C 0 U RS E S AN D L E C T U RES  No. 27
RASTKO STOJANOVIC
UNIVERSITY OF BELGRADE
UDINE 1970
P r e f a a e
R. Stojanovic
l. Introduction
2. Physical Background
= (3 .1)
xN x(X)
Nt\1
are continuously differentiable.
We asswne that
(3.3) det axk !!! det X k. K :/; 0 ,
axK '
so that there exists the inverse mapping
X
K
K 1
X(x ,x ,x
2 3
,t ) ,
short:
(3 .4) X = X(x , t)
N N N
(3 .5) F\ a &xk/()XK 5 X
k
K
K
'
Fk K !ii axK/ax~< = X I<
'
are called deformation gradients,and the total covariant deriva
tives (see Appendix, section A3)
(3. 6a) =
Deformation tensors 15
L
= X (x)
1\1
. (3 .6b)
2 2
If dS and ds are squares of the line elements in the configu
rations K0 and Krespectively,
(3. 7)
(3. 8)
and
(3 .9)
Here
(3 .10)
(3 .11)
(3 .12) =
N N t\1
*
where R, 5 and S are uniquely determined ( cf. Ericksen [100] ,
43). Applying this polar decomposition theorem to the matrix
F ( cf. [468] ) of deformation gradients, we obtain
t\1
(3.13) F
N
= RU
t\1 N
= VRt\1
N
(3 .14) = =
are the right and the left stretch tensors, respectively. The
deformation tensors C and B
N N
(3 .15) c = rvuc =
N
FTF
N N
B =
N
v2
N
= FFT
NN
are accordingly called the right and the left CauehyGreen ten
sors.
Since F
N
= {.x\} , the transposed matrix
is determined by
= (3.16)
= = = (3.17)
1
The tensorc,
N
with the components
(3.18)
is the reciprocal of the spatial deformation tensor c,
N
= = (3.19)
= = (3.20)
In general, if T
N
= T(x,X,t)
N tv N
is a time dependent double
tensor field (See Appendix, section Al and A3), the time deriv!

tives with the material coordinates XK kept fixed are called
material derivatives and are denoted by a superposed dot. Some
times it is useful to place the dot above a superposed bar,
which denotes upon which quantity the operation of the material
derivation is to be performed. For the tensor field T we
IV
have
K
TKk. . . ar .. k... +
(ar:::. _ { t }rK...t _. . . )X. e =
v
A'
axv ml<D
..
(3.24)
The rate of strain 19
Since
dx"
and
= (3.26)
where
= 'ltcell k) (3.27)
W'
~cl
'It[~,;'] = (3.28)
 1
('\t
2 ~,c~'k  \J'~,~'k)
20 3. Motion and deformation
(3.2Q) = dk.
..,~ dk
t ,~ =
A motion is a rigid body motion if ds = dS , and
the conditions for a motion to be a rigid body motion are given
by (3.19). In terms of the strain tensors these conditions re
E = 0 and
duce to 1\1 e
N
= 0 . For a rigid body motion the rate
of strain vanishes and the velocity field has to satisfy the ob
vious equations
(3 .30) 'U'u,p = 0 .
(3.31)
(3 .32)
(3.33)
(3 .34)
(3 .35)
(3 .36)
(3.37)
K L
dSM II: t ax ax du,i du.2 (3.38)
11KL ()1.4.1 ()u,2
[P Q]
dSPG = QL. ax du.1 du.2 (3 .39)
()u,1 ()~2
22 3. Motion and deformation
(3 .40) (  1,2)
However,
and
where
(3 .42)
Hence,
(3 .43)
The volume element 23
(3 .45)
dV =
Since
(3.47)
(3.48) =
Since it is no more necessary to distinguish between material
and spatial coordinates, it is possible to consider simply the
t L
tensor field Tk(X,t)
N
which coincides with TK at the initial mo
ment t 0 of time. Thus, the fundamental metric fonn at time t will
be
k e K L
(3 .49) ds
2
= gk 1U1,t)d0
N
d0 = QKL(X,t)dX
N
d.X ,
(3.50)
From (3.49) we have
(3.51) ) k e
= Sht(e,t de de ,
"'
The compatibility conditions 25
4. Compatibility Conditions
mations
X
tV
= x(X)
tV N
or X = X(x)
I'V fUN
(4.1)
(4.2)'
(4.5) =
(4.4) reduces to
(4.6)
N ,
N
The integrability conditions of (4.6) are U[k Fe]rn = 0
Differentiation of (4.6) with respect to xk and
the elimination of the secondorder derivatives of X's by the
aid of (4.6) gives for the integrability conditions the rela~
The compatibility conditions 27
ions
where R(c) and R(G) are the RiemannChristoffel tensors (see Ap
"' N f\1 N
(4. 8)
(4.9)
nents
where
(4.10)
c1'\1 = N9  2e1'\1
(4.11) = 0
(4.12) = '1~~(e)
N
Incompatible deformations
29
have
(4.13)
(4.1.1)
= = (4.1.2)
30 4. Compatibility conditions
such that
(4.1. 3) =
and c!u.>.. are not coordinates of the Euclidean space. (We may also
interprete u.~ as nonholonomic coordinates in the Euclidean
(A.)
space}. Since 9 L are not defonnation gradients, the Pfaffians
(4.1.3) are not integrable and
(4.1.4) i! 0.
(4.1. 5)
sion
(4.1.6)
Distorsions 31
such that
(4.1. 7)
(4.1. 8)
H
Since Xm and X are coordinates in the Euclidean
space, the relation (4.1.8) must be integrable and the products
of distorsions f(~) and
t\J
e(A.)
N
have to represent deformation gradi
ents,
t (A.)
' e().) e
L = X ;L (4.1.9)
9 L
(\)
f (A.) =
t
L
X;e . (4.1.10)
= = (4.1.11)
(4.1.12)
(4.1.13)
(4.1.14) X2K  XK
1 = "'XK
u = K d ,_
9(~) 1.1, '
k k k ~
(4.1.15) x2  Xi = ~,_,.k = teA.> Au.
('Irk
 . k)
X
But
(4.1.16)
= (4.1.17)
and for the rate of strain and for the vorticity tensors we
have the expressions
(4.1.18)
k k . k k ~ (J4)
t(~),n = (teA.) . "'r) = t (),,),~ n 'U' d' + t(A.),~ ~(f") ~ n = (4..1.19)
'~' '"
.
k k (}Ao) ~
= f(A},n + t(A.l,~ ~ n ~(p.)
34 5. Oriented bodies
and finally,
(4.1.20) 
5. Oriented Bodies
t5 .1)
K
with the components E(e&) referred to a material system of refer
K
ence X A deformation of an oriented body is determined by
the equations
(5.2) X
fU
= x(X)
1\1 N
position,
The Cosserat continua 35
= (5.3)
= (5.4)
= = const. . (5.5)
of the lattice points Mt, M2, M3 with respect to Mo .of the unit
cell. The vectors
K
ru
(5.1.2)
= mrcx\1c +
N nJ
L mvgvxev
V=i N
tV
(5.1.3)
(5.1. 4)
Here we have
orv
'O'v
til
= r" = at
N
#U
(5.1.5)
ev
N
= rv
N
rc
1\1
(5.1.6)
n
Lmvev = 0
'
(5.1. 7)
"1 N
n
m = L m"
" = 1.
(5.1.8)
n
mrc = N
Lmvrv
Yi t\1
(5.1.9)
(5.1.10)
. ~... . . )
(5.1.12) 2 1>'2c + " ~0)... 0~,..
T = !!1('
From the last two expressions we see that for the dynamical
specification of the particle 'Pwe need to know the quantities: m
the mass of the particle, ~~J1 the dimensionless coefficients
which characterize the distribution of masses inside the parti
cle, and the vectors eh which determine the configuration of
"'
the particle.
To denote that all the quantities which appear
in (5.1.2 12) correspond to the particle P we shall label them
with the index P so that we write
0 p p
Kp '
N
tp ,
N
mp , rc '
IV ev '
1'\J
Tp '
and
n
(5.1.13) mp = L m~
v =t
Kp
N
=
(5.1.14) K =
A passage to continuum 39
L mprcxrc: + L
N N N
eo = L e~ = p P >..~ p P
mp ~ p Q>..X e,~~ , (5.1.15)
"' P=1"' P=1 "' "' P=i N N
Lmp
v
= f gdV, (5.1.17)
v
(5.1.19) Lmpr~ =
v N / e~ dV ,
v
(5.1. 20) Lmprcxrc
V
p P
1'\1 N
= /e~xtdV
v
(5.1.21) Lmprcrc
P P
= /ettdv
v N N
v
(5.1. 22)
L
V
~~ p p
mp~ p Q>.X Q~"' = JQ~ f' ~().)X ~lp)dV ,
h
v
N N
(5.1.23)
Lmpl.p
V
A)AoP
N
~.AQ,.
P
N
I
= Q~~~ ~().)' ~(~ d,V
v
(5.1.24) K =
N /rJ.td.V
v
'
(5.1.25) l
N
= /e,(rxr 1\1 N
+ ~>.IA'd(}.)Xd(~))d.V
IV N
v
(5.1.26) T = ~ eCt t Jv + 1,.~"' ~(>.r~<JA<l)dv .
5.2 M a t e r i a 1 s with Mi c r o s t r u c t u r e
Let a body be composed of microelements AV 1
in
I
which a continuous mass density P exists, such that the microe
I
lements AV represent material continua. A macrovolwne element
' I
dV is composed of the microvolwne elements dV ,
dV = I
d.V
d,V' ' (5.2.1)
let ZI~
be coordinates of points Z
rv
I
in a microvolume ele
I
ment dV in a reference configuration K0 The integral over the
macrovolwne element
Denoting by R
N
1
= z'e.the
~
position vectors of the points z' of
N
micro
elements, by R
N
= z e ~ f\1
the position vectors of the centres of
mass of macrovolwne elemen"ts dv and by P = = e" the position
I 10&
N f\1
(5.2.4)
42 S. Oriented bodies
tion vectors of r' with respect to the new positions of the cen
tres of mass let be
"' e' The equations of motion of the centres
N
(5.2.6) r
N
= r(R,t), R
N N N
= R(r , t)
N t\1
r' =
N
r(R', t) ,
NN
'R'
N
= R(r', t) ,
NN
(5.2.8) ,
/ ...o'r'd."U"' =
d.'IT
Micromotions 43
r
N
= r(RN N
+ P',t) = r(R t) +
N 1\1,
n
~ '
($.2.9)
where
(5.2.10)
_..
Expanding (5.2.9) 1, under the assumption that!!' is an analytic
,
function of .:. , we obtain
N
DoY
~ = ~(~,O,t)+ 0 ;.":"' + ..
(5.2.11)
and if we write
(5.2.13)
t'~ =
).
'X, C.:,
_... . (5.2.15)
44 5. Oriented bodies
(5.2.18) vi = r =
r + e
I
= ,. + x. .:.cr.
N
"' IV N N N
C II  I l l
(5.2.19) ::i! + 'X..p = .
Eliminating = JS 1
from (5 .2.19) we obtain
(5.2.20)
where
(5.2.23)
Moment of momentum 45
0
The moment of momentum dl for the macrovolume
element dv
"'
will be
d!1'\10 = /olo,l\1
1 r 1 XV' 1 d'\T 1
1'\1
= ;~ 1 (r +
. IIJ
e )X('U' + xll'~)d,vl.
N
1
1\1 N
(5.2.24)
dv dv
Since Q1 are the position vectors of the points r 1 relative to the
N 1\1
fe.'s'dv'
d.v
= o ,
and
d oo
~
1\1
= e,rx'U"
IV N
d.'\T + Ie e I
N
I
X 'XII'.=.
1\1
_,.d'\)' I (5. 2 .25)
d,v
In the componental form we have
(5.2.26)
OC:
t
.:. =
0
~
xx.
N
(5.2.27)
'Cit. ft
= 'X. A. X 'X. or. .:.
lVI N
.::..
