2 and 12.4 should be followed
room (other than a tollet) that opens directly onto any for the siting of smoke detectors in the room. The detectors
stairway. chosen should be capable of giving sufficiently early
The absence of structural separation is not always apparent, warning of smouldering or slow-burning fires to prevent
and paths by which smoke and heat rnay travel are sleeping occupants from being overcome (see 11.5.3).
sometimes evident only from a detailed study of the Both the probability of ignition and the number of people
construction. In some circumstances a fire in a room, if affected will increase with the number of room occupants;
allowed t o develop, may affect adjoining escape routes by if the number of occupants is such that it constitutes a
means of penetration other than a t the door opening, e.g. dormitory (even though it may be partltioned into cubicles)
by wall cavities and ceiling or roof voids. Particular note then the installation of smoke detectors may be essential
should be taken of possible fire spread through uncompart- for the protection of the occupants and should be
mented roof spaces. Where the possibility of fire spread is considered even in a type L3 system.
not eliminated by structural means, detectors should be
13.6.4 Day accommodation. I n rooms not intended for
sited either in the areas where fire might s t a r t or in the
sleeping accommodation the safety of the room occupants
areas through which the fire products might reach the
will rarely justify the installation of fire detectors. However,
escape routes. Where detectors are hidden the use of remote
i t should be realized that in some types of premises (such as
indicators as described in 12.2.17 should be considered.
old persons homes) people using a day lounge will
Fires starting in lifts or lift wells rnay develop and allow frequently be asleep, and such rooms may need t o be
smoke to move into lift and stair lobbies before any smoke treated as sleeping accommodation. Smoke detection
reaches detectors a t the top of the l i f t well. Particularly should also be considered where the room occupants will
where the l i f t main supply cables are run inside a lift well, have difficulty in raising an alarm or Feed assistance in
consideration should be given t o providing additional escaping from a fire.

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services 24-
BS 5839: Part 1 : 1988
Section two

Fires starting in day accommodation may grow while the (e) electrical transients or radio interference;
room i s unoccupied until they endanger people elsewhere ( f ) inadequate servicing;
in the building. Where the fire separation between the (9) the build-up of dust or dirt within a detector, or the
room and the remainder of the building is such that a entry of insects;
dangerous spread of fire or fire products could occur, (h) change of use or changes within the building;
then either heat or smqke detectors should be installed
(i) accidental or malicious operation of manual call
in the room.
points or detectors.
13.6.5 Store rooms. Detectors need only be installed in
Installations which are the subject of a series of false alarms
store rooms where structural separation is insufficient t o
should be referred to the Installer andior system designer
protect against spread of fire t o other places in the building;
(see 29.3.3). Where the fire alarm system raises persistent
it is unlikely that detection will be required to protect any
false alarms during normal working hours the provision of
people who might be in the store room.
a time related system may be considered (see 14.6).
13.6.6 Kitchens. Fires starting in kitchens are unlikely to The action to be taken by the user after a false alarm is
hazard normally active occupants of the kitchen, but may given in 29.3.
hazard occupants of the remainder of the building. Smoke
detectors should not be used in kitchens; where detection 44.2 Heatdetectors
is considered necessary, heat detectors should be used.
False alarms may be caused by abnormal increases in
13.6.7 Service ducts. Where service ducts are large enough temperature due to space heating equipment, industrial
t o be regularly entered, for instance for maintenance processes or sunshine. They may be prevented by installing
purposes, then consideration shuld be given t o the safety detectors with appropriate higher temperature settings, or,
of persons who might be in the duct when a fire starts. in the case of direct sunlight, by introducing an appropriate
Such consideration should include the following: shade. Where these conditions are likely, the recommend-
(a) the installation of detectors in the duct in case of ations of 12.3.1 and 12.3.2 should be followed.
fire starting in the duct; False alarms from rate-of-rise heat detectors may also be
(b) the souPd level given in the duct by the general caused by a rapid temperature increase t o normal room
alarm; conditions following exposure io low temperatures. Such a
(c) the means of escape for persons in the duct. sequence may occur, for instance, in a loading bay with
large doors to the outside;while the doors are open the
detector may be exposed t o winter conditions, followed by
(12
13.7 Type L1 systems: total coverage
rapid heating when the doors are closed. I f such conditions
Where a total cover system is installed, detectors should be
are likely, then detectors without a rate-of-rise response
sited in all areas of the building generally following the
recommendations of 12.2. In those areas where fire would should beused.
have a direct effect on the occupants or their escape routes,
smoke detectors should be installed. Where fire would only 14.3 Smoke detectors
affect the occupants or the escape routes after fire spread False alarms signalled by smoke detectors may be caused
has occurred beyond the room of origin, either heat or by smoke and other fumes, dusts (including slow
smoke detectors may be installed. accumulations of dust and disturbed aerial dusts), fibres,
steam or condensation; all these may be due to normal
processes or activities or to unusual extremes of the
environment. Insect infestation may be a significant
14 False alarms
problem in the late summer period.
Optical beam smoke detectors will often give false alarms
14.1 General
if the beam is accidentally obstructed; apart from those
I t is essential that the utmost care should be taken by obstructions due t o human activities, obstructions due t o
system designers, installers and users t o reduce the
perching by birds or by bats have been reported. Some types
incidence of false alarms. Common causes of false alarms of beam detectors may give false alarms when subjected t o
include the following: bright sunlight or intense light sources such as photographic
(a) mechanical and electrical faults, often resulting from flash-guns.
the effects of vibration, impact or corrosion;
Ionization chamber smoke detectors are highly sensitive to
(b) ambient conditions such as heat, smoke or flame smokes made up of very small particles, including diesel
from cooking or work processes, fumes from engine exhaust and fumes from self-cleaning ovens. Some types
exhausts, or high air velocities due t o strong winds are sensitive t o high air speeds and may give false alarms
outside the building; if mounted in windy situations. Because of the very low
(c) work being carried out in a protected area without currents used in the ionization chambers, high humidities
knowledge of, or in neglect of, the necessary precautions; may cause problems, particularly if the detectors have
(d) communication faults arising from servicing or previously been contaminated by hygrophilic contaminants.
testing work carried out without prior notification to
the fire brigade or central alarm station, or arising from
activities of the public telecommunications operator;
BEST COPY AVAILABLE
COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards
Licensed by Information Handling Services 25
BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988
Section two

that where such systems are employed, their type


classification (see clause 3 ) may change with the time of day.
Instances of where time related systems might be employed
14.4 Flame detectors include the following:
(a) schools;
Ultraviolet flame detectors sense the ultraviolet radiation
emitted by flames. They are liable t o respond t o sources (b) hotels, boarding houses and other residential premises:
such as lightning, ionizing radiation, ultraviolet lamps and (c) factory and commercial premises that are active for
quartz-halogen lamps unless the detection system can only part of the day.
discriminate between various sources, but they do not A few examples of time related systems are listed below.
respond to sunlight. (The component of solar ultraviolet ( 1 ) In an analogue detector system it might be possible to
to which detectors would respond is filtered out by the increase the alarm thresholds (.e. decrease the sensitivity
high-altitude ozone layer of the earth's atmosphere.) The of the system to fire)during workinghours. Outside
effect of transient signals, e.g. those caused by electric working hours the threshold might be reduced (.e. the
storms, may be eliminated by an integrating circuit. Known sensitivity increased).
sources of ultraviolet light should be screened from the (2) Heat detectors employedduring working hourscould be
detector, taking care that the screen does not also obscure supplemented by smoke detectors outsideworking hours.
likely sites for fire. Ordinary window glass will screen (3) During working hours the system could be so arranged
ultraviolet radiation. that initiation of the alarm condition by automatic detec-
Most infra-red flame detectors operate by detecting the tors does not immediately result in the sounding of the
flickering component of the infra-red radiation from a fire. alarm of fire: a responsible person would be alerted to
investigate the alarm, although the alarm soundersmight be
This type of detector should be insensitive t o steady infra-
automatically sounded after a preset period. However, the
red sources such as very hot objects or sunlight, but may
,sounders should sound immediatelyin response to any
be operated if this steady light becomes modulated by, manual operation.
for example, moving tree branches or the blades of a fan.
(4) As a last resort, the system could be switched to manual
I n order to reduce the possibility of false alarms, some detection during working hours, and be switched back to
types of infra-red flame detector improve the discrimination automatic detection outside working hours.
between flames and other sources, e.g. sunlight, by the use .Switching to the more sensitive form of detection should
of techniques such as the use of long wavelengths or of one
not rely on human action or discretion; it should be an
or more specific infra-red wavelengths emitted by flames.
entirely automatic procedure a t a predetermined time.
Other techniques such as combining infra-red and ultra- The risk of false alarms is deemed, in this instance, t o be
violet sensing can be used. Types of detector using these subordinate t o the need to guarantee the required level of
and similar techniques are unlikely t o suffer from the false protection outside working hours. No automatic switching
alarm problems associated with some older types of flame devices should be readily accessible to the system user,
detector. although in places like a hotel bar it is permissible t o delay
the change t o the more sensitive state by a manual switch
14.5 Addressablesystems operation. Repeated switch operations may be used to
A two-state addressable system may have a false alarm .extend the delay, but the delay should not extend more
potential of the same order as a conventional system. than 45 min after the last operation of the switch. I n
A multi-state addressable system may provide advance commercial premises it may sometimes be acceptable for
information of impending problems. Providing this the automatic changeover t o occur when the main access
information is acted on, it could make a significant door is closed and locked for the night.
reduction in certain categories of false alarm. Weekends should be pre-programmed into the system time
A n analogue detector system in which a central micro- switch. The procedures for dealing with public and works
processor compares the incoming data against several holidays and with time changes t o and from British Summer
predetermined threshold levels is likely to have a false Time should be clearly understood by the user, so that the
alarm level similar t o that of a multi-state detector system. correct degree of cover is available a t all times. A manual
However, the ability t o compare outputs from a number of override switch, on or adjacent t o the control equipment,
detectors in the same general area, or from one detector should be available t o allow full cover to be provided during
against its own past history, may allow a further reduction periods when the building is unexpectedly unoccupied.
in the incidence of false alarms. The override switch should not be capable of switching the
full cover t o the restricted cover, and the system design
14.6 Time related systems should not permit the action of this switch t o be
Where human or industrial activity during working or temporarily or permanently cancelled by any automatic
wakeful hours could result in false alarms, particularly function.
where the presence and behaviour patterns of people make A n indicator light on or adjacent to the control and
i t unlikely that a fire would go undetected by human agency, indicating equipment should show whether the system is
it may be useful t o consider a time related, dual sensitivity switched to the working or silent hours state.
system. Various options are available and each should be
considered in the light of the fire risk and type of occupancy. 14.7 Transmission delay units
No such options, for either new or existing systems, should In some (but notall) circumstances where there is a high
be implemented until agreement has been reached under the incidence of false alarms which cannot be reduced by other
procedures outlined in clause 4. It should be borne in mind measures, it may be desirable t o delay the automatic

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services
BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988
Section two

transmission of an alarm to the fire brigade for a sufficient


time to allow the alarm to be investigated. For this purpose
the incorporation of a transmission signal delay unit may
be considered.
A transmission delay unit should not be incorporated into
a fire alarm system unless the responsible person is satisfied
t h a t all other reasonable measures have been taken to
prevent false alarms of fire, that the unit would not
prejudice the level of fire precautionswithin the protected
premises, t h a t the delay will only be used when staff are
available to investigate the cause of the alarm, and that
both the proposedunit and the arrangements for its use are
acceptable to the fire insurer and the fire brigade. I n many
applications rapid attendance by the fire brigadeis essential,
and in such cases t h e use of transmission delay units will
not be acceptable. Even where rapid attendance by the fire
brigade is not essential, the total possible delay should be
related to the expected attendance time. Transmission
delay units are unlikely to be acceptable in certain
applications such as hospitals or residential care premises
or where there are special evacuatior. difficulties.
If a transmission signal delayunit is fitted, then the normal
sequence of even-ts in the event of an alarm should be as
follows.
(a) If the alarm is raised by a manual call point, then t h e 15 Control equipment
normal functions of the system in both sounding the
internal alarm and transmission of t h e alarm to the
15.1 General
remote manned centre should continuewithout delay
(.e. the transmission signal delay unit should not Control and indicating equipment may comprise equipment
operate). for the reception, indication, control and relaying of signals
originating from detectors or ca!l points connected to it,
(b) If the alarm is initiated by an automatic detector,
then the internal alarmsshouldsound without delay.
The call to the fire brigade or remote manned centre may
' and for the activation of alarm sounders and alarm signalling
devices.
be delayed for an initial period not exceeding 2 min.
15.2 Choice of equipment
LJniess agreement has been reached to delay the sounding
of the fire alarm on initia *ion of the fire condition by 15.2.1 Automatic systems. Control and indicating
ammatic detectors (see item (3) cut 74.6) equipment for automatic fire alarm systems should comply
with BS 5839 : Part 4". If manual call points are t o be
(c) If during t h e initial delay period described in
incorporated in an automatic system, then the control and
item (b) a manual operation is pelformed a t th3 conttol
'indicating equipment should be such that the response'of
equipment indicating that an investigation is in
alarm sounders meets the recommendations of 50.1.
progress, then the alarm may be delayed for a further
period, not exceeding 6 min fromthe manual operation, 15.2.2 Manual systems (type M). Control and indicating
subject to agreement with interested parties. equipment for manual systems should comply with
(d) I f during anydelay period the alarm ir found to be BS 5839 : Part 4". However, if the area covered by a
a real fire, then a manual operation atthe control panel manual system could fall within the limits of a single zone
or the operation of a manual call point should cause an under t h e recommendations of 7.2, irrespective of how
immediate transmission of the alarm. many zones are actually used, then control and indicating
and snould sound thefire alarm if not sounded immediately equipment complying with all the recommendations of
on initiation of the alarm condition (see item (bll'. appendix G may be acceptable subject t o the approval o f
the appropriate authority.
(e) I f the alarm can be shown to be false; with noactual 15*2.3 FaCjheS. The facilities provided by the con&ol
fire, then the internal alarms should be silenced, a note equipment~hould meet any special requirementsfor the
made of any indication which might throw light on the premises; in Particular, they should satisfy the requirements
origin of the alarm, and the system should be reset. defined in 4.2 for action in the event of an alarmof fire.
Resetting of the system shouldinhibit transmission of
the alarm unlesr the system again goes into the alarm
state. 16.3 Siting
A transmission signal delayunit should normally act only
on alarms rising from automatic detectors.It should not 16.3.1 Availability to staff. In resrdential premises the
delay or prevent the transmission of alarms arising from members of s t a f f on duty will be the first to require the
information given by the indicating oquipment,
manual call points, and it should not delay or otherwise
particularly that indicating the zone affected, and i t is
affect the operation of audible or visual alarms or any other '
important that the equipment shouldbe sited with this
part of the lire alarm system. The period of delay should
in mind.

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services
'2
STD.BS1 B S 5839: P A R T L-ENGL L988 m L b 2 4 b b 90 7 3 4 9 2 3 bTO m
BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988
Section two

of the entrance to the building likely tobe used by the fire the sector to show the zone of origin. Except in small
brigade. If different entrances may be used by the fire premises, a display giving only the identification of
brigade, perhaps a t different times of day, then it may be individual detectors maybe difficult to interpret, and could
necessary to provide repeated indications a t other points of lead t o difficulties inassessing the spread of fire or the
entry. The fire brigade should be consulted on the occurrence of secondary fires. Such a display, if provided,
positioning of the equipment and on the diagrammatic should be subsidiary t o the main zonal display.
representation of the building (see 15.4.3). 15.4.3 Methodof indication. The method of indication
15.3.3 Light level. The ambient light level in the vicinity should be developed to match the extent of the premises.
of the control and indicating equipment should be such Many variations are possible and desirable to meet different
that any visual indications can be clearly seen, and any situations. The method used should ensure rapid location
instructions for use be easily read. Where necessary, of the fire, and should enable decisions t o be made as t o
additional lighting should be provided. This may be which parts (usually fire compartments) need to be
operated from the fire alarm supply, provided that in the evacuated. Where one fire compartment is split intoseveral
event of mains failure it is lit only in the fire condition and zones, the indication should preferably show the absence
that the additional load is calculated as part of the alarm of fire separation between those zones.
load of 16.4. The location may be shown by one or more of the
15.3.4 Sound level. The sound level in the vicinity of the following.
control and indicating equipment should not be such as t o (a) A display of letters and/or numbers, together with a
prevent the audible indications (such as the fault warning suitable key (which may be a plan of the building).
sounder) from being heard. (b) A permanent mimic diagram.
15.3.5 Fire risk. Control and indicating equipment should (c) A display of a mimic diagram on a visual display unit
be sited in areas of low fire risk, so that the equipment is (VDU). Because the reliability of a VDU is considered
unlikely to be involved in a fire before adequate warning suspect, a back-up provision should be made which may
has been given. I f the system uses automatic detectors, take the form of (a) or (b), a second VDU or a printer.
then the area in which the control unit is sited should be Where a display depends on one or more VDUs, failure
covered by the detection system. of a single VDU should not prevent location of the fire
source.
15.3.6 Mu/tip/e.occupation (X). In a building in multiple
(d) By other suitable means.
occupation it is essential that the siting of the control and
indicating equipment is agreed between the occupants, NOTE. Printers are not considered suitable as a primary indication,
since in the event of ink, ribbon or paper being exhausted the
and that access t o the equipment is available t o all the indication will be lost. They may, however, be acceptable as a
occupancies. This is usually most easily achieved by siting back-up to another display.
the equipment in an area of common use, such as an On or adjacent t o the control and indicating equipment
entrance hall. should be a diagrammatic representation of the building,
15.3.7 Externalsiting. If it is necessary for practical showing a t least the building entrances, the circulation
reasons to mount the control and indicating equipment areas and escape routes, and the division into zones. Where
outside the building, then adequate precautions should be this is not provided by the display of (a) to (d) above,
taken t o protect the equipment from the effects of weather. a correctly oriented plan of the premises should be
Similar precautions may be necessary if the equipment has displayed.
to be installed in a severe environment within a building. 15.4.4 Power. Any power required for a display should be
derived from the fire alarm system power supply and should
15.4 indication of origin of alarms
be taken into account when assessing the capacity of the
15.4.1 Purpose. Except in buildings where a fire can be power supply.
located without delay, the fire alarm system should
indicate the origin of the alarm. The indications should be 15.5 Security
such that they can be easily, quickly and unambiguously The operation of all manual controls and isolating devices
related to the position in the building from which the alarm should be limited t o authorized personnel. Where this
has originated. They should be clear both t o staff who may limitation is not provided on the control equipment (for
have to assist in evacuation or fire-fighting, and to fire instance, by the use of a key switch), then it may be
brigade personnel. provided by restricting access t o the equipment by the use
15.4.2 Indications. The primary indication of the origin of of a lock, a key-operated switch or, in a disciplined
the alarm should bean indication of the zone of origin environment, by the use of a list of authorized personnel.
(see clause 7). In very large premises a graded series of Where controls need t o be operated during a fire, access
displays may be needed, with a central indicator panel should not be controlled by a keyboard-entered code.
specifying the sector of origin, and a further panel within

BEST COPY AVAILABLE


COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards
28
Licensed by Information Handling Services
STD.BS1 BS 5837: PART L-ENGL 1788 m Lb24bb9 0734922 537 m
BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988
Section two

16 Power supplies An additional warning label should be provided, depending


on whether the isolating protective device is fed fromthe
live side or the dead side of the main isolating device. If fed
16.1 General
from the live side, the label on the isolating protective
The vast majority of fire alarm systems rely for their device for the fire alarm system should read in addition:
operation on electrical power. No source of electrical power 'Warning: this supply remains alive when the main switch is
is totally reliable; every source will a t some time fail, even turned off' and a label should be placed on the main
if only fora limited period. The general principle on which isolating device reading 'Warning: the fire alarm supply
the requirements for fire alarm power supplies are based is remains alive when this switch is turned off'. If fed from
that the reliability with whicha fire alarm system responds the dead side, a label should be fixed t o the main isolating
to a fire should as far as possible be unaffected by the device reading 'Warning: this switch also controls the supply
unreliability of i t s main supply source. To this end, in all t o the fire alarm system'.
but very simple manual alarm systems, the main supply
The design of the system should ensure that residual current
should be backed up by a standby supply able to support
devices are not necessary as a preventive measure against
the system while the mainsupply is corrected. In general,
electric shock. However, in some cases the provision of
a sufficiently high reliability is given by a normal supply
from the public mains, backed up by an automatically such devices has been required as a condition of supply to
connected battery-powered standby supply in case of main the building; in such cases the protection should be so
arranged that interruption of the general building supply
supply failure.
in response t o a fault on the general wiring does not
The duration and power required from the standby supply
result in interruption of the fire alarm supply.
will depend on the purposes of the system, the extent of
the facilities and the method of monitoringthe normal It is important that the electricity supply t o the fire alarm
supply. In most cases, standby supplies complying with 16.3 system should be so arranged that continuity of supply i s
and 16.5 will be satisfactory, but there may be cases in ensured. Particular care should be taken where it is the
which greater capacities would be required, for example practice t o switch off the supply t o the premises, for
premises in remote areas where more than 24 h might be example, during maintenance of equipment, when
needed t o locate and repair a fault in the main supply. unoccupied, or for economy in the consumption of
electricity. The electrical design should ensure that such
If provision is made for a normal supply and a standby
supply, then each should be capable of supplying the switching off of the power supply does not cause failure of
largest load t o be placed on it under normal, fire and fault the fire alarm system during the period of isolation (except
conditions. Care should be taken in the design of the power possibly in unoccupied premises provided with a simple
supply to ensure continuity of supply t o the fire alarm manual system).
system; transition between supplies should not cause In some systems more than one power supply unit may be
momentary interruptions. Where devices such as fuses are provided, .e. distributed power supplies. In such cases
fitted in order t o protect power supplies, the operation of failure or disconnection of the supply t o any individual
a single protective device should not interrupt bothpower unit should be indicated a t the main indicator panel as a
supplies and cause the system t o fail. fault. Any switch that can disconnect the power supplies
to all or part of the system should be coloured red and
The condition of the normal supply should be indicated by
labelled 'FIRE ALARM: DO NOT SWITCH OFF'.
a green lamp, l i t when the normal supply is on.
16.3 Types of power supply
16.2 Connection of a fire alarm system t o a public or
private power distribution supply 16.3.1 Normalsupply. The normal supply for the system
Any cable or apparatus directly connected to a public or should be derived from the public supply system,
private distribution supply should be in accordance with transformed or modified as necessary.
the current edition of the IEE Wiring Regulations Where no public supply system is available, privately
(Regulations for Electrical Installations, published by the generated power may be used. The possible frequency and
Institution of Electrical Engineers). Systems intended for duration of breaks in such supplies should be investigated
operation from public supplies should be suitable for and taken into account in assessing the necessary capacity
connection t o the following types of power supply systems of the standby supply.
in accordance with the IEE Wiring Regulations: 16.3.2 Standby supplies
TN-C, TN-S, TN-C-S, TT.
16.3.2.1 Secondary batteries. The most commonly used
Connections t o the mains supply should be via an isolating
type of standby supply is a secondary battery with an
protective device (e.9. an isolating switch-fuse) reserved
automatic charger. Where such a battery is used i t should
solely for the purpose, i t s cover coloured red and labelled
be of a type having a life of a t least 4 years under the
'FIRE ALARM: DO NOT SWITCH OFF'. The isolating
conditions of use likely to be experienced in the fire alarm
protective device should be secure from unauthorized
system. Automotive lead-acid batteries (e.g. the type
operation. I t may be desirable for the isolating protective
normally used for starting service in cars) are not generally
device t o be contained in a securely closed box with a
suitable for fire alarm service and should not be used.
frangible cover.