= Qr X'U' dv +
. "' "'
'X. X 'X.t~.
rv rvr
e .:. .:.
j10C:1~d
'\T
I
(5.2.28)
d.v
Using the inverse of (5.2.15),

ICIC
(S.2.2Q)
46 5. Oriented bodies
( 5.2. 30) I
d. 'II'
~
111111l~d, I
.:. .:. ,. J
= x)..,.x;! g~~~)A dv' '
d.'II'
(5.2.32)
(5.2.35) T = 1jo(v'\r
2 "" N N
+ ~).).I.X)..X.NJA )chr.
N
'11'
= 'X...~ x,Jitjp'='"'=''cLv'
d.V
(5.2.36)
write
(5.2.38) R! 1 ~
:; =
/'J
.:. +
II\
u,J.. '
(5.2.39)
(5.2.40) ,! = 6~J.'ft =
()~,).
xt  o~
are called by Mindlin the microdeformations. Denoting by~).~ the
displacements of particles (which are not necessarily represent
ed by their centres of mass),
(5. 2.42)
(5.2.43)
5.3. Mu l t i p o l a r Th e o r i e s
In a series of papers Green and Rivlin ~72, 173,
175] , Green [151] , and Green Naghdi and Rivlin [170] developed
the theory of multipolar continua which represents a very general,
ec
but a very formal approach. Let Z be coordinates of a particle
in reference position and z its position at time
(5.3.1)
(5.3.3)
and
(5.3.4)
(5.3.5)
so 5. Oriented bodies
and
(5.3.6) =
5.4 S t r a i n  G r a d i e n t Th e o r i e s
The state of strain of a body at a point X de
"'
pends on the relative displacements of points in a neighbourhood
N(X).
N
X+ AX1\1 is a point in N(X),
If 1\1 1\1
and the equations of motion
are
(5.4.1) =
~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~
'U'jK' \tjK1K2, , 'lrjK1. KN' (5.4.3)
and we see that the first gradient of strain involves the second
gradient of deformation.
The deformed directors at two points, say X and
"'
X +AX in a neighbourhood N(X)
tV
will be according to (5. 2)
tV "'
(5.4.5)
(5.4.6)
52 S. Oriented bodies
dients of deformation,
(5.4.7) =
(5.4.8)
(5.4.9) = ~x~Cer.>
where w
1\1
is the rate of rotation of the triads of directors. In
the componental form we may write
(5.4.10) ~(m)m =
If there are only three directors, "" = 1,2,3 and, in the Gosse
rat continuum in the strict sense there are only three directors,
. (.) .
the reciprocal tr1ads d
N
ex1st, and for the tensor w
N
we have
(5.4.11) =
Shells and rods 53
(5.4.12)
5.5 S h e 1 1 s a n d R o d s a s Oriented
Bo d i e s
One of the essential problems in the theory of strus
tures is the simplification of the general threedimensional the
ories of materials. All structures are threedimensional bodies,
but certain geometric properties justify the introduction of ap
proximations which give sufficiently good results, at least for
engineering purposes. In the Introduction to these lecture notes
we mentioned St. Venant 1 s remark that for the description of thin
bodies an analysis of deformation of a straight line, or of a
surface, is insufficient, but an extensible line may serve as the
first approximation for a rod. Deformable planes and surfaces
play the same role in the theory of plates and shells. The main
question is what is happening with the points which in an ini
tial configuration were situated outside the middle surface of the
54 5. Oriented bodies
5.5.1 She 1 1 s
3
Let X =0 define a surface .. in the initial confi
guration of a body, and let the position vector of any point on
~ be
(5.5.1.1) Rf'\1
(5.5.1.2) i 2
r
f'\1
= Nr(X ,X ,t)
and by a surface
(5. 5.1.4)'
such that
i 2
= x(X,X,X;t)
=
The position vector of any point of the shell is
a function of coordinates and time,
56 5. Oriented bodies
The quantities
(5.5.1.7)
1 2
(5. 5.1. 8) ~(N) = 2(N)(X ,X;t) .
where
(5.5.1.10)
The momentum for shells 57
(5.5.1.11)
~ N ()~(N)
= a~ + ~ x 77 (5.5.1.13)
"' N=1 uX
.. and
t 2
The quantities ! and a are fun_ctions of X and X only:. We shall
also write
}
(5.5.1.17) /e.*XN'{g d.X = ek Nra , (N = 2 , 3 , 4 , ..)
cr.
where
Je*xvg cLX
Jl
(5. 5.1.18) = o.
The last relation fixes the surface with respect to the bound
~
N 1
ing surfaces ~ and fl . The quantities k are functions of X and
2
X only.
From (5.5.1.14) we have now
(5.5.1.19)
! 0 = Jo*r*x,.*cLv =
N
,. ""' N IV
(5.5.1.20)
ao
+ H,~tX
N+H J t
~{N)X 2<Ml d.X d.X dX ,
2
I!!*
~
= ek
NHI
N+M
X ygcLX ra , (5. 5.1.21)
for the moment of momentum we obtain the expression
Using the same notation and procedure, we find for the kinetic
energy of the considered portion of the shell the following ex
pression
r
1\1
= r(R,t) ;
N N
(5. 5.1.24)
5.5.2 R o d s
The basic ideas for the theory of rods are essen
tially the same as for the general theory of shells, sketched
above. Let
3
where X=X is the parameter varying along C. It is asswned that
R* for sufficiently small values of X"may be expanded into a
ru
series
aR*
= R(O,O,X) + X~~+
tV ax
where
N
R is the position vector of any point on C.
Introducing the notation
(5.5.2.4)
we may write
00
= R
,.,
+ '~ x"i ... X""D~ ~
,., in
(5.5.2.5)
n=i
At a time t the curve C will be c, and the posi
tion vector of points of c will be Nr, such that
(5.5.2.6)
(5.5.2.7)
(5.5.2.9) a
"'
From the last two relations we find
OD
g~
1\1
a" +
... ,..,. L nX z .. . x"d. A~
n =2
Nl"'2. n
_ ,
xt .. . xn ad a
(5.5.2.10) OD
~ NIIG{ IIGn
a + .t.
,.. n= 1 X
We assume that the rod is a threedimensional
body bounded by a surface
(5.5.2.11)
(5,5.2.12) K= /e*'U'*dv 
N
V'
N
/P.*'/Q(v + I:x"t ... X""d.. )d'O'.
,
"' n "' t ""'n
and
K
f\1
(5.5.2.15)
Section 7.3).
(6.1) f
"'
and to the resultant couple, which is defined with respect to a
pole 0
N
by the expression
n
(6.2) = t"' r x N~
L.,.,~t f(.}
~ =1
where r;, are position vectors of the particles M~ with respect to
"'
0 In continuum mechanics an immediate generalization is insuf
"'
ficient to describe all the forces and couples which appear, even
if the suitable a~sumptions are made for the transition from a
discrete system to a continuum model.
In the following definition we partly follow
Truesdell and Noll [379] , but we introduce some additional de
finitions in order to consider more general models of continua.
Let u be a part of a body B and S the bounding
surface of the u, and let the motion of the body be given by the
equations
(6.Jb)
defined per unit mass, which we call the external body force.
The vector ~~'U'} defined by the volwne integral
(6.4)
(6.5)
3. At each time t , to each part '\t of the body B
corresponds a vector field Nt(x,t) , defined for the points x on ~
(6. 8)
(6. 9) =
According to the stress principle (cf. [469]
there is a vector field t(x,n) defined for all points 1\1x in B
tVI\IN
and for all unit vectors tVn such that the stress acting on any
part ~ of B is given by
(6.10) t(x,u)
1\1 1\1
= t(x,n),
1\1 N
Stress. Director forces 67
where n
N
is the exterior unit normal vector at the points xN on
the boundary of S.
In elementary continuum mechanics it is proved
that the stress vector C\1t (x
N
, Nn) ,
(6.11)
( 6 .12)
where .t~~x)
1\t
are components of the stress tensor. From (6.6) we
obtain now that the components of the resultant stress are given
by the integral
= (6.14)
and
(6.15)
the integral
(6.16) F~( v)
1\1
= Je k
'\J'
1\1
(c)(x ,
"'
t)d.u , ( = 1 , 2 , ... , n)
(c)
(6.17) = h 1\1
(x , n) ,
1\1 N
( = 1 , 2 , ... , n)
(c)~
(6.19) h
N
(x,n)g~,
N Ill N
and that
The quantities h
()~~
we call the director stress tensors.
9. The total resultant ~irector forces exerted
on the part ~ of B are defined as the sum of the resultant dir
ector forces and the resultant director stresses,
(6.21)
"' ..,
rxnf , (6.22)
(6.23)
r x t (x , n) ,
1\1 nl 1\1 N
(6.24)
(6.26)
(6. 27)
V'
J!!~(lx~(\~ , t)du o
x:
d) The moment of the director stresses at 1'\1
(6.28) dc)xh
()c x , n) ,
N N f\1 1'\1
(6.30)
+ f (rxt
1\1 1\1
+ Nd,.)xh
\ f\1
(c)
+ m)ds
N
.
5
s
A physical interpretat ion of director forces 71
6.1 A P h y s i c a 1 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n
Physical interpretat ions of thedirecto r forces
depend on the model considered. For a medium consisting of par!
icles which are composed of mass points, as was the medium con
sidered in the section 5.1, we may assume (Rivlin [377, 378])
that the external force m(~ f'~ 1\1
acts on the mass point m(~ of
th
the P particle. The resultant external force acting on the Pth
particle is
(P)
and if we assume that the discrete sets of vectors f and
f (P)
t\1 N
_
may be replaced by continuous vector fields f and f ~, defined
I'll Ill
(6.1.2)
(6.1.3)
(6.1.4)
and for the part '11' of B under the suitable assumptions we may
write
(6.1.5)
I
= e.~x! d'IJ"
'II'
+ Ie,t};,.>xf.
IT
d,,. ,
where according to the section 5.1 the discrete vectors 2(~ are
Ill
(6.1.6)
where ds
N
= nds
N
is the directed surface element and Nn is the
unit vector, and
its source per unit volume. The equation of balance has the ge~
eral form
~t Ir
V"
du = f~ds
5
+ I ~du
,
(7.1)
(7. 2)
74 7. Balance and conservation principles
(7. 3) m(u) = 1
I)'
ed.tr .
dm = 0 ,
dt
which may be written in the fonn
. . 1 2 3
(7.5) x ~ = x ~(x ,x ,x ,t) , (~ = 1 ' 2 ' 3)
K k
where X are material, and x spatial coordinates. If d.V is the
volume element of the body in an initial configuration referred
k
to the coordinate.s X , and d.'U' the corresponding volwne element
in a configuration K( t) at time t, the volume elements dtr and
d,V are related by the fonnula
where
(7.7)
The equation of continuity 75
and sincel*
(7. 9)
(7 .10)
fonn,
(7.12) = 0 .
K = Jo'U'd'\1 ,
N """'
v
(7.15) ~/oz"du
dt ...
'\)'
= J!!f.du
11'
1 JS n~ d.s
+ 'ft
s
we obtain
ov"
... = t ft A+
71'"
0
...
f" (7 .18)
= (7.19)
= (7 .20)
..
~
and t ,trepresents the covariant derivative of ! with respect to
:x.~, or the divergence of the tensor t.
N
(7. 21) d/ ). .
dt e(~X~ + ~ p.~().)X 2(~))d.'lr =
V"
(7. 22)
d [ct. h<~)Mt
me~o.Bt
+ (A.) = ~ C!Gft)" (7.25)
With this notation the relation (7.24) obtains the simple form
(7. 26)
(7.27) =
(7.28)
= (7. 30)
= (7.31)
[c/t]
and which admits the nonvanishing of t also in nonoriented
media.
It is obvious that the antisymmetric part of the stress tensor
is affected by the director stresses if the medium considered
is an oriented medium.
Since all the equations of motion (7.18), (7.26),
(7.30) are tensorial equations, we shall write these equations
82 7. Balance and conservat ion principle s
(7.32) ex.. .. .. 1
= t '~' + ...of .. ,
(7.33) h(A)~~ k~)~
= ,~ .... a '
(7 .34)
(7.36)
.. k (~~ ~h k{l)
f 9~
N
= f '
Ill
= ,
N
(7. 37)
(7.38)
(7. 39)
O"m =
i .. cr~ct
t
2
..
"'~6
'
*2111 = 21 t"~t ~
2.
'
t .. =
N
t~
..
..
g~
N '
*
m..k  !t .. :;.k
2 .. ~ .. (7.40)
84 7. Balance and conservation p~inciples
~741)
7.1 Th e Co s s e r a t Continuum
The Cosserat continuum is the medium in which the
directors represent rigid triads of unit vectors, so that the
motion is described by the motion of points and by an independ
ent rotation of the director triads. According to (5.4.11) the
rotation of the directors is determined by the field of the an
gular velocity tensor w(x,t), so that we have
"'
(7.1.1)
(7.1.2) =
The angular velocity tensor w is antisymmetric and instead of
1\1
(7.1.3)
Micro inertia 85
where
= (7.1.4)
=
Hence, I
., are components of the inertia tensor of the. particle
considered. Also for the media with microstructure when a curvi
linear system of coordinates X~ is introduced into (5.2.32) and
(5. 2. 36) and when the vectors x..
N
are identified with the direc
tors, a relation of the form of (7.1.4) will be obtained.
Taking the material derivative of I~.~ (with ~ ~t"
independent of time) and using (7.1.1) we find
ai"r + ~~~k,k
()t ,
 Ik~wk~  I~\,.~ =
k
0. (7.1.5)
1) (7.1.6)
= 0 '
86 7. Balance and conservation principles
ex i,
= ,., et "
t ..... + (2
(7.1.6) I~~ 
Ik~ (l)k~ 
I~k (l)k~ = 0 (3
'
e[I'~(wi~ + w~"w~~)Jr~~] =
t [~~]
+ *'
m~t'k
,k
+ e*
t.,a (4
(7.1.8) = =
(7.1.9) lw
tUN
it = J.W
"'"'
N
The Cosserat continua 87
= ~1 '
1\1
L.e. fn = dUn
'Ill 'f..lll
(7 .1.10)
k
i! + !!~ ,k = 0
'
.. t ~6 . + ef
~
(7.2.1a) ,..
~
QX =
.. ~
d = k"
The Cosserat surfaces
(7.2.1b)
r
N
r(x, t) ,
N
d.
N
= d(x"
N
,t) . (7.2.2)

(7.2.3a)
g"Q.a =
,., "' b:: ' ,.,g3g.
N
0 ' SbQ3 = 1
N N
90 7. Balance and conservation principles
(7.2.3b)
(7.2.4) =
where 11 111 denotes covariant differentiation with respect to the
F g.+
3
(7.2.5) F = F Sh
"' "' N
= k g.+
3
k
1\1 ... k Q3
"'
The stress vector f\Jt is to be regarded as a force
per unit length of a curve bounding an area on s . The same
holds for the director stressh, so that
"'
(7.2.6) t
N
=
v =
"'
and we have
= V~ =
1\11\1
0 (7.2.7)
u.
Differentiation of the stress vectors t gives
N
t.. ...
,.,,.,.
which because of (7.2.4), reduces to
(7.2.8)
(7.2.9)
(7.2.10)
m =
1\1
h ~. + o(k  ~d)
1\1 'i '"' 1\1 "'
,
where ~ represents the additional physical force, and e~ is the
inertia density at the points of the surface. Since the director
stress depends only upon x, we may write
(7.2.11) m
N
= h
N
~ + e(k  ~d) ,
1\1
=
(7.2.12)
h 3c b hflr~. ( 3 . 3)
I" + Kft + !! k  "d
l~ Ericksen and Truesdell [121] gave a very elegant and exact
theory of strain and stress in shells, assuming that three di
rectors are assigned to each point of the surface. The work of
Cohen and DeSilva ~4, 65] on elastic surfaces is based also on
the assumption that three directors are assigned to the points
of the surface, and they based their work on the results of E
ricksen and Truesdell. Their equations of equilibrium may be
derived directly from our equations (7.32, 33). However, in the
theory of elastic membranes ~6] they consider, at the points
of the membrane, a single director field. The director is taken
to be normal to the surface and the only deformation it suffers
is the deformation of its magnitude.
94 7. Balance and conservation principles
7.3 Bo d i e s wi t h T wo Di r e c t o r s
A Th e o r y o f Ro d s
As an example of twodirector bodies we shall con
sider the theory of rods by Green and Laws [153, 155], which was
applied to the theory of elastic rods by Green, Naghdi and Laws
0.56]
A rod is considered as a curve t, imbedded in
Euclidean threedimensional space. At each point of the curve
there are two assigned directors. Let e be a convected coordin
ate * defining points on the curve, and let t be the position
vector, relative to a fixed origin, of a point on the curve,
(7.3.1) r
N
= r(e,t) .
N
(7 .3.2) ~3 = ae ,
6r
9d~ =
9~~ '
g"gt = gt ' 9~~9 = g" (7.3.3)
tV tV .. tVd
tV
"' "'
9"9
N fVd
= ,~ ' sf'.. 9~k = bk
We shall introduce the notation
Dg~
s
"'
ae "' ..
= X.... ' "k
ncl X.
a .... = X~
k
(7 .3.4)
~ ~3 ~
N
t(e,n)
tV
= t (e,n)g~
1\1 N
= t g~11
N
3 t g~
N
(7 .3. 5)
(7 .3.6)
(K}
For the director stress vectors h , according to
(6.19) and (6.20) w~ may also write
= =
and the moment of the director stresses, defined by (6.27), be
comes
()~
h g .. xg~ (7.3.8)
1\1 N
96 7. Balance and conservation principles
e2.
(7.3.11) ~~ QV93sd.9 = o'
91
Je!vg33de
92
ftf e.~v
9z
(7.3.12) Q33 de = +
et e1
0'1)' = (7.3.17)
'"""'
'>.JA
*We take ~ to be indipendent of time [155].
98 7. Balance and conservation principles
(7.3.18)
<r =
().)
d(A,)Xk )
"' "' tV
D!
ae =
(DT~
ae +
m
T x~" ~~ '
)
(7.3.19)
(7 .3. 20)
Since we have
of the first law and the second law of thermodynamics. The read
ers interested in the modern contributions up to 1965, may be
referred to the book by Truesdell and Noll [468] , and for the
later work to the papers by e.g. Chen [61], Green and Laws [154],
Green and Rivlin [176], Kline and Allen [236], Leigh[265], Trues
dell [466, 467] , Uhlhorn [470]etc.
The experience shows that mechanical processes
cannot be separated from thermal phenomena. Mechanical work may
make a body hotter, or heating may produce certain mechanical
effects, such as e.g. thermal dilatations and thermoelastic stres
ses.
To indicate how hot is a body the temperature G
is introduced as a fundamental entity. It is assumed that there
exists an absolute zero e = 0 which is the lowest bound of 0 and
for all processes e> 0
It is postulated'that the total energy of a body
is the sum of the kinetic energy produced by the motion of the
mass points of the body and of an internal energy E.
For the internal energy it is assumed that it is
an absolutely continuous function of mass, so that for a part v
of a body it may be written
( 8.1) E = jtdm
'II'
= /etd'lt,
'II'
t = f(xnJ , t) . (8.2)
(8.3)
(8.4)
l. . ~ h(~~j. k().) ~
(8o5b} e~ iA'd(JAl = ,~ + ~ '
~i. t[~~] + n t~~ + m.
*:~k
ncr. =
... .. ,k '
(8.6)
and for the rate of the kinetic energy we have the expression
(8.7) T. = rl(t~k.Xj, +
h(l)~k d,.
(~j, 
~i.k
m ,. "liT~~
)d
Sk +
I ( . {).) . )
5
~ ~ ~~
+ Q f X~ + k cl,(l)~ t 'tit~~ d'\r  W o
(8.8JW  f
= 'latdU' = f (t<~Pd + hCll~k d,,.,,k'IAJ'
"r
~ + h<>.l~k d,,.,,.
..,..,, ;
k
k m~ \AJ' ._)dv.
""''h r'"
,.
11
~
where q is the rate at which heat flows through the surface, and
N
(8.11)
The reversible part of working goes into the potential energy )C,
such that l: = 0Wand
(8.13)
104 8. Some applications of classical thermodynamics
(8.15)
D~ ) , we may write
(8.16) t
t\1
= = m
t\1
=
(8.17)
The second law of thermodynamics 105
(8.18)
r:
second law of thermodynamics states that
(8.20)
(8.22)
(8. 23)
e = 0 is called isothermal ,
Q = 0 is called adiabatic ,
11= 0 is called isentropic ,
t = 0 is called isoenergetic
= E
t (~pd, ~~ + E
h(A)~kd~
(>.),k 'IAT~~ +
(8 .25)
The rate of recoverable mechanical working 107
Since
and since
(8.27)
Thus,
.
E'lit = [ t (~f.)xl; .. + d[~
~he E (l),k E
h(l)~]kx~
'~  E
m~(~k)x~. ]~ +
'6k ,L
. . (8.28)
(l)k K ; (" k) L K e
+ Eh ci X;kdC1>;K  Q~REm" r X;;.X;k x;KL
108 8. Some application s of classical thermodynamics
t =
so that*
(8. 29)
(8.30)
(8.31)
remain unchanged.
Regarding the dissipative parts of the stress teg
sor,couplestress tensor and of the director stress tensors,there
is a discussion whether or not the inequalities (8.19), or (8.23,
24) present any restrictions. E.g. Kline [235] demonstrated that
from these inequalities without additional assumptionsfurther
conclusions cannot be made, but Leigh[265](in the nonpolar case)
finds certain restrictions and applies the second law of thermo
dynamics to plasticity and linear viscous flow. Green and Rivlin
[176] obtained the differential equations of theories of gener
alized continua by the systematic use of the first and second
law of thermodynamics, but applied the procedure only to the re
versible case (cf. also Green and Laws [154]).
I find, however, that in some cases the principle
of least irreversible force by Ziegler [516] is very useful.~~
the irreversible part Yl(~} and the irreversible part fl(r) , so that
(8.33)
and
(8.34)
ge.;(r)
~ ., = qk,k + ..
oh
(8.35) r1t~) ~ 0 0
(8.36)
X(~)... k
= k u.X (8.38)
t(:i:) = M (8.40)
"'
Assuming that a process considered is quasistatic,
i.e. the change of the coordinates xk and of the temperature a
is sufficiently slow, the principle of least irreversible force
states that:
If the value M > 0 of the dissipation function
t (:i: k) and the direction '\)k of the irreversible force (X k = X"lt)
m
are prescribed, then the actual quasistatic velocity ik minimizes
(~)
the magnitude X of the irreversible force Xk subject to the
condition t(xk) ~ 0.
For the justification of this principle we refer
to Ziegler's paper [516]
As a consequence of this principle it follows
112 8. Some applications of classical thermodynamics
(8.41) =
where
(8.42)
and Dh
N
8.1 I n v a r i a n c e o f t h e F i r s t La w o f
Thermo d y na m i c s and the E g u at ions
o f Mo t i o n
The first law of thermodynamics may be written
in the explicit form (cf. 8.10)
(8.1.1) = f tV"
(N N
(A)
+ Nh d.c'A.'
N /
 Nmw
N
+ q)d,s +
s
+ f,. o(f.,. +
"'"'"'
Cll
I( d(~ 
N N
Jw + h)dv
NN
Superposed rigid body motions 113
~i
.\lt
NN
= e "lit"d.
and lltis
N
the antisymmetric vorticity tensor defined by (3.28).
Two motions of a body considered differ by a rig
id body motion if the velocities of the points of the body differ
by a rigid body velocity. Let '\T and '\t*be two velocities of a
"' tU
tor. Since w
N
is the angular velocity vector, its components are
1
w = fkwct
"k
and
"k
wei = w
k.
r.
" 2 ~~
We postulate now the invariance of (8.1.1) under
superposed rigid body motions. This means that the form of (8.1.1)
is invariant for all motions which differ by an arbitrary rigid
motion.