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services 29
STD-BSI BS 5839: PART L-ENGL L988 m Lb24669 0734923 473 W

B S 5839 : Part 1 : 1988


Section two

Because the life of the battery is frequently dependent on 16.4.3 Manual systems (type M}. The maximum alarm
i t s charging conditions, care should be taken that the load for a manual system is the power required t o operate
battery charger satisfies any requirements specified by the all the sounders simultaneously, together with any visible
battery supplier. Where replacement batteries or battery or audible indications a t the control and indicating
chargers are used, similar care should be taken to ensure equipment, any power drawn for the operation and/or
charging compatibility. Replacement cells should be indication of ancillary systems and the transmission of
compatible with the existing cells in both charge and signals t o remote manned centres. Because of the
discharge characteristics. The supplier of the system should possibility of the spread of fire products throughout the
specify a method of test that is likely to predict failure of building, the system should be able t o support the
the battery in the interval between routine tests. operation of manual call points in all zones.
Recommendations for battery capacities are given in 16.5.
The charging rate of the battery should be such that, having 16.5 Duration of the standby supply
been discharged to i t s final voltage, the battery canbe 16.5.1 Systems installed primarily for lifesafety (type L )
charged sufficiently t o comply with the recommendations
16.5.1.1 Purpose. In a system installed t o protect life,
of 16.5 after a charging period of 24 h.
the fire aiarm system should be in an operating condition
Recommendations for siting of batteries are given in 16.7. a t all times that people are present on the premises. The
16.3.2.2 Secondary batteries with standby generators. standby supply should have sufficient capacity to maintain
In some premises, in addition to supplies taken from the the necessary protection until the cause of the failure of
public mains, a generator is provided which generates power the normal supply has been investigated and the supply
continuously as part of the normal operation of the restored, or until other measures have been taken for the
building. I n other premises an emergency generator may be safety of the occupants. The type of standby supply
provided whlch should be automatically started on failure should comply with 16.3.2.
of the normal supply. Generators of either type may be 16.5.1.2 Supervisedsysrems. Premises in which the fire
used to replace partially the standby capacity alarm system will be supervised a t intervals of not more
recommended in 16.5.1 provided that in the event of failure than 12 h, or that have a link over which a warning of
of both the public mains supply and the locally generated failure of the normal supply can be given t o a remote
supply the normal operation of the building cannot manned centre, should have a standby supply capable of
continue unless a supply i s connected from some other maintaining the system in operation for a t least 24 h, after
source (such as a portable generator brought in for the which sufficient capacity should remain t o provide an
purpose). evacuation alarm in all zones for a t least 30 min.
16.5.1.3 Unsupervisedsystems. In premises not supervised
16.4 Maximum alarm load
as descl-bedin 16.5.1.2, the standby supply should be
16.4.1 General. The maximum alarm load is the maximum capable of automatically maintaining the system in normal
load imposed by the fire alarm system on a powet supply opetation for a pet-iod of not less than 24 h after the
under fire conditions. I t will include the power required t o detection of a fault in the normal supply and the initiation
operate the sounders, detectors, fault warning devices, of remedial action. I f the building is likely to be unoccupied
the illumination of 15.3.3 and any ancillary services and the fire alarm system unsupervised for periods longer
powered by the fire alarm system (see clause 191,etc. than 24 h, so that on reoccupation the standby supply
Normal and standby supplies should each be capable of could be exhausted and the system inoperable, then
supplying the maximum alarm load irrespective of the facilities should be provided t o give protection for a period
condition of the other supply. of a t least 24 h after reoccupation, with sufficient capacity
The load imposed on the power supply by the simultaneous a t the end of that time to sound an evacuatior, alarm i n all
operation of detectors and/or manual call points should not zones for a t least 30 min. These facilities may be manually
cause an existing fire alarm to cease. In systems using connected, e.g. a spare fully charged battery could be
microprocessors or stored programs, the imposition of the manually switched in.
maximum alarm load should not cause incorrect Operation. 16.5.1.4 Standby generators. I n systems using standby
16.4.2 Automatic systems (types L and P). The maximum generators (see 16.3.2.2), the initial 24 h standby
alarm load for an automatic system is the power required recommendations of 16.5.1.2 and 16.5.1.3 can be reduced
t o operate all the sounders simultaneously, together with to the period which would be required t o bring in and
any visible or audible indications a t the control and connect another source of power in the event of failure of
indicating equipment, any power drawn for the operation both mains supply and local generator. In general, a period
and/or indication of ancillary systems and the transmission of not less than 6 h should be allowed, after which
of signals to remote manned centres. Because of the sufficient capacity should remain t o provide an evacuation
possibility of the spread of fire products throughout the alarm in all zones for at least 30 min.
building, the system should be able t o support the t
maximum number of detectors that can simultaneously
give signals indicating fire, and the operation of manual
call points in all zones.

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services 30
S T D . B SB 1S 5 8 3 9 : P A R T 2-ENGL L988 Lb24bb9 0734924 3 0 T

BS 5839:Part 1 : 1988
Section two

16.5.2 Systems installed primarily to protect property should be separated so as t o prevent a fault on one system
(type PI from jeopardizing another. Where there is a risk of flooding,
precautions should be taken t o preven? flooding of the
16.5.2.1 Purpose. A system intended for property
battery room.
protection should provide correct operation a t all times,
but particularly when there are no people on the premises Care should be taken t o ensure that the structure can
t o provide manual detsctron. The standby supply should support the weight of all equipmevt.
have sufficient capacity to maintain the system in operation A battery room or cabinet should be secured against
until the fault i s discovered and corrective action taken. unauthorized admission and should display notices
The standby supply should normally consist of secondary indicating i t s purpose, the importance of not smoking and
batteries complying with 16.3.2.1. the need to use insulated tools and t o remove metallic
personal adornment (including wrist-watches with metal
16.5.2.2 Supervised systems. Continuously attended
bracelets) to avoid accidental short-circuits.
premises, or premises having a link to a remote manned
centre that can initiate action in the event of failure of the 16.7.2 Fire risk. To reduce the probability of the
normal supply, should have a standby supply capable of equipment being involved in a fire before adequate warning
maintaining the system in operation for a t least 24 h, after has been given, batteries and power supply equipment
which sufficient capacity should remain t o provide should be sited in areas of low fire risk. If the system uses
operation.of the alarm sounders for a t least 30 min. automatic detectors then the areas in which the equipment
16.5.2.3 Other systems. In premises other than those is sited should be covered by the detection system.
described in 16.5.2.2, the standby supply should be capable 16.7.3 Multiple occupancy buildings (X). If separate
of maintaining the system in operation for a t least 24 h occupancies with a common fire alarm system exist in a
longer than the maximum period for which the premises building, then arrangements should be made for the
are likely t o remain unattended, after which sufficient continuity of power supplies and for rectification of any
capacity should remain t o provide operation of the alarm failure. These arrangements may require equipment to be
sounders for a t least 30 min. sited in an area of common access.
I f unusually long unattended periods may occur, for
example during a long holiday, the duration of the standby
supply necessary to satisfy the recommendation above may 17 Cables, wiring and other
be reduced by arranging for regular inspections of the
premises a t intervals such that in the event of failure of the
interconnections
normal supply a t least 24 h standby supply capacity
17.1 General
remains a t the time of the next inspection. Thus if daily
inspections are made, and assuming that failure occurs The satisfactory operation of a fire alarm system depends
immediately after one inspection, it will take 24 h to detect very much on the interconnections between i t s components.
the fault, a t which time a further 24 h supply will remain; Unless these interconnections operate correctly when
hence a Total duration of 48 h will be needed. required a system will not fulfill i t s functions.
I t is essential that connections between detectors or call
16.6 Power supplies for manual systems (type M ) points and the control equipment are functioning correctly
Power supplies for manual systems should generally comply when a fire occurs. The control equipment should be able
with the recommendations of 16.1 t o 16.5. However, if the t o maintain the alarm without a continued signal from the
area covered by a manus! system could fall within the detector or call point, .e. destruction of the connection
limits of a single zone under the recommendations of 7.2 after the initial operation would not affect the sounding of
(othel- than item (f)), irrespective of how many zones are the alarm.
actually used, then power supplies complying with the Most connections, other than those t o detectors or call
recommendations of G.7 may be used subject t o the points, will be required to function correctly forsignificant
approval of the appropriate authority. The 'battery only' periods during a fire. Such connections include those by
supplies described in G.7(d) and (e) should only be used which power is supplied t o the control equipment, and
if public orprivate electricity mains are not available. those linking the control equipment t o the alarm sounders.
Where multicore cable, flexible cable or flexible cord are
16.7 Siting used for interconnections in fire ararm circuits, none of
16.7.1 Central batteries. Accommodation for central the conductors should be used for circuits other than those
batteries should comply with BS 6132 or BS 6133. of fire alarms.
I f unsealed secondary cells are used then provision should The components'of most fire detection and alarm systems
be made for adequate ventilation. For large battery are connected by cables and wiring but it is possible to
installations consideration should be given t o the provision connect by other means such as radio or fibreoptics. The
of a separate battery room or locked cabinet, preferably recommendations for radio-linked systems are given in
not containing any other services. The battery room or clause 18. Where fibre optic cables are used they should
locked cabinet may also accommodate batteries of a comply with 17.6, except item (d).
similar type used for other purposes, but in such cases all In practice no system can have total reliability, but one of
equipment and wiring associated with the different systems the objectives of good system design is to reduce the

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services 3\
BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988
Section two

probability of the system being inoperative in the area of a


fire when the fire starts. This probability has three elements:
the probability that a fault occurs, the amount of the
I n special cases, however, a longer period may be
required (for example in buildings with a 'two.s!aW
alarm system).
A
system it puts out of operation and the time taken from i t s (b) Applications in which prolonged operation duringa
occurrence to i t s repair (the 'down time'). fire is not required. Cables which are not required t o
The probability of an interconnection fault can be reduced continue for appreciable periods after the fire is
by the use of adequately strong cables, by correctly discovered or they are attacked by fire. These cables will
positioning cable paths, by the provision of mechanical usually be only those t o detectors or call points, but
protection a t vulnerable points and by the provision of may also include those to ancillary devices (such as
alternative signal paths. The amount of the system put out door holders) in which failure of the cable due t o a fire
of operation depends on the extent of individual circuits. will not lead t o a dangerous condition.
Monitoring of connections does not ensure that the fire
alarm system will remain effective a t all times, but is 17.3 Recommended cable types
essential in reducing the 'down time'. I t gives a warning The following types of cable are recommended, subject t o
that damage has occurred, and thus allows the repair the restrictions on their use and the recommendations for
process t o be initiated and hence reduces the period for further protection given in 17.4 and 17.5:
which the system is inoperative. Monitoring of circuits (a) mineral-insulated copper-sheathed cable complying
and mechanical protection are complementary precautions, with BS 6207, with or without an overall PVC sheath;
rather than alternatives.
(b) cables complying with BS 6387, meeting a t least the
If the fault is due t o fire, monitoring can give no protection, requirements for categorization as,AWX or swx;
since no time will be available for repair. I f an
(c) cables complying with BS 6387, meeting a t least the
interconnecting cable itself has insufficient resistance to fire,
requirements for categorization as A or S;
then the circuit should either be arranged t o have alternative
signal paths or additional physical protection of the cables (d) PVC-insulated and sheathed cables complying with
should be provided. BS 6004;
(e) PVC-insulated non-sheathedcables complying with
I n some systems data flowing between components may be
multiplexed by one of a variety of data transmission BS 6004;
methods. The environment within which these signals are ( f ) general-purposeelastomer-insulated textile-braided
passed may have a significant effect on the permissible and compounded cable complying with BS 6007;
types of interconnections. Examples of possible problem (9) PVC-insulated cable of types BK, BR and BU
areas are as follows: complying withBS 6231;
( a ) electrical noise corrupting transmitted data; (h) PVC-insulated and sheathed steel-wire-armoured
(b) incorrect choice of cable for the speed of data cable complying with BS 6346;
transmission; ( i ) sheathed steel-wire-armoured cables with cross-linked
(c) fracturing of fibre optic cable due to vibration, etc. polyethylene or hard ethylene propylene rubber
Where failure of a cable will not result in the failure of any insulation complying with BS 5467;
alarm either within the premises or a t a remote manned ( j ) polyethylene-insulated PVC-sheathedcoaxial cable,
centre there are no restrictions on either the cable or i t s with a central conductor of not less than 16 strands/
protection in this Part of BS 5839. 0.2 mm in diameter, but otherwise complying withthe
dimensional requirements of BS 2316 : Part 3 for
17.2 Applications Uniradio Sheet M210;
A wide variety of different cables can be used in various ( k ) cables designed for the detection of heat.
parts of a fire alarm system. However, because of their Where cables are to be installed under conditions of
varying abilities to resist both fire and electrical or unusually high or low ambient temperature, the
mechanical damage, many of these cables may be restricted recommendations of 17.14 should be observed.
in their suitability for specific applications. N O T E . Silicone rubber insulated cable with a composite
PVC/alurninium sheath was included as a separate category in
The applications are classified according to the need for BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1980. This type of cable should now comply
fire protection as follows. with BS 6387 and hence would be covered under items (b) or (cl.
(a) Applications in which prolonged operation during a
fire is required. Cables used for the interconnection of 17.4 Protection from fire
components of a fire alarm system and required t o
17.4.1 Applications not requiring prolonged operation
continue to operate after a fire is first discovered (e.g.
during a fire. Where prolonged operation during a fire is not
sounders, control and indicating equipment and power
required, any of the cables listed in 17.3 may be used
supplies) unless they .are protected against cable failure
without additional fire protection.
as detailed in 17.15. Cables used within the protected
premises for the transmission of the alarm to a remote Cables designed for the detection of heat (see 17.3(k)) or
centre should be included in this class. In general it may coaxial cable (see 17.3(j)) may be used for the inter-
be assumed that interconnections between sounders, connection of detectors within a zone, provided that the
control and indicating equipment and power supplies system is such as t o give a fire alarm in response t o the
which can resist fire for a t least 0.5 h will be satisfactory. occurrence of fire a t such a cable.

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services
BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988
S e c t i o n two

17.4.2 Applications requiring prolonged operation during


a fire. Cables required to continue to operate during The above recommendations for resistance to mechanical
exposure to fire should be either as described in item (a) damage would be expected to be sufficient for most
or (b) Of 17.3; cables otker than these may be used in applications. However, where particularly arduous
applications requiring prolonged operationduring a fire conditions might be experienced (such as impact by fork-
provided they are protected against exposure to l i f t trucks), it may be necessary to provide additional
the fire by either: protection designed t o meet the expected hazards.
(a) burial in the structure of the building and protection Where it is appropriate t o use armoured cable t o protect
by the equivalent of a t least 12 mm of plaster; or against physical damage, the cables described in 17.3(h)
(b) SeParation from any significant fire risk by a wall, or 17.3(i) should be used.
Partition or floor having a t least 0.5 h fire resistance as
ascertained by compliance with any of the following:
17.6 Alternative cables
(1) SPeCifiCatiOnt tested or assessed under the
appropriate Part of BS 476; Types of cable or cable system other than those described
in 17.3 may be used only if it can be shown that, in the
(2) Other apprdpriate British Standard specifications;
application in which they are t o be used, all the following
(3) SPecifications referred to in building legislation
applicable for the building. apply:
(a) their resistance t o heat and fire is not less than that

A NOTE. The mechanical protection 01 cable6 by condull, du,-rlng


lrunkino 6llould not be considerad to QIVS prolec1lon agaInSI

Where appropriate, compliance is for integrity and


of the types described in 17.3 and recommended
by 17.4 as suitable for the application;
(b) their resistance to ambient conditions, including
insulation. The t e s t by fire is considered t o be applied to
resistance to mechanical impact and abrasion, is not
the side of the construction remote from the cable.
less than that of the types described in 17.3 and
17.4.3 Reducedprotection. Where possible, cables should recommended by 17.5 as suitable for the application;
be routed through areas of low fire risk. Where cables pass (c) they are not prone to faulty assembly or installation;
through areas of very low fire risk or where cables are
(d) their electrical properties under both normal and
protected by an automatic extinguishing system or sprinkler
fault conditions are suitable for the application;
installation, a reduction i n the degree of fire protection
recommended may be acceptable following consultation (e) they are operated within their manufacturer's ratings.
with interested parties (see 4.3). Where possible, alternative types of cable should be
certified or approved as satisfactory for their application
17.5 Protection of cables from electrical or mechanical under a recognized certification or approval scheme.
damage
17.5.1 Electricalprotection. Mineral-insulated copper- 17.7 Conductor sizes
sheathed cable (see 17.3(a)) should be electrically I n selecting conductor sizes, regard should be paid to
protected by ensuring that associated equipment complies physical strength and t o limitations imposed by voltage
with the cable manufacturer's requirements for voltage drop. Voltage drop down a cable should not be such as to
surge suppression. prevent devices from operating within theirspecification
Polyethylene-insulated coaxial cable (see 17.3(j)).should . limits, even under minimum supply and maximum load
not be used with nominal voltages exceeding 50 V. conditions. Consideration should bc g i :e ~any possible
~
extensions t o the system.
Cables designed for the detection of heat (see 17.3(k))
should be used within their manufacturer's ratings. Unless otherwise recommended, conductors should be of
copper, each having a cross-sectional area of not less than
17.5.2 Mechanicalprotecrion. Some of the t y p e s of cable 1 mm2, or, if stranded, not less than 0.5 mm2. Cables
listed in 17.3 are not sufficiently robust t o withstand the having a total conductor cross-sectional area of less than
mechanical hazards which they may experience in practice, 1 mm2 should not be drawn into conduit. Where twisted-
such as impact, abrasion or attack by rodents. I n order to pair cable constructions are used and the pair is contained
protect such cables from damage both during and after within a common insulating sheath, individual conductors
installation, it will be necessary t o provide mechanical having cross-sectional areas down t o 0.5 mm2 may be used.
protection by installation inconduit, ducting or trunking
(see 17.8) or by laying the cable in a channel. 17.8 Conduit, ducting and trunking
The following recommendations should be followed: If fire alarm cables are run in conduit, either screwed metal
(a) cable as described in 17.3(a), (h) or (i) may be used or rigid PVC conduit may be used. Rigid PVC conduit
without mechanical protection; should comply with classification 405/1 or 425/1 of
(b) PVC-insulated non-sheathed cable (see 17.3te)) BS 6099 : Section 2.2 (but see the ambient temperature
should always have mechanical protection; recommendations of 17.14).
(c) cables other than those described in 17.3(a), (e), (h) I f fire alarm cables are run in trunking or ducting, then
or (i) 'should be given mechanical protection if: either metal trunking or ducting, or non-metallic ducting
(1 ) they are not monitored;or
(2) they are less than 2.25 m above the floor; or
(3) physical damage or rodent attack is likely.

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services 33
or non-flamepropqafing tynking complying with 17.1 1 Telccommunicmtioncables
BS 4678 :Part 4 shouldbe used. It should be noted that Public t-lecommunications operator lines used for the
the flame propagationtest does not necessarily indicate the transmission of alarms to the fire b g
riadeshould be
ability of the trunking to maintain the circuit integrity mechanically protected(see 17.52) and shouldbe
under fire conditions. considered as needed to give prolonged operationin a fire
Other t y p e s of conduit, ducting or trunking may be used (see 17.42).
only if it can be shown that, in the application in which
they are to be used, their resistance to ambient conditions 17.12 Overhead lines
including resistance to mechanical impact and abrasionis Overhead lines shouldk avoided wherever possiblefor fire
not less than that of thetypes specified as suitable for the alarm system interconnections. If they are used, Bs 6701 :
application, and they arenot prone to failure due to faulty Part 1 should be followed. If overhead linescross or are
assembly or installation. installed in close proximity to electricity power lines,
public telecommunications operator lines or other overhead
17.9 Joints lines, agreement relatingtoprotectionshould be reached
All joints, except those in detectors, cal points, sounders, with the appropriate operator.
control and indicating equipmentor other similar system
components, should be enclosed in suitable junction boxes 17.13 Damp, corrosive or underground loations
labelled 'FIRE ALARM' to avoid confusionwith other Cables intended for installation in damp, corrosive or
services. Jointing and termination methods should be underground locations, orin plasters or cements havinga
chosen to minimize any reductionin reliability and corrosive effect on metallic sheathing, shouldbe PVC-
resistance to fire below that of unjointedcable. sheathed overall. Where the environment may attack PVC,
a suitable alternative sheath shouldbe adopted. In m e
17.10 Segregation of wiring locations further protection may beneastary.
Conducton carryingfire alarm power or signals shouldbe
separated from conductors usedfor other systems. The 17.14 Ambient temperatures
separation may be by one or more of the following: Care should be taken t h a t the combination of ambient
(a) installation in conduit, ducting, tnrnking ora temperature and temperature rise caused by load current
channel reserved for fire alarm conductors; does not result in a conductor temperature which exceeds
(b) a mechanically strong,rigid and continuouspartition rhe limit forthe insulation.
of noncombustible material; When high conductor temperatures are anticipated, cables
(c) mountingat a distance of a t least 300 mm from having appropriate heat-resisting insulation should be used,
conductors of other systems; such as:
{a) 85 OC rubber-insulated cable complying with
li (d) wiring in cables complying with BS 7629; table 1 or 5 of 6s 6007 : 1983;
(e) wiring in mineral-insulated coppersheathed cable
(see 173(a)) withan insulatingsheath or barrier. The (b) 150 "C rubber-insulatedcable complying with
exposed-to-touch rating of the IEE Wiring Regulations table 6 of 8S 6007 : 1983;
should not be exceeded. (c) 85 *C rated PVC-insulated cables complying
If a cable which should be segregated from caMes of o h r generally with BS 6004 b ut having type 4 or 5 insulation
services is not enclosed in ducting, trunking ora c hkne l and sheath complying with 8S 6746;
reserved for fire alarm circuits, thenit should be suitably (dl 90 OC rated XLPE- or EPR-insulated cables
marked or labelleda t intervals not exceeding 2 m to complying with Bs 5467 or BS 6724.
indicate its function and the need for segregation. Ducting, PVC conduit should not be used w h e n the mbient
trunking or a channel reserved for fire alarm circuits should temperature is likely to exceed 60 *C. Where temperatures
be marked to indicate this reservation. The fire alarm cable below -5 OC for classification40511 of Bs 6099 :
should be completely enclosed when the cover of the Section 2.2 or -25 OC for classification425/1 of Bs 6099 :
ducting, trunking or channel is in place, and all covers Section 2.2 are likely. suitable precautions should be taken
should be securely fixed. to avoid physicaldamage.
Segregation of the fire alarm power supplycades need not
be applied on the supply side of the isolating protective 17.15 Systems protectedagainst cable failure
d e vie (see 16.2). Cables carrying power in'excess of extra- If circuits are protected against singlecable faults (see 6.6.51
c
l o w voltage shouldbe separated from otherfire alarm then a reduced standard of caMe protection may be
cables. In particular, the mains supplycable should not be acceptable. I f the design is such that a single fault on the
brought in through the same cable entry as cables carrying interconnections between components will:
extra-low voltage power or signals. (a) at most have aneffect onthe components
immediately adjacentto the fault;

Previous page 35
BEST COPY AVAILABLE
is blank
COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards
Licensed by Information Handling Services
. BS5839: Part 1 : 1988

(b) not affect the correct working of the remainder of 18.1.4 Disadvantages of radio-linked systems. The
the system; disadvantages of radio-linked systems include the following.
(c) give a fault warning as recommended in 6.66; (a) Because limitations of allowed frequency spectrum
(d) indicate that section of the cabling affected by the can lead to interference between simultaneous signals,
fault; it is considered unwiseto send monitoring signals a t very
frequent intervals. Hencefor some (but not all) faults,
then any of the cables described in 17.3 can generally be
there may be a significant delay (possibly several hours)
allowed for any application.
between the Occurrenceof a fault and its indication on
Care should be takenin the planning and siting of cable the control equipment.
runs for such systems x) that a fire restricted to a single fire
(b) Radio links cannot transfer significant amounts of
compartment cannotso damage the cable as to prevent the
power. Each detector, call point or sounder has to be
correct operation of devices in any other compartment.
supplied with local power, either from local mains or
I f such siting cannotbe avoided, then wiring able to
from batteries.
withstand prolonged exposureto fire should be used
within the critical compartment(s1. (c) There is a possibility of the radio path being
interrupted by temporary or permanent screening. This
should be indicated as a fault, but in the interval before
the fault is indicated (see 18.3) the area could be
18 Radio-linked systems unprotected. The problem becomes moreimportant
when screening affects several detectorsin one area.
18.1 General
(d) The possibility exists that the receiver may be
18.1.1 Radio links. Some alarm systems are available in blocked by interfering signals from other sources.
which some or all of the interconnections between Radio alarm systems operate on frequencies which are
components are made by radio links. Because of the special not protectedby the regulatory bodyfrom other
properties of radiosignals, some of the recommendations interferingsignals onthose frequencies.
applicable to wired systems, particularly those for power NOTE. The possibility of interference from other sources can be
supplies andfault monitoring, are unsuitable for, or cannot much reduced by proper receiverdesign, for instance by a suitably
be applied to, radio-linked systems. In such systems the narrow receiver bandwidth, or by redundancy techniques in the
recommendations of this clause should be followed. transmission.