When in (8.1.1) z is substituted by z +~,the po~
2
For arbitrary Nb and Nb we obtain two relations,
the law of conservation of mass,
ed."' = o ,
which by (3.46) obtains the usual form
(8.1.5) Je = eo
and the equation of motion (7.19),
(8.1.6) 0 .... ~
'"'u = t~...
,., + ef" .
To investigate the consequences of the invariance
. ..
of (8.1.1) under superposed arbitrary rigid body rotations, we
have to substitute v, V, d~) ,d(A.) and 'laY by
NNN N N
(8.1.7) ,;.
N
+ ir + wx('U'
N t\1 N
+ wxr)
N t\1
Superposed rigid rotations 115
(8.1. 8)
+ f ~(!:X! +
l~
S().)Xb + ~)dS .
5
(8.1.9)
0 '
which for arbitrary Co.)~ reduces to (7 .33).
This last requirement, ~hat (8.1.1) is invariant
if the rates of the directors are changed by some arbitrary, con.
116 9. Some general considerations on constitutive relations

z = Q~p{t) zft + al)f,(t) (9.1)
t = t  T
'
or
ZC)f,
= a;an!,a + bllfo(t) (9.2)
t = t + T
Here
(9.4)
...
= z ' =
.
z .
(9.5)
( 9.6)
(9.7)
= =
T~e principle of material frame indifference 121
and obviously
and
= (9.8)
(9.9)
and the deformation gradients are objective. The same holds for
the higher order deformation gradients
()22.
= etc. (9.10)
azl.az)Ao
The principle of material frame indifference re
quires that: Constitutive equations must be invariant with re
122 9. Some general considerations on constitutive relations
Q
"'
where w.~ = w~. is an arbitrary infinitesimal rotation, and
Objective functions 123
(9.11)
( 9.12)
(9.13)
(9.14)
For sufficiently small w ~,a we may expand F into the Taylor ser
ies,
aF fl "
v
L=1 OV
n
~ V{v) W ft =
(v)
0 (9.15)
= 0 . (9.16)
124 9. Some general considerations on constitutive relations
(9.17) (f v=t
g~t a~ v,~)r 'J =
av (~) "d
0 .
The principle of local action states that: the
state of stress at a point Z of
N
a medium is determined by the
motion inside an arbitrary neighborhood N(Z)of
t\1
Z, and
the point IV
the motion outside this neighbourhood may be disregarded.
Under the"state of stress" we understand the val
ues of all the quantities which describe the stress field ( t,
b(l)' m etc.}. If ,(a(Z)) is a function which describes the
""
state of stress at Z at time t , according to this principle, at
a configuration K(t)the state of stress at Z is determined by the
, I
instantaneous configuration of the neighbourhood N(Z). Let Z be
<V N
a point inN<Z). At the configuration K(t) the relative position of
Ill
z' with
IV
respect to Z is given by
f\1
Az = z(z' , t)  :i!(Z , t)
"' "' 1\1 1\1 "'
(9.18)
(9.19)
(9.21) t =
Generalizations to higher order materials are in
principle simple, but require more involved notation Which makes
the expression less clear. The higher order gradients of defor
mation and directors may be identified with the multipolar dis
placements, and the theory then might be directly applied.
The materials for which the constitutive relations
do not depend explicitly on X are
N
called homogeneous and we
shall consider only such materials.
9.1 T h e I n t e r n a 1 En e r g y Fu n c t i o n
The internal energy function l in the form (9.21)
has, according to the principle of material frame indifference,
to satisfy the conditions of the form (9.17). When the constitu
tive variables are identified with the components of the vectors
v~) according to the table
e t c c e c
V(1), V(2l, Yt3l ~ x;t, x;2, x;3
t e r a
V(4) , ' V<sl ~ x;th ' x;33
e t
V(tO) ' ' Vl3n+9) ~
The deformation tensors 127
[ Q~ec~()~ xtK
uX,K
+ () ()~ x:tKL +
x,KL
()~ . dt).);K) l~
()td().) 7K
.]
~
= 0 (9.1.1)
a. b
CAB = Qab:x;,..x;a
' (9.1.2)
a b
GcAB = SJabXjcAx;B (9.1.3)
a b
F.AB = Shbx;,.. d.(~)iB (9.1.4)
= GAcB (9.1.5)
t = (9.1.6)
128 9. Some general considerations on constitutive relations
9.2 I r r e v e r s i b l e P r o c e s s e s
The dissipation function t in (8.39) is a funo
tion of certain generalized velocities. According to the princi
ple of material frame indifference t has to be a function of
objective variables. Such variables are the components of the
rate of strain t:ensor d.~~ ... 'U' (~,~), the gradients of vorticity
w~~,k , as well as the second gradients '\r~,dk of the veloc
ity vector.
. ~
. "k
D m~ct 'liT. k.
~c~,
(9.2.1)
(9.2.2)
where
(9.2.3)
.... .It
is the corotational time flux (cf. [469] ) of the vector d(A.)
may directly be verified that "'dt~)~ is an objective vector. Hence,
we may rewrite now (9.2.1) in the form
(9.2.4)
(9.2.6)
(9.2.7)
(9.2.8)
(9.2.9)
(9.2.10b) =
(9.2.13)
k
e,k qk
+ xk,. + e 0 .
and e' but the procedure might be applied to any grade of the
gradients and to any number of the other constitutive variables
assumed in the theory.
In the theory of ineiastic properties of nonpolar
media, owing to the recent developments of the thermodynamics of
continua, some progress is made by Leigh (265] and Dillon [84].
In the following sections we shall discuss the
constitutive relations of some particular media, when the const~
oped*.
I 0. Elasticity
(10.2)
or
(10.3)
(10.4) t =
and the specific free energy to be a function of the form
(10.5)
(10.6)
(10.7)
(10.8)
(10.9)
= _o'l'
ae (10.10)
(10.11) 0 .
sM~~k
= 0
(10.13a)
AM~~k
= 0
The indeterminacy of the couplestress tensor 137
=
(10.13b)
= =
(10.16) = Cc[A,B]
at at ac,..B at 
aDA.BC ()f. &F.AB
= + +  
'
Dx;L aCAB ax!
IL
()DABC l):x;!
)\.
()fAB &x~
''
'
(10.18) ()f.
=
at DDABC
&
()x;KL {)DABC ()x~
IKL
'
()f.
=
at DF.AB
.
' oF.AB a de~.);K
r
ad,~;K
(10.19) =
The elastic constitutive relations 139
 o
at ~ i
. . (2 acn x'K.x,L + u
~t v
<.~ x~ .>
()DKL 11 .... ,K ,u, + M
u"'
x~ dv )
aF~KL ,K (c.hL , (10.20)
= (10.21)
= (10.22)
= 2Ec[A,B] (10.23)
= 2D ABC o + CcB AD
' '
Eliminating the derivatives of the tensor C we obtain
"'
(10.26) DABC n + Dnc DnAc 0
' ,A + 'B =
find
= (10.2.7)
A
Assuming that X;~ are deformation gradients, we may write
=
and obviously
F.[AB,C] = 0 , (10.2.9)
10.1 A P r i n c i p l e o f Vi r t u a l Work
and Boundary Conditions
To derive the boundary conditions for elastic
polar materials we shall generalize the principle of virtual
work used by Toupin [462] for static equilibrium in the theory
of elastic materials of grade two. In a slightly more general
form this principle was also applied to generalized Cosserat con
142 10. Elasticity
(10.1.1) oT + bE = bw ,
o, '
(10.1.2) =
where n is the unit nonnal to the boundary surface s Toupin in

N
(10.1. 3) b.
Vet
= D" nct = DI n"
An integral identity 143
..
Jn~f n~ds = lbkkn~n~ bi.~)f... ds + j'm~"/dt ,
e
(10.1.4)
J J
where Nm N't"xnN and TN is the unit tangent to 'e, and cU is the scal
ar line element of f
If the integral transformation (10.1.4) is applied
to all surfaces 'J, i.e. to the whole boundary s of v, one gets
6T = I
'17
rJ.(i ~ 6 Xi. + ~ l }A d.~~) b d(;AJ) d '\)" (10.1.6)
'
(10.1.8)
(10.1. 9)
(10.1.10)
Evaluation of the integrals 145
and
~ ml( k
~2 j B k bx ),ml d.V" ' (10.1.11)
For ~i we have
k) k]
:lt = ![( AK 11
bx ,11  Ak,m o:x
m
d'IJ"
'17 (10.1.12)
'17 s
Since we may write
(10.1.14)
(10.1.15) ~3 =
J
rp
(e&)m
k
k
od(.)nmds
Ip {eG)m k
k ,modt.)dU'.
5 ~
(a:) (a:)
where L , M , N , S and T are some generalized for.ces.
1\1 1\1 N N 1\1
.. t Aem tmn
OX
~

,m + 8 ' mn (10.1.18)
' '
s'' . (10.1.19)
'
on s
Mt, (10.1.20)
= (10.1.21)
(10.1.22)
=
A(~~) t ( ~ ~)
=
'
8 tmn =  m&(mn) (10.1.23)
'
p<Hm
=
h \"')tm
.
148 10. Elasticity
(10.1.24) = 0 '
which substituted in (10.1.18) yields
..
. ~A d e
!!" (.) =
e
represents the equations of motion. Here we may identifyl with
e<f' + e'm, . J ' and s(t) with ok()' The boundary conditions fol
...
low from (10.1.2022),
(10. 1.25)
10.2 El a s t i c Ma t e r i a l s o f Gr a d e
Two
 
When the internal energy is a function of defonn!
k k K
tion gradients ,
:t.K and ,
X.KL and of X and t'\ only, the mechanical
constitutiv e relations (10.20, 21) obtain the fonn
(10.2.1) '
m~CJk) =
(10.2.2)
1
m.k  mPp!..uok = t .. k  f
1 ~k (
2 .. 2 P9'" mPq'"ue 10.2.3
m~~ )
li D H~
or
(10.2.4)
150 :10. Elasticity
where
(10.2.5)
(10.2.8) i ~ NKLD
a ... KLM
2
The stressstrain relations 151
t(i.~)
= e( ()[of. ~ ~
:x:;Kx;L + 21 N"
i)t,
l,
NKL (~ ~) )
X ;Kx;LM (10.2.9)
KL i>D M
where we have used (3.10), and for the deviator ~t we get from
(10.2.3, 7, ~,) the relation
= (10.2.10)
(10.2.12)
k
x;L = r,kL + u. k,, 0 Le
'
k
x;LM = k
U, ) tm
o'L o11 '
(10.2.13)
where
(10.2.14)
(10.2.15) =
(10.2.16)
Linearization. Isotropy 153
t (~ ~)
=
c~~kt
1 e k& +
c~~ktk
2 H
(10.2.17)
M~~kt M~iktk
JJ. ~~ = t e kt + 2 kt
such that
c~i ka
= vg~tgkl + flv9~kg~t + 'tv g~lgtk '
" (10.2.18)
M~;.ke
= a"gi.f. gkt + byg~kgjt + c"g~&g .. k (v =1,2) ,
"
Since the constitutive relations (10.2.17) for
isotropic materials have to be invariant under the full orthogo
al group of transformations, we shall obtain them substituting
the elasticity tensors from (10.2.18) into (10.2.17).
In the linear theory we may assume that the den
sity e is approximatively equal to the density in the reference
configuration, e Rl fo!o.
For isotropic materials in this approximation the internal ener
gy function may be approximated by a quadratic polynomial in
1 2
the isotropic invariants I e 'II e and n D ' liD of the tensors ~ and
2, and it may be written in the form (Koiter [241] )
154 10. Elasticity
~ . J
(
10.2 .19)
[ " 2
~ 0 t = G 1 _ 2 " Ie + e;. et. + 2 E2(k .~._k~d. + t1k.~k~)J
2
where G is the shear modulus, v is the Poisson ratio and 2 G
2
and 2~Gt are two additional new elastic constants. The constant
e has the dimension of length and is called the characteristic
length of the material. 1'\ is a nondimensiona l nwnber.
The constitutive relations (10.2.9, 10) may be
written now in the fcnn
= 2 G(e~~ + V I n~~)
12.v eiJ
(10.2.20)
= 4G2 2 (k~i + 11k~ir)
10.3 T h e E1 a s t i c Co s s e r a t Co n t i n u u m
(10.3.1)
(10.3.2) =
(10.3.3) =
=
(10.3.4)
or
(10.3.5)
(10.3.6)
(10.3.7)
:tm (10.3.8)
From (10.28) we easily obtain the compatibility
conditions for the tensor x~k~ From (10.3.7) we have
kem
e X k& m = 0 .
'
158 10. Elasticity
=
we find
= 0 .
Ill
X. [t 7n] = 0
(10.3.9)
at
eo!\ .
uX., ... ~ ..
(10.3.10a)
Linearized constitutive equations 159
h~
... = at (10.3.10b)
~o: '
...
() :t "
where
(10.3.11)
.. ~
t"cl.,.. + of"
QX = "
(10.3.14)
t[~ . .il t (~~J + H[~~Jkk
QI Wt = , +
dG kl)~]
e <l '
~k
where the hyperstress tensor H cl defined by (7.25) 4, appears
only as an antisymmetric tensor.
The moments of director forces appear here in the form of body
couples. The effect of hyperstresses in the linear theory of an
elastic Cosserat .continuum is obviously the same as the effect
of couplestresses in the straingradient theory. For that reason
many authors consider both kinds of "materials" as Cosserat ma
terials, or simply as materials with couplestresses without
making any distinction between the two kinds of materials.
Transvecting the equation (10.3.14) with l 111 ~i
(10.3.15)
Micromorphic media 161
t
~~~~ = I"6t It
n m  m'
Hk
m
s H~~k
"m~d
(10.3.16)
(10.3.17)
and the equation (10.3.15) obtains the form often used by vari
ous authors in the linearized theories.
10.4 E 1 a s t i c Ma t e r i a 1 s wi t h Mi c r o 
s t r u c t u r e
a) Micromorphic and micropolar materials. The
basic theory is developed by Eringen and Suhubi [123130, 137
139, 442] It is assumed that for the microelements are valid
the Cauchy laws of motion,
oa~
lot 
..
t' ~;. +
,; et'~
(10.4.1)
t'~
= fP
where primes denote that the quantities are related to microe
lements. For macromaterial the corresponding quantities are ob
162 10. Elasticity
etc.
d,,.
The stress and volume moments are defined by the
relations
(10.4.5)
d.v
represents the "microstress average".
The constitutive relations, according to our no
tation (cf. section 5.2) read
(10.4.6a)
=
Micropolar media 163
= (A = 1,2 ,3)
(10.4.7)
t =
k
CKL & , , ,
ShcXKxL
~
k I
(10.4.8) 'l'u. = ~ilk eX ;K d,(~
k e
ri<u , d.(l)L,
gke x.K
(10.4.9)
(10.4.11)
(10.4.12)
.,. .
~r
= i)u,'l'f ax"' .
. .
Denoting by X~ and u. ~ Cartesian coordinates and components of the
macrodisplacements, resp.~the relative deformation is given by
()u,.
= _cl 'f ..
();x:~ ct '
at ..,

t"d = ()f. i)f
(10.4.13)
~el
()'~.' ..
G lr ..
'
and the equations of motion are
(10.4.14)

Materials with microstructure 167
k
t~' are certain double forces, and ~.,,
= 31 e~d~"~z)
.e
are certain inertial coefficients. The quantities d~ depend on
the ''unit cell" of the medium considered. The symmetric part "''c~p
of the microdeformation represents the microstrain, and the
antisymmetric part is the microrotation, 'T[~i] = w~~ ( cf. Section
5.2).
This theory contains the linearized equations of
Cosserat continua as a special case, and the linear version of
the straingradient theory as a special case,too. Eringen[130]
showed, however, that this theory coincides with the theory of
micromorphic materials. The theory of Mindlin, however, is ela!!
orated only in the linear version and it is difficult to say
from the coincidence of two theories in their linear form if
they agree in general, or they represent two different theories._
10.5 I n c o m p at i b 1 e Def"ormations
Under certain circumstances a field of stresses
cannot be associated to a field of deformations which satisfies
the compatibility conditions (see App. sections A4 and section
4). Such situations appear in thermoelasticity and in the theory
of dislocations. In the classical linear thermoelasticity, in the
Duhamel  Neumann law, it is assumed that the total strain Ne
which satisfies the compatibility conditions, is composed of two
strains which do not satisfy these conditions, of an elastic
168 10. Elasticity
(10.5.1) = e(h)'f
K (A.)
;r.
K
(10.5.2)
Incompatible deformations 169
(10.5.3)
t = (10.5.4)
t  (10.5.5)
10.5a E1 a s t i c M at e r i a 1 s o f Gr a d e
Two
We consider the local ClausiusDuhem inequality
(8.24) in the form
(1o.sa.1)
(1o.sa.2)
(10.5a.3)
(1o.sa.4)
(1o.sa.S)
Materials of grade two with incompatible deformations 171
1e
e ,k qk ,. o (10.5a.6)
and
= ,' .,
X.~... x~'k '
.. k
and the constitutive equations for t<~;.> and m~f reduce directly
to (10.19) and (10.21). The indeterminacy of the couple stress
tensor appears as a consequence of the assumption made a priori
that the compatibility conditions are satisfied.
Introducing the request that the free energy fun
tion is invariant under rigid motions, and the righthand side
of (10.Sa.4) possesses the same symmetries as the lefthand
side, we obtain the system of linear differential equations
(10 sa.7)
172 10. Elasticity
(10.5a.8) (g~' a;
at(l.) ,k
+ttt ')
~
= o.
There are 21 independent equations (10.5a.78)
with one unknown function and 36 independent variables. This
system admits 3621=15 independent integrals.
It might be easily verified by direct calculation
that the following material tensors satisfy the system of dif
ferential equations considered,
(10.5a.9)
(10.5a.10)
'I' = T(CIV , ND , 9) ,
t[~~]
(10.5a.u)
Incompatible deformations in Cosserat continua 173
(10.Sa.12)
where
(lo.sa.13)
lO.Sb Ge n e r a 1 i z e d E1 a s t i c Co s s e r a t
M a t e r i a 1 s
bE = A , (lO.Sb.l)
where
E= fetd~, (10.Sb.2)
and
(lO.Sb.3)
174 10. Elasticity
face s of '0'
(10.Sb.4) bE = fe(()f,at..,
'It
~ ,,<:~.)
~ at
+ w6d.~,~ d,. .
()d . .
(l.))
'"" If I ti
By Appendix (A5.10) the expression (10.Sb.4) will become
(10. Sb. 5)
Writing
(10.5b.6)
(10.Sb.7)
(10.5b.8) 6E f ~
=  te,j6:x:
'It
E ~~ (~")) r( j
+ h<p.l,t6d~ d,. + ;te bx + h(~"')bd~ )ds~.
s
I i,. (I')
(10.5b.9a)
"ti
t..,,.. + of:.v
Iii = 0
Thermoelasticity 175
= 0
...
t n = F~
t "'
(10.Sb.10)
.
=
~~ ~
10.6 T h e r mo e 1 a s t i c i t y
Thermal deformations represent the best known
example of incompatible deformations. If we denote by" the coef
ficient of thermal dilatation and by 0(X)
N
the increment of tern
perature from an initially and everywhere in the body considered
constant reference temperature T0 =const., the strain tensor (in
Cartesian coordinates)
(10.6.1)
ordinates.
To obtain the stressstrain relations in thermo
(A)
elasticity, we shall consider the distorsions el ' introduced
in the section 4, as thermal distorsions. We further assume that
t
thermal stresses are produced by the elastic distorsions teA)
For isotropic materials the thermal distorsions are isotropic
functions, and for Cartesian coordinates we may write
(10.6.2) 0 ~).) =
L
In this case TeA , given by (10.5a.13), becomes
(10.6.3)
and we have
= (10.6.6)
where
i PAB
eo = ;le = ~detX~ ,
'P
D.c = 2{. DABC ( 10. 6. 7)
where
(10.6.10)
(10.6.11a)
178 10. Elasticity
(10. 6.11b) =
10.7 Di s l o c a t i o n s
Dislocations are a kind of defects in the struc
ture of matter. In the atomic structure of solids we can observe
that the lattice points in real crystals are not perfectly ar
ranged. A perfect arrangement of lattice points exists only in
ideal crystals. In a real crystal, when compared with the cor
responding perfect pattern, it is possible to observe vacant
lattice points, atoms on the places where should not be an atom,
Dislocation lines. The Burgers vector 179
extra atoms etc. Such defects are called by solid state physi
ists point defects. For mechanical properties of solids, prima
rily of metals, of greater importance are defects distributed on
a surface which is bounded by a closed contour. For instance,
all lattice points on a crystalographic plane bounded by a clos
ed curve may be missing, or it is possible to have on this plane
extra lattice points. Such twodimensional defects are called
dislocations. The curve bounding the surface upon which the mis~
ing through the lattice points in the "good" region of the cry~
bu. = b + dxr
""' f\J f\1 N
= (10.7.1)
182 10. Elasticity
( d(l)
and the latt~ce vectors of the dislocated crystal cannot be
N (~
regarded as deformed lattice vectors D
N
of the reference crystal
i.e., there are no relations of the form
(10.7.2) D (~)XK
K ;k
(10.7.3)
(~) (l.)
The vectors ~ vanish if the directors d ~ deform as material vee
tors.
An infinitesimal displacement along the lattice
vector ..,
d().) is represented by the expression
(10.7.4) dr~ =
(i0.7.6)
(10.7.7)
(~)
Since the vectors Dv represent fields of parallel vectors, the
gradients D~~~~vanish and we have
h
Ab>. = (10.7.8)
(10.7.11) 2 .. t d(t)
"'.
~.~ t
(10.7.12) =
The lefthand side of (10.7.12) vanishes because of the com
mutativity of partial derivatives, and the integrability con
ditions reduce to the relations
(10.7.13)
(10.7.14)
Differential geometry of dislocations 185
and
(10.7.15)
e mt
Dmt
=  U. (10.7.16)
Here b;t are the Christoffel symbols of the first kind for the
tensor b and b~m
N
= ak tn Vb .
b) Geometry
In the continuum theory of dislocations the stress
free state (N) of a dislocated crystal is considered in a linear
ly connected metric space with torsion [247] . If g i.~ is the fun
k
damental tensor of this space and s~~ the torsion tensor, the
coefficients of connection r~~ are given by
r ..k
~d
= (10.717)
where g'~~ are the Christoffel symbols of the second kind for the
tensor g and
"'
. k
h = s ..
. k
s ..k + s.k..
~~ ~~ cl'~
'~~
(10.7.18)
s...k k
r[~dJ .
"'
!!I
Writing
(10.7.19)
186 10. Elasticity
b
where vm denotes the covariant differentiation with respect to
the Euclidean metric tensor 2[247]' the coefficients ~~ may be rk
expressed by the relations
(10.7.20)
() k kt = Vb N
k ...
k"

bk
km""'
N mp
(10. 7 .24)
= (10.7.25)
Using the fundamental tensor g~~ of L3 for the rais
ing and lowering of the indices, so that
(10. 7.26)
~t
vk"
b
.
k
J.. = n(11
kt
G~~k....
N
(10.7.27)
(10.7.28)
(10.7.29)
V
b kt bk
(10.7.30) k" + km" ~
c) Disclinatio ns
One type of disclinations~ which corresponds to
Volterra dislocation s of the sixth kind~ called wedge disclina
tions, has been detected experimenta lly in the twodimensi onal
lattice formed by vortex lines in the mixed state of type II
supercondu ctors.
Since the disclinatio ns represent a rotational
closure failure, in analogy to dislocation s, they can be asso.c
iatedto the incompatib ilities of rotation of a Cosserat triad
of directors.