18.1.2 Choice of m e m . Radio-linked systems haveboth 18.2 Power supplies


advantages and disadvantages. Before adopting such a
system for any specific application,the advantages and 18.2.1 Power supplies forcontrol and indicating equipment
disadvantages shouldbe carefully consideredso that a Power suppliesfor control and indicating equipment
correct choice of system canbe made. (other than repeater panels) should complywith the
recommendationsof clause 16.
18.1.3 Advantages of radio-linked systems. The advantages
of radio-linked systems includethe following. 18.2.2 Power supplies forsounders and repeater indicator
panels Power supplies for sounders andfor repeater
(a) Since, in general, no wiringis needed between
indicator panels should comply with the recommendations
system components, the system canbe much easier,
of clause 16, except that the normal supply maybe derived
quicker and cheaperto install. The system can extend
from the local mains supply, which need not have an
beyond a single building without inter-building wiring,
isolating protective device(see 16.2). Failure ofthe normal
provided that the buildings are in the same ownership
supply to a sounder or repeater panel shouldgive a fault
and nothird party is involved. Disruption of normal
warning a t the main control and indicating equipment.
activities during installationis minimized, and the
system can be easily modified orextended. 18.2.3 Power supplies for detectors and manualcall points.
(b) The absence of wiringmeans that damage or Power supplies for detectors and manualcall points should
disfigurement of existing surfacesis kept to a minimum. be derived from either:
This can be particularly importantin dealing with (a) the normal mains supply plusa reserve battery
buildings having valuable or historic decoration. (primary or continuously charged secondary); or
(c) Individual identification ofeach detector or call (b) a primary battery plus a reserve second primary
point is a normal feature of radio-linked systems. battery. The primary battery used for the normal supply
(d) Radio linkswill function without impairmentin a should have an operational life of at least 1 year. If
fire, reducing the needfor fire-protectedcables. intended to be replaceable by t h e user the battery
(e) On some systems, radio-linkedrepeater indicator should be of a type readily available from electrical
panels can be easily added as required elsewhere in the suppliers.
building. Power supplies having one or more primary batteries
(f) Short-term temporary coverof special risks can be should give a t least 30 days warning of impending failure
easily arranged. of any primary battery. This warning should be by a fault

36
COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards
Licensed by Information Handling Services
indication a t t h e control and indicating equipment. It 19 Ancillary services
should not be possible to cancel this warning permanently.
If the warningis cancelled without the fault being corrected,
Subject t o any overruling consideration, safety factors and
the warning should resoundwithin 4.5 h. In the event of
consultationwith the relevant authority, t h e fire alarm
total failure of the power supplyto a detector or call point
system may be designed so that detectors and/orcall
the warning given shouldbe distinguishable from that
points, in addition to giving an alarm andcalling the fire
indicating impending failure.
brigade, will close or open circuits of ancillary services by
means of relays or similar devices, Examples of such
18.3 Radio links
services are as follows:
Systems in which radio links are used toconnect together
(a) actuation of fixed fire-extinguishingsystems;
part orall of the components shouldbe security coded
(in such a way as to prevent interaction between separate (b) closing of windows, smoke and fire doors;
systems) and should operateon frequencies allocated by (c) control of ventilating systems;
the Department ofTrade and Industry (DTI) on the low (d) covering of tanks containing flammable liqulds and
power telemetry and telecontrol bands. Equipment should controlling their valves to isolate thecontents from
conform to the appropriate DTl specifications. direct contact with the fire, etc.
Links shouldbe monitored in such a way that the failure Means of temporarily disabling an item or items of
to receive a signal from a.detector, call point, sounder or ancillry equipmentfor routine servicing or maintenance
'other remote cmponent willbe indicated at the central of that equipment may be provided such that it does not
control and indicating equipment within a period o f 4.5 h affect the operation of the fire alarm system.
from the occurrence of the fault. If operation of the fire alarm system during servicing or
testing may have undesirableeffects on ancillary
18.4 Installation equipment, thenmeans should be provided for disabling
18.4.1 Initial signal strength. During installation steps the automatic operationof the ancillary equipment. The
should be taken to ensure that signals produce adequate disablement may take theform of a transfer from
signal strength a t the relevant-receivers. automatic t o manual operation. A visual indication of
disablement shouldbe provided.
The manufacturer shouldspecify methods by which it can
be assured that the signal strength is adequate and the Power supplies to ancillary services should be such that the
signal type suitable for reliable operationin. the environ- power supplyt o the fire alarm system is not prejudiced.
ment in which the system is installed, including any Whilst indications of t h e state of ancillary systems, and
possible interfering signals of similar type either from ancillary systems which take poweronly when there is a
within the protected premises or from other premises. fire, may be operated from the fire alarm supply, ancillary
systems which take power (other than for indicators) in
18.4.2 Variations of signal strength. Changes in the the non-fire state should not be operated from the fire
buildings structure or content after installation can cause
alarmsupply. Any additional loads taken by ancillary "
fluctuations in the received signal strength,particularly
systems should be taken into account i n the calculations
where the changes include the introduction of large areas
of power supply capacity.
of metallic screening across the signalpath. Where this is
-P
likely, for example, in a loading bay handling-metaldrums,
precautions shouldbe taken to ensure signal continuity,
for instance by the use of remote aerials or repeater 20 Radio and electrical interference
amplifiers. Particular care should be taken where the
changes could lead to simultaneous loss of signals from 20.1 Generated interference
several detectors. Alarm systems should be so designed and installed that
they do not cause radio interferencein excess of the limits
18.4.3 Cabhq. Where cables are used in the system, for
specified in BS 800.
instance for power supplies or t o take signals to remote
aerials, they should complywith the recommendations
20.2 Receivedinterference
of clause 17.
Particular care should be taken in the design and installation
of the fire alarm system t o avoid interference from other
I equipment (including radio transmitterssuch as portable
telephones), external sources such as lightning, or power
transients. Such interference may affect the normal
operation of the fire alarm system.

Copyright by the BritishStandards Institution


Fri Nov 14 12:32:18 1997
COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards
Licensed by Information Handling Services
~~ ~
~ ~~
~__ ~~~ ~~ __

STDDBSI BS 5839: PART L-ENGL L988 L624669 0734930 6 0 3 a


BS 5839: Part 1 : 1988
Section three

Section three. Workmanship, installation and commissioning

21 Work off site 23.2 Protection against lightning


All metallic parts of the system, including conduit,
21.1 Verification trunking, ducting, cabling and enclosures, should be well
separated from any metalwork forming part of a lightning
Arrangements may be specified in the contract for pre-
protective system. Further guidance is given in BS 6651 :
delivery inspection of the equipment, including operational
1985, in particular in clause 18 and in A.2 of that standard.
tests, to be carried out on the suppliers premises in the
presence of the purchasers representative.
23.3 Hazardous areas
21.2 Packing Siting of equipment and routing of cables should take
account of any special hazards which might exlst in the
The materials and components should be protected and
area when the building is occupied. Such hazards might
packed suitably for the method of transport t o the site and
imperil either the system or personnel working in the area.
storage on site. Individual packing cases should be of a size
In locations having a potentially explosive atmosphere the
and weight suitable for convenient handling, and labelled so
recommendations of 6.5 should be followed.
that individual units can be readily identified on s i t e
without being unpacked. Equipment intended t o be
mounted in enclosures that will be recessed into walls
should be arranged so that it need not be removed from its 24 Installation of cables and wires
packing or wrapping until it is fixed into i t s permanent
enclosure, It is essential that equipment containing 24.1 Cable ducts, channels and trunking
radioactive materials (see appendix E), corrosive liquids or 24.1.1 General. Where fire alarm systemsare to be
other hazardous materials should be clearly labelled t o installed in new buildings. ducts and channels msy be
emphasize the risk of damage during transportation or required in the structure. Ample facilities should be
storage on site. provided for drawing cables into ducts and into conduits
or trunking installed in ducts. Conduit and trunking sizes
should be such as t o permit easy drawing in and out of the
22 Work on site cables concerned; it is advisable t o allow space for future
extensions. Where necessary, access should be provided by
The work on site should consist of the following: means of suitably located removable or hinged covers.
(a) siting and accommodation of control equipment, The fire alarm systems inittally installed in a building may.
power supplies, sounders, visual alarms, detectors and during the life of the building, require additions,
manual call points; modifications,or replacement. In order t o avoid alteration
(b) cabiing and wiring, including the provision of to the finished structure, careful consideration should be
channels, ducts, conduits and trunking; given a t the planning stage to the size and layout of ducts,
chases, etc., so that they may, as far as can be foreseen,
(c) installation of equipment;
provide an adequate degree of flexibility for both lnltlai
(d) inspection, initial testing, commissioning and requirements and additions and modifications. I f conduit.
certification.
ducting, trunking or other enclosures are to be buried
the building structure, then provision should be made for
any foreseen additions to be carried out without change t o
23 Siting and accommodation the finished building structure.
Ease of maintenance and adequate protection against
23.1 General mechanical damage and unauthorized interference are also
Siting of equipment should comply with the relevant of importance. Reference should be made to BS 8313
recommendations of clauses 9, 10, 12, 13, 15 and 16. which deals with the design and construction of ducts,
Care should be taken in planning the accommodation for chases, etc. for the accommodation of services. Where
the equipment t o ensure that the structure can accept the surface boxes are likely to be subject to unauthorized
necessary loadings, and that heavy or bulky equipment can interference, the boxes should not be predrilled or be of
be readily transported to or from i t s installed position. a type incorporating knock-out cable entries.
Access to equipment in service should be provided t o allow 24.1.2 Vertical ducts. Vertical cable ducts should be
it to be kept in a clean condition, and to be easily continuous throughout the height of a multi-storey
maintained. building (but see 24.3) and their position and number
Where provision is not made on the control equipment, should allow convenient lateral distribution on each floor.
provision should be made adjacent to it for the following Provision for the support of cables a t frequent intervals is
items: necessary.
(a) the diagrammatic representation of 15.4.3; 24.1.3 Horizontal ducts and channels. Horizontal ducts
(b) operating instructions for the correct action in the or channels may be required bebveen the control point and
event of a fire or fault indication; vertical ducts and from vertical ducts to the various rooms,
(c) the log book (see 28.2.2). etc, These may be formed within the structure or provided
by means of conduit or trunking concealed or surface
In preparation (revision of CP 4131. mounted as appropriate.

BEST COPY
COPYRIGHT British Standards
~~
AVAIIABE
Institute on ERC Specs and Standards 37
Licensed by Information Handling Services
STD.BSI BS 5839: P A R T 1-ENGL 1966 Lb24669 0734931 5 4 T

BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988


Section three

24.2 Cableholes 24.4 Cabling and wiring


24.2.1 External walls. Where a cable passes through an 24.4.1 General. The installation should be undertaken
external wall a smooth-bore sleeve of metal or other non- generally in accordance with the latest edition of the IEE
hygroscopic material should be sealed into the wall. I t Wiring Regulations.
should slope downwards towards the outside and should NOTE l . Although those parts of the fire alarm system connected to
be plugged with a suitable non-hardening waterproof a safety source are specifically excluded from coverage by the IEE
compound to prevent the entry of rain, dust or vermin. Wiring Regulations, the general principles of good practice in wiring
installations outlined in the regulations should be followed
Care should be taken to ensure that the ends of the sleeve throughout the fire alarm system.
are free from sharp edges to guard against damage t o cables
The recommendations of 16.2 and clause 17 should be
during installation.
observed. Precautions should be taken where cables or
24.2.2 Internal walls. Where a cable passes through an metallic conduits are installed in damp or corrosive
internal wall a smooth clearance hole should be provided. situations.
If additional mechanical protection is necessary then a NOTE 2. Some plasters and cements have a corrosive effect on
smooth-bore sleeve should be sealed into the wall. Care metals.
should be taken to ensure that the ends of the sleeve are 24.4.2 Cables and wires. The cables and wires should be of
free from sharp edges t o guard against damage to cables a type recommended for the purpose in clause 17. I t is
during installation. essential that the cable manufacturers instructions with
24.2.3 Floors. The considerations for external walls respect t o voltage surge suppression are followed implicitly.
(see 24.2.1) apply similarly to floors, but the sleeve should All terminations should be carried out by a competent
extend as far above floor level as is required for protection person.
of the cable it is to carry, and in any case not less than If multi-core cables are used it may be advisable to install
300 mm. Where a cable passes through a horizontal cable having spare cores to avoid the necessity of running
structural element external to the building, the hole should extra cables a t a later date, or the risk of this not being
be plugged with a suitable non-hardening waterproof done on the grounds of undue cost. Such provision should
compound t o prevent the entry of rain, dust or vermin. allow for conductor current carrying capacity related to
use of the additional cores.
24.3 Precautions against spread of fire 24.4.3 Joints in cables. Joints in cables, other than those
24.3.1 Fire stopping roundducts, etc. Where cables, contained within enclosures of equipment, should be
conduits, ducts, channels or trunking pass through floors, avoided wherever possible. Wherea joint in a cable is
walls, partitions or ceilings, the surrounding hole should unavoidable, it should be enclosed in a suitable and
be as small as reasonably practical and made good with fire- accessible junction box labelled FIRE ALARM t o avoid
stopping material to the full thickness of the floor, wall etc. confusion with other services. Jointing and termination
Spaces through which fire or smoke might spread should methods should be chosen t o minimize any reduction in
not be left around the cable, conduit, duct, channel or reliability and resistance to fire below that of the unjointed
trunking. cable.
24.3.2 Fire stopping inside ducts, etc. In addition to the 24.4.4 Surface wiring. Surface-laid cables should be neatly
recommendations of 24.3.1, if cables, conduits or run and securely fixed a t suitable intervals.
conductors are installed in channels, ducts, trunking or
shafts that pass through floors, walls, partitions or ceilings, 24.5 Earth continuity
then barriers with the appropriate level of fire resistance Where metallic conduit, ducting or trunking is used it
should be provided inside the channels, etc, to prevent the should be of a type which will ensure earth continuity and
spread of fire. mechanical rigidity throughout.
If cables or wires are run in ducts which penetrate walls or If metallic conduitor the metallic sheath of a cable is
floors required to provide fire-resisting separation, and the intended t o serve as a protective conductor and terminates
ducts are formed of construction having a t least the same a t an insulated equipment enclosure, then care should be
fire resistance as that required of the walls or floors, then taken t o provide an adequate connection to any earthing
the cables or wires need only be fire-stopped where they terminal provided within the insulated enclosure and/or
pass into and out of the ducts. If the cables or wires are in an adequate bridging link toany other metallic conduit
trunking, or if the duct construction has a lesser standard or metallic cable sheath terminating a t the enclosure.
of fire resistance than the structure penetrated, then the
Where metallic conduit terminates a t a thin-walled metal
ducts or trunking should be fire-stopped a t the points
enclosure, connection should be made by using a thick-
where they pass through the walls or floors; the standard
walled or flanged conduit coupler with a suitable locking
of fire-stopping should be such as to maintain the fire
washer. Care should be taken t o ensure electrical
resistance of the walls and floors a t the required level.
continuity by removal or penetration of non-conductive
paint or other coating a t the interface between the
enclosure and conduit coupler. The location of the
connection t o the enclosure should be protected against
rust or corrosion after making the connection.

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services
STDmBSI B S 5839: P A R T L-ENGL L988 m L624669 0734932 48b
!

BS 5839:Part 1 : 1988
Section three

25 Installationof equipment that the methods, materials and components used comply
with this Part of BS 5839, and that the record drawings and '

25.1 Delivery andstorage operating instructions (see 26.1) have been supplied.
To reduce the risk of damage and deterioration, equipment,
26.3 Insulation of cables and wires
apparatus and material should not be delivered until
installation can procecd, unless suitable storage Insulation testing of installed cables and wires should be
made a t 500 V d.c. and the insulation resistance to earth
accommodation hasbeen arranged.
and between conductors of the installed cables and wires
should be in accordance with the IEE Wiring Regulations.
25.2 Protection
Tests that might damage items of equipment, especially
Adequate steps should be taken a t all times to protect the apparatus incorporating electronic circuits, should be
finish of equipment during the construction and installation
carried out with the cables disconnected from the
period. Particular attention should be paid to protection equipment. If access t o the equipment would be difficult
of equipment enclosures against ingress of dust and after final inspection, then the separate parts of the circuits
moisture.
may be tested during installation, but the completed circuit
should also be tested a t a voltage recommended by the
25.3 Secondary batteries
manufacturer.
Cells of secondary batteries should be fitted and charged
in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 26.4 Earthing
Earth continuity and, where appropriate, earth-loop
25.4 Radioactivity impedance, should be tested to ensure compliance with
If detectors contain radioactive material, then the installer the IEE Wiring Regulations.
may have responsibilities under legislation (see appendix E).
26.5 Commissioning test
The system should be tested t o ensure that i t operates
26 Inspection, initial testing, satisfactorily and that, in particular:
commissioning andcertificationof systems (a) the alarm devices comply with the recornmendations
of clause 9:
26.1 Record drawings and operating instructions (b) all detectors and manual call points function
On completion of the installation, adequate instructions on correctly and initiate the correct operation;
its use, routine attention and t e s t procedures should be (c) any connection t o the fire brigade or remote manned
supplied t o the person responsible for the use of the centre operates correctly;
premises. The installer should draw the attention of the
(d) any radio links have adequate signal strength
user to those clauses of this Part of BS 5839 that may
(see 18.4);
reflect on the use of the fire alarm system, and in particular
(e) any signals to ancillary equipment are given
those clauses dealing with false alarms (clause 14) and
correctly.
user responsibilities (clauses 28 and 29).
The installer should supply the user with a log book and a
26.6 Certification
certificate of installation and commissioning (see 28.2.2
and appendices B and D ) . The installer should certify that the installation complies
with the recommendations of this Part of BS 5839 or,
Drawings should be provided to the user showing, for
if deviations have been agreed (see 4.3),a statement of
maintenance and record purposes, the position of the these deviations should be given by the installer
various items of equipment, junction boxes, etc. and the
(see appendix B).
sizes and routes of all cables and wires. Particular attention
should be paid t o the locations of items needing regular
attention or replacement. Wiring diagrams of junction 26.7 Handover
boxes and distribution cases should be included. The 26.7.1 Normal handover. When commissioning and
records should be permanent and suitable for convenient certification are complete, the system should be formally
reference. They should be prepared in accordance with handed over to the user. Where possible, the responsible
BS 1635 and should be updated to include any person (see 28.1.1) should assure himself that all the
modifications or additions made t o the system. necessary documentation has been completed before
I f the purchasing specification so requires, circuit diagrams accepting the handover.
of the fire alarm system and its components should be 26.7.2 Early handover without beneficial use. In some
supplied in sufficient detail for the operation of the system cases the fire detection system will be handed over to the
to be understood by the technical staff of the user. owner's agent before the remainder of a building project
is complete. If the system is not tobe p u t t oimmediate
26.2 Inspection of installation use, then provision should be made for regular standby
The complete installation should be inspected to ensure maintenance to minimize damage arising from the activities
that the work has been carried out in a satisfactory manner of other trades, e.g. ingress of dust or grit arising from

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services 39
BS 5839: Part 1 : 1988
Section three

plastering, floor sanding or painting, water seepage or 27 Extensions and alterations


to existing
exposure t o the elements. Smoke detectors, door or damper
systems
release mechanisms and linkages are particularly vulnerable
to a lowering of efficiency from these causes.
If the work is an extension of an existing installation, then
26.7.3 Early handover with beneficialuse. I f the fire the existing equipment should be thoroughly tested t o
detection system is t o be handed over, in whole or in part, ensure that it will function satisfactorily in conjunction
t o be used before the building is finished, then the with the new equipment and that the power supplies have
suppliers recommended maintenance programme should adequate capacity to supply the additional load.
be instituted from the date of the handover. Prior to undertakingchanges or extensions, consideration
I f the work of other trades is likely to produce should be given to their effect on the performance of the
environmental conditions more severe than those expected existing system and agreement should be obtained from
in normal usage, then consideration should be given to an interested parties. Following completion ofthe alterations,
increased frequency and extent of maintenance. I f the inspection, testing, commissioning and certification should
system is to perform ina life safety role prior to building be carried out as recommended in clause 26.
completion, then provision should be made for regular Changes to the system that might affectits response to fire
testing. The system log book (see 28.2.2) should be or fault conditions should only be undertaken by
properly kept from the date on which the system is put competent personnel. However, it is acceptable for local
into operation. information such as identification of zone or sensor
locations t o be altered by personnel authorized by the
26.8 Operational audit responsible person.
In large or complex systems it may be desirable that an Where the operation of the system depends on a stored
operational audit is made after the system has been in
program, provision for changing this program should be
operation for a time (usually a few months). This audit
carefully controlled. In general, program changes should
should cover the functioning and performance of the
only be made following discussions between the relevant
system, including such items as the ability of the operators
organizations listed ic 4.3.
to use the controls and indications, the logging of events
and the efficiency of maintenance.