According to (10.28), the compatibili ty conditions
for the director deformation read
0 (10.].31)
:X: 111.[!,n] = 0
= = 0.
analysis of stress and strain in rods and shells from the point
of view of the theory of oriented bodies, and they indicated the
significance of couplestresses in the exact description of the
state of stress. Their considerations were based on the geometry
of rods and shells and they have not made any constitutive as
sumptions.
Since 1958 a large number of papers appeared,
mostly dealing with elastic shells and ,rods. In this section we
shall give only a brief review of some of the most characteristic
GUnther's theory of shells 191
ll.la T h e o r i e s wi t h Ri g i d Di r e c t o r s
In 1958 GUnther ~89] considered the Cosserat
continuum with rigid director triads and assumed that the points
of the continuum have six degrees of freedom, so that at each
point we may consider a displacement vector u. and a rotation
N
v~ctor !
N
which is independent of u. . The deformation is deter
N
X = (). + (ll.la.2)
N~ ~ N
'
with the components
= u. ..  t .... k +
k
f. .. ~,~ ~
(ll.la.3)
~t
X~
.e
= +e . ,~
(ll.la.4)
192 11. Shells, plates and rods
bt.
N"
= a.(bu) + gxot
\f N N\f N
= 0 ,
(ll.la. 7)
b:x:~ = n.(o
~
t)
"'
= o.
 f<~6tt + ~b!)ds = 0.
s
For arbitrary bu. and ot follow now the equations which corres
"' "'
a=
pond to (7.37) and (7.41) for tu 0' a=
1\1
0 ' and the boundary
conditions
t n
~
= q'
"' ~ p' (10.11a.9)
"' "'
where n is the unit normal to s .
"'
This approach to the mechanics of Cosserat con
tinua GUnther applied in 1961 [190] to the theory of shells.
Let fl be the middle surface of a shell, and n the unit normal
"'
to a . If x, = 1,2 are coordinates on a, the rotation and dis
placement vectors for the points on ~ are given by
()r
a. = "' =
"' Dx .. '
194 11. Shells, plates and rods
(11.1a.ll)
or
(11.1a.12) x. ft
= xfi. 9p + X"'n , tit. = trio, gfo + t.n
N
"' "' "' "' "'
with the components
., ,
x. = "
t. b. t ' x. =
fo
f,ec. + bcsft + '
(11.1a.13)
'
j)
t.fl = u.Jl, b.Jlu. e.,t, tit. =
~
u.,. + b.u.,& + e._ft+
(11.1a.14)
where bft is the second fundamental tensor of the surface,
(11.1a.15)
(11.1a.16)
The equilibrium equations 195
(ll.la.19)
196 11. Shells, plates and rods
If we '!II'ite now
cr.
(11.1a.21) vaN ,
M~ by the relations
"'
The equilibrium equations 197
(11.1a.24)
0 '
(11.1a.25)
IC
m ' = 0
(11.1a.26) r* =
N
Q33 = nn N N
= 1.
(11.1a.29)
t =
"'
where " are components of the unit normal to an arbitrary curve
C on 6 If dC is the arc element of C with the unit normal v
N
,
the contact force dK
N
acting on the surface element vdCdz will be
(11.1a. 30)
The reduced stress tensor 199
Then we have
(11.1a.32)
(11.1a.33)
and we have
(ll.la. 34)
dKN = dK~dx.~
N
,
and therefore
~~
dK 1 = E;u.ht g~dz . (ll.la. 35)
"' "'
Introducing the "reduced stress tensor" o~ by the relations
( ll.la. 36a)
200 11. Shells, plates and rods
(11.1a. 36b)
we see that
(11.a.37)
(11.1a.39) VaN,B
tV
or .l
2
(11.1a.41) dM
N
=
Moments 201
where
(11.1a.42}
(11.1a.43)
and
(11.1a.44}
Integration over a ~ z ~
a gives
2 2
a
l
MIAA. = E.,JME1u.jhzo1toftdz ,
~ ( 11. la. 45)
Mn = 0
t
m}} = jhza ..ftdz , m~ = 0 . (11.1a.46)
a
2
Obviously the moments m111 ,a are directly connected
with the stress field in the shell. When the threedimensional
theory is reduced to the twodimensional theory, for a more com
plete picture of the stressfield it is necessary to consider
not only the resultant forces NA., but also the resultant couples
N
202 11. Shells, plates and rods
m.
N
(11.1a.47) 0 '
which is equivalent to
(11.1a.48)
(11.1a.49)
and 9 ~J.I is the deformed metric. If the points on the middle sur
n'
u.)\ = a tt.ft
1
 2 Zb tt.fl
1
+ z 2 C fl.)\
I
,
(11.1a.sl)
== b.bA.
rv NJ'
'
The change of curvature 203
where
(11.1a.52)
and
....a = a.(r + )
N
.... = a .
N N
+ u.""
!1.11.
t'U (ll.la. 53)
n = n 
N N
(nO.~.~.)a .
N NN
(11.1a.54)
(ll.la. 55)
where
(11.1a.56)
(11.1a. 57)
(11.1a. 58)
1 1 2( ~ l
(11.1a. 59) t.'t = 2 (g""~ QccJ'
I )
= t(ccft) + :a~.~
1\1
2z bet.!!~).+ b~ed).
(11.1a. 60)
(11.1a.61)
Reissner's theory of shells 205
(ll.la. 63)
ll.lb R e is s n e r 1 s T he or y
From the point of view of continuum mechanics,
Reissner's approach to the theory of plates and shells [368376]
(cf. also Wan [479471] ) is based on the same kinematical model
as Gfinther's theory (see equations (ll.la.l5). Reissner's deri
vation of the shell equations differs from that of GUnther in the
approach to the problem of constitutive equations. Reissner deve1
oped an iteration procedure for deriving twodimensional equations
from an integradifferential formulation of the threedimensional
theory.
If we introduce into the fundamental equations of
motion (7.37) and (7.41) the notation
Va9,.,tk = Tk Vg=k = M
*k
"' ' N
"' (U.lb.l)
!t"9! = p ovgl* = q
N
.... N N
'
206 11. Shells, plates and rods
(11.1b.2)
() Tk + p = 0
k..,
"" '
aleNMk lc
+ SJkXT + q,.,
N N
= 0 .
Two vectorial equations of equilibriwn (11.1b.2),
together with six compatibili ty conditions for GUnther's defor
mation vectors (ll.la.l2) ,
(ll.lb. 3)
0 '
(11.1b.4) = o, = 0 .
The twodimensional theory 207
t .!
z*
N. =
N
Jr .dz,
N
M.
"'
= f(M. + znxT .)dz ,
j'"' "" "'
(ll.lb.S)
t _!
2
(ll.lb. 7)
a. = a.r
"" "' (11.1b.8)
g. .. aaNr* .. a. + za.n '
N N
93  n
"'
"' ""
()z
= ....
a T  p (11.1b.9a)
208 11. Shells, plates and rods
DM 3
(11.1b.9b) ~ 
az
Using the property of the signfunction sgn(x) ,
:x sgn(x) = 26(x) ,
where 6(x) is the del tarfunction, the integration of_ the two e
quations (11.1b.9) may be perfonned using the fonnulae *
...z
!3 = ~Jsgn(y z)[~(! 3) + ~]dy ,
a A
(11.1b.10) 2 z
53 = ~!sgn(y 2)[~\s) + ~ + ~kxrk ]dy .
t
3 *3
Introducing now the values for T and M into the face boundary
N N

= 1, c) JfW)6(yx)d.y f(x) . Now, if
write
f'(x) = F(x) , a""r;'ct if we
t
f(x) =  ![sgnWxlf(y)dy ,
by differentiation we obtain
a

which gives
a
2
j[~cr) + EJdy = o. (ll.lb.12)
~
Similarly, from (ll.lb.4) 2 we obtain
= 0. (ll.lb.l3)
A
2
Remembering the relations (ll.lb.S), we see that (ll.lb.l2) may
be rewritten in the form
(11.1b.14)
0.
However,
finally have
i !
(11.1b.15) act.M" +ja"xT" dz + j'f(q + znxp)dz = 0 ,
N N N N 1\1 N
x.
tiJ
From the first set of compatibility conditions we obtain
two relations,
(11.1b.17)
Deformation vectors 211
:1
+ a.,xxl:z)
1\1 IV
+ za.nxx3(2) r.l IU
z z
+Ja.. ~3(Yl)d'1J[~xja.~3(fl)drz]dy .
0 0 0
t..(z) = Nt.,  znxx.
N N N
+ a.,.xjx
N N
3(y)dy +
0 (11.1b.18)
z
(11.1b.19)
f. 1 \  ()At_ca
(}u._..,., rN + ,..
a.XXI\
,...,. ai\XXIIG
,...,. "' =0 .
z
z.~(z) = x.~ + jr.Jz3Jy)]dy
0
( = 1,2 ; ~ = 1,2,3)
z
(11.1b.20) t .. Jz) = t.~ + zE~'t 3 x~1  Efi&~ 3Jx 53(y)~dy +
0
II
if
2
where
t
*~
and for the components of the couples M we obtain
(11.1b.23)
*k2
X
~;
.(:z)
ti)
.
= D~ k" T
kt
(z)
(2)
.
+ D k"M (z)
""" .
Introduction of the strain and stress components
from (11.1b.2022) into these constitutive equations yields a
system of eighteen integral equations for the determination of
214 11. Shells, plates and rods
c t+vr
(11.1b.24) "~ =E ~~'
1 * 1 *
xtlloft = 2 M.,a ' x.3 = 2.M.3'
h F h H
(11.1b.25)
Shallow shells 215
E.g. we have
i
a
tu + ZXi 2 + jsudY = TH rT22 2~ fsgn(y z)[k 3 + p3]dy '
+M
0 1.0
.z
xu+ Jr11 ciy = 11 , ; etc.
o h F
11.2 Th e o r i e s wi t h De f o r m a b 1 e
Di r e c t o r s
The theories of plates, shells and rods with de
formable directors are based on the assumption that the three
dimensional material is an ordinary material in the classical
sense, and the appearance of the directors in the theory is a
result of the reduction of the threedimensional theory to a one
216 11. Shells, plates and rods
<11.2.2)
where 't" is the unit tangent vector to the curve C, and TdC =d:x:ftg/1.
N N 1\1
Further
(11.2.6)
Thus
fl
/HdA =f~ygH 1 dl 1{9H dX )dX. 2 1
A C "'
218 11. Shells, plates and rods
J':i IC NIC
}
If we put 1/QH dX = H , and in the analogy to (11.2.6), at the
" of the surfaces
intersection A and X = 0 denote by v the normal
""
to C, we have
(11.2. 7)
(11.2.9)
p
(11.2.1o) fe*h*vgdX+rVggssq*]
L X
+[Vgg33q*] x.., = ehva'
"
(11.2.11) '..
/!.vgdX = ~.Vi, (N
N
= N"v
N IC
)
N
(11.2 .12) M. Vi,
,
N
fJ
/e.* !*xN yg dX + [!X NVgg
.
33 Jx=. + [!xNVgg 33 Jx=Jl = e~ NVa . (11.2 .14a)
(11.2.15)
e. + e("1.  "
3b")
. = 0 ' (11.2.16)
(11.2.17)
...0'\T.., =
00
where
(11.2.19)
"'
Using the equations of motion (11.2.1619) the
energy equation may be reduced to the simpler form,
0 '
where
(11.2.21)
AN3 = a. d(N)3 ~
+ b.d(N}fl
.
a., = 2e.~ .
()'f'
'1 =  ae '
(11.2. 22)
N'~Jl ()"f 0_!!_ MN~~ ()"f
= ea , mN~ =
""a d(N);, '
= 0
ect.ft "'()A, N~"
11.3 R o d s
3
(11.2.1) for a part +t ~ X ~ i 2 of a rod, where X = X is the
parameter varying along the middle line, is {we are using the
notation of the section 5.5.2)
(11. 3.1)
Here
Laminated composites 223
(12.1) !?X
.. ~
,.
= t ~d . + ~fb '
,.
.