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


. .. by Information Handling Services
Licensed
STD-BB
S IS 5839: PART 1-ENGL 1988 162LIbb9 073LI93LI 259

BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988


Section four

Section four. User responsibilities

28 General (9) Dates and times of all periods of disconnection or


disablement.
28.1 Supervision (h) All alterations t o the system.
28.1.1 Responsibleperson. The owner or other person The log book should be available for inspection by any
having control of the premises should appoint a responsible authorized person.
person t o supervise the system. This person should be given In some micro-processor or computer based systems, an
sufficient authority t o ensure the carrying out of any automatic log may be generated, either locally (e.g. on a
necessary work to maintainthe system in correct operation, printer) or remotely. Such logs can be of great assistance
the maintenance of the records listed in 28.2 and the in tracing and correcting system problems. I f no automatic
servicing recommended in clause 29. log is available, a non-resettable electromechanical counter
may form an effective means of encouraging reliable
28.1.2 Procedures. Procedures should be laid down for
recording of all fire signal activations. I f a counter is used,
dealing with alarms of fire (see 4.2), fault warnings or
its reading should be recorded as part of the information
taking part or all of the system out of service. These
procedures should be approved by the appropriate fire of item ( c ) .
authority before implementation.
28.3 Radioactivity
28.!.3 Training. The responsible person should ensure that
If detectors contain radioactive material, .he user may have
users of the system are instructed in i t s proper use,
responsibilities under legislation (see appendix E ) .
including the procedures described in 28.1.2. Any members
of staff who will be concerned with first aid fire-fighting
28.4 Prevention of false alarms
should be instructed in the correct interpretation of the
indications given, and their relationship with the building 28.4.1 General. Many false alarms are caused by operations
layout. A l l management, staff and, in most cases, long term in the vicinity of detectors, carried out either negligently or
occupants, should be instructed and practised in the proper in ignorance. The responsible person should ensure that staff
actions t o be taken in the event of fire. and visiting contractors are aware that the building is fitted
with an automatic fire detection system.
28.1.4 Liaison. The responsible person should establish a
liaison with those responsible for changes in or maintenance 28.4.2 Notices. Where possible, permanent notices should
of the building fabric (including redecoration, etc.) to be displayed a t the entrance t o all areas in which detectors
ensure that their workdoes not cause faults on, or otherwise are sited. A suitable text is:
interfere with the operation of, the fire alarm system. I f This area is protected by automatic fire detectors.
structural or occupancy changes occur or are planned, then Before undertaking any work involving heat, flame,
the responsible person should ensure that any necessary dust or sparks, clearance must be obtained from ............
changes t o the fire alarm system are considered a t an early
28.4.3 Tenders and contracts. Tender documents for
stage.
contract work to be carried out in a protected area should
28.1.5 Freedom from obstruction. The responsible person contain a clause making the contractor responsible for
should ensure that a clear space is preserved in all directions informing his staff of the presence and purpose of the
below every detector (see 12.2.9 and 12.2.10) and that all automatic detection system, and the precautions to be
manual call points remain unobstructed and conspicuous. adopted when working.
Contracts should contain a clause making the contractor
28.2 Records responsible for any charges levied following false alarms
28.2.1 Drawings and instructions. The record drawings and generated by the actions of his staff.
operating instructions supplied in accordance with the 28.4.4 Precautions against dust and smoke. Where
recommendations of 26.1 should be kept up todate and temporary work involving the generation of dust, smoke,
available for convenient reference, and preferably in the paint spray, etc. is t o be carried out in an area protected by
same location as the control and indicating equipment. smoke detectors, precautions should be taken t o prevent
28.2.2 Log book. The responsible person should ensure false alarms or damage t o the detectors by contamination.
that a log book (see appendix D) is kept in which the Suitable measures may include the following:
following should be recorded. (a) temporary replacement of smoke detectors by heat
(a) The name of the responsible person. detectors (not possible with all systems);
(b) Brief details of any servicing arrangements. (b) provision of a temporary screen between the work
(c) Dates and times of all alarms (genuine, practice, t e s t area and the detectors;
or false) together with their causes where known. If ( c ) provision of temporary covers, such as plastic or
alarms have been caused by the operation of a detector paper bags, t o prevent ingress of contamination.
or manual call point, then the location of the device All of these measures will, to a greater or lesser extent,
should be recorded if known. impair the sensitivity of the system t o fire. Experience
(d) Dates, times and types of all defects and faults. has shown that the risk of fire is higher during periods of
(e) Dates and types of all tests. construction or maintenance, and therefore the provision
( f ) Dates and types of all servicing (routine or special). of manual surveillance should be considered while such
measures remain in force.

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services
i

BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988


Section four 'Ome i t may be desirable for special facilitiesto be
'ncorporated in the system to assist in servicing, e.g. a low.leve,
'pip tone' can be used in Some Sounder systems to enablethe
'Ounders to be checked without undue disturbanceof the
occupants* WhereSynthesized Or recorded speech
are
a monitor speaker near the control equipment
enablethe may
to be checked without operating themain
sounders.' . "" ~ .

28.4.5 Completion of work. The responsible person 29.2.2 Prevention of false alarms of fire during routine
should ensure that when the work is completed: testing. It is important t o ensure that operation during
(a) any temporary screening or covering is removed; testing does not result in a false alarm offire.
(b) any
residual dust is removed; I f the fire alarm
system is connected to a 999 automatic
(c) any substituted smoke detectors are replaced;
dialling unit, then transmission should be prevented (for
instance by disconnection) before the routine test is carried
(d) the system is properly reinstated.
out, since under normal conditions 999 test calls are not
After reinstatement. an operational check of the system permitted. lncertain equipment using automaticdialling,
should be
made
by a competent person. it is possible to prevent transmission of signals by lifting a
telephone receiver. Use of this function to inhibit
transmission is deprecated, but where used the inhibited
29 Servicing state should be indicated by the use of a notice on the
control equipment.
29.1 General
I f transmission of signals to a remote manned centre is
To give greater assurance of reliability, correct servicing is
prevented during test, a visual indication of this state
essential. Normally an agreement should be made with a
should be given a t the control equipment. I f a link to a
manufacturer, supplier or other competent contractor for
regular servicing, The agreement should specify the method remote manned centre is t o be used during the test. then it
is essential to notify the centre before undertaking the test,
of liaison to provide access t o the premises. The name and
unless a recognized t e s t procedure is regularly carried out
telephone number of the servicing organization should be
a t an agreed time.
prominently displayed a t the control and indicating
equipment. The occupants of the premises should be notified of any
test of the system that may result in the sounders being
For premises in continuous use, e.g. hospitals, hotels and
operated.
old people's homes, the agreement should preferably
include a requirement that an engineer should be on call a t 29.2.3 Daily attention bY the user. A check should be
all times, both during and outside normal working hours,madeeveryday to ascertain the following:
and that telephoned requests for emergencyservice should (a) thateither the panel indicates normaloperation,
be executed promptly. In anycase,agreement should be or if not,that any fault indicated is recorded in the log
made that repair services will be available within 24 h. book and thattheotheractions recommended
A servicing agreement should be made immediately on in 29.3.4 have
been taken;
completionof the installation whether the premisesare NOTE. In program controllcd systems, failure to correctly
execute s o f t w a r e is indicated either on an event Counter, or On an
occupied or not.
automatic reset indicator.
I f it is not possible to obtain service from engineers on call
(b) that any fault warning recorded the previous day
a t all times, or if because of special circumstances no service
has received attention.
contract has been arranged, then the responsible person
should ensure that at least one person is employed who has If any Connection t o the Public fire brigade Or other remote
had suitable experience of electrical equipment and who manned centre is not COntinUOUSly monitored then it should
has hadspecial training with the manufacturer, supplier or be tested daily in accordance with the Supplier's instructions.
installer t o deal with simpleservicing.The employee(s) NOTE. On 1 day each week the daily test will be incorporated in
the weekly test.
should be instructed not to attempt to exceed the scope
. . -
training.
theirof 28.2.4 h+"/i.
8tt8nrron Dy Yle usBf. 1ne tollowing 'tests
should be made every week to ensure that the system is
29.2 attention
Routine conditions.
alarmunder
capable
operating
of
29.2.1 General. Theresponsibleperson should ensure that (a) At least onedetector, call point or endof line switch
the routine attention and test procedures supplied under
26.1 are properly followed.
OnOne 'zone should be operated t o test the ability of
the control and indicating equipment to receive a signal
and to sound the alarm and operateany other warning
A
A general guide to the routine that shouldbe adopted t o
ensure thecontinuing good operation Of the system is given
in 29.2.2 to 29.2.8. The routine to be adopted in individual
devices. For systemshaving 13 zoneor
zoneshould
less, each
be tested in turn; if there are
13zonesthen morethanonezonemayneed to be
than Ab
premises may vary with the use of the premises; equipment tested in anyweek so that the interval between tests on
installedin corrosive or dirtyconditions will need to beone zone does not exceed 13 weeks. It is preferable
checked more thoroughly and a t more frequent intervals t h a t each time a particular zone ir tested a different
than that in clean and dry situations. trigger device is used. An entry sr,ould be made in the
l O g book quoting the particular trigger device that has
In some equipment a proportion of the testing been used to initiate the test.
recommended in this clause is carried out automatically.
If Operation Of the a l a m sounders has been prevented
In this type ofequipment the manufacturer may specify
bv disconnection then a further test should be carried
an increase in the intervals between testing of certain Out t O Prove the final reinstatement of the sounders,
functions, and in such circumstances the manufacturer's and, ifpermissible, of the alarm transmission circuits.
specification may be followed. . -
The responsible person should ensure that all equipment
is properly reinstated after testing.
COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards
Licensed by Information Handling Services 42
STD.BSI B S 5839: PART II-ENGL L988 ~ ..
M II624667 073493b 021 M
BS5839:Part1:1988
Section four

(b) If the batteries are open or accessible, then a visual panel should also be tested where practicable. All fault
examination of the battery and its connections should indicators and their circuits should be checked, prefer-
be made t o ensure that they are in good condition. ably by simulation of fault conditions. The control and
Action should be taken to remedy any defect, including indicating equipment should be visually inspected for
low electrolyte level. signs of moisture ingress and other deterioration.
(c) The fuel, oil, and coolant levels of any standby ( f ) A visual inspection should be made t o check whether
generator should be checked and topped up as necessary. structural or occupancy changes have affected the
( d l Any printer should be checked t o ensure that i t s requirements for the siting of manual call points,
reserves of paper, ink or ribbon are adequate for a t least detectors and sounders. The visual inspection should
2 weeks normal usage. also confirm that a clear space of a t least 750 mm is
preserved in all directions below every detector, that
Any defect should be recorded in the log book and reported
the detectors are sited in accordance with clauses 12
to the responsible person, and action should be taken t o
and/or 13 and that all manual call points remain
correct it.
unobstructed and conspicuous.
29.2.5 Monthly attention b y the user. I f an automatically
(9) A l l further checks and tests specified by the installer,
started emergency generator is used as part of the standby
supplier or manufacturer should be carried out.
supply, then it should be started up once each month by a
NOTE. The recommendations of Items (b). ( c ) and ( d l above need
simulation of a failure of the normal power supply, and not be applied to batteries which power individual items of
allowed to energize the fire alarm supply for a continuous equipment (such as detectors or sounders) and which have
period of a t least 1 h. The fire alarm system should be provision for monitoring as recommended in 18.2.3.
monitored to-identifyany malfunctioning caused by the Any defect should be recorded in the log book and reported
use of the generator. A t the end of the test period the to the responsible person, and action should be taken t o
normal supply should be restored and the charging correct it.
arrangements for the starting battery checked for proper On completion of the work, a certificate of testing (see
functioning The fuel tanks should be left filled and the oil appendix C) should be given t o the responsible person.
and coolant levels topped up as necessary.
NOTE. Frequent starting of the generator followed by a few minutes 29.2.7 Annual inspection andtest. The responsible person
on-load is not recommended. It is important that when the engine is should ensure that the following check and t e s t sequence i s
running, the generator is loaded t o a t least 50 % of the engines carried out every year by a competent person.
capacity t o prevent sooting up wfth resultant loss of performance.
(a) The inspection and t e s t routines detailed in 29.2.6.
29.2.6 Quarterly inspection and test. The responsible
(b) Each detector should be checked for correct
person should ensure that every 3 months the following
operation in accordance with the manufacturers
check is carried out by a competent person.
recommendations (see 29.4).
(a) Entries in the log book should be checked and any
(c) A visual inspection should be made t o confirm that
necessary action taken.
all cable fittings and equipment are secure, undamaged
(b) Batteries and their connections should be examined
and adequately protected.
and tested as specified by the supplier (see 16.3.2.1) to
ensure that they are in good serviceable condition and Any defect should be recorded in the log book and
reported t o the responsible person, and action should be
not likely to failbefore the next quarterly inspection.
taken t o correct it.
(c) Where applicable, secondary batteries should be
On completion of the work, a certificate of testing (see
examined t o ensure that the specific gravity of
appendix C) should be given t o the responsible person.
electrolyte in each cell is correct. Any necessary
remedial action should be taken. 29.2.8 Wiring check. The responsible person should ensure
(d) Primary batteries, including reserves, should be that every 5 years (or more frequently i f the building
tested t o verify that they are satisfactory for a further electrical system is tested a t shorter intervals) the
period of use by taking measurements that are indicative installation should be tested in accordance with the testing
of the conditions of each cell, e.g. i t s voltage on a known and inspection requirements of the IEE Wiring Regulations.
and very high rate of discharge. The test conditions and Any defect should be recorded in the log book and
the significance of the readings will depend on the type reported t o the responsible person, and action should be
of cell and the use t o which it is being put. These should taken to correct it.
be clearly specified by the supplier or commissioning On completion of the work, a certificate of testing (see

in any case be replaced within the period of shelf life


stipulated by the battery manufacturer. 29.3Specialservicing
(e) The alarm functions of the control and indicating 29.3.1 General. The routine attention described in 29.2 i s
equipment should be checked by the operation of a intended t o maintain the system in operation under normal
detector or call point in each zone as described in 29.2.4. circumstances. There may, however, be special
The operation of the alarm sounders and any link to a circumstances in which other attention is needed.
remote manned centre other than a 999 autodialler
should be tested. All ancillary functions of the control

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services 43
BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988
Section four

29.3.2 Action by the user after any fire (whether detected 29.3.3 Action by the user after any false alarm. False
automatically or nor). The responsible person should ensure alarms can be a major hazard to any fire alarm system since
that the following work is carried out as soon as possible they lead to a loss of confidence in the system. It is
after any fire, and that normal use of the area is not important that any alarm from the system is treated as an
resumed until the work is carried out. alarm of fire until it can be proved t o be false, rather than
(a) I f the system includes detectors containing being treated as false until proved to be a fire. Where an
radioactive material, then any actions required t o deal alarm has been found t o be false the following immediate
with contaminationshould be taken (see appendix E). actions should be taken by the responsible person or a
(b) Each detector or call point which may have been person to whom he has delegated this duty.
affected by the fire should be tested. This t e s t should (a) Where possible, identify the particular detector or
preferably be carried out so as t o simulate fire call point which has initiated the alarm. I f detectors
conditions: smoke detectors should be tested by the having individual indicator lamps are in use, any
application of smoke or other aerosol to the detector, indications will be cancelled by resetting, and hence it
and resettable heat detectors by the application of warm is important that the detectors are examined before the
air or gas. Non-resettabledetectors need not be tested system is reset.
by operation, but should be visually inspected for fire (b) Where possible, establish the cause of the false alarm.
damage. It is possible that the actual cause of the alarm will have
(c) Each fire alarm sounder should be tested. been lost in the operations resulting fromthe alarm;
( d l A visual examination should be made of any other where this is so a note should be kept of any events or
part of the fire alarm system which lies within the fire activities near the detector immediately prior tothe
area or which might have been damaged by the fire. alarm.
Such parts may include power supplies, control (c) Record the false alarm in the log book and inform
equipment and interconnections. the organization responsible for servicing.
(e) Any defect found should be recorded in the log book I f one detector or group of detectors gives repeated false
and immediate action taken to correct the defect. alarms then the organization responsible for servicing
( f ) The organization responsible for servicing the system should be informed and required to investigate. The average
should be informed ofthe fire and of any defects on the rate of false alarms from an installation should notexceed
system, and instructed t o carry out a check of the one false alarm per year for each 10 detectors connected t o
system. the system. The number of false alarms from an individual
detector or detector location should not exceed one false
The responsible person should also ensure that the
alarm per 2 years. Installations, detectors or detector
following work is carried out, although this may take place
locations having higher false alarm rates should be subject
after normal use has been resumed.
to special investigation.
( 1 ) A check should be made of the state of the battery
and charger. 29.3.4 Action by the user following a fault. If a fault has
been shown to exist, either by the system's own monitoring
(2) The servicing organization should carryout a further
or by any other method, then the responsible person should
check for damage to the system, particularly any parts
ensure that the following actions are taken:
in which damage might be hidden, such as buried cables.
The extent of a fire may necessitate a more (a) determine the area affected by the fault and decide
.' comprehensive check of the system. whether special action (such as fire patrols) are needed
(3) If the fire was not detected by the system, or if in that area;
detection occurred at an unexpectedly late stage of the (b) ifpossible, determine the reason for the fault,
fire, then the reasons for this should be investigated and, or note the activities immediately prior to the fault in
if necessary, consideration be given to system the area affected;
modifications to prevent any repetition. (c) record the fault in the log book, inform the
On completion of the work, a certificate of testing(see organization responsible for servicing and arrange for
appendix C)should be given to the responsible person. repair.
Where any changes have been made to the system the
records should be updated.

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


44
Licensed by Information Handling Services
S T D . B SB
1S 5839: P A R T L-ENGL L988 m L624669 0734938 7 T 4 m
BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988
Section four

29.3.5 Action by the user following a pre-alarm warning. 29.4.2 Heat detectors. Heat detectors should be visually
On some systems a pre-alarm warning is given if the output examined for damage or other conditions, such as any coat
from a detector appears to be drifting towards the alarm of paint, likely t o interfere with correct operation. Routine
level. The main purpose of the pre-alarm warning is t o allow tests of operation should be carried out as recommended
faulty detectors to be cleaned or otherwise corrected by the manufacturer, with a t least 2 % of the installed heat
before a false alarm is given; however, it is possible that the detectors operated annually by the application of a heat
pre-alarm warning is given in response t o a slowly growing source as a check on reliability. I f possible, different
fire. The responsible person should ensure that the detectors should be tested each year. If any of the tested
following actions are taken: detectors fails t o operate properly, then the cause of the
(a) determine the detector and area from which the failure should be investigated. I f the cause of the fault is
warning has come; likely tohave affected other detectors, or if the cause
cannot be determined, then a further 2 % of the detectors
(b) inspect the area thoroughly to ensure that there is
should be tested. I f any failures occur in the second set,
no fire; if a fire is found, then carry out the preplanned
then further investigations should be made.
fire routine;
(c) if no fire IS found, record the warning in the log book 29.4.3 Detectors other than heat detectors. Detectors
and inform the organization responsible for Servicing. other than heat detectors should be checked for correct
operation and sensitivity in accordance with the
29.3.6 Prolonged periods of disconnection. Special manufacturers recommendations. If detectors are removed
attention may be needed to prevent damage t o batteries
from their mounting for this checking, then a final test
from prolonged deep discharge. On reconnection, the
should be carried out for operation after remounting.
system should be subjected to the inspection and t e s t
routines described under 29.2.7for annual inspection 29.4.4 System disconnection during testing. Care should
and test. be taken to minimize disruption of the normal use of a
building by alarms sounding during detector testing. I t is
29.3.7 Other non-routine attention. Other occasions on preferable that during testing of detectors as much as
which attention may be required beyond that of routine
possible of the remainder of the system should continue
servicing include the following:
to function .normally. If detectors are removed from the
(a) extensions or alterations to the premises system for testing or servicing, replacement detectors
(see clause 27); should be immediately provided to keep the system in
(b) changes in occupancy or activities in the area normal operation, or separate provision should be made
covered by the system; for surveillance of the unprotected area.
(c) changes in the ambient noise level or sound 29.4.5 Systems using addressabledetectors. Care should
attenuation such as to change the sounder requirements; be taken during the maintenance of systems in which the
(d) damage to the installation, even though no fault detector is itself coded. False information in respect of the
may be immediately apparent; origin of alarm could occur if individually coded detectors
(e) any change t o ancillary equipment. were exchanged.

29.5 Secondary batteries


29.4 Detectors The test specified by the manufacturer under 16.3.2.1
29.4.1 General. I t is essential that routine tests are should be carried out a t the intervals specified.
adequate to ensure that the requisite degree of sensitivity
to fire is maintained, and users should satisfy themselves 29.6 Spare parts
on this point. If it is found that the sensitivity of detectors If a service contract is in force, then it is not necessary to
is adversely affected by the rapid accumulation of dirt, carry spares other than fuses and frangible elements for
then arrangements should be made to increase the frequency manual call points. There may, however, be advantages if
of the inspections. Any detectors which have shown the user agrees with the servicing organization to hold
continued signs of instability should be replaced. additional spare parts.