.. h(:t)~i . k(~)~
=
~ ~
(12.2) e~ d.tp.) + ~
'
jA
..
tGJJ + m~~'
... t ~;
(12. 3) *"k
...
oir~~ = ,k +
0
(12. 4)
(12. 5)
12. 1 Mi c r o p o 1 a r F1 u i d s
The basis of the theory of micropolar fluids re
presents the general concept of a micromorphic medium, which
was introduced into fluid mechanics first by Eringen [124] par
allel with the development of the theory of micromorphic elas
ticity, and later further developed in a series of papers ~~
Eringen [123, 125, 125, 133, 135] , Eringen and Ingram [137],
Allen, DeSilva and Kline [10,11], Allen and Kline [12], Ariman
[ 15], Ariman and Cakmak [16, 17, 18] , Condif and Dahler [69],
Kirwan and Newman [233, 234] , Kline [235] , Kline and Allen (?36,
237, 238] , Liu ~72], Rao et al. 1)67] etc.)
Quantities which characterize the state of stress
in a micromorphic medium (cf. section 10.4) are the stress ten
sor t
~~
, the microstress average tensor
..
s~~ and the first
stress moment tensor A~~k The rates,according to our notation,
are: velocity gradients vi.,~ , gyration tat~~ , and the gyration
gradients w~~,k . If the phenomena including the heat conduction
are excluded from the considerations, there are nineteen unknowns
which have to be determined through the equations of motion:
d.
~ d
= 'U'(.. ,;')
( 12 .1.1)
t
.... =
s
N
= ~(~~,~' wu~' w~t,k) ' ( 12 .1.2)
)...
N  h('\)'~ ~ ' w~t ' w~~,k) '
t\J '
t
N
= s t\J
= 0 ( 12 .1. 3)
e 'lt = at \
a0 i 'l1 1 = const
"' "'
(12.1.5)
we will obtain
f(d, b, a)
IVN N t\J  f(d ,b,
N
n.lf\1
a)
N
tk e := fk 1(d , b  d , bT  d) + O(a 2)
0 N N N N f'\11 ~
~E111 T
= hkEm(d ' b  d b .d) + O(a3)
0 N1\J)N n.l 1\1 N
T
where Nb  d
N
and b  d are introduced instead of b for later
N
fOol N
convenience.
According to (12.1.3) we may add that for the
vanishing d and b the righthand sides of ( 12 .1. 8) have to
"" ""
satisfy the following conditions,
230 12. Polar fluids
t = [ 1t' + Av tr d + i.. 0 tr(b  d.)] t + 2jkvd. + 2p. 0(b d.)+ 2J.Ai(bT d.) ,
ftl 1'\1 I'U N n,J 1\1 N N N N
(12.1.10)
s
1\1
= [ 7C + t'lvtrd + Ylotr(b d)] 1 + 2~"d + t 1(b + bT 2d.).
N N NN 1\1 NN N
(12.1.11)
( 12.1.12)
where
'\tr~ 11'J
:, '
!:!(,;.f)
N N
= grad1C +(A." +JJ)grad.d.~v V+ (~" + k)A'\t + k"(Vxw), (12 .1.14)
1111 H N N
(12 .1.15)
12.2 Di p o 1 a r F1 u i d s a n d F l u i d s o f
Gr a d e T wo
Theory of dipolar fluids originates in the theo~
(12.2.1)
where
d
~.r
= a.. k
~i
= (12.2.2)
L
(~~)k
Here are components of the "dipolar stress 11 which are
234 12. Polar fluids
[t + o2(),
"~ ... ao ~h.
,(
 n .. + 2o  Vg. + n o )]d~ .. +
""Dv ~. '"''~ "",.
...
(12.2.4)
!).""I ] kp.. e,.:.q~
[L (;,~)k + Q av (e,~ g~k + e,~ ~hk)
2U
+ a  e ~ 0 .
(12.2.5)
q~ = a~kk+ke~.
'
Here tp , "t'~ are some arbitrary functions to be det
ermined in the course of solution of each particular problem.
Under certain, in the thermodynamical sense, more
Nonlinear constitutive equations for dipolar fluids 235
...0~ = (12.2.6)
= ~(d .. a .. k) (12.2.7)
' ~d ' (, ~ '
(12.2.8)
(12.2.9) 
Using again Ziegler's principle Plavsic obtained the constitu
tive equations for the symmetric part of the stress tensor and
. (. k)
for the symmetric part m~ ~ of the couplestress tensor, which
is in complete analogy to the theory of elastic materials of
grade two. When linearized, the constitutive equations read
(12.2.10)
(12.2.11)
12.3 L i g u i d Cr y s t a l s
In the section 7.2 we already derived the diffev
ential equations of motion of liquid crystals, according to E
ricksen's theory. In addition to the contact and body forces
which appear in (7.2.1), Leslie [268] introduced another force
g which is defined as an intrinsic director body force per unit
""
volume. To avoid ambiguities in the notation, the director vec
tor, which was previously denoted by d., we shall denote now by
""
n
N
The equations of motion now read
Equations of motion and energy balance 239
de + 0'\t ~. = 0
dt ... '~
'
oU.~
~
= t~"'.
,; + ef (12.3.1)
.. " = h~"'. + ! k~ +
2" g~
' "'
With the aid of these equations the local energy
balance law may be written in the form
e"
t
= 2h + q,k
k + t~c1 d + h~; N
"d ....
where
N. == N.II = (12.3.3)
"d
and
= (12.3.4)
t
r =
~cl
ed rigid rotation is sym
r" it follows that
W. W
(12.3.5)
( 12. 3. 9)
From an analysis corresponding to that at the end of the section
9.2 we find that
(12.3.10) D"''
'l = ae
For static isothermal deformations Leslie obtained
Leslie's constitutive equations 241
g~ = 0
"'On~
()'f ( 0Ddn.)
~ ,,
where
(12.3.12)
ory and some observed phenomena. As is the case in the whole the
ory of polar media, the lack of estimates for constants which
appear in the theory prevents a comparison of predicted results
with the results of measurements.
13. Plasticity_
tic flow.
In 1964 Komljenovic [243] considered an elastic
plastic body with couple stresses. Assuming that the stress and
couplestress tensors may be separated into reversible (elastic)
and irreversible (plastic)parts, he considered the energy balance
Plastic materials of grade two 243
equation,
(13.1)
= J. I< k )
'',yt' :X: K ' X KL (13.2)
' '
= (13.3)
0J1 = t iii= 0
i.e.
=
0' (13.4)
fonn
2
t( t , m)  k :a 0
(13.5) 1\1 "'
d
~~  U.(~,p ' X.
~~  W.
.. ,;
(13.6)
'IIJ'~ e~'""
'\At'""  e~"" .
IA.III n
'
.. (~,P
The dynamical variables are the symmetric stress tensor 1:~. =t
and the deviator of the couplestress tensor a. ""
,...~., 3 . b..
m~r !mkk ~t .
(13.7) 0 .
as..".. d. as ..~~
(13.8a) ~ rs
,.. +ax,.,
x,., = 0 '
Plastic Cosserat materials of Sawczuk 245
= 0 ' (13.8b)
A. B
s.. = .A.Tv~' J..l.v~ = ,&BT~~
~~~
'
..
(13.9)
A 1, ... ,5' B = 1' ... ' 8 '
A B
where T and
~~
T~~ are linearly independent tensorial functions
of d and xN , and Clf.A and ,& 5 are scalar functions of d. and X In
N "' ,..,
the tensorially linear form we have
=
(13.10)
=
,
and ~'s , ~ s and 't are scalar functions of the secondorder in
variants of the kinematical variables.
Further analysis is based on the fact that in plasticity there
does not exist a onetoone correspondence between the invariants
of the kinematical and of the dynamical variables. Since there
is the same number of the variables s and )..t on one side, and
N N
d.
t\J
and x,.., on the other side, from 13.9 it is possible to estab
246 13. Plasticity
lish the relations between the two kinds of the invariants. The
requirement that there are no 1:1 correspondences between the in
variants yields the vanishing of the functional detenninant,
Denoting the invariants of the second order by
y =
etc,, we have
(13.11) l a(x , y , z) I= 0
a(~ , l1' ;)
(13.12) d.. = e
.As~~ ' X(~p =
s
~(~") X[~tl = ~
2~[~~],
~~
AA.2i ~ ";..2
where
y
(13.13) X = ~~ =
2 T} z
i ' X = A~
1\t )..1 ~
(13.15)
and of Jl.
N
=1\1w x are considered as 18 components of a generalized
f\1
mation action
" = Qq (13.16)
"' "'
is maximal, bl\ = 0.
The most interesting assumption of Lippmann is
that there are at least 2 and at most 18 yieldconditions,
(13.18)
and consequently
(13.19)
tance.
At the end we shall mention here also that some
attempts were recently made for the formulation of various the
ories of other anelastic phenomena. There are papers on visco
elastoplasticity (Misicu [294] ) , and on viscoplasticity
(Radenkovic and Plavsic [362]), as well as on viscoelasticity
(e.g. Eringen (129] , Askar, Cakmak and Ariman [20] , DeSilva
and Kline [83] , McCarthy and Eringen [278], etc.). All these
theopies represent very important contributions which we unfor
tunately have no time to analyze in detail here, but as a gen
eral conclusion we might say that even in the polar theories of
elasticity, and elasticity is physically the simplest situation,
Lippman's theory of yielding
Al. Co o r d i n a t e s. T e n s o r s.
= X
k(1 2 n) ,
X ,X , ,X
(Al.l)
k
X = k( i
X X ,x 2 , ... ,X ") ,
(A1.2)
X~= x\xl, ... ,xA),
represent a point transformation.
In the following, if x k are coordinates of a point
in X" , we say it is the point x
N
( I ... ,x ")
.,x, = cpx, n)
(1 ... ,x (A1.3)
= (A1.4a)
254 Appendix
e
\}' = ,.,.kax'
k'
ax
(A1.5)
,k 2axk
= \It  t .
ax
A tensor T
... of covariant order p and contravariant
order q is a quantity with n p+q components T"i... dt"~"q and
... ~p
with the transformation law
(A1.6) =
= =
T<~~> = i(r
2 .. + r..) '
~~ p
(Al. 7)
T(~t)
l!i i(T~~ + T4~) '
2
and into its antisymmetric part,
TE~iJ
lcr~~  TP)'
2
(A1.8)
1
(T.
T [~.lJ !I
2 ~ ..  T~)'
such that
T~~ =
(Al. 9)
Z56 Appendix
Fk Dxk f) XK K
(Al.ll) .K !!! a xk FkK !! X.lc
axK
!!I
;K ' fh;k '
(A1.12) = 2" e
rv '
where r 114=z" are the components of ..,r If x" is an admissible co
ordinate system in Euclidean space, i.e. if there exist the coo~
The base vectors 2.57
~
X.,. X ~( z,
i ... ,i! ")
(A1.13}
z>' = ~>'(vi
..r:. "" ' ... 'X
")
r~ = z ax~
az
(A1.14)
z = . az
r~  .
ax~
(A1.17)
where b" = b
~ "/t
= b.& ={ O,tG
1 ,~ =f.J
# ft
are the Kronecker symbols. Hence
(A1.19)
and also
(A1.21)
p
(A1.22) G 9~k '
The etensors 259
(A1.23)
(A1.25)
(A1.26)
(Al. 27)
'
(e"'x efl) e t =
N N N
(A1.28) =
where e~~k are now numerical symbols with the same meaning the
unit tensors for Cartesian coordinates have. From (A1.19) we
have now
= (det 3 z~)2
\ 3x ~ '
(A1.29) t.v;"k
Similarly
(Al. 31)
i .. k
== t . mva
2 ~o
(Al. 32)
(m~jk == li~j mck)
g~t
T ...~... ...... .
...... = T ... ~ . . . ' (Al. 33)
and
... ...
= T (A1.34)
~
0 0
Thus
and for the scalar. .product of two vectors, say u and '\t, we may
N N
262 Appendix
write
(A1.35) g U.~'\)".
~~ ;
= lA,~ 'IT "
The vectorial product of two vectors, say aN and
b , is a secondorder antisynunetric tensor,
N
(Al. 36)
N N
'
c~ct
= eel~
'
and using the Ricci tensor we may represent it as a vector S,
(A1.37)
v" = (A1.39)
k I( l.
az vK, vK b" ax a:z
1\
b~ax = ~k (A1.40)
"'k =
"&z"' axK ~aZ 11 axk
The quantities
K 'l
k
9.K a 6l.i)xk az" , SkK !E! b" ax az
"az~ axK 1az" ih:.K '
(A1.41)
(with gk.K gK = b~ gk.K gL = bi) '
t ' k
X = R cost , Y = R s~n t
t
g.i ... cos(.,  t) , g~ 2 = 'R s~n(tp t)
Using now (A1.40) 1 we easily obtain the components '\tkof the ve.
tor ~ when shifted from the point ( R, t) to the point (r, 'I):
Conversion of indices 265
ne
a.K TK. PQ = r'.'PQ
If 9mn and GMN are components of the fundamental
K
tensors corresponding to the coordinate systems xk and X at the
points x and X of the space, from (Al.19) and (A1.41) we obtain
"' "'
k e az"azB
9.K9.L 9ke = bAB  K  L
DX DX
= GKL
Dr 32.. e"
Sh "' = e gk = axk
()z'"'"' '
"' axk ax.K "'" ' "'
BR az" GK ax
K
el( .
GK = N
= Ke"' =
N
axK ax "' N
at'"'
nK k
= = Q .K ' (A1.42)
ak '
266 Appendix
(A1.44) d,r =
"'
and the square of the displacement dr represents the fundamental
"'
(metric) form for the space and for the considered system of
coordinates,
(A1.45) = d.rdr
"' "'
Hence, the fundamental tensor in the Euclidean space is the met
ric tensor.
Physical components of vectors and tensors are
defined only for orthogonal systems of coordinates (g~~ = 0 for
~ :f. ~) If we write for the base vectors g~ = h~g 0 ~ , with
ftJ N
(A1.46)
Physical components of vectors and tensors 267
and
1. . . (A1.49)
g""
The physical components of a vector are scalar
products of the vector and of unit vectors colinear with the
base vectors. Thus, for the physical components of a vector V
"'
which will be denoted by V(~)since the indices are neither co,
nor contravariant we have
t k
V(~) = ~QOj, =  V ~h9~ = vJ~ =
"' l)g..,.. N N
(Al.SO)
= v g"0
,.. = v"/~ .
"'
= = = (AL sl)
268 Appendix
the expression
(A1.52)
DT~ . + ST~ .
= , d
A2. I n v a r i a n t s
Let Tw , ... , T
ftl N
(K) be tensor variables. Any scalar
(A2 .1)
gonal transformations.
For a linear transformation of Cartesian coor
dinates
= (A2. 4)
270 Appendix
=
The principal directions of a secondorder sym
metric tensor are the directions determined by the unit vectors
~, suchthat r;n~ = Tn , or
and there are thr~e such directions. Since the equations (A2.5)
are homogeneous, the nontrivial solutions for ,.,n exist if
3 2
(A2.7)  T + Ir T  llr T + mr = 0,
Principal values and principal directions 271
ciprocal to the triad of the vectors "<) obtained for " = 1,2,3
"'
from (A2.5), it is possible to introduce a coordinate transfor
mation so that the new Cartesian coordinates i"' are colinear
with the principal directions,
zl. = .
n(l.) z
l.
"Cl> z ,
' (A2.8}
where
The components
4
T,. of: r with respect to the new
coordinates z
11 are
A.
TJA  T;. n (Jo~o)
, (1)
n ,
pressions
ZA.
Tx T"
T.~ = 0" 0)N
(A2.11)
3A A " Jl
T.f = T " T .Jl T JA ,
(A2 .12)
or
3
(A2 .13) T =
"'
(A2 .14) =
(A2.15)
(A2 .17)
Since
quadratic
(A2.18) = T ~M'
~ " =
cubic
i
2
illrM
'
= T~T'M:"'
'" ~
illrM = T ~M:'"w'
e ~ m
(A2.19) 3
illrH = T~M'".M e
4
t .~
'
][TI1 = T~M 111 M'
t .~ Ill
(A2.20) =
= Tm T<2l Tl3>
Invariants of tensors 275
= ... ....
r".r ~
= I ZT  2llT
(A2.21)
= ==
.
2 i/2 2 1/Z
3Ar = [2Ir  6llr] = L.,.,[( T{.)  T<~>)] . (A2.22)
i . 1 ")
( T ~ .  I STj, ~
= 1
3 1 b~.. +
"t 3 1 b~, = ~ + "~ (A2 .23)
=
siir
31!2T' = (A.2.24)
(A2.25)
independent components.
A secondorder tensor can be uniquely decomposed
into its symmetryc and antisymmetric parts. For a third order te~
M=
N
sM + AM
t'U N
+ pM
N
+ ;M
N
(A2.29)
A3. D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n
(,
If Vis a vector field in E3 with components v
"'
and Ve with respect to a coordinate system X 11 , the partial der
ivatives of the vector V are given by the expressions
N
av avk k&gk
ib:"'m = ax m ~k ( avk
v ();"' = ax"'
{ k} e) (A3.1)
+ + me v ~ k '
or
av age
av t e (OVt {k})
= i)iii9 Yea;"' = (A3.2)
"' t
&x"' X rv
+ ax"'  tm vk ~ '
where
(A3. 3)
(A3.4)
The quantities
(A3.5) [tm,n] a =
(A3.7)
(A3.8) a =
Dx"'
The covariant differential of a tensor T is
tV
a
Partial and total covariant derivatives 279
=
u~r , d. X.
T k k (A3.9)
ed by the formula
DT ...
... 6T : : : T . . . d.~ k ....
= at + .. ,k dt
T ... (A3.10)
d.t
Tk
. K,t  OTk K
axe
+ { k }
~m
Tm
.K '
(A3.11)
DTk K
Tk
. K,L =
()XL
 {L~} T\ (A3.12)
k
T. K;l (A3.13)
k
T.K;L (A3.14)
280 Appendix
l t
where X. e and :s:. L are the gradients of the mapping X++ X The
' ' tV tV
T ...
K =
'
(A3.15)
T .. k = T ... XK
I K
I k
I
A4. L .i n e a r 1 y Co n n e c t e d S p a c e s
Let vtt. be components of a vector field in E3'
referred to a system of Cartesian coordinates and let us per
form a parallel displacement of the vector V from a point z to
1\l f\1
(A4.2)
k
The vector field V at a point x +dx has the com
"' f\1
Linearly connected spaces 281
ponents
k
V (x + d.x) ""' Vk( X ) + Dt Vkd.x J + ....
N N N
(A4.3)
k *k
= V (x + dx) V
N N
(A4.4)
dv k = rk Vllld e (A4. 5)
 trn X '
Vk __ !l k rk v'" (A4.6)
,e "tV + tm '
282 Appendix
k .
and from the requirement that V t transforms b.ke a mixed se
'
condorder tensor we obtain the transformation law for the coef
ficients of connection:
(A4.7)
A' 1 Vk = f dVk,
AB'C
I k II k
and the increments ~ V and AV are, in general, not equal,
i.e. the integral along the closed contour AB CB A is not van
1
ishing,
The RiemannChristoffel tensor 283
k Ill k
Denot1ng rem V by f t and applying the Stokes
theorem,
,..,.'A and dF me
where F is the surface enclosed by the contour AB.
mC e.
are components of the surface element, AF =A F , we have
(A4.10)
then we have
(A4.11)
(A4.12)
(A4.1'3) =
(A4.14)
Nonintegrable mappings 285
such that the fundamental tensor with respect to the new coor
dinate system :z" obtains the fonn
= = (A4.15)
:X:~ =
(A4.16)
u." =
(A4.18)
du."' = (A4.19)
286 Appendix
(A4.20) = 0
(A4.21)
(A4.22)
"'(u)
Transvection of this with Tn and using the relations
"'(~~~o)"' E
(A4.23) = T f T (~) =
we obtain
(A4.24)
Nonholonomic components of tensors 287
= (A4.25)
AS. M o d i f i e d Di v e r g e n c e T h e o r e m f o r
I n c o mp a t i b l e De f o r ma t i o n s Va r i a 
t i o n s.
Since there are no integrable mappings of a non
Riemannian space upon the Euclidean space, a straightforward
application of the divergence theorem to the integrals of the
fonn
s
is impossible. We assume that T is
N
any regular differentiable
tensor field in E3 5 is the surface bounding an arbitrary volume
~ of a body B
The whole region~ may be divided into a number
of smal.l elements Av.. with bounding surfaces AS. and we have
(A5.2)
(A5.3a)
The modified divergence theorem 289
(A5.3b)
puttJ..ng
. X =X i , y =X 2 ; 2 =.X. 3 , t h e faces As~, As~ , As~ will
be orthogonal to the a."'Ces x\x~,x 3 Thus on the faces As~ we have
As~: Ti = T(x
1
+ Ax,y,z),
Similarly
A s .2 T2 = T2(x ,y + Ay, z) ,
As 2 T2 2
= T (:x:,y, z) ,
"'
As 3 T3 = T3(x,y,z + ~z) ,
"'
As!: T3 = T3(:x:,y,z) .
(A5.4)
290 Appendix
we have
y+Ay ll +Az
.;
However, for a regular tensor field T v and for
sufficiently small Ax~ we have
1 1 i
(A5.6) TJx + Ax ,y, z) = T~ (x ,y, z) + () 1T~Ax + ...
(A5.8) "'Tt
Q =
(T1;. ~ "'()J ~ T.t ~)"' i
~ T(A,)T j, + Ut j, 'IJ' QX
and, in general,
When A'U'" 0 and n  oo the sum (AS. 2) becomes the volume integral
over~ and for any curvilinear system of coordinates we may
finally write
Variations for nonintegrable mappings 291
J = fT .~ \t j,d. s.d =
~
J(n r~ + r~i~
y.
,
..
~
if.(>l) d.'\)'
~
'f'(')l'.
"' d (AS.9)
S 'It
Abx~
{).)
When the directors d.~ are compared at two points,
say P and Q of a body, we have for sufficiently near to one an
other points
. (A.) (1) .
Axdbd. + d bAxd
~,J ~,,
and
{).) .
(bd.~ )'clAx' =
Since this expression must be valid for arbitrary Ax~, we fin
ally have
(AS.lO)
References
Page
PREFACE ...................................... 3
Chapter I. Introduction ........................ . 5
Chapter II. Physical Background ................. 7
Chapter III. Motion and Deformation .............. . 11
Page
Chapter IX. Some General Considerations on Consti
tutive Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
9.1 The Internal Energy Function ...... 126
9.2 Irreversible Processes ........... 128
Chapter X. Elast1city .......................... . 133
10.1 A Principle of Virtual Work and Bound
ary Condit ions ...................... . 141
10.2 Elastic Materials of Grade Two ...... 149
10.3 The Elastic Cosserat Continuum ..... 156
10.4 Elastic Materials with Microstructure 161
10.5 Incompatible Deformations ........... 167
10.5a Elastic Materials of Grade Two ...... 170
10.5b Generalized Elastic Cosserat Materials 173
10.6 Thermoelasticity .................... . 175
10.7 Dislocations ........................ . 178
Chapter XI. Shells, Plates and Rods .......... 190
11.1a Theories with Rigid Directors .... 191
ll.lb Reissner 1 s Theory ...... 205
11.2 Theories with Deformable Directors 215
11.3 Rods ......................... 221
11.4 Laminated Composite Materials ....... 223
Chapter XII. Polar Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
12.1 Micropolar Fluids .................. 226
12.2 Dipolar Fluids and Fluids of Grade Two 233
12. 3 Liquid Crystals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 38
Chapter XIII. Plasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
APPENDIX
A1 Coordinates. Tensors ................ . 251
A2 Invaria.Ilts .......................... . 268
A3 Differentiation ..................... . 277
A4 Linearly Connected Spaces ........... . 280
Contents 345
Page
AS Modified Divergence Theorem for Incom
patible Deformations Variations ..... . 288
REFERENCES ...................... ................ 293
CONTENTS ...................... ................ 343