BEST COPY AVAIUBLE

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services 6
STD-BSI BS 5839: PART L-ENGL L 9 8 8 m L b 2 4 b b 9 0734939 830 m

BS 5839:Part 1 : 1988
Appendix A

Appendices

Appendix A. Automatic connectionto the A.3 Communication viathe public


fire brigade switched telephone network
A number of systems are possible by which alarm signals
A.1 General may be transmitted over the pub1ic;witched telephone
network (PSTN). In general these may be classified into
There are several methods by which alarms of fire canbe
the following.
transmitted automatically from the protected premises t o
the fire brigade. (a) Carrier and similar systems, in which the fire alarm
signals are carried on the same wire as voice signals,
The availability, reliability and means of testing the
but are separated from the voice signals in the exchange
connection t o the fire brigade should be discussed with
before entering the switching system. These systems are
the installer of the fire alarm system, the communications
usually operated by the telecommunications operator,
officer of the local fire brigade and, where communication
but are not universally available.
is via remote manned centre, i t s operator.
(b) Systems using the 999 emergency system. 999 calls
Connection of a system t o fire brigade mobilizing controls are given an automatic priority over other calls, but can
may be the subject of a licence or agreement between the only be used for communication with the local
installing engineers and the fire authority concerned.
emergency services. I t is thus impossible t o use the 999
Contact with the local fire authority on this matter is
system t o communicate with a remote manned centre,
advised.
or for a remote manned centre outside the local area
to use the 999 system to send the alarm t o the local fire
A.2 Communicationvia a private line brigade. Further, since the 999 system depends on voice
communication, it can only accept signals which are
Some methods of communication with the fire brigade intelligible t o the operator, such as recorded or
necessitate the renting of a public telecommunications synthesized speech.
operator private line or other land line, together with (c) Systems using the normal switching system.
equipment t o transmit and receive the signals. Correct Commercial systems are available that automatically
functioning of the line and the equipment may be dial the remote manned centre using the public
monitored. The amount of information which can be switched telephone network. Once contact is
transmitted will vary depending on the equipment used, made, a coded signal is sent identifying the type of
but as a minimum facilities should be available for alarm (fire, fault, test, etc.) and the address from which
transmitting fire and fault signals. Test facilities are the alarm originates. Most such systems allow for
normally available and the user would normally be multiple retries in the event of failure to connect
expected to initiate t e s t calls a t regular intervals. The initially, but it should be appreciated that dialling a
procedure for making a t e s t call will depend on the system 10 digit number will take about 30 s for each try. Four
used, but should be carefully laid down and followed i n tries may thus absorb 2 min in simple dialling time,
order t o prevent a test call being mistaken for a fire alarm. without any other delays.
Although a number of different systems are available, Where the alarm is sent to a remote manned centre outside
in practice the system used often depends on the the local fire authority area, the method of communication
arrangements made by the fire authority for connections between the remote manned centre and the fire brigade
to the fire brigade control. Available systems include the becomes important. The most reliable method is a direct line
following. fire telephone, but private lines over long distances are
(a) Direct connection to the fire brigade control. This expensive. The 999 system cannot be used, since i t is for
depends on the mobilization policy of the brigade local alarms only. Some fire brigades have a control room
concerned. telephone with an ex-directory number which can be given
(b) Connection t o a Iremote manned centre (commercial t o remote manned centres. The fire brigades administrative
central fire alarm station). This possibility depends on number should not be used, since at busy periods there may
the distance from the protected premises to the remote be considerable delays in answering it.
manned centre, since the user will have to bear the full
cost of the dedicated private line, in addition tothe
remote manned centre operators charges. The remote
manned centre should have a direct telephone
connection t o the appropriate fire brigade.
(c) Some companies provide local collectors to which
direct line connection may be made. Signals from a
number of premises can be connected t o the same
collector, where the signals are multiplexed together
and transmitted over a common line to a remote manned
centre. In this typeof system the costs may be reduced,
since the price of the line between the collector and
the remote manned centre i s shared between several
users.
COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards
Licensed by Information Handling Services
STD-BSI BS 5839: PART L-ENGL L988 m L624669 0734940 552 m
BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988
Appendix B

of a fire alarm system


Appendix B. Model certificate of installation and commissioning

Certificate of installation andcommissioning of the fire alarmsystem a t

Protected area......................................................................

Address .......................................................................

My sttention has been drawn to the recommendations of BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988;


in particular, t o clauses 14 (false alarms), 28 and 29 (user responsibilities).

In accordance with BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988, subclause 26.1, record drawings and operating instructions have been
supplied,and received by:

Signed ............................ Status ............................. Date ........................

For and on behalf of (user) .........................................................................


.............................................................................................

In accordance with BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988, subclause 26.2, the installation has been inspected and been found to
comply with the recommendations of the code.

I n accordance with BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988, subclause 26.3, the insulation of cables and wires has been tested.

I n accordance with BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988, subclause 26.4, the earthing has been tested.
I n accordance with BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988, subclause 26.5, the entire system has been tested for satisfactory operation.

I n accordance with BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988, subclause 26.6, it is certified that the installation complies with the
recommendations of the code, other than the following deviations:

Signed (Commissioning engineer) ..................................................... Date ............................

For and on behalf of (installer) .....................................................................................

"""""""""""""""""""""""""

The system log book is situated ..............................................................................................

The system documentation is situated ..................................................................................................

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services 47
BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988
Appendix C

Appendix C. Model certificate of testingof a fire alarm system

Certificate of testing of fire alarm system a t

Protected area ......................................................................................

Address ...........................................................................

.........................................................................

The system is operational and has been checked and tested in accordance with ES 5839 : Part 1 : 1988:

* clause 27 'kxtensions and alterations t o an existing system

subclause 29.2.6 Quarterly inspection and test

* subclause 29.2.7 Annual inspection and test


subclause 29.2.8 Wiring check

subclause 29.3.2 Servicing after a fire

* subclause 29.3.3 Servicing following a false alarm

subclause 29.3.3 Servicing following excessivefalsealarms

subclause 29.3.4 Servicing following a fault

subclause 29.3.5 Servicing following a pre-alarm warning

* subclause 29.3.7 Other non-routine attention (specify) ....................................................

Delete if not applicable.

Signed .................................................................. Status .............................................................. Date ....................

For and on behalf of (user or service organization) ...............................................................................

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services 48
STD-BSI BS 5839: P A R T 1-ENGL 1988 m 1624669 0734942 325 m
BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988
Appendix D

Appendix D. Model log book for firealarm systems

D.1 General
The data t o be recorded in the log book falls into the following two main categories:
(a) reference data relating to the configuration of the system, responsibilities for the system, requirements for
component replacement and any other data which might be required for future reference;
(b) historical data relating to events which have occurred on the system, including fires, false alarms, testing and
servicing.
The t w o categories of data should be separated in the log book.
For investigation purposes it is often necessary to trace the history of some feature of the system; for instance, to trace
the interaction of false alarm rates with the period since the last service. Historical data should therefore be recorded in
date sequence, irrespective of the type of event. It is, however, permissible to maintain an abbreviated event log in date
sequence, with each entry referring to entries in separate log books for different types of event.

0.2 Changes
Provision should be made for recording changes in the reference data for the system. In some cases (such as a change in
the servicing organization) it may be appropriate for a new log book to be provided, while in others (such as a change
of responsible person) it may be appropriate to record the change in the existing log book.Any such change should be
dated and should not obliterate the previous entry.

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services
BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988
Appendix D

0.3 Model log book

Log book
Foreword
I t is recommended that this log book is maintained by a responsible executive who should ensure that every entry is
properly recorded. An 'event' should include fire alarms (whether real or false), faults, pre-alarm warnings, tests,
temporary disconnections and the dates of installing or servicing engineer's visits with a brief note of workcarried out
and outstanding.

Reference data
Name
and
address .......................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................

Responsible
person .................................................................................. Date .................................

.................................................................................. Date .................................


.................................................................................. Date .................................

.................................................................................. Date .................................


The system was installed by ................................................................................................................................

and is maintained under contract by ......................................................... until .................................................


Tel. no. .......................................................... who should be contacted if service is required.

Event data

Counter Action Date


Date Time Event Initials
reading' completed required

Expendable component replacement due (list): ..................................................................

....................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................

'If an event counter is provided (see 28.2.2).


A program controlled system may need a column to record the readings of the failure to correctly execute software counter (see 6.9(d)).

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


50
Licensed by Information Handling Services
BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988
Appendices E and F

Appendix E. Ionization chamber smoke FA Manual controls


detectors
The layout of any control panel should be such that
Ionization chamber smoke detectors contain small amounts confusion will not arise between controls operating the
of radioactive materials. There are statutory requirements fire alarm system and controls for other functions. Manual
under the Radioactive Substances Act, 1960, for the controls provided for other functions should not affect
storage, transport, use and disposal of radioactive materials, the operation of the fire alarm system.
and under the Ionizing Radiations Regulations, 1985,
employers are required, amongst other things, to notifythe
Health and Safety Executive where apparatus containing F.5 Time-related systems
certain specified amounts of radioactive substances are
used. In general, the amount of radioactivity from Where means are provided to vary the response of systems
ionization chamber smoke detectors is small, and no a t different times of day, care should be taken that no
notification or registration under legislation is required for undesirable interaction occurs between the fire alarm
installed smoke detectors where the source is closed, response and that of other systems. Where rneans are
contains only americium-241, hasan activity not exceeding provided for delaying or changing responses from systems
4 MBq and gives a dose rate less than 1 pSv.h" a t 100 mm (e.9. so as to prevent false alarms), any effect on the fire
from any accessible surface on the detector. Information alarm system should be fully considered.
on the requirements applicable to a specific detector can
be obtained from the manufacturer or supplter, from the
Health and Safety Executive, or from the National
Radiological Protection Board*.
F.6 False alarms
Care should be taken that the integration of different
systems does not lead to an increase in the number of fault
Appendix F. Fire alarm systems integrated warnings or false alarms. In particular, facilities for
with other systems servicing and testing of systems should be considered.

F.l General F.7 Signals to remote manned centres


Although this Part of BS 5839 does not cover fire alarm Where signals to a remote manned centre are transmitted
systems integrated with systems for other purposes, such over a single link, care should be taken that faults affecting
systems should generally comply with i t s recommendations, the fire alarm system can be separately identified. Faults
and with the guidance given in this appendix. affecting more than one system should be shown as such.

F.2 Priorities F.8 Power supplies


In general, priorities within the system should not allow Where the power supply t o the fire alarm system is also
fire alarms t o be prevented or delayed by the state of any used to supply power for other functions, the capacity of
other function. Any other order of priority should only be the power supply should satisfy the recommendations of
adopted following consultations between all interested this Part of BS 5839 for the fire alarm system in the
parties. Any interactions between system outputs should presence of the maximum demand from all the other
be clearly defined. systems sharing that supply. Excessive power demands due
to faults on other systems should not reduce the capacity
available to the fire alarm below the recommendations of
F.3 Sounders this Part of BS 5839.

The alarm sound following a fire alarm should be distinct


from any other alarm sound given by the system, although F.9 Faults
common sounders may be used. Where control sounders
are used, they should be such that no confusion might Faults in other functions should not affect the response of
arise from sounders used for other functions. the system to fire. Multiple faults in another function need
not be considered if a single fault in the other function is
indicated as a potential fault on the fire alarm system, and
would not immediately affect the response of the fire
alarm system.

National Radiological Protection Board, Dldcot, Oxfordshire O X 1 1 ORQ.

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services 57
BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988
Appendices F and G

F.l O Multiplexed conductors Appendix G. Control equipment and power


supplies forsmall manual systems(type M)
Conductors may be used to carry signals for more than one
function. Failure of the multiplexing system should be
indicated as a fault on the fire alarm system if that System G.l General
is affected.
This appendix covers the functional recommendations for
single zone control equipment for small.manual systems;
such equipment should meet all the recommendations
F.11Interconnections given in G.2 to G.l l .

Interconnections essential t o the operation of the fire alarm


system should be protected as recommended in clause 17.
G 2 Indications of fire
The operation of one or more manual call points should
F.12 Segregation of cables result in the following:
(a) power being supplied to an alarm sounder circuit;
Cables carrying fire alarm signals (even where multiplexed
with other signals) should be segregated from other cables (b)the illumination of a red visible indication clearly
as recommended in 17.10. labelled with the word FIRE.

F.13 Siting of control and indicating panels G.3 Time delays


The indications of G.2 should be given within 1 S of the
Fire alarm control and indicating panels should be sited as
operation of a manual call point.
recommended in this Part of BS 5839 and not be
dependent on the siting of panels for other purposes.

G.4 Silencing
F.14 Commissioning and servicing A manual operation should be required t o silence the alarm;
the alarm should not be automatically silenced or cancelled.
All personnel concerned with commissioning or servicing
A clearly labelled facility should be provided for manually
any part of the system which might affectthe fire alarm
restarting the alarm. The operation of silencing the alarms
function should be properly trained.
should result in an audible signal being given by the
indicating equipmentuntil the fire alarm is reset or is
resounded. This audible signal (which may be the same as
F.15 Extensions or alterations that for fault warning) should be different from thatof any
alarm sounder used to give the alarm of fire.
Care should be taken that extensions or alterations to the
system do not adversely affect the fire alarm system either
during or subsequent to the work. G.5 Priorities
An alarm of fire should not be inhibited or delayed by any
F.16 Isolation equipment
maythe indication
that
other be giving,
e.g. a fault warning.
The fire alarm system should not be adversely affected by
provisions made for the isolation of other parts of the
system. G.6 Resetting
The visible indication of item (b)of 6.2 and either the
supply of power of item(a) of G.2 or the audible signal
of 6.4 should persist until the system is manually reset
a t the control equipment. Resetting should be by the
operation of a biased switch or other device fulfilling the
same function.

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


52
Licensed by Information Handling Services
BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988
Appendix G

G.7 Power supplies G.8 Indicationof power supply


The power supplies should be in accordance with one of the A green visible indication should be provided when the
following methods, which are given in order of preference. normal power supply is operating; this indication should
(a) Normal and standby supplies complying with 5.2 of be extinguished if both normal and standby supplies fail.
BS 5839 : Part 4 : 1988. (This indication may, but need not, be provided if the
(b) Normal supply derived from the public electricity normal supply has failed and the system is operating from
the standby supply.)
mains and a standby primary battery. Each supply
should be independently capable of meeting the
maximum load likely to be placed on the system.
Provision should be made for automatic change-over to G.9 Visual indicators
and from the standby supply on failure and recovery of
the normal supply. A fault warning should be given in G.9.1 The operation or failure of one indicator should not
the event of failure of the normal supply. Since failure prevent the proper and separate operation of any other
of the normal supply will cause an indeterminate and indicator.
irrecoverable loss of capacity from the standby primary G.9.2 The operation of any sounder or alarm circuit
battery, this warning should continue after recovery of should not be prevented by any visual indicator defect
the normal supply until manually reset. An automatic and should not depend on the operation of any indicator.
audible fault warning should be given for a period of a t
least 24 h before the battery capacity falls to a point
where it is unable t o provide the alarm.
G.10 Manual controls
(c) Normal supply derived from the public electricity
mains without standby supply.
G.lO.l Labelling and spacing
(d) Normal supply from a primary battery with a second
All manual controls should be clearly labelled to indicate
unused primary battery held in reserve. An automatic
their functions and should be so arranged as t o reduce the
audible fault warning should be given for a period of a t
risk of inadvertent operation.
least 24 h before the capacity of the primary battery
used for the normal supply falls to a point where it is
G.10.2 Security
unable to sustain the maximum alarm load for a period
of 5 min. If an automatic device is provided t o transfer The operation of all manual controls, isolating devices and
the supply t o the reserve battery, then a suitable warning control circuits should be limited toauthorized personnel.
should be given after each transfer to draw the attention The limitation should be achieved by the use of a lock,
of the user to the need to replace the exhausted battery. key-operated switch, or keyboard-entered code, except
The initial rated capacity of each battery should be such that limitation by keyed code should not be applied to
that it is able to supply the quiescent load of the system controls which may need to be operated during a fire.
for 90 days, after which sufficient capacity should
remain to sustain the maximum alarm load of the
system for a t least 30 min. G . l l Marking
(e) A single primary battery capable of supplying the
quiescent load of the system together with the If control equipment and power supplies for small manual
additional lodd imposed by the recommended weekly systems meeting all the recommendations of G.2 to G.10
testing routine, preferably for a period of a year but a t are marked with a reference to this Part of BS 5839, they
least for 90 days. A n automatic audible fault warning should be marked 'BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988 : Appendix G'.
should be given for a period of a t least 24 h before the Equipment not meeting all the recommendations of G.2
battery capacity falls to a point where it is unable to to G.10 should not be marked with any reference to
sustain the rated alarm load for 5 min. BS 5839 : Part 1.

BEST COPY AVAILABLE


COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards
Licensed by Information Handling Services 53 ~~
STD-BSI BS 5839: PART 1-ENGL L988 m Lb24bb9 0734947 907 m
. . . ~

' . BS 5839: Part 1 : 1988


Appendix H

Appendix H. Smoke alarms in the home

This appendix consists of the t e x t of booklet FB2 'Smoke Alarms in the Home', 1988, reproduced by permission of t h e
Home Departments.
NOTE. Copies of this and other fare safety literature produced by the Home OfficelScottish Home and Health Department/Northern
Ireland Office are available from local fire authorities

SMOKE ABOUT THIS BOOKLET


ALARMS If you are readingthis booklet you are
probablythinking about buyinga smoke alarm
for your homeor may have already bought one.
This booklettells you how smoke alarms work
and howto get the best from them for your
safety. It covers the main typesof smoke alarm
on the marketfor use in the home and the
various kindsof homes for whichthey are

THE HOME suitable.


The guidance givenin this booklet is for the
average family home. You may need special
advice
o If you livein a bedsit, or flat or if you have
lodgers.
o If it takes you muchmore thanabout 45
paces (30 metres) to get from any one
room in thehome to another.

\ \
P
o Ask your local fire brigade. They will be
glad to help you and
"
-
""
"
- ""
their advice is free.
"-"-
"

f
"

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


54
Licensed by Information Handling Services
' STD.BS1 BS 5839: PART L-ENGL L988 m Lb24669 0734948 843
BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988
Appendix H

have their uses, they can't detect lethal amounts


of smoke and poisonous gas and they need to
DETECTION OF FIRES get hot before they can operate.
are therefore far better
Smoke alarms
for use in the home.
No one shouldunderrate the danger of fire.
Every year,nearby 60,000 fires occur in the home
in this country alone, killing about 700 people and
injuring over 7,000 others. A lot of these deaths
and injuries might have been prevented if only
the people involved had been ableto escape
before it was too late. This is where smoke ALARM
alarms can help. Theywon't stop fires starting
and they can't put them out but if they are DOMESTIC SMOKE ALARMS COME IN M I O
properly installed and looked after they can give BASIC TYPES
you an early warning of fire and increase your
chances of escape.
- ionization smoke alarms
These workby measuring the reduction ofan
The longer afire burns before it is a
electrical current when smoke particles enter
discovered the morelikely it is to cause deathor special chamber.
injury. So a fire which starts smouldering at night
when you and your family are asleep is very
- optical smoke alarms
These contain a small photoelectric cell which
dangerous indeed.In facta night-time fire is
triggers the alarm when
the beam is disturbed by
nearly three times as likelyto kill as one during
smoke.
the day.
Research hasshown that ionization smoke
Some peoplethink that the smell of smoke
alarms are often little
a bitquicker to react to hot
would wake them up. It might do. But there again
blazing fires than optical smoke alarms. On the
it might not. And if the fireinvolves modern
other hand, optical smoke alarms seem to be
furnishings it could well be producing poisonous
better at detecting smouldering firesthe ofsort
gases which will make sure that you never wake
that might be started by a cigarette having fallen
up. Even if the smoke did wake you up you could
down the backof a sofaor chair (as shown the at
well find your way out blocked by thick choking
beginning of this leaflet). There isn'tlota to
smoke.
choose betweenthe two types of smoke alarm
but if you are concerned about smouldering fires
you shouldmake sure that you buy anoptical
type.
NOTE: Some smoke alarms on the market
There aretwo main types of
fire detector on combine both optical and ionization devices in a
the market single unit.These "dual" detectors can give you
Heat detectors a better all round performance if thetwo devices
have been connected in such a that way only one
These reacttu increasing temperature.
needs to trigger beforethe alarm sounds (usually
Smoke alarms a piercing, high-pitched, continuous bleep).If in
These warn of fire by reacting to smoke and doubt consult your supplieror fire brigade.
fumes drifting from thefire.
Smoke alarmswill give you an earlier
warning ofmost fires. Although heat detectors

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services SS
BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988
Appendix H

SMOKE ALARMS CAN BE POWERED BUY WISELY


by batteries in the unit Whatever typeor make ofsmoke alarm you
from the mains electrical supply buy, make sureit meets BritishStandards and
from the mains, but with a standby has the BS number BS 5446:Part 1 on it. If the
smoke alarm has the Kite Mark on ittoo, so
batterysothatalarmswilloperateevenifthe
mains supply fails. much the better.*

The last of these is the most reliable


method. The first method (which probably
accounts for the majorityof devices readily
available on the domestic market) is acceptable
provided youre prepared to look after the
equipment properly.The second method is also
acceptable if your mains electrical supply is
reliable.

If you choose a smoke alarm powered


by battery alone
*There is also a British Standard Code of Practice
El Remember to change the battery at least
once a year or sooner if your model gives its
special low battery signal (usually an
covering the installation and servicing
and alarm systems in buildings
of fire detection
- BS 5839:Part l . This
Code of Practice is mainly intendedfor hotels,
intermittent electronic bleeping sound). factories and the like, but it can cover private houses
Remember to check that your smoke alarm as well.If your homeis large (seepage 3) or if you
IS working when you've been awayfrom want yourfire alarm systemto contactthe fire brigade
automatically it is strongly recommended that you
home for more than a few days (you might
follow the Code of Practice.
have missed the low battery signal).

If you choose B smoke alarm powered from


the mains
ENOUGH?
Pl Have it fitted by a competent electrician.

Make sure that the mains supplyis


In many waysthis is a more important
El permanently connected and can't be
switched off by mistake.
question than which kind ofsmoke alarm to buy.
In order to doits job properly asmoke alarm
needs to be close enoughto the fire respond to
quickly but ina position whereits alarm can be
to reach a
Ixi Don't use exlension cables
distant socketor try to fix a cable
lamp or adaptor.
from a
heard throughout your home and is able to wake
you andyour family - in time for you all to
escape. A single smoke alarm will give some
protection if it is properly installed (see the next
section on where to place your smoke alarms)
but obviouslytwo or more offer more reliable
early warning than one andare morelikely to
provide an adequate amount of time for you all to
escape. For maximum protection you should put
individual smoke alarms in all the roomswhere
fire is most likely to break out.

".. >. ,

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services 56
BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988
Appendix H

If you canafford only oneor two smoke single smoke alarm is to choose a spot between
alarms, try this simple test. Decide onthe the sleeping areab) and the mostlikely sources
quickest and safest route you and your family of fire (living room or kitchen).But it shouldnt be
would use to escape through the house from a more than about 10 paces (seven metres) from
fire which started inyour living room at night. the door to any room wherea firemight start and
Now get someone to stand holding asmoke block your escapefrom the house.
alarm onthat routeas close to the living room
door as possible but notmore than ten paces Ifyour homeis on one level(a bungalow or
away from any other door to living mobile home for example) you should put your
accommodation or the kitchen. Ask them to wait smoke alarm in a corridor or hallway betweenthe
for a few minutes and then start the alarm (the sleeping and living accommodation. Place it as
makers instructionsshould tell you how to do near to the living accommodationas possible but
this). In themeantime close your bedroom door, make sure you can hear it loudly enough to wake
set a radioto a reasonably loud conversation you inthe bedroom.
level andlie on your bed. Can you hear the
alarm? If you cant hear it over your radio the
chances arethat it wouldnt wake you.To make
sure you are woken up you need extra detection
and alarm facilities and the simplest way ofdoing
this is to link another smoke alarm to the first,
putting one in the best position to detect the fire
and the other inthe best positionto be heard. In
this way if one smokealarm senses smokeboth
will sound an alarm andprovide a louder
warning. Linking a battery model should be a
simple operation foran electrician or reasonably
competent DIY householder but the makers
instructions should be followed carefully.
Even if you install only one smoke alarmto
start with,it is worth thinking about buying a Where there are rooms (other than a
model which can belinked to others. Then, when bathroom or WC) on either side of a bedroom, a
you can afford to buy more smoke alarmsor single smoke alarm should sited
be on the ceiling
when circumstances change, such as the in the hall or corridormidway betweenthe doors
addition of young children to the family, more to those rooms.
smoke alarms can easilybe added and linked to
the first. NOTE: If your bungalowis very large and the
corridor orhallway ismore than, say, 22 paces
NOTE: Not allself-containedsmoke alarms are (1 5 metres) long, one smoke alarm may not be
suitable for linking with othersand youshould enough and you should consult your local fire
check with your supplier that theone you are brigade.
buying is suitable for linking in thisway.
If your homeis on more than one level the best
place for a single smoke alarmis in the hallway
above the bottom of the staircase. Thisis
because smokeis likely to be detectable in the
hallway before it reaches the upstairs landing
This dependson thesize and layout of your and bedrooms. But if youcant hear the alarm
home and where you andyour family sleep. The properly in the bedrooms (try the test described
most criticalrequirement for thepositioning of a earlier) youll need to link another smoke alarm

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services
BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988
Appendix H

on the landing. It is a good idea to do this anyway


because smokefrom a fire in a bedroom
upstairs is unlikelyto be detected by a smoke
alarm downstairs.
If youre putting inseveral smoke alarms and
youve put one (or two)between the sleeping
area(s) and living accommodation as described
above, you shouldput the other smoke alarms in
the individual rooms where fire is most likelyto
occur. The living room is the most likely place
for
a fire to start at night, thenthe kitchen (although
its not recommendedto put smoke alarmsin
kitchens - put oneoutside the cooking area
instead) and lastlythe dining room.You should
also consider putting smoke alarmsin any
bedrooms where fires might be likelyto start, for
instance, wherethere is an electrical appliance
such as anelectric blanket or an electric heater,
or where the occupant is a smoker. Youcould
also consider putting smoke alarmsin any rooms
where the occupant maynot be ableto respond
very well to a fire starting inthe room, such as an
elderly or sick person or a very young child.

SOME DOS AND DONTS ON POSITIONINGSMOKE ALARMS

Do makesure your smokealarm is Dont put your smoke alarmin


fixed on theceiling at least 30 cm (1 2
inches) from any wallor light fitting. A
central position is best. If its designed
IXI bathrooms, showerrooms or in
cooking areasor garages where the
smoke alarm may be triggered by
for wall mounting, putit between 15 steam, condensationor fumes.
and 30 cm (6 and 12 inches) belowthe
Dont put your smoke alarm next
to or
ceiling.
directly above heatersor air
Do put your smoke alarm where you conditioning vents.
will be ableto reach it fairly easily-
Dont fix your smoke alarm to
and safely- for regular testing and
surfaces which are normally much
maintenance; not above stairwells,for
warmer or colderthan the restof the
example.
room. These can include uninsulated
Dont put your smoke alarm in any exterior walls and ceilings

IXI room whichtends to get veryhot (a


boiler room forexample) or very cold
(an unheated outhouse).
(temperaturedifferences might stop
smoke from reaching it).

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services 58
STD-BSI B S 5839: P A R T L-ENGL L988 m l b 2 4 b b 9 0734952 274

BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988


Appendix H

LOOKING AFTER YOUR SMOKE WHAT TO DO WHEN THE


ALARM ALARM GOES OFF.. .
All smoke alarms need to be checked o Alert the household andget everyone out
regularlyto make sure they arein good working by the safest route. If you haveto go
order. First you should make surethat thesmoke through a smoke-filled area crawl with
alarm is powered (see underChoosing a smoke your headlow.
alarm). Then youneed to make sure that your o If its safeto do so, shut doors and
smoke alarm will sense smoke properly.A smoke windows to help reduce draughtsthat
alarm which has been madeto the British could fan the fire. Feel eachdoor before
Standard should come with instructions on how opening it - if it is warm or if smoke is
to do this. Onetest isto allow the smoke from a coming throughdont open it - it could
joss-stick or newly-extinguishedtaperto driftup be protecting you from a dangerous
to the smoke alarm from immediately below it. smouldering fire.
As soon as the alarm sounds, fan the smoke
away vigorously to silence it.You should give Alert the neighbours and callthe fire
your smokealarm a proper testonce a month. brigade as soon as possible (dont leave
it to somebody else) giving
the full
For periodic maintenance and servicing, address of the fire.
follow the makers instructions.
Make sure everyone stays outside the
house until the fire brigade arrives and
tells you its safe to go back in.
- people
BE PREPARED Possessions are replaceable
are not.
If you havefollowed the advice in this
booklet you should have a smoke alarm system
which is capable of giving you and your family
WHAT ABOUT FALSE ALARMS?
warning of a fire beforeit spreads. Thiswill give
If, when the alarm goes off, there is no sign
you a better chance of escaping unharmed. The
of smoke or heator noise to indicate that there is
amount of warning will obviously depend on the
fire, the equipment you have chosen andhow a fire you should get your familyinto a place from
well you havelooked after it. However, you may where escapeis easy before you start
investigating. If you feel any signs of heatat the
only havea few minutes to escape so it pays to
have made anescape plan in advance. Everyone, top of any door dont open it. If the alarm has
including children, should know what to do in gone off without apparent causeit may be an
case ofa real fire. indication that the battery in the smoke alarm
needs replacing. Other causes of false alarms
0 Practise walking along your main escape are fumes, steam, dust and even small insects
route withyou family. You may all have inside the detector chamber.
to do it in the dark under very unpleasant
conditions.
0 Plan other safe ways ofescaping from NOW. a

your home if your main


route was blocked
Read the booklet Your Home Fire Safety
by fire orsmoke.
Guide (availablefrom your local fire brigade). It
contains a lot of useful information on how to
prevent fires happening. Make sure in particular
that every member of your family understands
the need to keep downstairs doors shut at night.
There is alsoa companion bookletFire
Extinguishers for the Home available.

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services S9
BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988
Appendix J

Appendix J. Guide to recommendations 5.3 Systemsforthe protection oflife


applicable to specific typesof system (type L)
In addition to the clauses common to all types of system,
J.l General the following clauses and subclauses are applicable to
systems for the protection of life:
Most of the recommendations of this Part of BS 5839 are
relevant to all types of system. This appendix is intended (a) type of system: see 3.3;
to provide a guide to those recommendations which are (b) general design considerations: see 6.3;
appropriate only to certain types of system. (c) audible and visual alarms: see 9.3;
The following clauses are relevant to the design and (d) detector spacing and siting: see clause 13;
installation of all types of system:
(e) power supplies: see 16.5.1.
scope (clause 1);
definitions (clause 2);
exchange of information (clause 4); J.4 Manual alarm systems(type M)
planning schedule (clause 5 ) ;
zones (clause 7); In addition to the clauses common to all types of system,
communications with the fire brigade (clause 8 ) ; the following subclauses are applicable to manual alarm
manual call points (clause 10); systems:
types of detector (clause 11); (a) type of system: see 3.3;
false alarms (clause 14); (b) general design considerations: see 6.3;
control and indicating equipment (clause 15); (c) audible and visual alarms: see 9.3;
cables, wiring and other interconnections (d) control equipment: see 15.2.2 and appendix G;
(clause 17);
(e) power supplies: see 16.6.
(I) radio-linked systems(clause 18);
( m ) ancillary services (clause 19);
(n) radio and electrical interference (clause 20); J.5 Multi-occupancy buildings (X)
(o) workmanship, installation and commissioning
(clauses 21 t o 27); In addition to the clauses common to all types of system,
(P) user responsibilities (clauses 28 and 29). the following subclauses are applicable to multi-occupancy
buildings:
The following clauses are applicable to only some types of
system, or are divided into subclauses applicable to only (a) type of system: see 3.5;
some types of system: (b) exchange of information: see 4.4;
( 1 ) types of system (clause 3); (c) siting of control equipment: see 15.3.6;
(2) general design considerations (clause 6); ( d l power supplies: see 16.7.3.
(3) audible and visual alarms (clause 9);
The following subclauses include recommendations for
(4) application, choice and siting of detectors systems which are to be installed in buildings in multiple
(clauses 12 and 13); occupation:
(5) power supplies (clause 16). (1) communication with the fire brigade: see 8.1;
(2)audible and visual alarms: see 9.1.
J.2 Systems for property protection
(type P) ~ - Staged
1 alarms and phased evacuation
In addition tothe clauses common t o all types of system,
I,, past, theterms 'staged alarms'and'Phased ~ a c ~
the following clauses and subclauses are applicable to lparI,cularly'two.stage alarm' and 'rwo.ohase evacuatioll'l
systems for property protection: havefrequently been confused. 111 t h ! C.OfllCX1 of this
(a) type of system: see 3.2; standard,'staged alarms' refer IO the stages o f alarm (hiddell
alarm. general alert signal, evacuation a l a r m etc.) wl1iCl'
(b) general design considerations: see 6.2; can bc given in a particular area, and 'Phascd evacuation'
(c) audible and visual alarms: see 9.2; l e f e r s 10 the evacuation of the PrenllSes if1 a controtfed
(d) detector spacing and siting: see clause 12; sequence of phases.
AlIho(lg1, staged alarms are usually g i v m IW alarm tlevlces of
(e) power supplies: see 16.5.2.
varl,,lls l y p e s (e.9. coloured IlghlS or 'I)lW)cls' for a
al;lr",, ,l,,,21",ltl(Il,t soul)& o , ar1 ' 1 1 1 ! 1 1 slnll;r' ;ln11 C('I'I'I''I')'IS

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services 60
j STD.BSI BS
"-
5839: P A R T L-ENGL L988
~
m Lb24bb9 0734954 047 m

GI

BEST COPY AVAllABLE


COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards
Licensed by Information Handling Services
A

Publications referred to
Fire tests on building materials and structures
Specifiution for limits and methodsof measurement of radio interference characteristics of household electrical appliances.
portable tools and similar electrical apparatus
BS 1635 Graphical symbols and abbreviations for fire protection drawings
BS 2316 Specification for radiofrequency cables
Part 3 Cable data s h e e t s (metric and imperialunits)
BS 31 16 Specification for automatic fire alarm systems in buildings
.Part 4 Control and indicating equipment
BS 4678 Cable trunking
Part 4 Specification for cable trunking made o f insulating material
BS 4683 Specification for electrical apparatus for explosive atmospheres
BS 5306 Fire extinguishing installations and equipment on premises
Part 1 Hydrant systems. hose reels and foam inlets
Part 3 Code o1 practace for selection. installation and mamtenanceof portable fireextinguishers
8s 5345 Code of practice for the selection, installation and maintenanceof electrical apparatus for use in POtentiallY explosive
atmospheres (other than mining applications or explosive processing and manufacture)
es 5445 Components of automatic fire detectionsystems
Part 5 Heat sensitive detectors - point detectors containinga static element
Part 7 Specification far paint-type smoke detectors using scattered light, transmitted light or ionization

I ES5446
Part 8 Specification for high temperature heat detectors
Specifmion for components of automatic fire alarm systems for resldential premises
Pan 1 Foint-type smoke detactors
BS 6467 Specification for a b k s with thermosetting insulation for electricity supply for ratedvoltages o f up t o and including
I
1 600/1000 V and up to and including 190013300V
8 s 5501 Electrical apparatusfor potentially explosive atmospheres
0s 5588 Fire precautionsin the design and construction of buildings
BS 5750 Quaiity systems
BS 5839 Fire detection and alarm systems for buildings
Part 2 Specificationfor manual call points
?Part 3 SpKifiation for automatic retease mechanisms for certain fire protection equipment
Pan 4 Specification for control and indicaring equipment
Part 5 Specification for optical beam smoke detectors
* BS 5969 Specification for sound level meters
m* B! 6004 Specification for PVC-insulated cables (non-armoured) for electric power and lighting
BS 6007 Specification for rubber-insulated cables for electric power and lighting
BS 6099 Conduits for electrical installations
Section 2.2 Specification for rigid plain conduitsof insulating material
8s 6132 Code of practice forsafe operation of alkaline secondary cells and batteries
BS 6133 Code of practice for safe operation oflead-acid stationary cells and batteries
0s 6207 Specification for mineral-insulated copper sheathedcables with comer conductors
8s 6231 Specification for PVC-insulated cables for switchgear and controlgearwiring
I BS6259 Code of practice for planning and instaltation of sound systems
Code of practicefor fire protectionof electronic data processing installations
BS 6266
BS 6346 Specification for WC-insulated cables for electricity supply
BS 6387 SOccifiution for performance requirements for cables required to maintain circuitintegrity under fire conditions
8s 6467 E l m r i u l apparatus with protectionby enclosure for use in the presence of combustible dusts
8s 6651 code of practice for protection of structures against lightning
0s 6701 codc of practice for imtallationof apparatus intendedfor connection to cartain telecommunicationssystems
Part 1 General recommendations .
0s 6724 Specification for a r m w r e d a b l e sfor electricity supply having thermosetting insulationwith l o w emassion of smoke and
corrosive gases when affectedby fire
0s 6746 Specification for W C insulation andsheath of electric c s M a
Il BS 7629 Specification for thermosetting insulated cables with limited circuit integrity when
affededby fire
BS 8313 Code o f practice for accommodationo f building services in ducts
I C P l W Electrical apvaratus andassociated equipment for use in explosive atmospheres of gas or vapour other than mining
applications
6 IEE Wiring Regulations, Aegubtions for electrical installations, Institutionof Electrical Engineers

Withdrawn. superseded by BS 5839 : Part 4. BEST COPY AVAILABLE


t Referred to in the foreword only.
I Referred to in the forewordonfy. Under revision. to be pubkhed as BS 5588 : Section 1.2.
f Obtainable from the Institution of Electrical Engineers. Sevoy Place, Victoria Embankment. London WC2R 06L.

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services
- ~~

STD-BSI BS 5839: P A R T 1-ENGL L988 m 1624bb9 0734956 91rT 9

A Issue 2,August 1996 BS 5839 :Part 1 : 1988


T h i s British Standard. havingk c n prepwed under the direction of mproduced in any form without the prior p8rmitrionin writing of
the Fire Standards Committee, was publishedundn the authority al.This doesnot preclude the free UK, in the C O U t y Of
of the Boardof BSI and comesinto effect on 31 May 1988 implementing the standard.of necessary details such 8 s svmbols and
i r r . type or grade designations. Enquiriesshould be addressed to
d 0ritish Standards Institution. 1988 the Publications Manager.BSI. Linford Wood. Milton Keynes
First published. as CP 327.4041402.501. September 1951 MK14 6 L E . The numberfor telephone enquiriesis O908 220022
First revision.asCP 1019. May 1972 and for telex 8?5777.
Second revision,as 0s 5839 : Part 1, January 1980 Cantract roquirmmonts. A British Standard doernot purportto
Third revision May 1988 include all the necessary provisionsof a contract.Users of British
ISBN O 580 16559 O Standards are responsiblefor their correct 8pplic8tion.
The following BSI references relateto the work on t h i s standard:
Committee reference FSMll2 Draft for comment 86136204 DC Revisionof British Standirds. eritish Standards arenvird, when
necessary. by the issue eitherof amendments or of revised editions.
It ir imponant thm usors of British Sundud. should ueorUin that
British Standards Instirution. Incorporated by Royal Charter.BSI is thq are in possessionof the latost amondmonts or oditions.
the independent nationalbody for the preparation of British
Automatic updatingservice. BSI provider an economic, individual
Standards. It is the UK member of the International Orprnization and automatic standards updating service called PLUS.Details are
for Standardization andU K sponsor of the British National
available from BSI Enquiry Sectionat Milton Keynes. telephone
Cammitree of the International Electrotechniul Commission.
o908 221 166, telex 825777.
ln addition to the preparation and promulgation of standards. BSI
offers specialist services including the provision of information Information on a41 BSI publicationsis in the 8SI C.Uloguc.
through the BSI Library and Standardline Dat.brrc: Technical Help wpplemented eachmonth by BSI Nem which is JV8il8bk to
to Exporters: and other services. Adviceu n k obtained from the subscribing membersof BSI and gives detailsof new publications.
Enquirv Section.BSI. Milton Keynes MK14 6LE. telephone revisions. amendmentsand withdrawn standards. Anyperson who,
O908 221166. telex 825777. when makinguw of a British standard. encounters an inaccuracy or
Cepyright. Users of British Standardsare reminded that copyright ambiguity, is requestedto notify BSI without delay in order that
subsists in all BSI oublicatoons. No part of this publicarlonmay be the matter maybe Investigated and appropriate action taken.

_..
Committees responsiblefor this British Standard
The preparattotrof this Bratash Standard was entrustcdby the Fire Electrocal Contractors' Association
Standards Committee1FSMI-I to Technical CommitteeFSM/12. Elearocal Instatlation Equipment Manufactured Association
upon which the following bodies were represented: (BEAMA Ltd.I
British Fire ProtectionSvslems Associalion Ltd. Fire Insurers' Research and Tesring Organization (FIRTO)
Fire Offices Committee
British Fire Services' Association
Britah Telrommuniatiom plc Fire Protection Association
Home Office
Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers
Institution of Electrical Engineers
Chief Jnd Assistant Chief Fire Officers' Association
Institution of Fire Engineers
&partment of Health and Social Security Ministry of Defence
Department of the Environment IBuiMing Resaarch Establishment. National Inspection Councilfor Electrical Installation Contracting
Fire Research Station) Royal Instituteof British Architects
Dapartmont of the Environment Property Services Agencyl Society of Fire Protection Engineers
Dapartment of Transport (Marine Directorate) Trades Union Congress

Amendments issued since publication


Amd. No. I Date o f issue I Text affected
~~~~

6317 January 1991 Indicated by a line in the margin .

6374 May 1992 Indicated by a line in the margin

9257 August 1996 Indicated by a double line in the margin -5-b~c3-- -C;; c- 7-9 L

British Standards Institution . 2 Park Street London W1A 2BS Telephone 071-629 9000 . Telex 266933

FSMIl2

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services
Amendment No. 1,
published and effective from 3 1 January 1991
to BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988

Fire detection and alarm systems for buildings


Part 1. Code of practice for system design,
installation and servicing

Revised text
"""""""""""""""""""""""""-

M D 0317 Foreword
January 1991
In item (h), line 2, delete 'will be' and substitute 'is further'.
After item (i), insert the following new item.
'(k) The effect on manual call pointsof the removal of
detectors from their bases i s included.'
In paragraph 7, line 8, delete 'and to CP 3 : Chapter I V :
Part 1'.

AMD 0317 Na N definitions 2.21, 2.22, 2.23and 2.24


k n u r r y 1991
After 2.20 insert the following four new definitions.
'2.21 condition. The condition of a control equipment.
NOTE. For example, the control equipment may be in the normal
condition, the fault condition, the alarm condition, efc.
2.22 phased evacuation. A system of evacuation in which
different parts of the premises are evacuated in a controlled
sequence of phases, those parts of the premises expected to be
a t greatest risk being evacuated first. (See appendix K.)
NOTE. A phased evacuation will normally require at least e two-stage
alarm system.
2.23 staged alarm rystam. An alarm system in which two or
more stages of alarm can be given within a given area. (See
appendix K.)
NOTE l . Examples of staged alarm systems are a Iwo-stage system
capable of giving 'alert' or 'evacuate' signals. or a three-stage alarm
system capable of Qiving'staff alarm', 'alert' or 'evacuate' signals.
NOTE 2. The normal condition, under which no alarm is given, is
not counted as a stage of alarm
NOTE 3.In this standard'in order to avoid confusion:
(al the term 'stage' is uwd to describa the different stages of alarm
in one area of the premises;
Ib) the term 'phase' is used in describing the sequence o f phases of
evacuation of different areas of the premises.
2.24 state. The outputs of a detector.'

Clause 4.2 Action in the event of an alarm of fire


After paragraph 1, insert the following new paragraph.
'ln particular, i f the preferreb mode of evacuation of the
building is such that different actions may be required in
different areas of the building, then the alarm system should
be so designed that the necessary commands, messages or
signals can be distributed easily. In many cases proper control
of evacuation will require a system capableof giving speech

BEST COPY AVAILABLE


COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards
Licensed by Information Handling Services ~ ~~~
STD-BSI BS 5839: PART L-ENGL L988 m Lb24669 0734958 792 m

messages (see 9.12). The area in which the fire ir first detected
will usually determine the initial distribution of alarm signals.
The relationship between the location of the fire and the
alarm distribution should be carefully definedand specified
prior to the design of the system, since it may reflect strongly
on the facilities requiredin the control equipment and on the
wiring arrangement. For example, a high building using a
phased evacuation schemecould require an evacuation signal
in some areas, while in others only an alert signal wouldbe
given initially, and it is essential that the control equipment
and the sounder distribution network is capable of providing
this differentiation. Particular care should be taken in parts
of the building where signals relating to more than one area
may be audible (such as stair enclosures). T h i s code is concer-
ned only with the design of the fire alarm system; the require-
ments for the evacuationscheme should be determined in
consultation with the relevant authorities (see also the relevant
Part of BS 55881.'

AMQ 6317 Clause 6.6.2 Circuits containing fire detectors


k n u a r y 1891
In paragraph 5 delete entirely the first three lines and
substitute the following.
'Where detectors are designed to be removable from their bases,
with or without locking devices, removal of any detectorh)
from the circuit should not affect the operation of any manual
call p o i ~ t . '
In paragraph 5, line 4, delete 'during' and substitute 'During'.

AMD 6317 Clause 6.6.3 Circuits containing fire alarm sounders


January 1991
Delete entirely the existing clause and substitute the following.
'6.6.3 Circuits containingfire alarm sounders. I f alarm
sounders use the same wiring as detectors, then no alarm
sounder should be affected bythe removal of any detector.
Any sounder that is necessary in order to reach the audibility
levels recommended in clause 9 should be capable of electrical
disconnection from the alarm soundercircuit only by the use
of a special tool and the disconnection should generatea fault
warning a t the control and indicating equipment.If such alarm
sounders are located so that they are easily accessible, consid.
eration should be given to the effects of malicious interfer.
ence.'

AMD 6317 Clause 6.9 Program controlled systems


January 1881
In paragraph 1, line 6, delete 'of the remainder'.

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services
AMD 6317 New clause 6.1 1
January 1981
After 6.10 insert the following new clause.
'6.11 Devietionr from the recommendations of the code
The recommendations of this code are intended to be suitable
for the majority of normal applications. There will, however,
be a few applicationsin which the recommendations maybe
unsuitable, and in which deviations from the code may be
necessary. Before agreement of any deviation by interested
parties (see 4.31, consideration shouldbe made of at least
the following factors:
(a) the quantity and type of contents, including the ease
of ignition, heat release rate, and probable rateof fire
growth and spread;
(b) the probable false alarm ratesof different types of
detector;
(c) the methodof transmission of fire products from the
fire to the detector, includingany possible adverseenviron-
mental effects;
(dl the type of occupant, including discipline, fitness and
training;
(e) the attendance time of fire-fighting forces (including
both the local authority fire brigade and any industrial
fire brigade);
(f) the degree of fire protection given by other methods
(sc-h as partial sprinkler protection);
(gl &;)y needs for special facilitios for control or indication;
(h) any special provisions (either already existing or likely
to be needed) for maintained power supplies;
(J the type of work carried out in the building (for
example, hot, smoky or dusty operations may need
special detection provision);
(i) any special requirementsfor alarm devices, either dueto
the type of occupant or to the sound environmentin the
building;
(k) the fire routine for the building.
NOTE. All deviations should be listed in the installation and
commissioning certificate (see appendix BI.'

AMD 0317 Clause 7.2 Recommendations for the size and number
January 1991 of zones
After item (h), insert the following new item.
'(i) In premises having phased evacuation schemes, the
zoning of fire detectors should be compatiblewith the
evacuation procedures.
Particular care shouldbe taken in enclosures common to
more than one floor, such es stairways and atria (see
also 4.21.'

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services
" --------""""""""""""""""-"------
AMD 6317 New clause 7.4
January 199 1
After 7.3 insert the following new clause.
'7.4 Zoning of fire detectors
Zoning of fire detectors shouldbe such that upon activationof
any device the fire alarm system will respond in the correct
manner. This is particularly important where phased
evacuation is involved, as evacuation procedures could be
adversely affected if incorrect alarm signals were given.
For example, careful consideration shouldbe given to the type
of alarm that should result from the operation of fire detectors
located in positions which may not be related directly to that
of the fire incident, such as in atria, stair enclosures, shafts,
ducts, etc.'

AMD 6317 9.4.6


clause
New
January 1981
After 9.4.5 insert the following new clause.
'9.4.6 Intelligibility. Any speechmessage carrying information
or instructions relevant t o fire action shouldbe intelligible
above the background noisein any part of the building to
which the message is addressed. Where the level of sound of
this message falls below that recommendedin 9.4.1, the
message should bo preceded for at least6 S by an aftention-
drawing signal, having a t least the loudness recommended
by 9.4.1 and which is used only as a fire warning signal.
Where the fire action in the building depends on the recep-
tion O verbal messages, the attentiondrawing signal should
not normally last for more than 10 s.
NOTE. Advice on planning and installation of such systems 16 @ven In
BS 6259.'

AMD 6317 Clause 9.5 Grouping of fire alarm sounders


January 1981
At the end of the existingtext insert the following new
paragraph.
'Where fire alarm soundersare grouped, the control equipment
should have facilities both forcontrolling each group
individually and for sounding an alarm (either alert or
evacuate) in all groups simultaneously. The wiring should be
so arranged that failure of a sounder or of sounder wiring in
one group will notcause tha failure of any other group.'

Clause 9.12 Audible alarms by intercommunication


or public address equipment
In item (el, line 2, after 'clause 17' insert 'and are monitored
in accordance with 6.6'.
After item (e), insert the following new item.
'(h) That where the fire action in the building depends on a
continuing ability to give signals over the public address
system, consideration shouldbe given to the consequences
of failure of amplifiers, tone generators, synthesizers, pre.
recorded taper, etc., and to any consequential need for
duplication. In general, systems using moving parts (such
as taper) should be considured as less reliuble than other
systems.'
Delete entirely item (3) and substitute the following.
'(3)That during fire alarm conditionsall audio input sources
are automatically disconnected except the speech modules
(or equivalent message generators) whichgive the warning, or
those microphones designated ar fire microphones. These
should be retained in circuit so that announcements and instructions
relating IO the emergency can be given.
4

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services
At least one fire microphone should normallybe sited near
to the control equipment. It may be necessary for
additional fire microphone positionsto be provided at
places well separated from th5 first. In such cases the
system should be so designed that it is not possible for
messages from more than one microphone, speech module
or message generator to be broadcast simultaneously.'
-------"""""""""""""""""""""~
AMD 6317 Clause 9.14 Use of the fire alarm sound for other
January 1981 purposes
Delete entirely thefirst sentence and substitute the following.
'ln general, fire alarm sounds should be used for other purposes
only if the response required is identical to that which would
be required in a fire, .e. immediate evacuation of the area in
which the alarmis sounding by theuse of any route designated
as a fire exit. If any other response is required then fire alarm
sounds should not be used unless accompanied by other
information.'

AMD 6317 Clause 10.1 General


January 1991
In paragraph 3, line 4, delete '8 S' and substitute '3 S'.
Delete entirely the existing note and substitute thefollowing.
'NOTE. A maximum delay of 8 s applied to systems installed before
1 January 1890.'

AMD 6317 Clause 10.2 Siting


January 1991
Between the first and second sentences, insert the following.
'(Special consideration may needto be given for staged alarm
systems (see 7.3 and 9.91.)'

AMD 6317 Clause 13.2.2Protection of escape routes


January 1881
In the final line, delete 'adjacent' and substitute 'adjoining'.

.........................

AMD 6317 Clause 13.3.2Smoke-sensitivedetectors


January 1891
Delete the existing clausetitle and substitute 'Point andbeam
type smoke-sensitive detectors.'
In line 2, between 'with' and 'BS 5445 : Part 7', insert
'BS 5839 : Part 5,'.

AMD 6317 Clause 13.4 Siting and spacing


January 1981
In line 6, delete 'adjoining rooms' and substitute 'rooms
opening onto the corridors'.
""""""""""""""""""""""""-

6317 AMD Clause 13.5.1 General


January 1991
In the final line, delete 'adjoining rooms' and substitute 'rooms
opening onto the escape routes'.

AMD 8317 Clause 14.2 Heat detectors


January 1991
In paragraph 2, line 6, delete the semi.colon and substitute
a colon.

.
COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards
Licensed by Information Handling Services
STDmBSI BS 5839: PART 1-ENGL 1788 m 1624669 0734962 113 m

- ----"""""""""""""""""""""--

AMO 6317 Clause 14.6 Time related systems


January 1091
Delete entirely items (1 to ( 4 ) and substitute the following.
'(1) In an analogue detector system it might be possible to
increase the alarm thresholds (.e. decrease the sensitivity
of the system to fire) during workinghours. Outside
working hours the threshold mightbe reduced (.e. the
sensitivity increased).
(2) Heat detectors employed during working hours could
be
supplemented by smoke detectors outside working hours.
(3) During working hours the system could be so arranged
that initiation of the alarm conditionby automatic detec-
tors does not immediately result in the soundingof the
alarm of fire: a responsible person wouldbe alerted to
investigate the alarm, although the alarm soundersmight be
automatically sounded after a preset period. However, the
sounders should sound immediatelyin response to any
manual operation.
(4) As a last resort, the system could be switched to manual
detection during working hours,and be switched back to
automatic detection outside working hours.'
""""""""""""""""""""""""-

AMO 6317 Clause 14.7 Transmission delay units


January 1091
In item (b), line 4, after '2 min' insert 'unless agreement has
been reached to delay the sounding of the fire alarm oninitia-
*ion of the fire condition by automatic detectors (see item (3)
(If 14.6)'.
In item (dl, line 1, delete 'either' and substitute 'any', and
in line 4, after 'immediate transmission of the alarm' insert
'and should sound thefire alarm if not sounded immediately
on initiation of the alarm condition (see item (b))'.
"""""""""_"""""""""""""""
AMD 6317 New clause 15.2.3
January 1891
After 15.2.2 insert the following new clause.
'15.2.3 Facilities. The facilities provided by the control
equipment should meet any special requirements for the
premises; in particular, they should satisfy the requirements
defined in 4.2 for action in the event of an alarm of fire.'

AMD 6317 Clause 17.2 Applications


January 1891
In item (a), in the penultimate line, delete 'two-state' and
substitute 'twodage'.
""""""""""""""""""""""""

AMO 631 7 Clause 17.3 Recommended cable types


January 1801
In item (b), line 2, delete 'AWS' and substitute 'AWX'.

AMO 0317 Clause 17.4.2 Applications requiring prolonged


January 1991 operation during a fire
In line 6 delete 'direct', and between item (b) 131 and the
final paragraph insert the following note.
'NOTE.The mechanical protection of cables by ConduII, ducltng or
trunkin0 should not be conridered to Qive proteclion 0gainSt fire,'

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services
S T D - B S I B S 5 8 3 9 : P A R T L-ENGL 1788 1b24bb9 0 7 3 4 9 6 3 0 5 T m

AMD 6317 Clause 17.10 Segregation of wiring


January 1991
In item (d), line 3, delete 'the BASEC scheme' and substitute
'any scheme (such as the BASEC scheme)'.

AMD 6317 Clause 29.2.1 General


January 1991
At the end of the existing text, insert the following new
paragraph.
'ln some cases i t may be desirable for special facilities to be
incorporated in the system to assist in servicing, e.g. a low-level
'pip tone' can be used in some sounder systems to enable the
sounders to be checked without undue disturbance of the
occupants. Where synthesized or recorded speech messages are
used, a monitor speaker near the control equipmentmay
enable the message to be checked without operating the main
sounders.'

AMD 6317 Clause 29.2.4 Weekly attention by the user


January 1891
In item (a), in lines 2, 5, 6, 9 and 10, delete 'circuit' and
substitute 'zone'.

AMD 6317 New appendix K


Januarv 1981
After appendix J, insert the following new appendix.

'Appendix K. The uses of staged alarm


systems

K.l Staged alarms and phased evacuation


In the past, the terms 'staged alarms' and 'phased evacuation'
(particularly 'two-stage alarm' and 'two-phase evacuation')
have frequently been confused. In the context of this
standard, 'staged alarms' refer to the stages of alarm (hidden
staff alarm, general alert signal, evacuation alarm, etc.)which
can be given in a particular area, and 'phased evacuation'
refers to the evacuation of the premises in a controlled
sequence of phases.
Although staged alarms are usually given by alarm devices of
various types (e.g. coloured lights or 'bleepers' for a staff
alarm, intermittent sounds for an alert signal and continuous
sounds for the evacuation signal).it i s possible for the same
functions to be performed by a public address system. In this
case the s t a f f alarm could be given by a 'coded' message and
the alert and evacuation signals could be given as 'plain
language' messages. In some cases the use of voice messages
may be considered as giving a greater degree of control while
simultaneously allowing the transfer of better information.
The use of phased evacuation implies at least one phase in
which people near the fire are warned to evacuate their area
while people further from the fire are only alerted. Thus in the
simplest type of phased evacuation the first phaseis of
movement only of people a t immediate risk, while the second
phase is of evacuation of the remainder of the premises. Such
a type has sometimes been referred to as a 'two-stage system',
IJUt this is now deprecated because of the possible confusion
with 'two-stage alarms'. A more complex type of phased
evacuation (common in large office buildings) involves a
greater number of phases of evacuation, possibly depending on
the height of the building, the available stairs and the fire
separation within the building.

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services
K.2 Conditions in which staged alarm
systems can be used

Staged alarm systems may be found convenient in a wide range


of applications. Four such applications are as follows.
(a) Premises in which only a restricted part will be a t risk
from a fire, although alert signals or staff alarms maybe
necessary in some other parts. For example, the premises
could consist of a range of separate buildings usinga
common alarm system;an evacuation signal could be given
in one building while staff alarms in other buildings alerta
works fire brigade.
(b) Premises in which phased evacuation is to be used.
(c) Premises in which staff away from the fire area are
required to perform certain functions (suchas shut-down
procedures) before leaving the building.
(d) Premises in which the fire procedure allows for the
investigation of alarms from automatic fire detectorsprior
to the initiation of evacuation. In some premises the
increased risk due to the delays associated with such a
procedure might be acceptable in return for a reduction in
the inconvenience due to an unduly high frequency of
false alarms (see 14.6).'

AMD 6317 Publications referred to


January 1881

Delete entirely the entry for 6s 800 and substitute the following.
'ES 800 Specllfcation for limits and methods of measurement of radIo intarlarenca charscteristics of household elecfrlcal appliances.
portable tools and similar electrical apparatus'
In the entry for BS 5446, line 1, delete 'purposes' and substitute 'premises'.
Delete entirely the entry for ES 5467 and substitute the following.
'ES 5467 Specificatlon for cables with thermosetting insulation for electricity supply for rated voltages o f up to and including
600/1000V and up to and includfng 1900/3300V '
In the entry for 6s 6588, delete the footnote mark.
Insert the following new entry in the correct numerical order.
'ES 0269 : 1882 Code of practice for planning end installation of round systems'
Delete entirely the reference to CP3 : Chapter I V : Part 1.

9101-2-1.2k-8

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services
--m
" Amendment No. 2
AMD 6874

n - m
m published and effective from 1 May 1992
to BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988
Fire detection and alarm systems for buildings
Part 1. Code of practice for system design,
installation and servicing

Revised text

A M D 6874 Clause 6.6.2 Circuits containing fire detectors (as amended by


May 1992
Amendment No. 1)
Delete paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 and substitute the following.
'6.6.2Circuits containing fire detectors. The wiring arrange-
ment of the system should be such that:
( 1 ) if separate circuits are used for each zone, then a fault
or faults on one circuit cannot affect any other circuit;
(2) if any circuit is used for more than one zone, then a
single fault on that circuit cannot remove protection from
an area greater than that allowed under 7.2(a) to (d) for
a single zone;
(3) if a circuit is used for more than one zone and multiple
faults within one fire compartment could remove protection
from an area greater than that allowed under 7.2(a) to (dl
for a zone, then the circuit within that compartment is
suitably protected (see 17.15);
(4) two simultaneous faults should not remove protection
from anarea greater than 10 O00 m2.'

A M D 6874 Clause 6.6.3 Circuits containing fire alarmsounders (as amended by


May 1992 Amendment No. 1 )

NOTE. The purpose of the amendment to this clause IS to correct an error introduced by
Amendment No. l .

A t the end of the existing text insert the following.

'The wiring of sounder circuits should be so arranged that,


in the event of a short circuit developing in any part of the
wiring of sounder circuits during a fire, a minimum of one
alarm sounder will continue to sound. This minimum
provision should ensure that a general alarm can be given
a t the start of a fire and for a significant period thereafter,
and that in the event of the fire burning through a sounder
cable, the alarm will be maintained a t a t least one point in
the building, usually near the control equipment.
The minimum sounder circuit provision does not ensure
that the reduced alarm is audible throughout the building.
In some installations the minimum provision against loss
of signal may not be sufficient. If audibility ofthe alarm
throughout the building is required to be maintained even
in the event of attack by fire on the sounder cables, then
either:
(a) cables likely t o resist fire for a considerable time
should be used; or
(b) a greater number of separate sounder circuits
should be provided; or
(c) sounder cables protected against cable faults
(see 6.6.5) should be used.'

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services
""""""""""""""

AMD 6874 Clause 9.12 Audible alarms by intercommunication or


M a y 1992
public address equipment

In item (g), line 5, after 'ensured', insert 'and reference should


be made to BS 7443'.

In item (2),line 4, change 'perods' to 'periods'

AMD 6874 Appendix B. Model certificate of installation and commissioning


May 1992 of a fire alarm system

In the paragraph commencing 'ln accordance with


BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988, subclause 26.1,' insert a comma
after 'supplied'.

9205-1-2k-B FSM/12

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services
AMD 9257

Amendment No. 3
published and effective from 15 August 1996
to BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988

Fire detection and alarmsystems for buildings


Part 1. Code of practice for system design, installationand servicing

Instructions for replacement of pages


Where only oneof the two pages on each sheet has been updated, the other pagehas been reprinted

Front cover and inside front cover Replace the pages


amdb Insert the pages immediately after the insidefront cover
17 and 18 Replace the pages
35 and 36 Replace the pages
Inside back cover and back cover Replace the pages
You may wish to retain the superseded pages, e.g. for reference purposes,if so please mark them Superseded by
issue X , where X is the appropriate issue number. If you do not wish to retain the superseded pages, please
destroy them.

*
m
*

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services
BRITISH STANDARD BS 5839 :
Part 1 : 1988
Incmpomting
Amendment Nos. 1,2
and 3

Fire detection and alarm


systems for buildings
Part 1. Code of practice for system
design, installation and servicing

*
Kn
*

NO COPYING WITHOUT BSI PERMISSION EXCEPTAS PERMITTED BY COPYRIGHT LAW

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services
BS5839:Part1:1988

Foreword

This Part of dS 5839 has been prepared under the direction ( f ) Monitoring of circuitsconnecting detectors, sounders,
of the Fire Standards Committee. It is a revision of call points, power supplies and control and indicating
BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1980, which is withdrawn. equipment is recommended.
In addition to the existing BS 5839 : Parts 2, 3,4 and 5, (9) With the exception of control equipment for small
a specification for line-typeheat detectors is in preparation. manual systems, (see appendix G), all recommendations
Parts of EN 54 'Components of automatic fire detection relating to the specification of control equipment have
systems' (in preparation by Technical Committee been transferred to BS 5839 : Part 4.
CEN/TC 72, Automatic fire detection systems. of the (h) The maximum delay in the response to the operation
European Committee for Standardisation)will be published
as Parts of BS 5445. Standards prepared by subcommittee
of manual call points hasbeen altered to 8 S, and is further I
reduced to 3 S from 1 January 1990.
lSO/TC 21/SC 3, Fire detectionand alarm systems. (i) Following recent research, the provision of detectors
(of Technical Committee TC 21, Equipment for fire
in rooms adjoining escape routes is now recommended,
protection and fire fighting, of the International
particularly for sleeping accommodation.
Organization for Standardization) that are accepted as
British Standards will be included in BS 5445 if adopted
(i) More detailed recommendations on the avoidance of
false alarms are included.
by CEN, and in ES 5839 if not.
( k ) The effect on manual call points of the removal of
As far as possible, this Part of BS 5839 takes account of
the work of CEN/TC 72 and ISO/TC 21/SC 3.
detectorstheir
from bases is included. I
Current legislation requires that an effective means of
The major part of this revision was updating the '
giving warning in case of fire be provided in certain
recommendations and important changes made are as
premises. The fire authority and the Health and Safety
follows.
Executive will advise on legislation that applies to any
(a) Classifications have been introduced to allow the
building. Consultation with the appropriate authority is
specification of system type by principal purpose (i.e.
advisable and may be obligatory.
life or property protection) and extent of protection
provided h e . entire premises, areas of special risk only, The protection of property with a fire detection and alarm
or escape routes only). system may permit an insurance company to offer a
reduced premium provided that the system is acceptable.
(b) Recommendations have been included to cover
Early consultationwith the insurer is advisable.
systems utilizing recent advances in technology, e.g. the
use of microprocessors, analogue detector signalling, Fire protectionshould not be confused with fire precautions,
multi-function indicators and radio-linked systems. and the provision ofa fire detection and alarm system
should never be regarded as giving complete protection
(c) Advances in technology have led to systems in which
against fire. In particular, it should not be used as an excuse
circuits serve more than a single zone: recommendations
for reducing measures intended to prevent the Occurrence
have been incorporated to restrict the effect of faults in
of fire. For detailed recommendations on fire precautions
such circuits.
in buildings, reference should be made to the relevant Parts
(d) Recommendations on self-contained smoke alarms of BS 5588
for domestic use are no longer included in the body of
It has been assumed in the drafting of thisPart of BS 5839
this Part of BS 5839.
t h a t the execution of i t s provisions will be entrusted to
(e) Consideration has been given to problems which appropriately qualifiedand experienced persons.
might arise from the combination intoone system of
components from several manufacturers. Compliance with a British Standard does not of itself
confer immunity from legal obligations.

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services
Summary of pages
The following table identifes the current issue of each page. Issue 1 indicates that a page has been introduced
for the first time by amendment. Subsequent issue numbers indicatean updated page. Double sidelining on
replacement pages indicates the most recent changes (amendment, addition, deletion).

Page Issue Page Issue


Front cover 2 18 to 34 original
Inside front cover original 35 2
a 1 36 to 62 original
b blank Inside back cover 2
1 to 16 Original Back cover 2
n
17

O BSI 1996 a
COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards
Licensed by Information Handling Services
Issue 2,August 1996 BS 5839 :Part 1 : 1988
Section two

Where the transmitted alarmis a voice message the 10 Manual call points
following should be ensured and reference should be made
to BS 7443. 10.1 General
(1) That a suitable alarm (either pre-recorded or Manual call points should complywith BS 5839 : Part 2.
synthesized) is immediately and automatically
transmitted onthe receipt of a fire signal; this It is important t h a t manual call points are clearly
transmission shouldnot depend onthe presence of identifiable and simpleto use without the need for
an operator. instructions as to their method of operation. The method
of operation of all manual cal points in an installation
(2) That the time interval between successive messages
should be identical unless there is a special reason for
does not exceed 30 S, and that 'fill-in'signals similarto
differentiation. Ifnecessary a striker shouldbe provided
those ofconventional sounders areused wherever adjacent to the call point to facilitate breakingthe frangible
periods of silence might otheNvise exceed10 s. cover.
(3)That during fire alarm conditions alt audio input
sources are automatically disconnected except the A person operatinga manual call point should not be left in
speech modules (or equivalent message generators) doubt as to the success of the operation.The delay
wb-kh give the warning, or those microphones benNeen operationof a call point and the giving of the
designated as fire microphones. These should be general alarmshould therefore not exceed 3 s.
r e t a i n e d in cirarit so that announcements and NO TE. A maximumdelay of 8 S appliedto insIalledbefore
1January 1990.
instructions relatingto the emergency canbe given.
At least one fire microphone should normally be sitedIf the design of the system is such that the indication of
near to the control equipment R may be necessaryfor the alarm could be unwittingly cancelled at the call point
additionalfire microphonepositkmto be provided at after the glass has first been broken, then the delay
placeswelIseparatedfromthefirst.Insuchcasesthe benNeen operation of the c a l l point and the giving of the
should be so designed that it is not possible general alarm shouldnot exceed 1 s.
for mesagesfrom more than one microphone, speech Requirements additional to those of BS 5839 :Part 2 may
madule or message generatorto be broadcast be necessary where call points are to be used in flammable
simultaneously. or explosive atmospheres(see 651, or where frangible
(4) That all voice messages are clear, short, unambiguous element fragmentsare objectionable, such as in food
and, as far as practicable, preplanned. preparation areas.
* (5)That the level of sound in the building complies
109 S i n g
m
* with the recommendationsof 9.2 for property
. . . .protectiol,
Manual call points shouldbe located on exit routes andin
systems, or 9.3 for life protection systems.
particular on the floor landings of stairways and at exits to II
Where the transmitted alarmis not a voice message, i t s the open air. (Special consideration may need to be given
audibility should complywith the recommendationsof 9.2
for property protectionsystems or 9.3 for life protection
for staged alarm systems ( s e e 73 and 9-91.)They should be
so located that,to give the alarm, o persan inthe
I
cystems. premises need travel more than 30 m.It may be necessary
tohavetraveldistancebtoacallpointm~l~than30m
9.13 Limitation of alarm information where the expeued occupantsof the buildingam likely to
ln some systems much informationabout both the state of be slow in movement or where potentiallyhazardous
thc system and anyfire condition is available. It is conditions exist.e.g. in dose proximityto callulosespray
important that, in order to avoid confusion,the amount of booths The adion to be taken in the event of fire may
information given is limited to t h a t which is both necessary make the provisionof additional manual call points
dsufficient -v-
In general, call points should & fixed at a height of 1.4 m
9.14 Usa of the fire alarm sound for other purposes above the floor, at easily accessible, well illuminatedand
In general, fire alarm sounds should
be used for other conspicuous positionsfree from obstruction.Manual call
purposes only if the response requiredis identical to that points shouldbe sit@ against a contrasting backgroundto
which would be requiredin a fire, .e. immediate assist in easy recognition. They maybe flush mountedin
evacuation of the area in whkh the alarm is sounding by locations where they will be seen readily, but where they
the use of any route designated as a fire exit. If any other will be viewed from the side (e.g. in corridors) they should
response is required then fire alam sounds shouldnot be be surface mounted or semi-recessed in order to present a
used unless accompanied by other information. However, side profile area of not less than 750 mm'.
as an established exception, it may be permissible in
schods to us8 a coded signal of short durationto indicate 10.3 Manual call points in automatic systems
the start or finish of predeterminedperiods. The duration of If manual and automatic devices are to be installed in the
the coded signal should not exceed 5 s.Where new same buildingfor the purpose of providinga general alam
systems are b eniginstaled,or where sounders arebeing
of fire, then they maybe incorporated into a single system;
tem,the use of sounders capable of delivering several zoning of such s y s t e m s is covered in 7.3,and the connection
distinct sounds should
be considered, with one of the
of call pointsto circuits containingfire detectors is covered
sounds being reservedfor fire alarmuse.

17
COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards
Licensed by Information Handling Services
~ ~ ~ ~~

S T D = B S I B S 5839: PART II-ENGL II988 D IIb24bb9 0 7 3 4 9 7 2 Ob2 m


6s 5839 :Part 1 : 1988
Section two

in 6.6.2. Where manual call points are incorporated in an as requiring a detector response equivalent to that of a detector
containing the separate elements. Particularly in analogue output
automatic system the delay between the operationof the
detectors, the response of a single temperature sensor can be
call pointand the indicationsof alarm should complywith electrically modified to produce the desired detector response.
the recommendations of 10.1.
11.3 Smoke detectors
There are two commonly usedclasses of detectors for
11 Types offire detector detectingsmoke.
(a) Ionization chamber smoke detectors. These are
11.lGeneral based on the fact thatthe electric current flowing
Fire detectors are designed to detect one or moreof three between electrodesin an ionization chamber is reduced
characteristics of a fire: smoke, heat and radiation (flame). when smoke particles enter the chamber.
No one type of detectoris the most suitablefor all (b) Opticar smoke detectors.These operate by detecting
applications and thefinal choice will depend on individual the scattering or absorption oflight by smoke particles.
circumstances. It will often be useful to employ a mixture There are 'point' type smoke detectors that detect smoke
of different types of detector. a t one position and which may be based on optical or
Most, if not all, fire detectors are affected not only by the ionization chamber principles, aspirating smoke detectors
level of the detected phenomenabut also by the behaviour in which air is taken from a number of positionsto a central
of the phenomenawith time. In some cases this is deliberate, detector and 'beam' type smoke detectors working on the
as with detectors respondingto rate-of-change of optical obscuration principle.Beam detectors are effectively
phenomena; in others it i s the effect, for instance, of delays line detectors since they can detect the presence of smoke
in smoke entry or of thermallags. In systems using analogue in only a small part ofthe beam.
detectors, the time response of the system can often be Some optical beam smoke detectors can also sense thermal
controlled or modified by the processing softwarein the turbulence from a fire by detecting the refractionof the
control equipment. beam a t turbulent interfaces betweenhot and cold air.
All fire detectors will respond to some extent to Point smoke detectors should complywith BS 5445 :Part 7
phenomena other than fire; reducing the incidence of suchor, for residential applications, BS 5446 : Part 1 (excluding
false alarms is covered in clause 14. self-contained smoke alarms). Smoke detectors (other than
self-contained smoke alarms) complyingwith BS 5446 :
11.2 H a t detectors Part 1 may also be suitable for an industrial or commercial
There are two main types of heat-sensitive detector. Oneis environment that is similar to t h a t present in residential
t h e 'point' type of detector respondingto the temperature premises. Optical beam smoke detectors should comply
of the gases in the immediate vicinity of a single point. The with BS 5839 : Part 5.
other is the 'line' type of detector which respondsto the In an aspirating smoke detector, the tubefrom the
temperature of the gases in the vicinity of a line (not protected space to the central detector may have
necessarily straight). Line detectors can be integrating or one or more holes through which smoke may be drawn.
non-integrating: in the integrating type the response to Design of the system should takeinto account any dilution
temperature at one point on the lineis modified by the of smoke takeninto one hole by clean air taken into others.
temperature of the remainder of the line, while in the non- The amountof air entering each holeis usually small, and
integrating type the response to temperature a t one point should not be considered as modifying air or smokeflows
is independent of temperaturesa t other points onthe line. within the protectedspace. In general, each hole may be
In both main types (point and line) there are two main considered as a separate point smoke detector, andsiting
subdivisions. of t h e holes may be based on the siting requirements for
(a) Fixed remperature (static) elements. These are point smoke detectors. The system should be such that
designed to operate when they reacha preselected separate signals are obtainedfrom each zone. The design
threshold temperature. and sizingof the tubing system should complywith the
(b) Rate-of-rise of temperature elements. These are manufacturer's recommendations.
designed to operate when their temperaturerises
abnormally quickly. 11.4 F lame detectors
Point heat detectors should complywith BS 5445 : Part 5, Flame detectors detectultraviolet and/or infra-red
except in high temperatureareas (see 11.5.2 and 12.3.2). radiation. Both typesuse radiation-sensitive cells that 'see'
where heat detectorscomplyingwith BS 5445 : Part 8 the fire either directly or throughbuilt-in lenses or
should be used. reflectors.
Heat detectorscomplyingwith BS 5445 will always have lnfra-redflame detectors are intended to respond to the
fixed temperature elements, and mayadditionally contain flickering radiation emitted by the diffusion type of flame
rate-of-rise elements. Heat detectors not containing fixed normally foundin fires. Because of the presence of other
temperature elementsare unlikely to respond to very slow- infra-redsources, such as the sun, infra-redflame detectors
growing fires, and should thereforenot be used. will usually have some methodof discriminating between
NOTE. Reference in this clause to static and rate-of-rise elements fire and non-fire radiation; flickersensing or the use of one
should not be taken as requiring physically separate elements, but or more specificinfrared emission bands are common
techniques.

18
COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards
Licensed by Information Handling Services
BS5839: Part 1 :1988
Issue 1, August 1996 Section two

or non-flame propagating tynking complying w i t h 17.1 1 Telecommunication cables


ES 4678 :Part 4 &u-Id be used. It should be noted that Public t-lecommunications operator lines used for the
the flame propagation test does not necessarily indicate the transmission of alarms to the fire brigade should be
ability of the trunking to maintain the circuit integrity mechanically protected (see17.52) and should be
under fireconditions. considered as needed t o give prolonged operation in a fire
Other types of conduit, ducting or trunking maybe used (see 17.42).
only 2 it can be shown that. in the applicationin which
they are to be used, their resistance to ambient conditions 17.12 Overhead n
iles
including resistance to mechanical impact and abrasion is Overhead lines should be avoided wherever possible for fire
not less than thatof the types specified as suitable for t h e alarm system interconnections. If they are used, BS 6701 :
application, and they are n o t prone to failure due to faulty Part 1 should be followed. If overhead lines cross or are
assembly or installation. installed in close proximity to electricity power lines,
public telecommunications operator lines or other overhead
17.9 Joints lines, agreement relating toprotectionshould be reached
All joints, except those in detectors, call points, sounders, with theappropriate operator.
control and indicating equipment or other similar system
components, should be enclosed in suitable junction boxes 17.13 Damp, corrosive or underground loations
labelled 'FIRE ALARM' to avoid confusion w i t h other Cables intended for installation in damp, corrosive or
services. Jointing and termination methods should be underground locations, or in plasters or cements having a
chosen t o minimize any reduction in reliability and corrosive effect on metallic sheathing, should be PVC-
resistance to fire belowthat of unjointedcable. sheathed overall. W b r e the environment may attack PVC,
a suitable alternative sheath should be adopted. In some
17.10 Segregation of wiring locations further protectionmay be necessary.
Conductorscarrying firealarm power or signals should be
separated from conductors used for other systems. The 17.14 Ambient temperatures
separation may be by one or more of the following: Care should be taken that the combination of ambient
(a) installation in conduit, ducting. trunking or a temperature and temperature rise caused by load a r r e n t
channel reserved for fire alarm conductors; does not result in a conductor temperature which exceeds
(b) a mechanically strong, rigid and continuous partitionthe limit for the insulation.
of non-cambustible material; Where high conductor temperatures a n anticipated, cables
having appropriate heat-resisting insulatior: should be used,
(c) mounting ata distance of a t least 300 mm from
conductors of other systems; such as:
II (d) wiring in cables complying with BS 7629; (a) 85 'C rubber-insulated cable complying with
table 1 or 5 of BS 6007 : 1983;
(e) wiring in mineral-insulated copper-sheattred cable
(b) 150 "C rubber-inwlated cable complying with
(see 173(a)) with an insulating sheath or barrier. h
le
table 6 of R 6007 : 1983;
exposed-to-touch rating of the IEE Wiring Regulations
should not be exceeded. (c) 85 "C rated PVGimulated cables complying
generally with 8s 6004 but having type 4 or 5 insulation
If a cable w hcih should be segregated from cables of other
services is not enclosed in du cn
t
ig ,trunking or a chk nel and sheath complying with BS 6746;
rerewed for fire alarm circuits, then it should be suitably (d) 90 OC rated XLPE- or EPR-insulated cables
marked or labelled at intervals not exceeding 2 m to complying with BS 5467 or BS 6724.
indicate itsfunction and the need for segregation. Ducting, PVC conduit should not be used where ttem b i e n t
trunking or a channel reserved for fire alarm circuits should temperature is likely to exceed 60 *C. When temperatures
be marked to indicate this reservation. The fire alarm cable below -5 OC for classification 405/1 of BS 6099 :
should be completely enclosed when the cover of the Section 2.2 or -25 OC for classification 42511 of BS 6099 :
ducting, trunking or channel is in place, and allcovers Section 2.2 are likely, suitable precautionsshould be taken
should be securely fixed. t o avoid physicaldamage.
!Segregation of the fire alarm power supply cadies need not
be applied on the supply side o f the isolating protective 17.15 Systems protected against a b l e failure
device (see 16.2). Cables carrying powerin excess of e x t r a Ifcircuits are protected against singlecable faults (see 6.65)
l o w voltage should be separated from other fire alarm then a reduced standardof cable protection maybe
cables. In particular, the mains supply cable should not be acceptable. I f t h edesign is such that a single fault on the
brought in through the same cable entry as cables carrying interconnections between components will:
extra-low voltage power or signals. (a) at mosthave an effect on the components
immediately adjacent to the fault;

35

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services
BS 5839 :Part 1 : 1988
Section two

lb) not affectthe correct working of the remainder of 18.1.4 Disadvantages of radio-linked systems. The
the system; disadvantages of radio-linkedsystems include thefollowing.
(c) give a fault warning as recommendedin 6.6.5; (a) Because limitations ofallowed frequency spectrum
(d) indicate that section of the cabling affectedby the can lead to interference between simultaneous signals,
fault; it is considered unwiseto send monitoringsignals a t very
frequent intervals. Hencefor some (but notall) faults,
then any of the cables describedin 17.3 can generally be
there may be a significant delay (possibly several hours)
allowed for any application.
between the Occurrenceof a fault and its indication on
Care should be taken in the planning and siting of cable the control equipment.
runs for such systems so that a fire restrictedto a single fire
(b) Radio links cannot transfer significant amounts of
compartment cannotSO damage the cableas to prevent the
power. Each detector, callpoint or sounder has to be
correct operationof devices in any other compartment.
supplied with local power, eitherfrom localmains or
If such siting cannotbe avoided, then wiring able to
from batteries.
withstand prolonged exposureto fire should be used
within the critical compartment(s). (c) There is a possibility of the radio path being
interrupted by temporary or permanent screening. This
should be indicatedas a fault, but in the interval before
the fault is indicated (see 18.3) the area could be
18 Radio-linked systems unprotected. The problem becomes moreimportant
when screening affects several detectorsin one area.
18.1 General
(d) The possibility exists that the receiver may be
18.1.1 Radio links. Some alarm systems are availablein blocked by interfering signalsfrom other sources.
which some or all of the interconnections between Radio alarm systems operateon frequencies which are
components are made by radio links.Because of the special not protected by the regulatorybody from other
properties of radio signals, someof the recommendations interfering signals on those frequencies.
applicable to wired systems, particularly those for power NOTE. The possibility of interference from other sources can be
supplies andfault monitoring, are unsuitable for, or cannot much reduced bv proper receiver design, for instance by a suitably
be applied to, radio-linkedsystems. In such systems the narrow receiver bandwidth, or by redundancy techniques in the
recommendations of this clause shouldbe followed. transmission.

18.1.2 Choice of sys?em. Radio-linkedsystems have both


18.2 Power supplies
advantages and disadvantages. Before adopting such a
system for any specific application,the advantages and 18.2.1 Power sup.?l;es for control and indicating equipment
disadvantages should be carefully consideredso that a Power supplies fr: G-ontrol andindicating equipment
correct choiceof system can be made. (other than repeater panels) should complywith the
recommendationsof clause 16.
18.1.3 Advantages of radio-linked systems. The advantages
of radio-linkedsystems includethe following. 18.2.2 Power supplies for soundem and repeaterindicator
pane/& Power supplies for sounders andfor repeater
(a) Since, in general, no wiringi s needed between
indicator panels should complywith the recommendations
system components, the system can be much easier,
of clause 16, except that the normal supply may be derived
quicker and cheaperto install. The system can extend
beyond a single building without inter-building wiring,
from the local mains supply,which need not have an
isolating protectivedevice (see 16.2). Failure ofthe normal
provided that the buildings are in the same ownership
supply to a sounder or repeater panel should give a fault
and nothird party is involved. Disruption of normal
activities during installationis minimized, and the warning at the main control and indicating equipment.
system can be easily modified or extended. 18.2.3 Power supplies for detectors and manualw l l points.
(b) The abdence ofwiring means that damage or Power supplies for detectors and manual call points should
disfigurement of existing surfaces is kept to a minimum. be derived from either:
This can be particularly importantin dealing with (a) the normal mains supply plusa reserve battery
buildings having valuable orhistoric decoration. (primary or continuously charged secondary); or
(c) Individual identification ofeach detector or call (b) a primary battery plusa reserve secondprimary
point is a normal featureof radio-linkedsystems. battery. The primary battery usedfor the normal supply
(d) Radio links will function without impairment in a should have an operationallife of a t least 1 year. If
fire, reducing the need for fire-protectedcables. intended to be replaceable by the user the battery
(e) On some systems, radio-linkedrepeater indicator should be of a type readily availablefrom electrical
panels canbe easily added as required elsewhere in the suppliers.
building. Power supplies having one or more primary batteries
(fl Short-term temporary coverof special risks can be should givea t least 30 days warning of impendingfailure
easily arranged. of any primary battery. This warning shouldbe by a fault

36
COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards
Licensed by Information Handling Services
Publications referred to
%S 476 Fire tests o n building materials and structures
BS 800 Specification for limits and methodsof measurement of radio interference characteristics of houN'dd electrical aPPllanCeS.
portable t o o l s and similar electrical apparatus
%S 1635 Graphical symbols and abbreviations for fire protectiondrawings
0s 2316 Specification for radio-frequency cables
Part 3 Cable data sheets (metric and imperialunits)
6s 31 16 Specification for automatic fire alarmsystems in buildings
'Part 4 Control and indicating equipment
8s 4678 Cable trunking
Part 4 Specification for cable trunking made o f insulating material
0s 4683 Specification for electrical apparatusfor explosive atmospheres
0s 5306 Fire extinguishing installations and equipment on premises
Part 1 Hydrant systems. hose reels and foam inlets
Part 3 Code of practice for selection. installation and matntenance of porrabte fire extinguishers
BS 5345 Code of practice for the selection, installauon and maintenance of electricalapparatus for use in Potentially exPlosive
atmospheres (other than mining applications or explosive processing and manufacture)
6s 5445 Comoonents of automatic fire detection systems
-
Part 5 Heat sensitive detectors point detectors containinga static element
Part 7 Specification for point-type smoke detectors using scattered light, transmitted lightor ionization

I BS5446
Part 8 Speciftcation f a r high temperature heat detectors
S p e c i f i i i o n for components of automatic fire alarm
Pan 1 Foim-type smoke detectors
systems for resldential premires

%S 5467 Specification for cables with thermosetting insulation for electricity supply for rated voltages of UP to and including
I 0 s 5501
600/1000V and up t o and including 1900;3300 V
Electrical apparatus for potentially explosive atmospheres
0s 5588 Fire precautionsin the design and constructionof buildings
6s 5750 Quaiity systems
0s 5839 Fire detection and alarm systems for buildings
Part 2 %ifkation for manual call points
t P a n 3 Specification for automatic release mechanisms for certain fire protection equipment
Part 4 Specification for control and indicating equipment
Part 5 Specification for optical beam smoke detectors
6s 5969 Specification for round lcwl meters
BS 6004 Specification for PVC-insulated cables (non-armoured) for electric power and lighting
0s 6007 Specification for rubber-insulated cables for electric power and lighting
8s 6099 Conduits for electrical installations
Section 2.2 Specification for rigid plain conduitsof insulating material
BS 6132 Code of practice forsafe operation of alkaline secondary cells and batteries
6S6133 Code of practice for safe operation of lead-acid stationary cells and batteries
0s 6201 Specification for mineral-insulated topper sheathedcables with copper conductors
ES 6231 Specification for PVC-insulated cables for switchgear and controlgearwiring
I 8S6259
BS 6266
Code of practice for planning 8nd installation of sound systems
Co& of practice for fire protectionof electronic data processing installations
8s 6346 Specification for PVC-insulated cables for electricity supply
BS 6387 Specification for performance requirements for cables required to maintain circuitintegrity under fire conditions
BS 6467 Electrical apparatusw i t h protection bv enclosure for use in the presence of combustible dusts
8s 6651 Code of practice for protection of structures against lightning
0s 6701 Code of practice for installation of apparatus intended for connection to certain telecommunications systems
Part 1 General recommendations
6s 6724 Specification for armoured cables for electricity supply having thermosetting insulation'with low emission of smoke and
corrosive gases when affected by fire
ES 6746 Specification for W C insulation andsheath of electric cab&
Il BS 7629 Specification for thermosetting insulated cables with limited circuit integnt, when affectedby fire
6s 8313 Code of practice for accommodationof building services in ducts
I ce1003 Electrical apparatus andassociated equipment for use in explosive atmospheres of gas or vapour other than mining
applications
tj IEE Wiring Regulrtions, Regulationsfor electrical installations, Institutionof Electrical Engineers

BEST COPY AVAILABLE


Withdrawn, supersfded by BS 5839 : Part 4.
t Referred to in the forewordonly.
4Referred to in the foreword only. Under revision. to be pubkhed as BS 5588 : Section 1.2.
9 Obtainable from the Institutionof E l e a r i d Engineers, Savoy P b , Victoria Embankment, London WC2A OBL

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services
.. ~-
STDmBSI- BS 5839: PART L-ENGL L988 m Lb24bb9 073497b _"
708
Issue 2, August 1996 BS 5839 : Part 1 : 1988
This British Standard. havingbeen p-red under the directionof n p r o t j u d in any form without th?prior permissionin writing of
the Fire Standards Committee, W& published under the authority S I . This does not preclude thefree use. in the cou- Of
of the Boardof BSI and c o m a into effect on 31 May 1988 implementing the standard.of necessary details such 8s wmbols and
rire, type or grade dnlgnationr. Enquiries shouldbc rddwsscd to
0 British Standards Institution, 1988 the Publicat#ons Manager. BSI.Linford Wood. Milton KWms
F irst published,as CP 327.404/402.501, September 1951 MK14 6LE. The numberfor telephone efquiries is 0908 2-22
First revision, asCP 1019. May 1972 and for telex 8?5777.
Second revision.as BS 5839 : Part 1, January 1980 Contrsct requiroments. A British Standarddoes not purportto
Third revision May 1988 include all the necessary provisionsof a contract. k r s of British
lSBN O 580 16559 O Standards are responsiblefor their correct applitxtion.
The following BSI references relateto the work on this standard:
Committee referenceFSMll2 Draft for comment 86136284 OC Revision of British Standirds. British Standards are revised. when
necessary. by the issue eitherof amendments orof revised editions.
It h imponant thatusers of British Standards should ascertain that
British Standards Institution. Incorporated by Royal Charter. BSI is thoy are in possession of the l a t a amendments or editions.
the independent national body for the preparation of British
Automatic updating sarvice.BSI providesan economic, individual
Standards. It is the UK memberof the International Organization and automatic standards updating servicecalled PLUS.Details are
for Standardization andU K sponsor of the British National
available from BSI Enquiry Section atMilton K q m . telephone
Committee of the International Electrotechniwl Commission.
O908 221 166, telex 825717.
In 8ddition to the preparation and promulgation of standards, BSI
offers Specialist services including the provision of information Information on all BSI publications is In the 8SI CauIoguc.
through the BSI Library ~ n Standardline
d D~tabrse; Technical Help rupplemented eachmonth by BSI News which i s available to
to E x p o n a s : and other services. Advice
a n be obtained from the subscribing membersof BSI and gives detailsof new publiotions.
Enquiry Section. BSI. Milton Kevnes MK14 6LE. telephone revisions, amendmentsJnd withdrawn standards.Any perron who.
O908 221 166. telex 825777. when making useof a British Standard, encountersJn inaccuracy or
Copyright. Users of British Standards are reminded that copyright ambiguity. is requestedto notify BSI without delay in order that
Eubrists in JIIBSl Publications. No part of thls publicatlon may be the matter may be Investigated and appropriate action taken.

_..
Committees responsible for this British Standard
The preparrtcotrof this Brctcsh Standard was entrusted
bv the Fire Electrccal Contractors' Association
Standards Committee (FSMI-1 to Technical Committee FSMIIZ. EIectrcaI Installation Equipment Manufacturers' Association
upon whkh the following bodiesw r e represented: (BEAMA Ltd.I
British Fire Protection Systems Association Ltd. Fire Insurers' Research and Testing Organization(FIRTO)
British Fire Services' Association Fire Offices Committee
Britah Telecommunications plc Fire Protection Association
Home Office
Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers Institution of Electrical Engineers
Chief and Assistant Chief Fire Offcers' Association Institution of Fire Engineers
Department of Health and Social Security Ministry of Defence
aplnment of the Environment (Building Research Establishment. National Inspection Councilfor Electrkal Installarion Contracting
Fire Research SutionJ Royal Instituteof British Architects
OOpwtmant of the Environment (Propcrw Services Agency) Society of Fire Protection Engineers
Department of Transport (Marine Directorate) Trades Union Congress

Amendments issued since publication

Amd. No. Date of issue Text affected

6317 January 1991 Indicated by a line in the margin .

6874 May 1992 Indicated b y a line in the margin

9257 August 1996 Indicated by a double line


in the margin

British Standards Institution . 2 Park Street London W1A 26s . Telephone 071-629 . Telex 266933
9000

FSM112

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


Licensed by Information Handling Services